ELECTROTECHNICS

TRANSPORT AND DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY

INVESTIGATION ON FAULTS IN A TRANSMISSION NETWORK

Kougang Guy Rostand

201

Uba

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I.
I. 1. a. b. 2. 3. a. b. c. . '. II.

Table of Contents

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................2 Common fault’s definitions ..................................................................................................................................2 Voltage dips (sags) and interruption ................................................................................................................3 Voltage dips: .................................................................................................................................................3 Voltage interruption: ....................................................................................................................................3 Harmonics ......................................................................................................................................................... !"er "oltage ..................................................................................................................................................... #emporal o"er "oltage.................................................................................................................................. $an due o"er"oltage.................................................................................................................................... %tmosp&eric o"er"oltage ............................................................................................................................. Voltage "ariation ..............................................................................................................................................' (nbalanced Voltage set ....................................................................................................................................' )eneral in"estigation on t&e transmission line faults* effects* causes and solutions ..........................................'

Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................................................+ ,eferences ....................................................................................................................................................................+

Introduction
All power system components are liable to faults involving anomalous current flow and insulation breakdown between conductors or between conductors and earth. The insulation material may vary from air, in the case of a transmission line, to oil, SF6 or a vacuum, in the case of switchgear. In this work we present an overview of a power transmission network faults, their origin and their solutions.

I.

Common fault’s definitions

Electromagnetic perturbation that can disturb the transmission line equipment’s and industrial processes are generally ranged as conducted or radiated, the most present are the following: voltage dips and interruption, harmonics, overvoltage, overvoltage, voltage fluctuation, unbalanced voltage, These faults can be grouped into four categories whether they affects the amplitude, frequency, wave form and symmetry but this is not the purpose of this work.

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1. Voltage dips (sags) and interruption
a. Voltage dips:
Iit is a sudden drop of the voltage to a value between 10% and 90% of the reference (nominal) value during half of the network fundamental period. The voltage dip is therefore detected by permanent measuring the rms voltage during each half fundamental period.

b. Voltage interruption:
Iit is a particular voltage drop greater than 90% of the reference voltage. These voltage drops can be qualified depending on the duration of the drop: -Instantaneous: T/2 < DT <30T -Momentary: 30T< DT <3s -Temporary: 3s< DT <1min; -Sustained interruption: DT >1min, Where T is the network fundamental period; DT is the fault duration. The voltage drop can be attributed to the network faults or to the variation of heavy network load. For example an overcurrent over the network causes a voltage across the line impedance.

-Voltage drop due to transmission line faults: The protection devices (circuit breakers fuse) can isolate the faulty part of the network. Even though the main source is isolated, the rest of the network can maintain a residual voltage provided by synchronous or asynchronous motors decelerating (0.3-1s) or by capacitor bank connected onto the network.

-Voltage drop due to heavy load variation: The commutation of heavy duty loads (asynchronous motors, electrical furnace …) can draw up to the line protection device short circuit courant therefore causing their temporal functioning (interruption) or line voltage drop due to the existence of line impedance.

Brief interruption of line voltage can be due to transformer tap changing or commutation, line commutation, engaging protection device.

Figure 1: Example of voltage sag curve Page 3 of 9

2. Harmonics
Harmonics are the current components having frequency multiple of the network reference frequency.They are due to the existence of nonlinear load into the network specially electronic devices (rectifiers, gradators, inverters, speed aviators, fluorescent tubes, welding arc ...). These harmonic components disturb the proper functioning of electronic devices and automatic systems.

3. Over voltage
An over voltage is considered when a voltage applied to an equipment which nominal voltage is less than the value applied (figure 3). An over voltage can be temporally, man due or atmospheric due.

a. Temporal over voltage
Having the network common frequency, they have multiple origins. -isolation fault: When a fault of isolation between the ground and a phase occurs on network, the healthy voltage phases are multiplied by 31/2. -Ferro resonance: due to the presence of inductance and saturate capacitor in the network (figure 2). -neutral conductor breakage: the lesser loaded phase voltage increases. -faulty regulation of a generator or transformer tap, -over compensation of reactive power due to the relative shunt capacitor bank.

b. Man due overvoltage
It is due to the quick variation of the network (engaging protective devices), the overvoltage can be due to: -load commutation, -apparition and clearing of induced courants, -capacitive circuit drill,

c. Atmospheric overvoltage
It is due to the lighting wave conducted by a line causing the line overvoltage and increase of the ground potential (figure 2).

Figure 2: Earth connection of surge arrester, transformer core, neutral point and lightning

wave to ground transmission

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Figure 3: Example of an .

overvoltage curve

4. Voltage variation
The rms voltage variation being less than 10% are due to load variation slowly and the use of particular industrial loads as welding arc, furnace.

5. Unbalanced Voltage set
It is when the voltages are not regularly displayed 120°, it can be due to unbalance loading or one phase to ground fault.

II.

General investigation on the transmission line faults, effects, causes and solutions

N° 1

Fault Under voltage

Effects -equipment supplied, -equipment damage,

Possible causes

solutions

under -fault on the network (over -power cut of second level priory current, short circuit …), -heavy load commutation consumers, -clearing the network fault, -use of under voltage relay

2

Over voltage

-isolator/dielectric damage, -equipment damage (fire),

-lightning,

-Use of surge arrester, lightning

-bad man working operation conductor or rod (figure 9) (from supply station, from -avoid operations that can affect the transformer tap changing line voltage, consign some power

-single phase current short equipment (transformers tap changers, circuit in a 3 phase line capacitor bank, line/load

connection/disconnection), -use of power line circuit breaker, 3 Over current/load -over heating of cables -increase and transformers, - drop of line voltage, -increase work Page 5 of 9 of generator of the energy -use of circuit breaker and maximum current/heat relays (figure 5),

consumption,

4

Short circuit

. Between phases -line overheating, -fire in the faulty area,

-insulators damage due to -use of maximum current relay (open pollution, overheating, age network) to limit the line overheating or chemical and instability, distance -use of differential or directional relay (ring network)

-network transient state -insulation occurs, reduction (figure 6),

-isolation of the faulty -external source of damage line (shovel, pickaxe shock), -overvoltage damaging the insulator,

. between phase and Same as for phase to phase -impedant neutral point earthling, ground -earth potential increase, -earth circuits shock, -healthy overvoltage, -cable overheating 5 Over heating -melting equipment of power -over current, -high room temperature -use of temperature control panel, -use of heat dissipater or fan, -use of naked cable, -use of oiled or air cooling phase short circuits -use of ground current relay (figure 7),

transformer, 6 Over vibration -mechanical damage -presence components, -over current 7 Unbalanced -presence of within residual -use of unbalanced load the -balance the load in the 3 phase set of harmonic -use of low pass filter, -use of maximum current relay

(breakage), instability

voltage in a 3 current phase system

transformers,

8

instability

Network instability

supply Load and source variation

-good design, use of capacitor banks

9

Network coupling error

-generator damage,

mechanical Coupling takes place with -previous measurements should be no compatible voltage hour done and use of index proper device networks locking

-other short circuit effects

10

Inversion of -overloading of standby -the power provider network -use of current direction relay or the flow direction power generators, -unbalance of energy, -selectivity perturbation, voltage drop, the consumers active power direction relay (figure 4) standby generator feed the network,

-an alternator can drive a -quick reengaging of the line Page 6 of 9

turbine

switches, the network motor provide a transient voltage to the network, -an alternator starts working as a motor

11

Voltage variation

-reduction torque, -increase losses of

of

motor -voltage

drop

due

to -supervision of voltage regulators, of second level priority

overload, transformer miss -relief magnetic tap changing or regulator, -over voltage causing a mis tap changing or regulation

consumers,

12

-presence ground current one working

of -synchronous redemption,

machine -a phase is broken,

Use of three phase measuring current

-presence of a one phase transformer and ground current relay heavy consumer

and -unbalance set of phases phase

13

Frequency variation

-bad

behaving

of -presence standby

of sources

abundant -power cutting of second level priory on an consumers and heavy asynchronous motors networks using a

synchronous process, -change losses, -need networks of in

magnetic overloaded network,

- absence of synchronization -uncoupling

recoupling control of the alternator on frequency relay (figure 8), the network during rapid line switching, -power cut of heavy

asynchronous motor loads, -bad speed alternator functioning control of of the an

Figure 4: Typical ring system use of directional relay Note: Arrows represent current flow direction upon which relays will act. A, B, C, etc, are circuit breakers operated by associated relay. 1, 2, 3, etc bus bar identification

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Figure 5: Typical relay controlled circuit breaker system.

Figure 6: isolation distance

Figure 7: Busbar relays protection using relays protections using relays

Figure 8: line departure

Figure 9: Example of surge arester protected system

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Conclusion
Protection devices detect, locate and initiate the removal of the faulted equipment from the power network in the minimum desirable time. Switchgear, cables, transformers, overhead lines and other electrical equipment require protection devices in order to safeguard them during fault conditions. In addition, the rapid clearance of faults prevents touch and step potentials on equipment from reaching levels which could endanger life. For better design of a network protection, a better understanding of possible faults that can occur is necessary. We have presented every transmission network faults with their effects, causes and solutions. We should mention that the function of protection is not to prevent the fault itself but to take immediate action upon fault recognition. Protection schemes are designed on the basis of: safety, reliability and selectivity.

References
1-Schneider Electric: ‘Guide de conception des réseaux électriques industriels’, 6 883 427/A, 2010 2- Pierre Roccia : ‘Protection des machines et des réseaux industriels haute tension’, cahier technique 113, Merlin Gerin, 1985 3- Colin Bayliss- Brian Hardy :’Transmission and distribution electrical engineering’,third edition, Elsevier, pages 269-498, 2007 4- R. Calvas: ‘ les perturbations électriques en BT’, cahier technique 141, Schneider Electric, 1999, 5- D. Fulchiron : ‘surtensions et coordination de l'isolement’, cahier technique 151, Schneider Electrique, 1992 6- Guy R. Kougang : ‘Etude de la densification du réseau de distribution électrique autour de la centrale hydroélectrique de Memve’ele’, chap. 3, Projet Memve’ele, UYI, 2012

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