Chapter 21 Chemical Reactions

Terms and Definitions Flashcards

Chemical Reaction
A change in which one or more substances is converted into new substances.

Chemical Equation
A way to describe a chemical reaction using chemical formulas and other symbols.

Reactants
The substances that react. They are to the left of the arrow.

Products
The new substances produced. They are to the right of the arrow.

Coefficient
Represent the number of units of each substance taking part in a reaction. They are the number of units of EACH ingredient in the reaction.

Balanced Chemical Equation
Using coefficients to achieve the same number of atoms of each element on each side of the chemical equation.

Combustion Reaction
Occurs when a substance reacts with oxygen to produce energy in the form of heat and light.

Synthesis Reaction
Two or more substances combine to form another substance.

A +

B

AB

Decomposition Reaction
Occurs when one substance breaks down, or decomposes, to form two or more substances.

Reaction is the opposite of a synthesis reaction.

Single Displacement Reaction
Occurs when one element replaces another element in a compound.

Double Displacement Reaction
The positive ion of one compound replaces the positive ion of another compound to form two new compounds.

A double displacement reaction takes place if a precipitate, water, or a gas forms when two ionic compounds in solution are combined.

Double Displacement Reaction

Precipitate
An insoluble compound that comes out of solution during a double displacement reaction.

Oxidation
Describes the loss of electrons.

Reduction
Describes the gain of electrons.

Exergonic Reaction
Chemical reactions that release energy

In these reactions less energy is required to break the original bonds than is released when new bonds form. As a result, some form of energy, such as light or heat is given off by the reaction.

Exothermic Reaction
The energy given off in a reaction is primarily in the form of heat.
Doesn’t need much energy Needs a lot of energy

Endergonic Reaction
A chemical reaction that requires more energy to break bonds than is released when new ones are formed.

The energy absorbed can be in the form of light, heat or electricity.

Endothermic Reaction
The energy needed in the reaction is in the form of heat.

Some reactions are so endothermic that they can cause water to freeze.

Catalyst
A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being permanently changed itself.

Inhibitor
Substances used to slow down a chemical reaction.

Types of Reactions
Synthesis

Decomposition

Single Displacement

Double Displacement

Sythesis