THE HANDBOOK OF HYDRAULIC FILTRATION

The Handbook of Hydraulic Filtration is intended to familiarize the user with all aspects of hydraulic and lubrication filtration from the basics to advanced technology.

It is dedicated as a reference source with the intent of clearly and completely presenting the subject matter to the user, regardless of the individual level of expertise.

The selection and proper use of filtration devices is an important tool in the battle to increase production while reducing manufacturing costs. This Handbook will help the user make informed decisions about hydraulic filtration.

Table of Contents
SECTION Contamination Basics PAGE 2

Contamination Types and Sources

4

Fluid Cleanliness Standards

12

Filter Media Types and Ratings

16

Filter Media Selection

20

Filter Element Life

22

Filter Housing Selection

24

Types and Locations of Filters

28

Fluid Analysis

32

Appendix

34

1

Contamination Basics

Filtration Fact
Properly sized, installed, and maintained hydraulic filtration plays a key role in machine preventative maintenance planning.

Contamination Causes Most Hydraulic Failures
The experience of designers and users of hydraulic and lube oil systems has verified the following fact: over 75% of all system failures are a direct result of contamination! The cost due to contamination is staggering, resulting from: M Loss of production (downtime)
M Component M Frequent M Costly

Filtration Fact
The function of a filter is not to clean oil, but to reduce operating costs.

If any one of these functions is impaired, the hydraulic system will not perform as designed. The resulting downtime can easily cost a large manufacturing plant thousands of dollars per hour. Hydraulic fluid maintenance helps prevent or reduce unplanned downtime. This is accomplished through a continuous improvement program that minimizes and removes contaminants.

replacement costs

Contaminant Damage
M Orifice

fluid replacement overall maintenance costs scrap rate

blockage wear of rust or other oxidation of additives growth

disposal

M Component M Formation M Chemical M Depletion M Biological

M Increased M Increased

compound formation

Functions of Hydraulic Fluid
Contamination interferes with the four functions of hydraulic fluids: 1. To act as an energy transmission medium. 2. To lubricate internal moving parts of components. 3. To act as a heat transfer medium. 4. To seal clearances between moving parts.

Hydraulic fluid is expected to create a lubricating film to keep precision parts separated. Ideally, the film is thick enough to completely fill the clearance between moving parts. This condition results in low wear rates. When the wear rate is kept low enough, a component is likely to reach its intended life expectancy, which may be millions of pressurization cycles.

Actual photomicrograph of particulate contamination (Magnified 100x Scale: 1 division = 20 microns) 2

The limit of human visibility is approximately 40 micrometers. If loads become high enough.0039 . Keep in mind that most damage-causing particles in hydraulic or lubrication systems are smaller than 40 micrometers. Typical Hydraulic Component Clearances Component Microns Anti-friction bearings 0.5 Vane pump (vane tip to outer ring) 0.0010 . less than 1 micrometer thick. One micrometer (or “micron”) is one-millionth of one meter.5-1 Gear pump (gear to side plate) 0. mechanical loads are to such an extreme that they squeeze the lubricant into a very thin film. 3 . Therefore. applied load. The result contributes to harmful friction. and the relative speed of the two surfaces.0016 . they are microscopic and cannot be seen by the unaided eye. or 39 millionths of an inch. the film will be punctured by the surface roughness of the two moving parts.0003 .5-5 Servo valves (spool to sleeve) 1-4 Hydrostatic bearings 1-25 Piston pump (piston to bore) 5-40 Servo valves flapper wall 18-63 Actuators 50-250 Servo valves orifice 130-450 Micrometer Scale Relative Sizes of Particles Substance Microns Grain of table salt 100 Human hair 70 Lower limit of visibility 40 Milled flour 25 Red blood cells 8 Bacteria 2 Inches .0027 . In many components.0001 Particle sizes are generally measured on the micrometer scale.Contamination Basics The actual thickness of a lubricating film depends on fluid viscosity.

Typically.Contamination Types and Sources Filtration Fact New fluid is not necessarily clean fluid.” Silt can be defined as the accumulation of particles less than 5␮m over time. are particles 5␮m+ and can cause immediate catastrophic failure. Chips on the other hand. Both silt and chips can be further classified as: Hard Particles L Silica L Carbon L Metal Soft Particles L Rubber L Fibers L Micro organism 4 . new fluid right out of the drum is not fit for use in hydraulic or lubrication systems. Water (Free & Dissolved) Filtration Fact Additives in hydraulic fluid are generally less than 1 micron and are unaffected by standard filtration methods. Particulate Silt (0-5um) Chips (5um+) Silt Flow 2. Air Particulate Contamination Types Particulate contamination is generally classified as “silt” or “chips. This type of contamination also causes system component failure over time. 3. Types of Contamination 1.

5 . worn seals. welding slag. Two-body wear is common in hydraulic components. Adhesive Wear—Loss of oil film allows metal to metal contact between moving surfaces. D. generated during operation (see chart below). Hard particles can create three-body wear to generate more particles. System operation also generates internal contamination. with new fluid. Erosive Wear—Fine particles in a high speed stream of fluid eat away a metering edge or critical surface. contamination enters through breather caps. rubber particles from hoses and seals. and other system openings. contaminants from manufacturing and assembly will be left in the system. Three-body mechanical interactions can result in interference. contamination is introduced. when fluid is initially added to the system. During system operation. M Added M Internally Generated Contamination Abrasive Wear—Hard particles bridging two moving surfaces. Corrosive Wear—Water or chemical contamination in the fluid causes rust or a chemical reaction that degrades a surface.Contamination Types and Sources Damage If not properly flushed. These contaminants include dust. sand from castings. Sources M Built-in during manufacturing and assembly processes. C D Stress raisers caused by particle collisions C. Fatigue Wear—Particles bridging a clearance cause a surface stress riser that expands into a spall due to repeated stressing of the damaged area. A B A. Cavitation Wear—Restricted inlet flow to pump causes fluid voids that implode causing shocks that break away critical surface material. Particle effects can begin surface wear. scraping one or both. and metal debris from machined components. Also. B. This occurs as component wear debris and chemical byproducts react with component surfaces to generate more contamination. M Ingested from outside the system during operation.

loss of flow. External Contamination Sources Filtration Fact Most system ingression enters a system through the old-style reservoir breather caps and the cylinder rod glands. M Flush M Specify M Cap off hoses and manifolds during handling and maintenance. leakage. • Valve spool decentering. “chattering”.Contamination Types and Sources Filtration Fact System Contamination Warning Signals • Solenoid burn-out. frequent replacement. M Filter 6 . rod wipers and replace worn actuator seals. Prevention M Use spin-on filters for reservoir air breathers. • Pump failure. all new fluid before it enters the reservoir. • Cylinder leakage. scoring. • Increased servo hysteresis. Ingression Rates For Typical Systems Mobile Equipment 108-1010 per minute* Manufacturing Plants 106-108 per minute* Assembly Facilities 105-106 per minute* * Number of particles greater than 10 microns ingressed into a system from all sources. all systems before initial start-up.

Typical Saturation Points Fluid Type Hydraulic Fluid Lubrication Fluid Transformer Fluid PPM 300 400 50 % .03% . Water can be either in a dissolved state or in a “free” state. water is defined as the water above the saturation point of a specific fluid.005% Visual Effects Of Water In Oil 50 PPM 250 PPM 2000 PPM 7 .Contamination Types and Sources Water Contamination Types There is more to proper fluid maintenance than just removing particulate matter. Free water is generally noticeable as a “milky” discoloration of the fluid.04% . At this point. or emulsified. Water is virtually a universal contaminant. Free. must be removed from operating fluids. the fluid cannot dissolve or hold any more water. and just like solid particle contaminants.

ice crystals form. Pitted and corroded metal surfaces and finishes result. Apply a flame under the container. M Viscosity M Increase Filtration Fact Hydraulic fluids have the ability to ‘hold’ more water as temperature increases. Damage M Corrosion of metal surfaces abrasive wear M Accelerated M Bearing M Fluid fatigue variance in electrical conductivity additive breakdown ability to hold water. If bubbles rise and ‘crackle’ from the point of applied heat. heat and dissimilar metals encourages galvanic action. adversely affecting total system function. As the freezing point is reached. Further complications occur as temperature drops and the fluid has less Typical results of pump wear due to particulate and water contamination 8 .Contamination Types and Sources Filtration Fact A simple ‘crackle test’ will tell you if there is free water in your fluid. Anti-wear additives break down in the presence of water and form acids. thus decreasing its dielectric kV strength. A cloudy fluid may become clearer as a system heats up. Operating functions may also become slowed or erratic. Electrical conductivity becomes a problem when water contamination weakens the insulating properties of a fluid. The combination of water. free water is present in the fluid.

For instance. causing rust or other corrosion problems.0025 0.05% 0.50% = = = = = = = 25 ppm 100 ppm 500 ppm 1000 ppm 1500 ppm 2500 ppm 5000 ppm 0.25 0.01 0.01% water in oil. Water may settle on top of fluid containers and be drawn into the container during temperature changes.25% 0.10 0.Contamination Types and Sources Effect Of Water In Oil On Bearing Life 250 % Bearing Life Remaining 200 150 100 50 0 0.15% 0. Water may also be introduced when opening or filling these containers. As the fluids cool in a reservoir or tank.50 % Water In Oil Effect of water in oil on bearing life (based on 100% life at .0025% 0. Sources M Worn actuator seals opening leakage M Reservoir M Condensation M Heat exchanger leakage Fluids are constantly exposed to water and water vapor while being handled and stored. Water can enter a system through worn cylinder or actuator seals or through reservoir openings. 9 .01% 0.15 0. outdoor storage of tanks and drums is common.10% 0.05 0. Condensation is also a prime water source.) Reference: ”Machine Design” July 86. ”How Dirt And Water Effect Bearing Life” by Timken Bearing Co. water vapor will condense on the inside surfaces.

Prevention Excessive water can usually be removed from a system. Absorption This is accomplished by filter elements that are designed specifically to take out free water. However. This method is also only effective with free water. but for larger volumes.Contamination Types and Sources Filtration Fact Free water is heavier than oil. once excessive water is detected. This method is also for larger volumes of water. They usually consist of a laminant-type material that transforms free water into a gel that is trapped within the element. Filtration Fact Absorption filter elements have optimum performance in low flow and low viscosity applications. Centrifugation Separates water from oil by a spinning motion. The same preventative measures taken to minimize particulate contamination ingression in a system can be applied to water contamination. These elements fit Vacuum Dehydration Separates water from oil through a vacuum and drying process. but is effective with both the free and dissolved states. Vacuum dehydration system 10 . thus it will settle to the bottom of the reservoir where much of it can be easily removed by opening the drain valve. it can usually be eliminated by one of the following methods: into standard filter housings and are generally used when small volumes of water are involved.

and less useful work on the system. M Proper M Return 11 . Wear and interference increases if oxidation debris is not prevented or removed. This heat can destroy additives.Contamination Types and Sources Air Contamination Types Air in a liquid system can exist in either a dissolved or entrained (undissolved. a pump ends up doing more work to compress the air. or form a sludge in the liquid. particularly when water is also present. There can be pressure changes that compress the air and produce a large amount of heat in small air bubbles. or free) state. This is due to the fact that air is up to 20. Dissolved air may not pose a problem. Both processes produce oxides which promote the formation of particulates. In this situation. Oxidation of additives also may occur. but air reduces the bulk modulus of the fluid. This accelerates corrosion of metal parts. providing it stays in solution. problems can occur as it passes through system components. The work performed in a hydraulic system relies on the fluid being relatively incompressible. When a liquid contains undissolved air.000 times more compressible than a liquid in which it is dissolved. When air is present. the system is said to be ‘spongy’. Damage M Loss Sources M System M of transmitted power pump output operating temperature fluid foaming reactions of lubrication leaks fluid turbulence M Reduced M Loss Pump aeration M Reservoir M Increased M Reservoir M Chemical Prevention M System air bleeds suction pump reservoir design line diffusers M Flooded Air in any form is a potential source of oxidation in liquids. If the amount of dissolved air becomes high enough. it will have a negative effect on the amount of work performed by the system. and the base fluid itself.

80 12 *The ISO codes described here are for the 2. 15 micron format. In order to detect or correct problems. A 5.300 . 15 micron format which currently meets the ISO standard.2. may still be used in some publications (Example: an ISO code of 16/13 would reference particles in the 5 + and 15 + micron ranges only). A widely-used modified version of this standard references the number of particles greater than 2.500 320 . These counts are reported as the number of particles greater than a certain size found in a specified volume of fluid. The number of 2+ and 5+ micrometer particles is used as a reference point for “silt” particles.Fluid Cleanliness Standards Filtration Fact Knowing the cleanliness level of a fluid is the basis for contamination control measures. Particle counting is the most common method to derive cleanliness level standards. The 15+ size range indicates the quantity of larger particles present which contribute greatly to possible catastrophic component failure. . ISO CODE Particles > 2 microns 18 / 16 / 13 Particles > 15 microns Particles > 5 microns An ISO classification of 18/16/13 can be defined as: Range Number 18 16 13 Micron 2+ 5+ 15+ Actual Particle Count Range (per ml) 1. The ISO 4406 (International Standards Organization) cleanliness level standard has gained wide acceptance in most industries today.640 40 . 5. and 15 micrometers* in a known volume. usually 1 milliliter or 100 milliliters. Filtration Fact The ISO code index numbers can never increase as the particle sizes increase (Example: 18/20/22). a contamination reference scale is used. 5. Very sensitive optical instruments are used to count the number of particles in various size ranges.

64 .3 .5 2.000 10.500 1.000 80.300 640 640 320 320 160 160 80 80 40 40 20 20 10 10 5 5 2.000 40.64 .Fluid Cleanliness Standards ISO 4406 Chart Range Number 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 Number of particles per ml More than Up to and including 160.5 1.32 ISO 21/19/17 fluid (magnification 100x) ISO 16/14/11 fluid (magnification 100x) 13 .000 2.000 5.300 1.3 1.500 2.000 20.000 80.000 20.000 40.000 10.000 5.

Component Cleanliness Level Requirements Many manufacturers of hydraulic and load bearing equipment specify the optimum cleanliness level required for their components. It may also prove useful for any subsequent warranty claims.Fluid Cleanliness Standards Filtration Fact Most machine and hydraulic component manufacturers specify a target ISO cleanliness level to equipment in order to achieve optimal performance standards. a few components and their recommended cleanliness levels are shown. Servo control valves Proportional valves Vane and piston pumps/motors Directional & pressure control valves Gear pumps/motors Flow control valves. ISO Components Code Filtration Fact Color is not a good indicator of a fluid’s cleanliness level. In the table below. This information is needed in order to select the proper level of filtration. Subjecting components to fluid with higher contamination levels may result in much shorter component life. cylinders New unused fluid 16/14/11 17/15/12 18/16/13 18/16/13 19/17/14 20/18/15 20/18/15 14 . It is always best to consult with component manufacturers and obtain their written fluid cleanliness level recommendations. as it may draw Fluid Cleanliness Required for the line between norTypical Hydraulic Components mal use and excessive or abusive operation.

64 – 15 .000 2.Fluid Cleanliness Standards Cleanliness Level Correlation Table ISO Code 23/21/18 22/20/18 22/20/17 22/20/16 21/19/16 20/18/15 19/17/14 18/16/13 17/15/12 16/14/12 16/14/11 15/13/10 14/12/9 13/11/8 12/10/8 12/10/7 12/10/6 Particles/Millilitre NAS 1638 Disavowed SAE >2 Micrometers >5 Micrometers >15 Micrometers (1964) Level (1963) 12 80.000 640 – 10 20.500 640 80 4 6 1.000 20.300 160 5 7 2.000 640 – 9 10.500 320 6 8 5.300 – – 40.000 10.300 320 40 3 – 640 160 40 – 5 640 160 20 2 4 320 80 10 1 3 160 40 5 0 2 80 20 2.000 2.5 – 1 40 10 1.500 – 11 40.000 2.000 1.500 – – 40.000 10.3 – – 40 10 .5 – – 40 10 2.000 5.000 1.000 10.

Media usually starts out in sheet form. a depth type filter media has many pores of various sizes. Particles are trapped in the maze of openings throughout the media. surface type media have a consistent pore size. An ultrasonic cleaner is usually the best method. Depending on the distribution of pore sizes. Filter media is generally classified as either surface or depth. but may be longer in length (such as a fiber strand). Likewise. and is then pleated to expose more surface area to the fluid flow. filter media contain millions of tiny pores formed by the media fibers. However. This reduces pressure differential while increasing dirt holding capacity. the build-up of contaminant on the element surface will allow the media to capture particles smaller than the pore size rating. or other synthetic materials. particles that have a smaller diameter. Contaminant is captured on the surface of the element which faces the fluid flow. This consistent pore size is the diameter of the largest hard spherical particle that will pass through the media under specified test conditions. The nature of filtration media and the contaminant loading process in a filter element explains why some elements last much longer than others. 74 m Surface Media 16 . Depth Media For depth type filter media. the two ends are fastened together using a special clip. After being pleated and cut to the proper length. fluid must take indirect paths through the material which makes up the filter media. the fluid stream basically has a straight through flow path. cellulose. Surface Media For surface type filter media. In general. adhesive. The most common media include wire mesh. Because of its construction. In some cases. the filter media may have multiple layers and mesh backing to achieve certain performance criteria. The pores have a range of different sizes and are interconnected throughout the layer of the media to form a tortuous path for fluid flow.Filter Media Types and Ratings Filtration Fact Surface media can be cleaned and re-used. Depth media typically cannot be cleaned and it is not re-usable. fiberglass composites. this media can have a very high captive rate at very small particle sizes. may pass downstream of a surface media. Since the process used in manufacturing the wire cloth can be very accurately controlled. The filter media is that part of the element which removes the contaminant. or other seaming mechanism. Surface type elements are generally made from woven wire.

The fibers are generally thinner than cellulose fibers.Filter Media Types and Ratings Flow Direction Depth Media The two basic depth media types that are used for filter elements are cellulose and fiberglass. Thinner fibers mean more actual pores in a given space. thinner fibers can be arranged closer together to produce smaller pores for finer filtration. Typical coarse fiberglass construction (100X) Typical fine fiberglass construction (100X) The pores in cellulose media tend to have a broad range of sizes and are very irregular in shape. In contrast. Furthermore. fiberglass media consist of various size fibers that are very uniform in size and shape. These typical fiber differences account for the performance advantage of fiberglass media. due to the irregular size and shape of the fibers. General Comparison Of Filter Media Media Material Fiberglass Dirt Capture Holding Differential Life In a Efficiency Capacity Pressure System High High Moderate High High Low Moderate Overall Cost Moderate to High Low Cellulose (paper) Moderate Moderate Wire Mesh Low Low Moderate Moderate to High 17 . are improved as a result. Dirt holding capacity. and have a uniform circular cross section. as well as filtration efficiency.

Three important element performance characteristics are a result of the Multipass Test: 1. 3.000 particles. Pressure differential of the test filter element.000 * ANSI – American National Standards Institute ** NFPA – National Fluid Power Association 18 . The differential pressure derived from a Multipass Test. B10 = 50. Dirt holding capacity. were counted upstream taminant is injected upstream of the (before) of the test filter and 10. 2.000 element. Bx = # of particles upstream # of particles downstream “x” is at a specific particle size Beta Ratio The Beta Ratio (also known as the filtration ratio) is a measure of the particle capture efficiency of a filter element.Filter Media Types and Ratings Filtration Fact Filter media ratings expressed as a Beta Ratio indicate a media’s particle removal efficiency. Assume across the test element is continuously that 50. as seen in the following (The Beta Ratio) is determined for example: several particle sizes. 10 micrometers recorded. fluid is circulated Variable Speed Pump Upstream through the circuit Sample under precisely controlled and monitored As an example of how a Beta Ratio is conditions. This performance attribute would equal 5. Reservoir During the Multipass Test. The corresponding Beta Ratio element. Separation or filtration efficiency.000 =5 10. as a constant amount of conand larger. On-line laser particle sensors particles at that same size range were determine the contaminant levels counted downstream (after) of the test upstream and downstream of the test filter. This procedure Test ⌬P Gauge Filter is also recognized by ANSI* and NFPA**. It is therefore a performance rating. The Multipass Test Multipass Test Filtration Fact Multipass test results are very dependent on the following variables: • Flow rate • Terminal pressure differential • Contaminant type The filtration industry Contaminant uses the ISO 4572 Downstream Sample “Multipass Test Flow Meter Procedure” to evaluate filter element performance. expressed as a “Beta Ratio”.

000 50.01 1.0 80.000 1.333 100.333 100. in the example. can be found by a simple equation: So.0% 99.1 ) 100 5 = 80% Beta Ratio Downstream Particles Upstream Particles 50.0% numbers and their 75. a Beta Ratio number alone means very little. 1000 99.1 9.000 1.0% table shows some 10.0% 98.000 100.5% efficiencies.000 500 100. The Beta 2.0% range.000 500 100 19 .0% trapped in the filter 1.0% corresponding 200 99.000 100.000 100.3% media.0% common Beta Ratio 20.9% 1.0% Ratio/ Efficiencies 5.7% 99.” Now. This efficiency.000 1.5 33.0 90. For Beta Ratios/Efficiencies every 5 particles Beta Ratio Capture Efficiency introduced to the (at a given particle size) (at same particle size) filter at this size 1.000 100. 4 were 1.7% 100 99.0% 5.000 5.9% Efficiencyx = (1. expressed as a percent.0 95.1 ) 100 Beta Efficiency10 = (1. the particular filter tested was 80% efficient at removing 10 micrometer and larger particles. It is a preliminary step to find a filter’s particle capture efficiency.000 > (x) microns 20 75 100 200 1000 95.000 100 Beta Ratio (x) Efficiency (x) = = = = = = 2 50.0 50.5% 99.0 98.Filter Media Types and Ratings The example would read “Beta ten equal to five.

steel mill equipment and automotive equipment. but non-production equipment. 2 Minimal Ram pumps and cylinders. and filter locations.______ TABLE C Component Sensitivity Examples Weighting Very High High performance servo valves. 1 Weighting No.6Hz) (e.000 5.______ 20 . negligible hazard. manual and Average poppet valves. servo valves. High Examples Weighting Mine winding gear braking systems 3 Average Where failure is likely to cause a hazard. 3 Average Line mounted valves. laboratories. 6 Above Piston pumps. proportional Average valves.000+ Weighting 0 1 2 3 5 Weighting No.______ TABLE F Operational Economic Liability To account for the cost of downtime.g. TABLE D Life Expectancy Service life required for components.000-10. TABLE A Pressure and Duty Cycles (To take account of the normal operating pressure and its severity of change. 1 Weighting No. MEDIUM Medium pressure changes up to rated pressure. also where ingression of contaminant is expected to be very high 3 Weighting No. Examples Weighting Very High Large piston pumps. assembly plants. 2 Low Equipment not critical to production. 0 Weighting No. Select weighting from table below: TABLE E Component Economic Liability To account for the cost of component replacement. Examples Weighting Very High Very expensive downtime of certain paper.______ TABLE B Environment Examples Weighting Good Clean areas. Hvy.______ Pressure PSI 0-1015 1015-2175 2175-3625 3625-5075 5075+ Bar 0-70 70-150 150-250 250-350 350+ Duty Lt. Med. 3 Average Critical. mill (metal and paper). by adding the seven individual weightings from Tables A through G. 1 2 3 4 1 3 4 5 2 3 4 6 3 5 6 7 4 6 7 8 Weighting No. Read these points on the horizontal axis for the media ratings.000-5.000 10. large high torque low speed motors.000-20. piston pumps. 8 High Industrial servo valves. SEVERE Zero to full pressure—with transients at high frequency (0. 2 Hostile Foundries. actual flow through filters. compensated flow controls. 5 High High volume production equipment.Filter Media Selection Filtration Fact There is no direct correlation between using a specific media and attaining a specific ISO cleanliness classification. 4 High Cylinders. 1 Weighting No. 0 Average General machine shops. Hours 0-1. 1 Low Some hydraulic component test stands. 3 Below Gear pumps.000 20. find that number on the vertical axis located on the total weighting graph.000 1. spool valves.______ Total Weighting of All Tables _________ After you obtain the total weighting. HEAVY Zero to full pressure. 1 Poor Mobile.______ TABLE G Safety Liability To account for the need for additional safety of operation. Sev.) Pressure: Select operating pressure Duty: LIGHT Continuous operation at rated pressure or lower. 4 Average Vane pumps. 2 Low Subplate mounted valves. Numerous other variables should be considered. such as particulate ingression. Draw a horizontal line from the total weighting number so that it intersects the rating range band at two points. both in magnitude and frequency. inexpensive gear pumps. power unit supplying a punching machine).

WEIGHTING = 4 Life Expectancy (Table D) The annual usage is about 2000 hours and component life is expected to be about 4 years. For this reason it is considered to be “heavy”. Then.) This media selection process uses a “weighting” system based upon the relative importance of major system factors. Precise operating parameters are often difficult to quantify by both users and makers of filtration equipment.A. Component costs are high. The hydraulic system includes pressure compensated piston pumps and very large lift cylinders. Total Weighting (Sum of individual Weightings) = 18 The rating selected is in the range of 4 to 13 microns.Filter Media Selection A number of interrelated system factors determines the most suitable filter media for a particular application.F.P. 21 . It must be emphasized that the rating range obtained can only be considered as an approximation. This rating range is based upon media ratings. The media selected should have a minimum Beta Ratio of B13 = 75 (98. where the Beta Ratio is equal to or greater than 75 (98.7% efficient). hence 8000 hours and a WEIGHTING = 2 Economic Liabilities (Components) (Table E) Components such as lift cylinders and variable piston pumps are quite expensive for the end user to purchase. Ingression is likely to be high. but the high capital cost of the system puts it in the “HIGH” category and a WEIGHTING = 3 Safety Liabilities (Table G) No additional weighting for safety is required. Simply add the individual “weighting” factors from the seven (7) system parameter tables. the pumps are above average. be very dirty. The following media selection method was developed by the British Fluid Power Association (B. WEIGHTING = 2 Component Sensitivity (Table C) Although the majority of the components are considered to be of average sensitivity. Operating Pressure and Duty Cycle (Table A) The system operates with extremes of both flow and pressure fluctuations in a cycle that is repeated approximately four times every minute.7% capture efficiency). hence WEIGHTING = 3 Economic Liabilities (Operational) (Table F) Economic liabilities caused by downtime vary depending upon the specific quarry situation. in dry weather. WEIGHTING = 4 Environment (Table B) The environment in which this machine is working can. Total Weighting Graph 26 25 24 23 22 21 Ra tin Total Weighting Factors gR 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 2 a ng e EXAMPLE (see below) 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 65 Filter Beta Ratio (Bx > 75) Example Consider a large hydraulic excavator operating in a quarry. consult the “Total Weighting Graph” to find the appropriate rating range of suitable media.

slowly at first. The multilayer fiberglass media element is relatively unaffected by contaminant loading for a longer time. the contaminant loading process would block the pores of the cellulose media element quicker then the identical fiberglass media element. then very quickly as the element nears it’s maximum life. Contaminant Loading Contaminant loading in a filter element is simply the process of blocking the pores throughout the element. there are fewer pores for fluid flow. shape and arrangement of the pores throughout the element accounts for why some elements last longer than others. As the filter element becomes blocked with contaminant particles. The quantity. Element Contamination Loading Curve Differential Pressure Incremental Life Time 22 . a point is reached at which successive blocking of media pores significantly reduces the number of available pores for flow through the element. there are fewer pores with cellulose media than fiberglass media. size. The very small pores in the media are not blocked by large particles. and the pressure required to maintain flow through the media increases. Accordingly. and the pore blocking process has little effect on the overall pressure loss. However.Filter Element Life Filtration Fact As an element loads with contamination. The element selectively captures the various size particles. as the fluid passes through the element. the differential pressure will increase over time. These downstream small pores remain available for the large quantity of very small particles present in the fluid. Initially. the differential pressure across the element increases very slowly because there is an abundance of media pores for the fluid to pass through. At this point the differential pressure across the element rises exponentially. For a given filter media thickness and filtration rating.

The system operating versus idle time. single layer fiberglass media and multilayer fiberglass media all have a very different life profile. Life profile comparisons can only be made when these operating conditions are identical and the filter elements are the same size. Element Types Life Comparison 100 DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE (PSI) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 5 4 3 2 1 CAPACITY (GRAMS) 23 DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE (bar) 90 Cellulose Single Layer Fiberglass Multilayer Fiberglass 6 . the quantity. shape. Most machinery users and designers simply specify filter housings with differential pressure indicators to signal when the filter element should be changed. In addition. precise instrumentation for recording the change in the pressure loss across the filter element is seldom available. size. The graphic comparison of the three most common media configurations clearly shows the life advantage of the multilayer fiberglass media element.” The actual life profile is obviously affected by the system operating conditions. The filter element life profile is very difficult to evaluate in actual operating systems. The Multipass Test data can be used to develop the pressure differential versus contaminant loading relationship.Filter Element Life Filter Element Life Profile Every filter element has a characteristic pressure differential versus contaminant loading relationship. and arrangement of the pores in the filter element determine the characteristic life profile. the duty cycle and the changing ambient contaminant conditions all affect the life profile of the filter element. Filter elements that are manufactured from cellulose media. defined as the filter element life profile. Then. Variations in the system flow rate and fluid viscosity affect the clean pressure differential across the filter element and have a well-defined effect upon the actual element life profile. such operating conditions as flow rate and fluid viscosity affect the life profile for a filter element. As previously mentioned. This relationship can be defined as the “filter element life profile.

• The bypass valve opens. • The element fails. All. Suction and return line filters are generally designed for lower pressures up to 500 psi (34 bar). It is essential to analyze the circuit for frequent pressure spikes as well as steady state conditions. locations may require ratings from 1500 psi to 6000 psi (103 bar to 414 bar). or return lines. indicator options. Filter Housings The filter housing is the pressure vessel which contains the filter element. depend on the physical system design and the preferences of the designer. 24 .Filter Housing Selection Filtration Fact Always use an element condition indicator with any filter. This should be determined before the housing style is selected. especially those that do not have a bypass valve. Some housings have restrictive or lower fatigue pressure ratings. In circuits with frequent high pressure spikes. and pressure rating. Visual/electrical element condition indicator Pressure Ratings Location of the filter in the circuit is the primary determinant of pressure rating. The housing has inlet and outlet ports allowing it to be installed into a fluid system. Pressure rating of the housing is far less arbitrary. such as a head (or cover) and a bowl to allow access to the filter element. another type housing may be required to prevent fatigue related failures. Pressure filter Filtration Fact An element loading with contaminant will continue to increase in pressure differential until either: • The element is replaced. pressure. bypass valves and element condition indicators. It usually consists of two or more subassemblies. porting options. Bypass valve assembly Inlet port Outlet port Pressure housing Filter element The primary concerns in the housing selection process include mounting methods. One characteristic of these locations is their maximum operating pressures. except the pressure rating. Additional housing features may include mounting holes. Filter housings are generically designed for three locations in a circuit: suction.

the bypass valve setting needs to be chosen. At a pressure well below the failure point of the filter element . The bypass valve setting must be selected before sizing a filter housing.14 bar or 0. element to withstand the bypass valve differential pressure when the bypass valve opens. Other filters may be supplied with a “no bypass” or “blocked” 12 bypass option. either a 2 or 3 psi (0. When specifying a bypass type filter. This allows the unfiltered bypass flow to return to tank through a third port. Applications 4 for using a “no bypass” option include servo valve and other 2 sensitive component protection. the bypass valve opens. As contaminant builds up in the element. Bypass Filter Blocked Bypass Filter Bypass valve 50 psi setting (3. make sure that the element has a differential pressure rating close to maximum operating pressure of the system. it can generally be assumed that the manufacturer has designed the Effective Filtration Ratio B10 d ea St kage o Lea N – w lo e ady F Leakag Unste dy Flow–10% a Unste e –20% Leakag Unsteady Flow e kag Lea 40% w– Unsteady Flo lo yF N w– e oL ag ak e Beta Lost by Cyclic Flow 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 B10 From Multipass Test Beta Performance Lost by Cyclic Flow and Bypass Leakage. Everything else being equal. This will provide the longest element life for a given filter size. especially in high 6 pressure filters. In suction filters. When specifying a 0 non-bypass filter design. the differential pressure across the element increases. or to reduce back-pressure on another component. higher collapse 8 strength elements may be required.2 bar) bypass valve is used to minimize the chance of potential pump cavitation. Some bypass valve designs have a “bypass to-tank” option. the highest bypass cracking pressure available from the manufacturer should be selected. allowing flow to go around the element. preventing unfiltered bypass flow from entering the system. After a housing style and pressure rating are selected. It also prevents pump cavitation in the case of suction line filtration.Filter Housing Selection The Bypass Valve The bypass valve is used to prevent the collapse or burst of the filter element when it becomes highly loaded with contaminant. a lower setting may be selected to help minimize energy loss in a system.4 bar) 950 psi (66 bar) 0 psi (0 bar) Filter (Elements Blocked) 1000 psi (69 bar) 1000 psi (69 bar) Flow 25 . Occasionally. In filters with no bypass valves. This prevents any unfiltered flow from going 10 downstream.

Filter Housing Selection Filtration Fact Always consider low temperature conditions when sizing filters. electrical or both types of signals. the graph on the next page illustrates the type of catalog flow/pressure differential curves which are used to size the filter housing. and the maximum flow rate (instead of an average) to make sure that the filter does not spend a high portion of time in bypass due to flow surges. It is preferable that this ratio be 3:1 or even higher for longer element life. Element Condition Indicators The element condition indicator signals when the element should be cleaned or replaced. Viscosity increases in the fluid may cause a considerable increase in pressure differential through the filter assembly. This is particularly important in return line filters. Filter Element Sizing Differential Pressure LIFE Filter Bypass Cracking Pressure 3:1 Optimum Ratio Clean Element P 26 . indicators are set to trip anywhere from 5%-25% before the bypass valve opens. Generally. Fluid viscosity 4. the specifier needs to know the operating viscosity of the fluid. or it may be an entirely independent differential pressure sensing device. Flow rate Housing And Element Sizing The filter housing size should be large enough to achieve at least a 2:1 ratio between the bypass valve setting and the pressure differential of the filter with a clean element installed. As can be seen. Media grade 3. Housing and element size 2. where flow multiplication from cylinders may increase the return flow compared to the pump flow rate. Filtration Fact Pressure differential in a filter assembly depends on: 1. Indicators may give visual. The indicator usually has calibration marks which also indicates if the filter bypass valve has opened. The indicator may be mechanically linked to the bypass valve. For example.

9 bar). The important issue is that some of the system contaminant particles also bypass the filter element. whether 25 or 75 PSI (1.Filter Housing Selection Typical Flow/Pressure Curves For A Specific Media 1. A cellulose element has a narrow region of exponential pressure rise. As the filter element becomes blocked with contaminant.5 1. If the filter described in the graph was fitted with a 50 psi (3. Standard filter assemblies normally have a bypass valve cracking pressure between 25 and 100 PSI (1.7 bar) and preferably 16 2⁄3 psi (1. 3:1 RATIO M 50/3 = 16 2⁄3 psid (1. the effectiveness of the filter element is compromised and the attainable system fluid cleanliness degrades.4 bar) bypass valve the initial (clean) pressure differential should be no greater than 25 psi (1.2 bar). At this point. 0.7 and 6.75 1. This is calculated from the 3:1 and 2:1 ratio of bypass setting and initial pressure differential.25 0 (PSI) Differential Pressure (Bar) 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 0 10 25 50 20 30 40 (GPM) 50 Flow 60 70 (LPM) 80 90 100 200 SUS 100 SUS 75 100 125 150 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 Most standard filter assemblies utilize a bypass valve to limit the maximum pressure drop across the filter element. the relationship between the starting clean pressure differential and the bypass valve pressure setting is very important. has relatively little impact on the useful life of the filter element.75 0.25 1. the flow through the filter assembly begins bypassing the filter element and passes through the bypass valve.7 bar) M At 200 sus fluid. When this happens. For this reason.1 bar)or less. This relationship in effect determines the useful life of the filter element. the pressure differential increases until the bypass valve cracking pressure is reached. Accordingly.5 0. In contrast. The relationship between the starting clean pressure differential across the filter element and the bypass valve pressure setting must be considered. the useful element life of the single layer and multilayer fiberglass elements is established by the nearly horizontal. Thus.1 bar) 2:1 RATIO M 50/2 = 25 psid (1. This action limits the maximum pressure differential across the filter element. linear region of relatively low pressure drop increase.7 or 5. not the region of exponential pressure rise. the initial pressure differential and bypass valve setting is less a sizing factor when fiberglass media is being considered. the maximum flow range would be between 42 gpm and 54 gpm (159 lpm and 204 lpm) 27 . the filter assembly bypass valve cracking pressure.

They are designed to handle the system pressure and sized for the specific flow rate in the pressure line where they are located. Always consult against contamination. such as servo valves. Filtration Fact The use of suction filters and strainers has greatly decreased in modern filtration. In either case. For this reason. Located just downstream from the system pump. Others may be externally mounted. . Pressure Filters Pressure filters are located downstream from the system pump. they are not used as primary protection use of a suction filter. they utilize relatively coarse elements. To System Pressure Filter Pressure filters are especially suited for protecting sensitive components directly downstream from the filter. 28 they also help protect the entire system from pump generated contamination. Some may be inlet “strainers”. due to cavitation limitations of pumps. Some pump the pump manufacturer for inlet manufactures do not recommend the restrictions. They are Filter located before the inlet port of the pump. submersed in the fluid.Types & Locations of Filters Filtration Fact Suction strainers are often referred to by “mesh” size: 6560 mesh = 238 micron 100 mesh = 149 micron 200 mesh = 74 micron Filter Types and Locations M Suction M Pressure M Return M Off-line Suction Filters To System Suction filters serve to protect the pump from fluid Suction contamination.

7 bar). while filtered flow continues to pass through the filter assembly. Both pressure and return filters can commonly be found in a duplex version. Return Filters When the pump is a sensitive component in a system. line flow rate may cause the filter bypass valve to open. Since this filter is located immediately upstream from the reservoir. uninterrupted filtration. it captures wear debris from system working components and particles entering through worn cylinder rod seals before such contaminant can enter the reservoir and be circulated. In most systems. When a filter element needs servicing. cylinders with large diameter rods may result in “flow multiplication”. Therefore. In some cases.Types & Locations of Filters Return Line Filters Cylinder has 2:1 ratio piston area to rod diameter. the duplex valve is shifted. Its most notable characteristic is continuous filtration. The increased return Duplex Filter Assembly 29 . which prevents any flow blockage. The duplex valve typically is an open cross-over type. the return filter is the last component through which fluid passes before entering the reservoir. This may be an undesirable condition and care should be taken in sizing the filter. a return filter may be the best choice. The dirty element can then be changed. diverting flow to the opposite filter chamber. That is. it is made with two or more filter chambers and includes the necessary valving to allow for continuous. Pressure is generally less than 25 psi (1. 33 gpm (125 lpm) Return line filter is sized for 66 gpm (250 lpm). allowing unfiltered flow to pass downstream. its pressure rating and cost can be relatively low.

pressure. FES. this type of system is best suited to maintain overall cleanliFlow Rate Effect on Off-Line Filtration Performance Number of particles upstream per millilitre greater than reference size Off-Line Filter Existing Hydraulic or Lube System Pump Filtration Fact The cleanliness level of a system is directly proportional to the flow rate over the system filters. Inc. 30 ISO Correlation 10 3 20/18/15 19/17/14 . and the appropriate hardware connections. 23/21/18 1G PM 10 (3 100 GPM . electrical motor.8 lp m) (38 GP M (38 lpm) 0 lp m) 10 2 10 1 . but does not provide specific component protection.01 18/16/13 16/14/12 15/13/10 For beta rated filters with a minimum rating of beta (10) = 75 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 9 10 10 10 11 10 12 Ingression rate (Number of particles > 10 micron ingressing per minute) Source based on Fitch. Off-line filtration consists of a pump.C. kidney loop. Stillwater. filter. and off-line filters. off-line filtration is able to maintain a fluid at a constant contamination level. As with a return line filter..1 . or included in a fluid cooling loop. through the filter. return. the filter can be serviced without shutting down the main system. or Air breather auxiliary filtration. The table to the right may be helpful in making a filtration location decision. These components are installed offOptional Cooler line as a small subsystem separate from the working lines. Off-Line Filtration Also referred to as recirculating. E. Fluid is pumped out of the reservoir.Types & Locations of Filters Filtration Fact Rule of thumb: size the pump flow of an off-line package at a minimum of 10% of the main reservoir volume . Off-Line Filter 10 6 10 5 10 4 ness. With this “polishing” effect.. An off-line filtration loop has the added advantage that it is relatively easy to retrofit on an existing system that has inadequate filtration. Also. 1988. this filtration system is totally independent of a machine’s main hydraulic system. Fluid Contamination Control. Most systems would benefit greatly from having a combination of suction. Oklahoma. and back to the reservoir in a continuous fashion.

No direct component protection. • Minimum system protection. Pressure • Specific component • protection • Contributes to overall system cleanliness level. • Cost is relatively high. to keep pressure drop low due to pump inlet conditions. • Filters not affected by flow surges allowing for optimum element life and performance. • Servicing possible without main system shut down. • Fluid cooling may be easily incorporated. Relative initial cost is high. Housing is relatively expensive because it must handle full system pressure. • Can use high • efficiency. • No direct component protection. Disadvantages • Must use relatively coarse media. • Return line flow surges may reduce filter performance. • May be in-line or in-tank for easier installation. filter elements. • Catches wear debris from pump • Catches wear debris from components. Return • No protection from pump generated contamination. fine filtration. • The discharge line can be directed to the main system pump to provide supercharging with clean.Types & Locations of Filters Comparison of Filter Types and Locations Filter Location Suction (Externally Mounted) Advantages • Last chance protection for the pump. and dirt entering through worn cylinder rod seals before it enters the reservoir. conditioned fluid. Does not catch wear debris from downstream working components. • May not be suitable for many variable volume pumps. 31 . Off-Line • Continuous “polishing” of • the main system hydraulic • fluid. • Specific cleanliness levels can be more accurately obtained and maintained.and/or large housing size. • Does not protect downstream components from pump wear debris. Requires additional space. • Much easier to service than a sump strainer. • Relative initial cost is high. • Lower pressure ratings result in lower costs. even if the system is • shut down.

verifies the composition of the fluid.Fluid Analysis Filtration Fact The only way to know the condition of a fluid is through fluid analysis. The patch is then analyzed under a microscope for both color and Patch test kit 32 . The margin of error for both of these methods is relatively high due to the human factor. the user can get a “go. Fluid analysis is an essential part of any maintenance program. Patch Test A patch test is nothing more than a visual analysis of a fluid sample. These numbers would then be extrapolated into an ISO cleanliness level. By using this comparison. Filtration Fact Any fluid analysis should always include a particle count and corresponding ISO code. and compared to known ISO standards. Fluid analysis ensures that the fluid conforms to manufacturer specifications. It usually involves taking a fluid sample and passing it through a fine media “patch”. and determines its overall contamination level. Visual examination is not an accurate method. no-go” estimate of a system’s cleanliness level. Fluid Analysis Methods M Patch Test Particle Counter Analysis M Portable M Laboratory content. Another lesser-used deviation of the patch test would be the actual counting of the particles seen under the microscope.

Laser particle counters are comparable to full laboratory units in counting particles down to the 2 + micron range.1-1972). Sampling valves should be opened and flushed for at least fifteen seconds. There is also the American National Standard method (ANSI B93. Laser particle counters will generally give only particle counts and cleanliness classifications. Laboratory Analysis 33 .13-1972) for extracting fluid samples from the lines of an operating hydraulic fluid power system for particulate contamination analysis. Either extraction method is recommended. A complete procedure follows in the appendix.Fluid Analysis There is a National Fluid Power Association (NFPA) standard for extracting fluid samples from a reservoir of an operating hydraulic fluid power system. Most qualified laboratories will offer the following tests and features as a package: In taking a fluid sample from a system. Portable particle counter Portable Particle Counter A most promising development in fluid analysis is the portable laser particle counter. A test typically takes less than a minute. and spectrometric analysis tests would require a full laboratory analysis. Water content. and timeliness. To accomplish this. the fluid container must be cleaned before taking the sample and the fluid must be correctly extracted from the system. In any event. repeatability. M Viscosity M Neutralization M Water number content counts M Particle M Spectrometric analysis (wear metals and additive analysis reported in parts per million. care must be taken to make sure that the fluid sample is representative of the system.9. a representative fluid sample is the goal. Strengths of this recent technology include accuracy. The clean sample bottle should be kept closed until the fluid and valve is ready for sampling. or ppm) graphs micrograph M Trending M Photo M Recommendations Laboratory Analysis The laboratory analysis is a complete look at a fluid sample. The system should be at operating temperature for at least 30 minutes before the sample is taken. viscosity. portability.(NFPA T2.

fluid supplier. You will probably have to weight the end of the sampling tube. If no such valve exists.) I. and time elapsed since last sample (if any. (Take care to allow for this step. fluid number code. Operate system for a least 1/2 hour. close the sampling valve. It is not necessary to discard this fluid.) E. Next. 3. Put extracted fluid into an approved. B. Do not let the syringe or tubing came in contact with the side of the tank. For systems with a sampling valve A. Insert sampling device into the tank to one half of the fluid height.Appendix SAMPLING PROCEDURE Obtaining a fluid sample for particle counts and/or analysis involves important steps to make sure you are getting a representative sample. pre-cleaned sampling bottle. Close the sample bottle immediately. 5. B. 3. The procedure for both follows: A. Do not fill the bottle more than one inch from the top. 2. D. remove the bottle cap and place in the stream of flow from the sampling valve. Tag the sample bottle with pertinent data: include date. valve: in-tank and in the line. Flush the valve or fitting sample point with a filtered solvent.) C. Do NOT “rinse” out the bottle with initial sample. Direct sample back to tank or into a large container. Locate a suitable valve in the system where turbulent flow can be obtained (ball valve is preferred). 4. With the system operating. Avoid the top or bottom of the tank. machine number. open the sample valve allowing 200 ml to 500 ml (7 to 16 ounces) of fluid to flush the sampling port. In the Tank Sampling l. Tag with information as described in sampling valve method. Open valve or fitting and allow adequate flushing. (The sample valve design should provide turbulent flow through the sampling port. Using a wide mouth. Systems without a sampling valve There are two locations to obtain a sample in a system without a sampling 34 . Your objective is to obtain a sample in the middle portion of the tank.) II. Operate the system for a least 1/2 hour. Often erroneous sampling procedures will disguise the true nature of system cleanliness levels. Cap immediately. Use a small hand-held vacuum pump bottle thief or “basting syringe” to extract sample. pre-cleaned sample bottle as described in the sampling valve method above. locate a fitting which can be easily opened to provide turbulent flow (tee or elbow). In-Line Sampling 1. Use one of the following methods to obtain a representative system sample. Operate the system for a least 1/2 hour. (Make prior provision to “catch” the fluid while removing the bottle from the stream. 2. fluid type.

00 669.94 39.30 39.1 0.8 Average NET 233.10 7.00 234.0 51. This includes vacuum pumps.496.69 11.00 6.00 681.696.9 238.0 Initial Housing 3.709. (PSID) Terminal 235.178.214. 5.83 1. Beta Ratio’s 1.274.00 395.32 1.682.1 Minimum Beta: Ratio’s 1.10 469.00 2.27 2.00 2.00 700.00 0.14.30 2.391.00 2.23 1.690. 6.1 191.869.48 35.6 75.822. Cap sample bottle immediately.2 0.7 0.00 406.30 32.152. Your goal is to count only the particles already in the system fluid.00 643.13 20 39.75 0.9 200 1.13 6.4 0.056.495.00 1.817.30 1.6 10.03 3.455 12.00 6.00 262.2 System Gravimetrics (MG/L): Base: 5.863.013.0 Clean Ass’y 5.7 75. observe common sense rules.77-15.57 2.89 2.20 13.83 380.73 8.1 Retained: 25.1 10.00 375.40 460.20 7.50 41.5 25.00 2.7 17.00 1.455 14.00 7.900 5 31. Any equipment which is used in the fluid sampling procedure must be washed and rinsed with a filtered solvent.87 5. Place in an approved and pre-cleaned sample bottle under the stream of flow per sampling valve methods above.427.00 1.23 1.0 6.6 25.Int.6 98.00 2.00 2.1 0.00 1.453 14.2 Final Element 1.68 95.857.00 673.900.14 8.1 0.4 6.22 1.46 2. Tag with important information per the sampling valve method.00 2.5 11.30 436.136. Particle Distribution Analysis-Part./H Size Ass’y Added Flow (Up/Down/Beta) Particle Size Elem’t 2 3 5 7 10 12 Clean 4.5 88.168.843.00 3.451 11.36 2.30 188.90 235.94 32.11 0.94 9.8 45.1 16.678.382.2 26.4 34.00 1. Regardless of the method being used.70 474.130.453 Test Point Information % of Net ⌬Psi Duration of Test (Minutes) Assembly ⌬Psi Element ⌬Psi Cumulative Capacity (Grams) Injection Flow (Liters/Min) Delta P.8 14.86 3.00 2.410.453 11.201.420.451 13.3 C Lab Report Date Tested By Acftd Batch Counts xxxx xx xxx xxx On-Line Anti-static Additive In Test Fluid Element Pressure Drop At Test Termination Diff.31 2.00 6.00 463.59 0.46 1. Grams Inject.55 3.85 3.58 2.51 49.1 120 190 100 45.18 0.00 0.22 0. Dirty sampling devices and non-representative samples will lead to erroneous conclusions and cost more in the long run.8 28.3 0.27 2.455 13. syringes and tubing.000 10 35.00 1.44 0.299.89 0.28 5.00 340.Appendix Sample Multipass Lab Report 4.00 2.0 Final: 11.00 Downstream Particle Count 48.427.456.950.42 7.00 1.91 1.3 24.00 3.00 7.85 34.54 Test Point Beta Ratio 40 42. Model Element Flow Fab.4 10.4 9.00 Fluid 8.6 22.8 % Net Time INJECTION FLUID Grav (MG/L) Flow (L/Min) 1226.23 1.82 0.060.768.13 6.1 Time Avg.7 420 2.207.277.00 6.3 20.33 7.833.50 1.717.5 88.1 7. Note: Select a valve or fitting where the pressure is limited to 200 PSIG (14 bar) or less.000 80 45.8 7 Point 1279.58 38.00 1.00 Upstream Particle Count 25.00 2. Fluid xxxx xx 30 Gpm 10 In Water Mil-H-5606/Shell Asa-3 98/102F.8 390 1.590.63 10.2 220 800 Final Capacity (Grams): Apparent: 26.00 7.6 0. Press.4 Average 1253.8 Minimum Beta Ratio For Particle Size During Test Weighted Avg Beta Ratio For Particle Size Over Test Duration Cumulative Dirt Added During Test Calculated Amount Of Grams Retained 35 .97 37.

use the formula: cSt = SUS 4.000039 .40 .000001 36 .Appendix Viscosity Conversion Chart cSt (Centistokes) SUS (Saybolt Universal Seconds)* 10 46 20 93 25 116 30 139 32.4 150 40 185 50 232 70 324 90 417 Comparisons are made at 100° F (38° C).635 * NOTE: Saybolt universal seconds may also be abbreviated SSU. M e t r i c C o n v e r s i o n Ta b l e TO CONVERT Inches Millimeters Gallons Liters Pounds Kilograms PSI Bar Centigrade Fahrenheit Microns Microns INTO Millimeters Inches Liters Gallons Kilograms Pounds Bar PSI Fahrenheit Centigrade Inches Meters MULTIPLY BY 25.785 .8 .2642 .5 (ЊC x 9⁄5) +32 (ЊF .03937 3.32) /1. For other viscosity conversion approximations.2046 .06804 14.4536 2.

000 5. 4 IL-O . 3 Fue 1010 -56 Fu l 06 el 50 40 35 4 3 Av 2 iatio n JP -4 Av era ge Viscosity—Saybolt Universal Seconds Kinematic Viscosity—Centistokes 0 20 40 60 80 100 150 200 250 300 1.000 500 250 100 -51 -40 -29 2000 1000 500 200 100 Viscosity vs.5 Ga so lin e— Av era ge 1 .7 350 400 500 .6 -60 -40 -20 Temperature ЊF 37 .000 1.Appendix Temperature ЊC -18 -7 4 16 27 38 38 66 93 121 149 204 260 10.ydra 9 G L-7 u rad 80 lic Flu No 8 id M e No . 2 F es u el el Fu el J Ke P-5 ros en e AN M H -0.9 .IL. Temperature 50 S SAE Bu nk SA AE 6 70 er E 5 0 SA SAE SA "C" & 0 E 1 20 SA E 4 SA 0 E3 0 E5 0 0 20 10 8 6 No Di .8 .

Morley Leeds LS27 8EL England (44) (113) 253-7921 . OH 43540 USA (419) 644-4311 HTM-1 Printed in USA Parker Hannifin plc Filter Division Peel Street.Parker Hannifin Corporation Hydraulic Filter Division 16810 Fulton County Road #2 Metamora.