Food Chemistry

Food Chemistry 105 (2007) 353–363 www.elsevier.com/locate/foodchem

Identification and quantification of antioxidants in Fructus lycii
Kim Le a, Francis Chiu b, Ken Ng a,*
b a Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Monash University, 381 Royal Parade, Melbourne, Vic. 3052, Australia Centre for Drug Candidate Optimisation, Faculty of Pharmacy, Monash University, 381 Royal Parade, Melbourne, Vic. 3052, Australia

Received 14 July 2006; received in revised form 30 October 2006; accepted 24 November 2006

Abstract Fructus lycii was extracted with 95% ethanol and the flavonoid content was determined to be 1.56 mg quercetin-equivalents/g extract. The following antioxidative activities were determined in the extract: (a) radical-scavenging activity (80 lmol trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity/g), measured by its ability to scavenge 2,20 -azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical, (b) reducing capacity (301 lmol trolox equivalent reducing capacity/g), measured by its ability to directly donate an electron in the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II), and (c) chelating activity (2.5 lmol ethylenediamine-tetraaceticacid equivalents/g), measured by its ability to remove Fe(II) ion from complexation with ferrozine. Three flavonol species in the extract were identified and quantitated by reversed-phase HPLC and their structures confirmed by electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy: kaempferol (135 lg/g), quercetin (296 lg/g) and myricetin (247 lg/g). These results showed that F. lycii contains substantial amounts of the three antioxidative activities and is rich in flavonoids. The three flavonols accounted for 43% of total flavonoid content. Ó 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Fructus lycii; Lycium barbarum; Antioxidant activity; TEAC; APTS; Reducing capacity; Iron chelating activity; Flavonols; Kaempferol; Quercetin; Myricetin

1. Introduction The interest in many traditional herbs and plant food supplements, as a source of nutritional antioxidants, is due to our increasing knowledge of the role of antioxidants and free radicals in human heath and disease (for reviews, see Halliwell, 1994; Higdon & Frei, 2003; Scalbert, Manach, Moran, & Remesy, 2005; Willcox, Ash, & Catignani, 2004). Plant materials contain a diverse group of phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity, including flavonoids, lignans and stilbenes, and simple phenolic acids, such as hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acids (Bravo, 1998). The flavonoid class is the most prominent and the most important plant antioxidant (Higdon & Frei, 2003). Flavonoid sub-classes include flavones, isoflavones, flavanones, flavonols, flavanols (catechins and gallocatechins),

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +61 3 9903 9606; fax: +61 3 9903 9583. E-mail address: ken.ng@vcp.monash.edu.au (K. Ng).

chalcones and anthocyanidins. To add to the structural diversity, as much as 90% of flavonoids isolated from plant sources are glycosylated with one or more sugars linked to an OH group (O-glycosides) or through carbon bonds (C-glycosides). Glucose, galactose and rhamnose are the predominant neutral sugars found (Bravo, 1998; Hollman & Katan, 1998; Williams & Grayer, 2004). The antioxidative activities of flavonoids are multifaceted. Most flavonoids possess the ability to scavenge free radicals by acting as hydrogen as well as electron donors. Some flavonoids can also act as antioxidant by direct reaction with radicals to form less reactive products, and some species possess a capacity to chelate transition elements. Metal chelation is an important antioxidant activity as transition ions such as iron and copper can participate in radical production, as pro-oxidants, through the Fenton reaction (Lloyd, Hanna, & Mason, 1997). Some flavonoids are also strong inhibitors of certain metabolic enzymes in the body that generate free radical products such as cyclooxygenase, lipooxygenase, monoamine oxidase, xanthine

0308-8146/$ - see front matter Ó 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.11.063

It was shown to inhibit time-and hyperthermia-induced damage in cultured seminiferous epithelium (Wang et al. & Paganga. Lycii. 2001) and a pro-vitamin C. & Xu. Ng. Silva et al. and Huang (2004) quantitatively determined the antioxidant activity in F. lycii from L. The hydrogen-donating antioxidative activity depends on the number and position of the hydroxyl group in the flavonoid structure and on other types of substituent that may be electron-withdrawing or electron-donating groups (for reviews on structure–activity relationships. An increase in hydroxylation of the gallate moiety (Ring B).. lycii from L. Cai. chinese are two closely related species belonging to the family Solanaceae (Zhu. Pizza. The antioxidant potency increases from kaempferol.. The common structural features of flavonoids are the presence of aromatic rings and hydroxyl group(s).. see Prasain. (2004) quantitated the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) in the same fruit. barbarum and L.. Li. are first dried in the shade and then exposed to the sun for further drying until the skin is hard and dry but the pulp remains soft for storage and consumption. 2006). but with contradictory conclusions regarding the presence of the flavonol rutin (Kosar et al. Ogata. 2002). 2000). & Barnes. 2005. Liu. myricetin: 1R = 2R = 3 R = OH. Lycii is due to its prominence in the diet of many Asian communities. Yim & Ko. Braca. to a lesser degree. We have an on-going interest in the identification and quantification of antioxidants in traditional medicinal plant materials (Hsu. also known as Gouqizi in Chinese. for example. Rice-Evans. with some species being more potent than vitamin E as hydrogen donors. Fig. 2003. Altintas. & Tommasi. & Lee. They are medicinal plants native to China but are now also widely found in Korea. However. 1996. & Corke. 2001). 2004). Quantitative determination of other antioxidative activities as an expression of antioxidant activity. Wu. This is due to hydrogen donation dependent on the acidity of the phenolic hydrogen. which coincides with the increase hydroxylation pattern of the gallate moiety. the carotenoids lutein and xeaxanthin (Leung. Yan. using 1. & Kim. & Bobilya. Kirimer. an arabinogalactan-protein (Peng & Tian. reduce blood glucose and serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in rabbit (Luo. quercetin to myricetin.. Furthermore. & Lin. Zhang. The MS was carried out using an LC–MS setup. Lee. the DPPH. Coupar. . lycii has yet to be reported. Japan and also. lycii has a number of bioactive properties.. the growth of a transplantable sarcoma in rats (Gan. 2005). 1997). 2006). 1 R = 3R = H. Lycii from L. the arabinogalactan-protein was found to up-regulate expression of interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-a at both mRNA and protein levels in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (Gan. 2003). Liu. It is traditionally consumed as a health food supplement cooked as a broth with poultry and as a medicinal elixir for improving health and vitality in the form of a beverage infused in liquor. barbarum by a combination of HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS) methods. 2004. Sato. 2-O-(b-D-glucopyranosyl)ascorbic acid (Toyoda-Ono et al. This structural feature can be seen in flavonols. 1998). and produces orange red fruits called Fructus Lycii. Wang. 2004. This paper reports the quantification of three antioxidative activities and the identification and quantification of three flavonol antioxidant components in F. Willcox et al. & Lam. 2004. 2005). in other Asian countries. 2004). Kim. Bioactive compounds isolated from this fruit include a cerebroside (Kim. lycii as a source of antioxidant was also recognized by many investigators (references above). Montoro. 2004). Zhang. 2004). Kim. Lycium barbarum and L.. Tso. & Ng. Tagliaferro. chinese. However. increases acidity of the para substituted hydroxyl hydrogen and hence increases hydrogen-donating ability. It is well established that F. / Food Chemistry 105 (2007) 353–363 oxidase. such as reducing power and metal chelation. 2002). Lee. Several studies have reported the antioxidant activity of F. Choi. quercetin: 1R = 2R = OH. de Rijke et al. In recent years LC–MS and GC–MS have been applied to unambiguously identify the structures of flavonoids in plant extracts and biological samples with great success (for recent reviews. inducible nitric oxide synthase and some Phase I and II detoxifying enzymes (Higdon & Frei. barbarum. and the proliferation and induction of apoptosis in a human hepatoma cell line (Zhang et al. Sun. To date. & Xu. Yang. Miller. Nam & Kang. Liu. Qian et al. Unoura.. and Baser (2003) and Qian. Interest in the arabinogalactan-protein was intense. see Heims. which are harvested in summer and autumn.10 diphenyl-2-picrylbiphenyl (DPPH) radical. TEAC and ORAC assays measure scavenging of free radicals only. Kim..354 K. in F. Kaempferol: 2R = OH. 3R = H. and protect rats against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity (Ha et al. 2002). a quantitative assessment and an elucidation of the nature of the antioxidative activity are often lacking (Ha et al. 1. 2004). These fruits. The plant grows as a spreading shrub. The nutritional value of F. Structures of some flavonols. 2002. Le et al. 1). quercetin and kaempferol (Fig. & Onodera. there are only two reported studies on the antioxidant components in F. 2003.. The cerebroside was found to protect primary cultured rat hepatocytes exposed to galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity (Kim. such as myricetin. 2005. The nutritional interest in F. with tiny branches with violet purple flowers. Kosar. 2001. Luo et al.

4-triazine-p-p0 -disulfonic acid monosodium salt (ferrozine). .20 -Azinobis-3ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS) and trichloroacetic acid were obtained from Fluka Chemical Co.7.2. butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). 2. Five hundred microliters of the supernatant was mixed with 500 ll water and 100 ll 0. Australia). (St Louis. lycii extract [0–350 lg] or trolox [0–3 lg]) and 990 ll of the ABTSÅ+ solution. The reducing capacity (RC0. 6-hydroxy-2. 2.4. The mixture was shaken well and allowed to react at RT for 20 min. The fruit came as whole sun-dried fruit and was packed under vacuum. The extraction was continued for 2 h and stood to cool before the extract was filtered using a 200-mesh stainless steel sieve to obtain a slightly turbid bright red-coloured extract. The amounts of flavonoids were determined from a standard absorbance plot. The absorbance of the ABTSÅ+ solution was measured at k734 nm against an ethanol blank.2. ABTS radical-scavenging activity 2.5 AU at k700 nm and was obtained from a line of best fit of the absorbance data using the linear regression method. Appropriately diluted extract in ethanol was mixed with 2% AlCl3 solution in ethanol. Materials and methods 2. The reaction mixture (1.2 M phosphate buffer. Germany). followed by centrifugation for 10 min at 3000 rpm. 3173. The assay was performed over a range of concentrations and was plotted as a decrease in absorbance versus concentration of test material in mg/ml reaction. After 1 h at RT the absorbance was measured at 420 nm. Keysborough. Preparation of F.5 AU) is arbitrarily defined as the concentration of test material (mg/ml reaction volume) that produces 0. iron(II) chloride. and calculated as quercetin-equivalents (mg/g extract).70 ± 0. potassium persulfate.3. 2. 500 ll of 1% (w/v) potassium ferricyanide (K3Fe3+(CNÀ)6) in water and 500 ll of 0.6. Rotary evaporation under vacuum was performed with a BUCHI RotaVapor RE111 rotary evaporator fitted with water jet vacuum system and a BUCHI 461 temperaturecontrolled water bath. 3-(2-pyridyl)5. 2. The fruit was from the Quangdong province of China and was imported from China and distributed by New Eastland Pty. as described by Yen and Chen (1995).45 mM). 2. 2. ascorbic acid. 2. The freeze-dried extract was dissolved in methanol to 100 mg/ml concentration and kept at À20 °C until used. The solution was stored in the dark for 16 h and then diluted with ethanol to an absorbance of 0.6. ethylenediamine-tetraaceticacid disodium salt dihydrate (EDTANa2 Á 2H2O). quercetin. Reducing power Reducing power was measured by the direct reduction of Fe3+(CNÀ)6 to Fe2+(CNÀ)6 and was determined by absorbance measurement of the formation of the Perl’s Prussian Blue complex following the addition of excess Fe3+. Le et al. potassium ferricyanide (III). butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). F.K. and Zhang (2004). The reaction mixture (1. The yield was 13. rutin and 2-thiobarbituric acid were obtained from Sigma–Aldrich Inc. lycii F.5. ABTSÅ+ was generated by reacting 5 ml of 7 mM aqueous ABTS solution with 88 ll of a 140 mM potassium persulfate solution (final concentration of potassium persulfate equals 2. iron(III) chloride hexahydrate. Ltd. The mixture was then incubated for 20 min at 50 °C and the reaction was terminated by the addition of 500 ll of 10% (w/v) trichloroacetic acid.20 -Azinobis-3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical-scavenging activity was measured by direct absorbance measurement of the radical (ABTSÅ+) according to Nenadis. All other common chemicals and solvents used were of analytical grade and water was of MilliporeÒ HPLC Deionized Water grade.1% (w/v) ferric chloride (FeCl3).6-diphenyl-1. Determination of total flavonoid content Total flavonoid content was determined by reaction with AlCl3 and quantitated by absorbance measurement according to Woisky and Salatino (1998).05 at k734 nm. lycii extract The imported fruit was oven-dried at 105 °C for 6 h. Chemicals AlCl3. The extract was reduced to a small volume by rotary evaporation under vacuum at 40 °C and then freeze-dried.8 g (46 %. Thirty grams of the dried fruit were crushed using a mortar and pestle and extracted with 600 ml 95% ethanol at 90 °C with stirring in a hot water bath. Vic. (Buchs. Australia (23-24 Kempson Court. kaempferol. pH 6. The paste disintegrated into small particulate pieces after 10 min. w/w). using quercetin as standard. lycii extract (0–1 mg) or trolox (0–60 lg)).7-8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid (TroloxTM).5. Lycii from L. MO. Equipment and apparatus UV absorption measurements were performed with a Cary 3 Bio UV–Visible Spectrophotometer (Variant). / Food Chemistry 105 (2007) 353–363 355 2. Equipments for HPLC and LC– MS are listed under those sections. barbarum was purchased from a local herbal supermarket. gallic acid. Wang. Tsimidou.1. myricetin. The absorbance was measured at k700 nm against the phosphate buffer blank.00 ml) contained 10 ll of test material (F.16 ml) contains 160 ll of test material (F. USA).

The chelating effect was calculated as a percentage.0. desolvation gas flow of 400 l/ h and cone gas flow of 100 l/h. 1.6 mm diameter) connected to a UV detector (WatersTM 486. One hundred microliters of ferrozine (5 mM in methanol) was then added. The assay was performed over a range of concentrations (mg/ml reaction volume). Hydrolysis was carried out in a 90 °C water bath for 2 h. quercetin or kaempferol) and subjected to HPLC separately. Because the increase in absorbance was non-linear with increasing concentration.1 mm i. LC–ESI-MS of putative flavonol peaks from HPLC The structures of the putative flavonol peaks. an EC50 value (defined as the effective concentration of test material which produces 50% of maximal scavenging effect) was obtained from the plot using a non-linear regression algorithm: ! ASample k562 nm Chelating effect ð%Þ ¼ 1 À Control  100 Ak562 nm 2. Optimal detection wavelength for the flavonoid chromophore was set at k370 nm.4 ml/min. following the method of Decker and Welch (1990). The following conditions were maintained during analysis: desolvation temperature of 350 °C. Hollman.6 mM in water) and 900 ll methanol. MS and MS–MS spectra were collected in the mass range of 100–1000 mass units and collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments were conducted with a collision energy of 30 eV. The mixture was sonicated for 5 min and 1 ml of 6 M hydrochloric acid was then added. CA. the mixture was cooled and filtered with a 0. USA) maintained at 40 °C. The amount of the three flavonol species in the deglycosylated extract was determined from standard calibration plots. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a water– acetonitrile gradient (containing 0. and Venema (1992).12.8. The injection (sample loop) volume was 100 ll and the column developed using a step gradient of increasing concentration of acetonitrile (ACN) in acidified water (1% acetic acid. the column was washed with 100% acetonitrile (30 min) and reconditioned in 10% ACN (30 min) before further injection.. Data acquisition and manipulation were performed with Waters MillenniumÒ software. The absorbance of the Fe2+–ferrozine complex was measured at k562 nm against a methanol blank. Liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spectroscopy (LC–ESI–MS) analysis was conducted in positive mode electrospray ionisation on a Waters Micromass Q-TOF quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a Waters 2795 HPLC (Milford. Deglycosylation of flavonoids Flavonoid glycosides were degylcosylated by a quantitative acid hydrolysis procedure. / Food Chemistry 105 (2007) 353–363 2.0 lg/ml were prepared for each standard (myricetin.9. Twenty milligrams of extract was dispersed in 4 ml of 62.50 ml) contained 500 ll test material (F. 40% ACN (60–90 min) and 60% ACN (90–120 min). 2.6 mm diameter) and main column (250 mm length  4. The mixture was shaken well and allowed to react at RT for 5 min. Ferrous ion chelating activity Ferrous ion chelating activity was measured by inhibition of the formation of iron(II)–ferrozine complex after treatment of test material with Fe2+. as described by Hertog.356 K. At the end of a run. HPLC The reversed phase HPLC system consisted of a LunaTM (USA) 5 lm particle size C18 silica guard column disc (5 mm length  4. 2. MA. were confirmed by spectroscopic analysis of each of the recovered peak materials from HPLC by LC–ESI– MS. 5. Spiking of flavonol peaks in the extract was performed with commercially obtained myricetin.5.d.05% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.2 lg of each standard compound was added individually or as a mixture to 100 ll of the deglycosylated extracts and analyzed by HPLC as described above. 2. separated and identified by analytical HPLC and spiking with standards. The reaction mixture (1. source block temperature of 90 °C. 2. and plotted against concentration of test material in mg/ml of reaction mixture.11. USA).10.2. the mixture shaken again. 100 ll FeCl2 (0. 20% ACN (10–30 min).22 lm membrane filter disc for HPLC. using the equation below.2 kV and cone voltage of 40 eV.25. The injection volume was 100 ll and the column developed using the same step gradient as described above. Treatment of data The experimental results for the antioxidative assays were expressed as means ±1 SD of quadruplicate reactions . The mixture was bubbled with nitrogen for 60 s to purge dissolved oxygen and then sealed tightly. The ionisation of the flavonols was optimized at a capillary voltage of 3. using a 50  2. After hydrolysis. followed by further reaction at RT for 10 min to complex the residual Fe2+ ion. v:v) as follows: 10% ACN (0– 10 min). 0. The control contained all the reaction reagents except the extract and EDTA. The calibration curve was plotted as peak area (arbitrary units) obtained from absorbance at k370 nm against standard (lg) and the data points fitted into a line of best fit by the linear regression method. 30% ACN (30–60 min). Tunable Absorbance Detector) and a HPLC pump (WatersTM Model 510). quercetin and kaempferol as standard compounds.5% methanol containing 2 mg/ml of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) as a protective antioxidant in a thick screw-cap pyrexÒ glass tube. such that saturation (complete chelation of free iron not bound to antioxidant) was reached. 0. Flavonol concentrations of 0. 4 lm particle size Phenomenex Synergi Hydro C18 column (Torrance. lycii extract (0–35 mg) or Na2EDTA Á 2H2O (0–25 lg)). Le et al.

in ‘‘http:// www. 2002). Extraction of F. such as lipid peroxidation (Roginsky & Lissi. The most accurate method is by relating the gradient Fig. & Rolando. & Bast. F. By relating extract activity to pure compound such as trolox. Dallinga. 2005). Pinson. The oven-dried fruit was extracted with hot 95% ethanol for 2 h. comparable to that of a-tocopherol (Evans. Haenen. 2a) showed a linear correlation between concentration of extract (from 0 to 0. Dallinga. ABTSÅ+-scavenging activity of: (a) Fructus lycii ethanol extract and (b) trolox. the nature of the antioxidant activity could be multifaceted. & Rolando.72 mg quercetin-equivalents/g of dried fruit. Hydrogen donation is one such activity and studies on flavonoids. barbarum’s F. is well removed from interfering UV absorption that is often present in a crude extract. However. . which yielded 13.35 mg/ml reaction tested) and discoloration of the ABTSÅ+ solution. ABTSÅ+ strong absorbance. which gave a value of 0. The ability of the ethanol extract to donate hydrogen in scavenging ABTSÅ+ was indicated by a decrease in absorbance at k734 nm. which indicated that all detectable flavonoids were extracted by the ethanol treatment. This reliably permits quantitation by absorbance measurement. Total flavonoid content was determined by reaction with AlCl3 and the Al–flavonoid complex was quantitated by absorbance measurement at k420 nm and calculated as quercetin equivalents from a quercetin standard plot. 2002). / Food Chemistry 105 (2007) 353–363 357 and all uncertainties were reported to two significant figures (EURACHEM/CITAC Guide (2000) on ‘‘Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement”. The data were fitted into a line of best fit using the linear regression method. The extracts contained 1. maximum at k734 nm. The hydrogen-donating activity of trolox was similarly measured (Fig. lycii and total flavonoids content Imported L. Scaiano. 2. around 1–3 Â 108 MÀ1 sÀ1 (Cren-Olive. Voss. Voss.org”). Arts. Le et al. Hapiot. Linear regression and non-linear algorithm plots were performed using SigmaPlotÒ (version 9). 2004.2. Haenen. w/w to dried fruit). reaction with ABTSÅ+ does not per- mit a correlation of structure–activity relationships for some flavonoids due to further scavenging of ABTSÅ+ by some reaction products (Arts. Pinson. such as catechin. lycii from the Quangdong province of China was studied for its flavonoid content. lycii was oven-dried until the weight was steady (6 h)..measurementuncertainty. Lebrun. Cren-Olive. There are a number of methods for this to be done. The decreases in absorbance values were directly plotted as the means of replicate determinations ± SD (n = 4) against test material concentration in mg/ml of reaction volume. The results (Fig. The trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the extract can be calculated by comparing the decrease in absorbance to that of trolox on a molar basis (Nenadis et al. No flavonoids were detected in the extracted residue. 2b). 2004). Results and discussion 3. 3. 1992). 2. et al. & Rolando. Hapiot. & Ingold. Because ABTSÅ+ is reduced to a colourless product in the presence of hydrogen-donating antioxidant. 2003). ABTS radical-scavenging activity Antioxidant activity is defined as the ability of a compound to inhibit oxidative degradation.. Hapiot.20 -Azinobis-3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTSÅ+) is a stable organic radical that has gained general acceptance as the organic radical for use in measuring radical-scavenging activity as an expression of hydrogendonating antioxidative activity in plant crude extract (Arts. the degree of discoloration correlates with the amount of ABTSÅ+ that is scavenged. and was also concentration-dependent. 2000.8 g of extract (46%.56 quercetin-equivalents/g extract of flavonoids. & Bast. Wierulesky. 3. Haenen.1. The hydrogen-donating activity is derived mainly from the flavonoid’s A-ring hydroxyl (Cren-Olive. Maes.K. 2004). 2002. However. Cren-Olive. & Bast. comparison with the literature values is possible. using tert-butoxyl radicals in acetonitrile showed that the rate of hydrogen donation is very fast.

potency of a test substance. (2004) for an 80% methanol extract at 35 °C for 24 h of the same fruit. an arbitrary point at RC0. Fe3 4 ½Fe ðCN Þ6 Š .358 Table 1 Nature of antioxidative activities in Fructus lycii Hydrogen-donating activity Electron-donating activity Iron(II)-chelating activity K. the extract had strong electrondonating capability. and that the reducing capacity of ascorbic is greater than that of trolox (Kim. Cren-Olive. This is because reduction of a free radical converts it to a less reactive or unreactive product.5 absorbance unit) can be obtained to indicate the Fig. as higher absorbance decreases the accuracy due to the logarithmic relation between absorbance and transmittance. An increase in absorbance of the reaction mixture would indicate an increase in reducing capacity due to an increase in the formation of the complex. 3. This method takes a range of values in generating the two gradients for comparison. / Food Chemistry 105 (2007) 353–363 80 lmol TEAC/g of extract 36 lmol TEAC/g of dried fruit 301 lmol TERC/g of extract 138 lmol TERC/g of dried fruit 2. Lee. 2000. but originated from another region in China. Cren-Olive et al. 3a. The reducing capacity of a compound or crude extract can be measured by the direct reduction of Fe3+(CNÀ)6 to Fe2+(CNÀ)6. 2002). by the ratio of the linear coefficient of the extract to the linear coefficient of the trolox standard plot (Martinez-Tome et al. and determined in F.43 mg/ml of extract and 0. 3b). Since the electron acceptor (Fe3+(CNÀ)6) was added in large excess in the assay method. Hapiot.5 U. to obtain a trolox equivalent reducing capacity (TERC) value. 2002. Reducing power The ability of a compound to donate electron in an oxidation-reduction reaction can also be used as a measure of antioxidative activity.023 mg/ml of trolox. As shown in Fig. and is referred as its reducing capacity (or power). of the activity/concentration plot of the extract to that of trolox.5 AU (reducing capacity at 0. .5 AU values were 0. (2004) found.. Cren-Olive. The data were fitted into a line of best fit using the linear regression method. which Toyoda-Ono et al. The TERC value for the extract was calculated to be 301 lmol TERC/g of extract or 138 lmol TERC/g of dried fruit (Table 1). & Rolando. 2002). It is a convenient point for comparison with an electron-donating antioxidant. et al.. This value is more than 3.0 mg/ml reaction) was chosen such that the absorbance did not exceed 1. If we took account of reducing capacity contributed by 2-O-(bD-glucopyranosyl) ascorbic acid. lycii to be 50 lmol/g dried fruit. Le et al. the visible kmax is favourable for a crude extract.5 lmol EDTA-E/g of extract 1. 2004). Addition of free Fe3+ to the reduced product leads to the formation of the intense Perl’s Prussian 3 À þ 2þ Blue complex.3. which has a strong absorbance maximum at k649 nm Again. Flavonoids are also electron donors and electron donation is mainly derived from the flavonoid’s B-ring (Cren-Olive. & Lee. Wierulesky. such as trolox (Fig. Absorbance increased linearly with concentration of extract... From the absorbance plot. Lee. The increases in absorbance values were directly plotted as the means of replicate determinations ± SD (n = 4) against test material concentration in mg/ml of reaction volume. Teissier. Reducing capacity of: (a) Fructus lycii ethanol extract and (b) trolox. 2003. The results showed that the extract contained 80 lmol TEAC/g extract or 36 lmol TEAC/g dried fruit (Table 1). that is.1 lmol EDTA-E/g of dried fruit Values in mass were obtained and calculated from data contained in Figs. and hence reducing capacity. this would indicate that at least 88 lmol TERC/g of dried fruit was derived from other antioxidant components. such as flavonoids. 2–4 and were converted to lmoles using the molecular weights of the pure compounds. Duriez. The RC0. This is a substantial amount of reducing capacity. 3. et al. the range of concentrations (0–1.6 times the TEAC value obtained by Luo et al.

by comparing retention times and UV spectrum with standards using HPLC and a photodiode array detector. With some diets or disease states. Such exogenous chelators can be obtained from certain antioxidants in food. a hexadentate metal ion chelator (Heimbach et al. 4. son at a single fixed point. The results of the chelating assay were plotted as percentage chelating effect against concentration of test material (mg/ml of reaction volume). EDTA was added as Na2EDTA Á 2H2O. 4b). Nonetheless. Nonetheless.9 Â 108 MÀ1 (Kolayli. exhibiting non-linear concentration-dependent reaction kinetics (Fig. lycii from China. which is a transition metal-catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen or lipid peroxide into the highly reactive and biologically damaging hydroxyl radical (Halliwell. (2004) reported the putative identification of a number of flavonoids but concluded that rutin was the major flavonoid in a similar extract of L.K. barbarum’s F. Again. This merely reflects the complex nature of the extract containing a number of different iron chelators. 2000) with a binding constant for Fe2+ of 4.1 lmol EDTA-E/g of dried fruit (Table 1). & Abbasoglu. the chelating effect was saturable at high concentration of extract. overloading of iron in the body can occur and requires the consumption of exogenous chelators to prevent the build-up of free iron circulating in the body. thus a decrease in the amount of ferrozine–Fe2+ complex formed after treatment indicates the presence of antioxidant chelators. A significant drawback of this complexation reaction. Le et al.6 lg/ml of Na2EDTA Á 2 H2O. Due to the non-linear nature of the reaction in the crude extract. Identification of flavonols in F. The ferrozine–Fe2+ complex produced a red chromophore with absorbance that can be measured at k562 nm. is thus an important antioxidant property to measure. Ferrous iron-chelating activity of: (a) Fructus lycii ethanol extract and (b) EDTA. such as transferring. Ferrous ion-chelating activity Most iron is bound to proteins. Kucuk. To evaluate the potency of the extract.4. Ferrozine forms a complex with free Fe2+ but not with Fe2+ bound to other chelators. An antioxidant’s ability to chelate Fe2+ or other transition elements. with different affinities for iron. lycii from Turkey. The results obtained were 10 mg/ml of extract and 5.. 1996). or held in storage as ferritin in a low a redox state in the body (Rang. The absorbance values were converted to chelating effect (%) and data were plotted as the means of replicate determinations ± SD (n = 4) against test material concentration in mg/ml of reaction volume. lycii Kosar et al. the activity was compared to EDTA. barbarum’s F. The ethanol extract showed Fe2+-chelating activity. 3. 4a. One measurement of the metal-chelating activity of an antioxidant is based on absorbance measurement of iron (II)–ferrozine complex after prior treatment of an iron (II) solution with test material. Ocak. is that the reaction is affected by both the antioxidant–Fe2+ and of ferrozine–Fe2+ complex formation constants and the competition between the two chelators for binding to iron. it is not yet possible to access the role of a weak antioxidant iron chelator in preventing the Fenton reaction in vivo. The reaction kinetics were linear with EDTA at a concentration below the saturating level of EDTA (Fig. 1997). & Ritter. this reaction serves as a convenient assay to access iron chelating activity of antioxidant.5 lmol EDTA-E/g extract or 1. (2003) putatively identified a number of phenolics but noted the absence of rutin in an ethanol extract of L. The activity of the extract in terms of EDTA equivalence (EDTA-E) was calculated from the EC50 values to be 2. The data were fitted by a nonlinear regression algorithm. This is to prevent its participation in the Fenton reaction. Thus a weak antioxidant iron chelator would be seriously underestimated in quantitative determination. EC50 values were determined from the plot of chelating effect (%) against concentration of test material for comparison. in measuring the presence of antioxidant chelator. 2004). / Food Chemistry 105 (2007) 353–363 359 3. Qian et al. in competition with ferrozine for binding. Dale. This method is more accurate than compari- Fig. such as copper. .5. the EC50 values merely served as a convenient point for comparison with a metal chelator such as EDTA. From a nutritional point of view.

2004). observed 287. 7) using the nomenclature of Ma.030. 5 shows a HPLC chromatogram of the deglycosylated extract. quercetin and kaempferol peaks were putatively identified in the extract by spiking with individual flavonol standards in separate chromatography.2A+. a more reliable method is required for unambiguous identification and further structural elucidation. Given the incomplete resolution of the extract complex components in HPLC. Walle. The myricetin.026 and 153. 1992).3A+.. 213. 0. due to its higher polarity. observed 303.018 and 165. The following fragments were observed for kaempferol. MH+ 303.049). Fig. 153. Fig. March & Miao. The MS–MS spectra of the CID experiments (Fig.0454. 153. added as a protective antioxidant in the acid hydrolysis process. HPLC Chromatogram of Fructus lycii ethanol extract. having only one hydroxyl group. MH+ 287. Qian et al. Myricetin.015. quercetin and kaempferol peaks spiked with the three standard compounds injected together. 5. in their CID spectra (Fig. having three hydroxyl groups. & Claeys (1997): 0. We confirmed the structures of the flavonols by recovering the three HPLC peak materials separately and analysis by positive mode electrospray ionization mass spectro- metry (Fig. / Food Chemistry 105 (2007) 353–363 also by comparison of retention times in HPLC. BHA. (2004) failed to identify kaempferol and myricetin (or their glycosylated forms) in their extract due to incomplete resolution of the components in their HPLC and the limitation of comparing retention times in identification. 6 shows a HPLC chromatogram of the myricetin.019. 165. .042).019 (strong signal due to additional 0. respectively. eluted first. In terms of nutritional relevance. 6). [M + HÀ46]+. the flavonols were deglycosylated by a quantitative deglycosylation method (Hertog et al.0556. observed 319.2B+. (2004) since quercetin is derived from rutin after deglycosylation. followed by quercetin with two hydroxyl groups while kaempferol. The fact that the peak co-eluted with standard compound indicates the identity of that peak.046.. 2004). Le et al.052) and myricetin (C15H10O8. quercetin and myricetin. the detection wavelength for the HPLC was selected at 370 nm. The antioxidant components of interest in this study were the flavonols myricetin. Van den Heuvel. 2004. Li. quantification of the aglycone is valid since dietary flavonoid glycosides are deglycosylated during the process of absorption from the lumen of the intestine into the systemic circulation (Manach & Donovan. quercetin and kaempferol. Fig.016. 1997. lycii in our study supported the report by Qian et al. The order of elution of the flavonols from HPLC can be explained by their structures and polarities (Fig. the kmax for the flavonol chromophore.021 and 153. eluted at retention time 153 min where it did not interfere with the chromatography. As such. We employed a reversed phase HPLC using a C18 column to separate the antioxidant components in the extract.2B+ fragment. quercetin (C15H10O7.048. MH+ 319. Nonetheless. 165.360 K. 1. 7) showed that the expected molecular ions were observed for kaempferol (C15H10O6. eluted last.014.0505.052 and 245. 121. To achieve the desired resolution and quantification. These fragmentation patterns were consistent with the assigned flavonol structures (Ma et al. Four hundred micrograms of deglycosylated extract were injected and the column was developed with a step gradient of increasing acetonitrile concentration. The identification of quercetin in F. 229. The column was developed with a step gradient of increasing acetonitrile concentration in water containing 1% acetic acid as an organic acid modifier. 1). 137.

6. 3. Fig. The results (Table 2) showed that the fruit contained 247 lg myricetin.6. lycii A calibration curve. Co-elution of putative myricetin.9970 or better (data not shown). relating mass (lg) to absorbance peak area (arbitrary units) was obtained by HPLC for each of the flavonol standards. 7. The amounts of myricetin. quercetin and kaempferol to spike the putative peaks such that each peak area increased approximately 2-fold. (b) quercetin and (c) kaempferol peak materials isolated from analytical HPLC. myricetin. CID MS–MS spectra of: (a) myricetin. quercetin and kaempferol.100 lg of flavonol with r2 equal to 0.025– 0. quercetin and kaempferol in the extract were obtained from peak area of the individual peak and the flavonol standard calibration plot. Quantification of flavonols in F.2 lg each of standard myricetin. Four hundred micrograms of deglycosylated extract were co-injected with 0. Spectra were obtained at collision energy of 30 eV in positive mode electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy and MS was performed in LC–MS mode.K. The calibration curve produced a linear relationship between mass and peak area over a range of 0. 296 lg quercetin and 135 lg kaempferol per g of extract (or . quercetin and kaempferol peaks in Fructus lycii ethanol extract with standard compounds from HPLC. / Food Chemistry 105 (2007) 353–363 361 Fig. Le et al.

Y. (2003). Journal of the American Chemical Society. C. (2004). (2000). 136 lg quercetin and 62 lg kaempferol per g of dried fruit). M. metabolism and structure–activity relationships. 14. metabolism.. S. Voss. & Kim. Nutrition Reviews. U. Food Chemistry. J.. H. Sheehan. Journal of the American Chemical Society. R.. Protective effect of Lycium chinese fruit on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. Tagliaferro. spiking with standards and electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. Flavonoid antioxidants: chemistry. a cerebroside from Lycium chinese. 38.. C. (2005).. Lee. Bravo. & Frei. Polyphenols: chemistry.. & Abbasoglu. Halliwell. Kim. 567–570. R. C. K.. Food Chemistry. J. (2000).. (1992). 38. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 114 lg myricetin.. 96. V. & Bast. S. Vitamin c equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) of phenolic phytochemicals. P. B. A critical appraisal of the use of the antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay in defining optimal antioxidant structures. Kim. J. 84(3). 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