# Batteries and Potential Difference.

A battery is a device that stores positive charge on one of its terminals and negative charge on the other terminal. Electric Potential Energy. Potential energy can be defined as the capacity for doing work which arises from position. In the electrical case, a charge will exert a force on any other charge and potential energy arises from any collection of charges. For example, if a positive charge Q1 is fixed at some point in space, any other positive charge which is bro ght close to it will experience a rep lsive force and will therefore have potential energy. !he potential energy of a test charge Q" in the vicinity of this so rce charge will be#
Energy = Force x distance = k Q1Q" r

Electric Potential. At a point in space, the electric potential is the potential energy per nit of charge that is associated with a static electric field. It is a scalar \$ antity, typically meas red in volts.
Potential &nergy Potential at a point = = %harge k Q1Q" r kQ Q" r

Potential at a point is defined as the work done in moving a charge of 1 co lomb from infinity to that point. 'ymbol for potential at the point A is

(A !he difference in electrical potential between two points is known as the potential difference or voltage. Potential Difference between two charged metal plates A and B A * ) +

!he electric field that exists between two metal plates is niform except at the edges. %heck the diagrams for the electric field lines. If an electron , +ve charge - were moved from the positive plate A to the negative plate ), work wo ld have to be done to overcome the force of rep lsion between the +ve electron and the +vely charge metal plate at ). !his work wo ld be stored in the election as potential energy as long as the election remains at plate ). !his is also tr e if a *ve charge is moved from plate ) to A. )eca se of this change in potential energy we say that there is a difference in potential or potential difference , p.d. - between the plates.

!he potential difference in this context is an indication of the amo nt of work that wo ld be done in moving a charge between two points. !he '.I. nit of potential difference is called the (olt and the potential difference is also called voltage. !he nit (olt is defined as follows # !here is a potential difference of 1 (olt between two points when 1 .o le of work has to be done to move 1 %o lomb of charge between the two points. (A ) is symbol for the potential difference between A and ) /ote also (A) 0 (A + ()

1elationship between potential difference ( and work done ,energy- is given by 2314 53/& 0 Q . (. 1elationship between &lectric Field Intensity , & - and Potential ( at a distance of r,m- from a point charge is given by
V = E.r

1elationship between &lectric Field Intensity , & - and Potential difference ( between two parallel charge metal plates a distance d ,m- apart is given by
V = E.d

Also it is important to note that Potential or Potential difference is a scalar \$ antity and this is always the case the if Q is +ve then the potential is negative and if Q is *ve then the potential is positive.

&lectric 5ipole# &\$ al and opposite point charges a distance r ,m- apart. Q1 r ,mQ"

&xample 1.An electric dipole has a positive charge of "6µ% and a length of 6.7mm. %alc late ,i- the electric force between the two charges ,ii- &lectric field intensity at the midpoint ,A- of the dipole. ,iii- !he potential at the midpoint. Q1 Q1 0 * "6x16+8% A r ,mQ"

Q" 0 + "6x16+8 %

,i- 9se %o lomb:s ;aw to calc late the val e of the force i.e. magnit de F 0 1 <πε |Q1| |Q" | r"

"6 x 16+8 x "6 x 16+8 ,7 x 16+<- " 0 1.<< x 16> / ,ii- !o calc late the total electric field intensity at the midpoint of the dipole we will calc late the field

0 = x 16=

strength d e to each point charge individ ally first and then calc late the total by adding the two val es together remembering that there are each vectors and so they have to be added as s ch. &1A 0 !he electric field intensity at the midpoint A of the dipole d e to the charge Q1 a distance ".7 mm from A &"A 0 !he electric field intensity at the midpoint A of the dipole d e to the charge Q" a distance ".7 mm from A As & is a vector \$ antity we need to calc late its magnit de and its direction |& | 0 k |Q| r"

|&1A | 0 k |Q1| r" 0 =x16=,"6 x16+8,".7 x16+<-"

0 ".?? x 161" / % +1 Acting Away from Q1 |&"A | 0 k |Q"| r" 0 =x16=,"6 x16+8-

,".7 x16+<- " 0 ".?? x 161" / % +1 Acting towards Q" 'o the directions of &1A and &"A are the same i.e. away from Q1 and towards Q" are the same direction so the total val e of &A 0 ".?? x 161" / % +1 * ".?? x 161" / % +1 &A 0 7.88 x 161" / % +1 !owards Q" 1ecall adding two vectors in the same direction. ,iii- !o calc late the potential at A since Q1 is a positive charge it ca ses a positive potential (1A 0 &1A . r 0 ".?? x 161" , ".7 x16+<0 >." x 16? (olts As Q" is a negative charge it ca ses a negative potential. ("A 0 &"A . r 0 + ".?? x 161" ,".7 x16+<0 + >." x 16? (olts (A 0 (1A * ("A 0 6 ( Problem 'heet &lectrostatics. 1. %alc late ,a- !he electric field intensity in air at a distance of @6 cm from a point charge of 7 n%. ,b-

!he force acting on a charge of <66µ% placed at @6cm from the original charge. ". A dipole has a positive charge of 8µ% and a length of 6."mm %alc late ,a- !he force acting on the +ve charge ,b!he electric field intensity and the electric potential at the midpoint of the dipole. ,c- !he electric field intensity at a distance of 6.7mm beyond the *ve charge. @. !wo parallel plates have a p.d. of 766 k( placed across them. !he plates are "6cm apart. %alc late ,a!he electric field intensity between the plates ,b- !he force acting on an electron placed between the plates given that e 0 1.8 x 16+1= %. ,c- Aow long will it take an electron starting from one plate to reach the other plate me , mass of electron - 0 = x 16+@1 kg. <. A dipole has a positive charge of 1.8 x 16+1=% and a length of " x 16 +16 m %alc late ,a- !he force acting on the +ve charge ,b!he electric field intensity and the electric potential at the midpoint of the dipole , point A -. ,c- !he electric field intensity and the electric potential at a distance of 16 x 16 +16 m beyond the *ve charge , point ) -. 7. An electric field is maintained between two parallel metal plates by a p.d. of 1666 (. A charge of 1 x 16 +17 % is moved between the plates by the forces of the

field which exists between the plates. !he plates are "6 mm apart. ,a- Aow m ch work is done in moving the charge from one plate to another ,b- %alc late the field strength in / %+1 ,c- %alc late the field strength in ( m+1