Photosynthesis

Turning sunlight into cellular energy

Photosynthesis only LOOKS like the opposite of Respiration!
6 CO2 + 12 H2O + → C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O

Photosynthetic Organisms
Prokaryotes: Plasma Membranes Eukaryotes: Chloroplasts

Why are plants Green?
Light Chlorophyll  Green pigment  Absorbs red, violet, blue light  Reflects green light

Where does photosynthesis happen?
Leaves Pigments
  

Chlorophyll a (blue green) Chlorophyll b (olive green) Carotenoids (yellow and orange) By absorbing slightly different λs, increase the amount of visible light that can be harvested for energy

Chlorophyll .

Absorption and Action Spectra 1883! .

What happens to excited electrons when light hits a chlorophyll molecule? Fluorescence Photosynthesis .

What happens in Photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is a redox process in which H2O is oxidized and CO2 is reduced .

Steps in Photosynthesis Light Reactions  Water Calvin Cycle  CO2  e.+ H+ + O2  sugar in the stroma  Occurs in thylakoid membranes  Occurs  ATP made by chemiosmosis and photophosphorylation  Also called Carbon Fixation or the “Dark Reactions” .

A. Light Reactions 1: Light Energy Splits Water .

Light Reactions 2: NADP+ reduced. O2 released Which mechanism is used to make the ATP? .A. ATP made.

B. Calvin Cycle 1: ATP and NADPH used to fix carbon .

NADP+ recycled Sugar exported to rest of plant . Calvin Cycle 2: carbon turned into sugar.B.

Chlorophyll a captures light energy Photosystems 1 and 2  Photosystem structure A photosystem (PS) has a reaction-center complex surrounded by lightharvesting complexes Both have chlorophyll a   different environments  absorb best at different λs  Reaction Center Chlorophyll  Photosystem 2: P680  Photosystem 1: P700 .

acceptor in the reaction-center complex . which eventually reaches P680 P680 transfers the e.to the primary e.Linear Electron Flow (1) Light activates an e-.

Linear Electron Flow (2) P680+ (missing an electron) is very strong oxidizer H2O is split and P680+. reduced O2 is by-product .

Linear Electron Flow (3) The electrons “fall” down e.transport chain (PS II PS I) H+ pumped across thylakoid membrane ATP synthesized .

OR excited by light .Linear Electron Flow (4) P700+ accepts e.

Linear Electron Flow (5) Another e.to NADP+ to create NADPH .transport chain transfers e.

to Calvin Cycle .PSII and PSI work together NADPH carries e.

Making ATP by Chemiosmosis .

The Light Reactions: All Together .

 Carbon Fixation: CO2 from the atmosphere is reduced (fixed) to form sugars REQUIRES the ATP and NADPH made during light reactions Takes three rounds of the cycle (and 3 CO2 molecules) to make 1 sugar   .

PROBABLY most abundant on Earth .Carbon Fixation Rubisco adds CO2 to RuBP: most abundant protein in chloroplasts.

Reduction ATP and NADPH from light reactions Regenerates NADP+ 3 CO2 make one new sugar .

Regeneration .

the sun) enters many biosynthetic pathways to be turned into other organic molecules  G3P .e. To make 1 G3P molecule: 9 ATP + 6 NADPH  The energy comes from the light reactions (i..

Compare Metabolic Cycles Citric Acid Cycle  Catabolic pathway  Oxidizes glucose to CO2 and water  Synthesizes ATP Calvin Cycle  Anabolic pathway  Reduces CO2 to make complex carbohydrates  Uses ATP (made in the light reactions) .

 (almost) ALL THE FOOD ON EARTH COMES FROM PHOTOSYNTHESIS Chemical Energy Carbon Skeletons (to make all organic molecules)  Chloroplasts About make billions of tons of carbohydrate each year 50% is burned in plant mitochondria Rest is transported in plant as sucrose or turned into cellulose and starch .

Cell Communication Exchanging information between cells .

All Cells Communicate   Processes arose early in evolution Same molecules found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes    Recognition Mating Development .

Direct communication between cells Cell junctions Cell-cell recognition .

Communication via secreted signals Local signaling Long distance signaling .

Signal Transduction Reception Transduction Response Reset .

Reception ligand binds receptor .

Transduction Signal is amplified by a series of molecules (second messengers) .

then it resets the signal transduction cascade back to the starting point .Response Cell reacts to signal.

activation  Receptors can be in plasma membrane OR cytoplasm .Reception requires receptors  Ligands are secreted molecules that bind receptors on or in cells Ligand – Receptor interaction is specific:    Only cells with proper receptor can receive the signal Receptor changes shape when ligand binds .

Common Receptors Receptors  Plasma membrane G Mechanisms    protein-coupled receptors kinase receptors Activate another protein Dimerize. gain P groups Open or close a channel  Tyrosine  Ion channel receptors  Cytosolic  Steroid hormone receptors  Move to nucleus and bind DNA .

G protein-coupled receptors Structure Function .

Tyrosine Kinase Receptors .

Ligand-gated Ion Channels .

Cytoplasmic Receptors .

000 response molecules in a few seconds or minutes .Signal Transduction Cascades Amplify Signals 1 signal molecule can generate 100.000.

Phosphorylation Cascades  Adding/removing phosphate groups can activate/inactivate proteins Kinases: add phosphates (usually on ser or thr) Phosphatases: remove phosphates There is a specific kinase and phosphatase for each molecule in the cascade!    .

Cytoplasmic Organization: Scaffolding proteins .

Second Messenger Systems cAMP Ca++ and IP3 .

Cellular Responses     Turn genes on or off Activate or inactivate proteins Stimulate cell division Stimulate apoptosis .

Signals interact to fine-tune responses: Same molecule can have different effects in different cells .

Review of Cell Communication .