CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT

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Physics Dept. SMK Sultan Ismail

5.1

UNDERSTANDING REFLECTION OF LIGHT

The Laws Of Reflection

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When light strikes a surface, reflection will occur. The light ray that strikes the surface of the mirror is called incident ray. The light ray that bounces off from the surface of the mirror is known as the reflected ray. Normal is a line perpendicular to the mirror surface where the reflection occurs. The angle between the incident ray and the normal is called the angle of incidence, i. The angle between the reflected ray and the normal is called the angle of reflection, r. When a ray of light undergoes reflection, it obeys the laws of reflection. (a) The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal all lie in the same plane. (b) The angle of incidence, i, is equal to the angle of reflection, r.

Figure 1.1 Reflection of light on a plane mirror

Plane Mirror
Ray Diagram to Determine the Position and Characteristics of the Image Formed by a Plane Mirror 1. The following stapes show how to draw the ray diagram for the formation of an image by a plane mirror. (a) Consider an object O placed in front of plane mirror. (b) Measure the distance between the object O and the mirror. Measure the same distance behind the mirror and mark the positions as the image, I (c) Draw the diverging ray from a point on the image, to the corner of the eye. The rays from the image to the mirror must be dotted to show that they are virtual. (d) Finally, draw two diverging rays from the object to the mirror to meet the diverging rays from the image.

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CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT]

Physics Dept. SMK Sultan Ismail

Figure 1.2 2. The characteristics of the image formed in plane mirror; (a) ________________________________________ (b) ________________________________________ (c) ________________________________________ (d) ________________________________________ Note - The student combs his hair with his left hand in front of a plane mirror, but the student appears to be using his right hand if you look at his image in the mirror. - Left and right are interchanged.

Curved Mirrors

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There are two types of curved mirrors, (a) convex mirror which curves inwards (b) concave mirror which curves outwards On a concave mirror, the rays that are parallel and close to the main axis ______________ to point F ( focal point) and the distance FP is known as the focal length of the concave mirror.

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Real focus for concave mirror and virtual focus for convex mirror. Pole of mirror. - - The centre of curvature. v is the distance of image from the pole of the mirror. F of a concave mirror is the point on the principle axis where all the reflected rays meet and converge. The distance FP is known as the focal length of the convex mirror. 3 . parallel ray that are close to main axis. The focal length. The distance between the centre of curvature.CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] Physics Dept. P is the centre point on the curved mirror. Figure 3: Convex mirror 4. P. SMK Sultan Ismail Figure 2: Concave mirror 3. A curved mirror actually a spherical mirror. _______________ from the surface of reflection. On convex mirror. f is FP (FP = ½ CP) The focal point. P. C and the surface of the mirror is called the radius of curvature. The ray are seen diverge from a point F (main focus) behind the mirror. The connecting line from the centre of curvature to point P is called the principle axis. C of a curved mirror is the centre of sphere of the mirror. u is the distance of object from the pole of the mirror. Common terminology of curved mirror. R. Object distance. Image distance.

inverted and diminished. that is whether the image is. I. SMK Sultan Ismail Ray diagram to determine the position and characteristic of an image in a convex mirror and a concave mirror 1. PI is the image distance. the parallel ray that strikes the surface of the mirror will be reflected outwards from the focal point. The following stapes show how to draw the ray diagram for the formation of an image by a convex and concave mirror (a) Consider an object. F for a concave mirror. (a) ____________________________ (b) ____________________________ (c) ____________________________ Ray diagram Characteristics Object distance. Mark the surface of the mirror. u Object at infinity Image is real. OP is the object distance and FP is the focal length.CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] Physics Dept. (c) Draw another line parallel to the principle axis to meet the surface of the mirror from the top of the object. The characteristic of the image formed can be determined. F whereas the ray will be reflected towards focal point. (e) Point of intersection is the position of the image. C and F (CF equals to FP). C from the top of the object. (b) Draw a line through the centre of curvature. (d) For a convex mirror. (a) Convex Mirror (b) Concave Mirror 2. O placed on the principle axis in front of a mirror. 4 . P.

SMK Sultan Ismail Object slightly further from C (u > 2f or u > C) ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ [animation] Object at C (u =2f or u = C) ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ [animation] Object in between C and F ( f < u < 2f) ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ [animation] Object at F (u = f) Virtual. upright and very large 5 .CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] Physics Dept.

_______________ and _______________ 6 . Image formed by a convex mirror always ______________. SMK Sultan Ismail Object in between F and P ( u < f) ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ [animation] 3.CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] Physics Dept.

SMK Sultan Ismail Mirror in a meter Plane mirrors are normally used in electrical meter instruments such as the voltmeter. - 2. The word ‘ambulance’ purposely inverted laterally on an ambulance car. he will able to see a readable version. It is also used inside a submarine. Physics Dept. Periscope consists of two plane mirror inclined at an angle of 450. 7 . a plane mirror is also used as a rear view mirror and a side mirror of a car in order to enable the driver to see object at the back and at the side of the car. 3.CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] Application Of Reflection Of Light 1. It can be used to see the top of high obstacle such as a wall. ammeter and the galvanometer as anti-parallax mirrors to avoid parallax errors. When a driver of car in front of the ambulance looks in his car rear view mirror. Accurate reading is obtained when the image of the pointer is directly below the pointer itself. - Mirror in a car By the principle of reflection of light. - Parabolic mirrors are used in car headlamps as reflection.

CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] 4. a virtual. (c) in supermarket for safety purposes. The image produced by convex mirror is always virtual. Physics Dept. 5. (b) at sharp corners and at parking lots as a safety precaution. Convex mirror are used as safety mirrors which are fixed at dangerous bends to help drivers to see vehicles that are hidden from view. Therefore. SMK Sultan Ismail If the object is placed in front of a concave mirror between F and P. magnified and upright image is produced. smaller and upright. 8 . it is used as shaving mirror and dentist’s mirror. Therefore convex mirror are used (a) in cars as the mirrors for driving. 6.

Total Internal Reflection Total internal reflection is ______________________________________________ ___________________.g. e. there is a strong refracted ray OCD and a week reflected ray OP in the glass. Instead. The glass-air boundary thus behaves as a ‘mirror’ reflecting light strongly. Critical angle is ____________________________________ where the refracted angle is ____ away from the normal line when the ray is travel from _____________ medium to a ___________________ medium. The reflected ray in the glass is now almost as bright as the incident ray in the glass. At one special angle of incidence. from glass to air ). c with normal ON. [animation] 9 . SMK Sultan Ismail 5. the results obtained are as follows: Small angle of incidence.2 1. 2. c. a new effect is seen. the angle of refraction in the air increases.e.CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] Physics Dept. When the angle of incidence is greater than c no refracted ray is obtained. making an angle. (i. Critical Angle and Total Internal Reflection When the angle of incidence in the glass is increased. A weak reflected ray is obtained. when the ____________________ in the optically denser medium exceeds a ________________________. called the critical angle. As the angle of incidence in the glass is increased. This is explained the total internal reflection phenomenon. the refracted ray OG is 900. 200.

This is known as ____________________ ____________________________ Total Internal Reflection only happened under following conditions: (a) __________________________________________________________________ (b) __________________________________________________________________ 2. Relation between critical angle to the refractive index is given as followed.80 41.CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] 1.50 2.33 1.80 24.42 Critical angle. 4. SMK Sultan Ismail A critical angel. n= 1 sin c 5. c 48. c is defined ______________________________________________. n 1. Material Water Glass Diamonds Refractive index.40 10 . all light rays will be totally reflected back and no light rays will be refracted out. Physics Dept. Table below shows the various values of critical angles for different materials. When incident angel is beyond the critical angle.

c of the medium? Solution: Example 2 : (a) A glass block has a refractive index of 1. Solution: 11 . SMK Sultan Ismail θ The figure above shows that total internal reflection is just about to occur when light ray is incident from an optically denser medium to air. Calculate the critical angle. Determine the refractive index of water. 68 0 48 0 64 0 Determine the refractive index of the glass. If the refractive index of the medium is 2.CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] Solving problems involving critical angle and refractive index. (b) The critical angle for water is 490. what is the critical angle. c for the glass. Example 1: air optically denser medium Physics Dept.52.31. Solution: Example 3: The figure shows a light ray travelling from air into a glass prism.

Complete the path of the light ray.CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] Physics Dept. The above figure shows the path of a ray of light in a glass slab. The critical angle for glass is given by 420. What is the refractive index of the glass? 12 . (a) (b) (c) (d) (f) (e) 2. A light ray strikes on the following glass prisms. SMK Sultan Ismail Exercises 1.

Light ray from the sky _______________ from the normal. part of the water surface acts as a perfect mirror. 2. In hot days. 4.CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] Natural Phenomena Involving Total Internal Reflection Mirage Physics Dept. 2. 3. The layers higher up are cooler and ______________. 13 . Fish’s Eye View 1. This is known as a ________________. which allows the fish to see objects in the water and the objects around obstacles. __________________ occurs and the light is reflected ______________ If the observer’s eye is in the correct position. The layers of air near the ground are hotter and ______________. The angle of incidence increases until it reaches an angle ______________ than the critical angle. a person travelling in a car will see an imaginary pool of water appearing on the surface of the road. he will see a pool of water (image of the sky) appearing on the road surface. Due to total internal reflection. A mirage can also be observed during sunset. A fish is able to see an object above the water surface because the rays of light from the object are refracted to the eyes of the fish. 5. SMK Sultan Ismail 1.

Since the angle of incidence for ray OA is 450 and it exceeds the critical angle of 420. QR. 14 . 2. C and D. 4. draw the arrangement of the two prisms and compete the path of the light ray from the object to the observer’s eye) The light ray from the object does not experience refraction from the surface PQ.CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] Applications of Total Internal Reflection Prism Periscope Physics Dept. Diagram 1 A periscope is made up of two prisms which are placed as shown above. (In diagram 1. Light rays will be totally reflected internally in a pair of binoculars. 3. ST and TV because the ray passes through the normal. Binoculars Draw the arrangement of the two prisms and compete the path of the light ray from the object to the observer’s eye 1. SMK Sultan Ismail 1. The image that is seen through a prism periscope is clear than a mirror periscope because all of the light is reflected. A pair of binocular uses two prisms which are arranged as shown above. 5. The same situation also occurs at the points B. thus there is an occurrence of total internal reflection at point A. 2.

Optical fibre is widely use in telecommunication cables. SMK Sultan Ismail 1. Types of lenses: (a) _________________ lens. It consists of a tubular rod which is made from glass and other transparent material. Understanding Lenses Lenses are made of _____________ material such as glass or clear plastics. of which at least one is ________________. 2.CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] Fibre Optics Physics Dept. 4. also known as diverging lens. 6. 3. It is ____________ at the centre of the lens. It can transmit signal faster and through long distance with high fidelity. 5. The external wall of a fibre optic is less dense than the internal wall. When light rays travel from a denser internal wall to a less dense external wall at an angle that exceeds the critical angle. This will continue occurring until the light rays enter the observer’s eyes. Biconcave Plano-concave Concavo-concave 15 . 5. also known as converging lens. total internal reflection occurs.4 1. Fibre optics in endoscopes can be used to predict the state of an organ inside a human body. It is ____________ at the centre of the lens. They have two faces. Biconvex (b) Plano-convex Concavo-convex _______________ lens. 2.

When light rays are parallel to the principal axis fall on a concave lens. The power of lens is related to its focal length by the expression: POWER OF LENS. When light rays which are parallel and close to the principal axis strikes on a convex lens. The focal point. and power for concave lens is ___________ 16 . 4. f is the distance between the _____________and the _____________. F is a point on the principal axis where all rays are close and parallel to the axis that _________________ to it after passing through a________________. 6. F on the principal axis.CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] Focal Point and Focal Length of a Lens Physics Dept. F. C is the geometric centre of the lens. they are refracted ______________ and converge to a point. The focal length. The principal axis is the line passing through C and is __________________ to the lens. The optical centre. 3. It is the point through which light rays pass through without deviation. This point is a _____________ of the convex lens. 8. SMK Sultan Ismail 1. The focal length f is measured in meter. 9. they are refracted _________________ and appear to ______________ from the focal point. or appear to _____________ from it after passing through a concave lens. 7. P = 2. on the principal axis. 5. The unit is measured in ____________ Power for convex lens is ____________.

u. The images formed by a convex lens depend on the object distance. 1 3 2 The point of intersection is the position of the image. Rule 3 A ray passing through the optical centre.CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] Example 1 The focal length of a concave lens is given as 30 cm. 17 . SMK Sultan Ismail Example 2 The power of a lens is labeled as -10D. F Rule 2 A ray passing through the focal point is refracted parallel to the principal axis. C travels straight without bending. What is the power of the lens? Physics Dept. Images Formed by Lenses Construction rules for image formed by Convex Lens Rule 1 A ray parallel to the principal axis is refracted through the focal point. Name the type of the lens and determine the focal length of the lens.

SMK Sultan Ismail Rule 1 A ray parallel to the principal axis is refracted as if it appears coming from the focal point. The images formed by a concave lens are always virtual. A VIRTUAL IMAGE CANNOT BE CAPTURED ON A SCREEN. Object [1] F f Image Location [2] F The point of intersection is the position of the image. v) At infinity ∞) (u= 2F F F 2F 18 . *A REAL IMAGE CAN BE CAPTURED ON A SCREEN. Characteristic of image formed by a convex lens Position of object (Object distance. upright and diminished. F which is located at the same side of the incident ray. C travels straight without bending. u) Ray diagram Position and nature of image formed (Image distance.CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] Construction rules for image formed by Convex Lens Physics Dept. Rule 2 A ray passing through the optical centre.

SMK Sultan Ismail Objec Beyond 2f. u > 2f 2F F F 2F At 2f.CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] Physics Dept. u = 2f 2F F F 2F Between f and 2f. < u < 2f f 2F F F 2F 19 .

u = f 2F F F 2F Between f and optical centre. SMK Sultan Ismail At f. u<f 2F F F 2F Characteristic of image formed by a concave lens Ray diagram Characteristics of image 2F F F 2F 20 .CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] Physics Dept.

21 . (b) at 5 cm From a convex lens of focal length 10 cm. To use the equation.CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] Magnification. SMK Sultan Ismail The image is magnified if m > 1 The image is diminished if m < 1 Lens Formula 1. The image formed has a height of 2 cm. Determine the position of the image. take note of the following: Convex lens Object distance. f Example 1 An object of height 3 cm is placed (a) at 30 cm. Example 2 An object is placed at a distance of 30 cm from a concave lens of focal length 15 cm. Determine the position and size of the image in each case. v Focal length. The relationship between object distance. the linear magnification. f is given by the lens formula: 2. u image distance. m is defined as: Physics Dept. u Concave lens Image distance. and the height of the object. v and focal length. m The size of an image formed by lens varies with the position of the object. The linear magnification.

4. f is 1 v given as f = 1 q Figure 2 22 . SMK Sultan Ismail Example 3 A light bulb is placed to the left of a lens of focal length 20 cm. The image formed is enlarged 5 times and it is to the right of the lens. Therefore.CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] Physics Dept. The equation of the line is u = q. v and f. Focal length. What is the objects distance? 3. f can be determined by using v = u and substituting into the formula 1 u 1 u f= + + 1 v 1 v 1 f 1 = f = u 2 Figure 1 The graph in figure 2 shows the relationship between given as 1 v 1 u and + 1 . The graph in figure 1 shows the relationship between u. focal length. The lens equation can be used to determine the position of the image and the linear magnification.

A sharper and larger image is seen at the near point of the eye. In general.CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] Physics Dept. 3. 2. Compound Microscope 23 . 5. An object is placed at a position _____________ the focal length of the lens. The image formed is _________________________________________________ The magnifying power ______________ if the focal length of the lens is shorter. 4. the near point is taken as 25 cm. SMK Sultan Ismail The Use of Lenses in Optical Devices Magnifying Glass F F 1. It consists of a single ___________ lens of ___________ focal length.

2. The position of the eyepiece lens is adjusted until the position of the first image is __________________ from the eyepiece lens. 5. 8. 9. such as planets and stars. fo > fe. 2. fe. 3. M = mo x me Mo is the magnification produced by the objective lens and me is the magnification produced by the eyepiece. Magnification. The eyepiece is __________ is high has a __________focal length. Astronomical Telescope 1. The objective lens has a ______________as it has a ______________ focal length compared to the eyepiece. 5. 6. The final image formed is __________________________ The total distance between the objective lens and the eyepiece is greater than ( fo + fe ). Therefore. An astronomical telescope is an optical instrument that is used to view objects at a great distance.CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] 1. The lens nearer the eye is called the ________________. fo. SMK Sultan Ismail A compound microscope is an optical instrument used to view very small objects. It consists of two powerful _______________ lenses of short focal lengths. Physics Dept. It consists of an ________________ and an ___________________. with focal length. An object is placed at a distance between ___________________. with focal length. 3. The first imaged formed by the objectives lens is __________________________. fo. 24 . (a) (b) The lens nearer the objects is called the ____________. 4. The objective lens whose power is __________ has a __________ focal length. 4. The distance between the objective lens and the eyepiece is ______________ The objective lens is used to receive light rays from distant object. 7. fe where fo < fe.

For normal adjustment of the telescope. 9. The telescope is said to be in normal adjustment. The magnification of the telescope is given by: M = fo fe -END- 25 .CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] 6. 7. The first image formed is at the focal point of the objective lens Fo. 8. Physics Dept. the separation between the two lenses is fo + fe. It is ____________________________________________ The first image now becomes the _______________ for the eyepiece lens. SMK Sultan Ismail The eyepiece lens is adjusted so that the first image is situated at the focal point of the eyepiece lens. Fe. 11. 10. The final image formed is at __________________.

CHAPTER 5 [LIGHT] Physics Dept. SMK Sultan Ismail 26 .