Data Migration from various Legacy Systems to SAP R/3 By Geoffrey Warriss MSc in Information Systems 1999/2000

The candidate confirms that the work submitted is his/ her own and the appropriate credit has been given where reference has been made to the work of others


The MSc project is being undertaken, within a live implementation of the leading ERP software SAP R/3 at AETC Ltd. The project is defined as 'Data Migration from various Legacy systems to SAP R/3'.

The aim of the project, is to identify the data migration techniques in SAP R/3 as well as the accompanying legacy systems at AETC Ltd, and analyse these and the methods used in implementation. The following list of objectives has been generally defined to facilitate the achievement of the project;

1. To undertake a comprehensive study of the SAP R/3 system (a review). 2. To study the current Legacy Systems from which AETC Ltd are extracting data. 3. To examine the issues of Data Transfer from manual to automatic. 4. To evaluate the current process of Data Migration within the SAP R/3 system. 5. To draw conclusions on Data Transfer/ Migration from Legacy systems to SAP R/3.

The report is divided into Six Chapters with the addition of various Appendices to support the material within the sections, as well as providing a comprehensive reference list.

Chapter 2 satisfies the first objective and provides an overview of the SAP R/3 system. It identifies what SAP is, what it offers, the structure, functionalities, architecture and the methodologies used.

Chapter 3 identifies the legacy systems in use at AETC Ltd, and what if any characteristics they provide for effective migration to the SAP R/3 system. This chapter fulfils the second objective.

Chapters 4 and 5 outline the process of data transfer and migration within SAP R/3. They identify the issues involved, with migrating data from legacy systems and the methods adopted. Chapter 4 investigates the various transfer techniques that are available within SAP, looking primarily at the Legacy System Migration Workbench tool and its associated interfaces. These complete the third and fourth objectives.

The final Chapter draws together relevant conclusions from the previous chapters, and highlights the overall issues that need to be identified when data migrating.


Acknowledgements There are a multitude of people that I need to thank for their assistance and advice that they have afforded me, throughout both this project and the course.

I must in the first instance express my gratitude to everyone on the AETC SAP Implementation Team, who were extremely helpful and cooperative in providing support, advice and the necessary information, that has allowed me to complete this report. In particular, I would like to thank Peter Cawtheray for sharing with me his comprehensive knowledge and for his supervision. A special thanks also go to Richard Breen, once again for his in depth knowledge and generosity in providing help and answers to my constant questions and Andrew Norvell for his depth and talents of ABAP and the use of his increasingly expensive time.

In addition I would like to express my gratitude to Patrick McIlroy for identifying a possible project at AETC Ltd. Simon Keay (SAP UK), SAP LSM and the Simplification Group who have been extremely helpful in providing information. Vasco Madeira a man who has incredible focus and self-management. Chris Dove for his incessant wit and professionalism. Martin Watmough and Andrew Payne for there helpful direction and broadening knowledge of PP, Neil Webster, Derrick Mkandla, David Holmes, Roger Thornton, Mike Foster, Mick Prest, Iain McClure, and the rest of the SAP Team. Being involved with them all has been a very rewarding privilege.

A sincere thanks must also go to Professor Dyer for his experienced guidance and knowledge to the completion of this report.

I would also like to thank my newfound friends and colleagues from across the globe for being supportive and such genuine people, Kiran, Evangelo, Salvo, Owen, Ferry, Bola, Raj.

These acknowledgements would not have come to fruition without the support, both financially and morally throughout my education, from my parents, Brian and Joan Warriss and to my brothers Simon and Robin, who have provided the much needed motivation, wisdom and knowledge.

Finally I have a debt of gratitude to thank the sport of Cricket, the season starts when you need it the most. The game has allowed me to release all my stress and frustrations unfortunately not enough on the opposing teams.


Applications and Products in Data Processing SAP Graphical User Interface Small & Medium Sized Enterprises.List of Abbreviations Abbreviation ABAP API ASCII ASP ATM BAPI BI BMF BOM CATT CL DI ERP HR IBM IDOC IPCS IPX LSMW MAPICS/ DB MRP NCR NGV PCC PCF ROF RPG SAP SAP GUI SME SNADS SQL SXDA VAR WFMC Meaning Advanced Business Application Programming Application Programming Interface American Standard Code for Information Interchange Application Service Provider Asynchronous Transfer Mode Business Application Programming Interface Batch Input Blade Machining Facility Bill of Material Computer Aided Test Tool Command Language Direct Input Enterprise Resource Planning Human Resources International Business Machines Intermediate Document Integrated PC Server Inter-network Packet Exchange Legacy System Migration Workbench Manufacturing Accounting and Production Information Control System/ Database Material Resource Planning Non Conformance Reporting Nozzle Guide Vane Precision Castparts Corporation Precision Casting Facility Repair and Overhaul Facility Report Program Generator Systems. Systems Network Architecture Distribution Services Structured Query Language Standard Data Transfer – Transaction code Value Adding Reseller Workflow Management Coalition iii .

1999) Table of Characteristics ISO 9126:1991 (ISO/IEC 9126:1991. 1999) ABAP Functions in detail (SAP AG. 1999) Page 4 5 7 19 21 29 30 31 32 32 iv .Fast Track Implementation (Accelerated SAP. 1998) The Family of SAP R/3 Modules (Hernandez. 1999) Flow Chart of Transferring Business Objects (SAP Labs. 1997) ASAP Roadmap . Inc. 2000) Steps in LSM Migration Process (R/3 Simplification Group.List of Figures & Tables Fig No.5B (SAP AG. 2000) ABAP Workbench Screen – Version 4. 1999) The Phases of Data Migration (Hudicka. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Description (Reference) Principal Modules within SAP (Scapens et al. The LSM Workbench Process (R/3 Simplification Group. 2000).

0 Legacy Systems at AETC Ltd ……………………………… 3.3 2.3.3. 2.3 Investment ………………………………………. 2.1 The AS/400 …………………………………………….4.Contents Title Page Page Summary …………………………………………………….1.4 mySAP.. 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 10 10 12 2.5 Other System …………………………………….1 Market Position ………………………………….. 2.1 Standard SAP ……………………………………. v Project Development ……………………………………….4 MAPICS …………………………………………. 2..1.. 2.2 Integration ……………………………………….3 UniPay …………………………………………… 14 3. 3 What is SAP R/3? ……………………………………….4 Advantages ……………………………………….0 Introduction ………………………………………………….0 A Review of SAP R/3 ……………………………………….4.3. 12 3.1. 2.5 2.4.3 Configuration & Customisation ………………… ……………………………………… 2. iv Contents Page ………………………………………………. 2. ii List of Abbreviations ……………………………………….2 Kronos …………………………………………… 13 3. 13 3. 14 3. Opportunities and Weaknesses …………… Functionalities …………………………………………..1.4..4..1 Business Information ……………………………. 1.2 Methodologies …………………………………… 2. Opportunity for Improvement …………………………..5 Application Service Providers …………………… 2. 4 What does SAP R/3 offer? …………………………….1 Modules …………………………………………..1. Summary ………………………………………………..4.3... 2...6 SAP Business Partners …………………………..4 2. i Acknowledgements ………………………………………….. iii List of Figures & Tables ……………………………………..7 Risks.4..1 vii 1 3 – 11 SAP AG ………………………………………………… 3 2. 14 v ..6 3.. 2.. 2.2 2.

...... 4.1..1 Types of SAP Data ……………………………….……………………………. 17 3.. 5... 15 15 15 16 16 3.6 5. 26 Legacy System Migration Workbench ………………….2. 20 21 21 22 22 23 24 4. 18 19 – 27 3. 3.2 Evaluation Characteristics . 27 28 – 36 4.2 4.2.1 Transfer Program Interfaces …………………….1.2 Issues with Data Transfer ……………………….……………...3..……………………………….1.…………………………………….1. 29 30 31 31 32 32 32 5..……………… 5.5 Data Source Structures …………………………. 34 v ..4. 4.3.1 How the LSM Works …………………………….. 5. 4.2 ASAP Methodology …………………………….2 Direct Input (DI) ………….4 Transfer Programs ……………………………………… 17 3. 19 4..5 4.1.1 Open Standards . 20 SAP Data Transfer …………………………………….1 5...5 ABAP Workbench ………………………. 18 Summary ……………………………………………….2 3.……….1 Methodologies …………………………………………..0 Data Transfer ……………………………………………….3 Problems with Data ……………………………… 4.2.5 4.3 Legacy Problems ………………………………………. 32 Computer Aided Test Tool (CATT) ……..………………………………. 26 Summary ……………………………………………….4 Electronic Vs Manual ………………………………….2.. 28 Legacy System Migration Workbench (LSM) ..1 Dulcien Inc .. 5.. 33 Tool Similarities ……………………………………….3 4.2. Architecture of the Legacy Systems …………………….4.3.2 Data Structures …………………………………. 25 4..1 Transfer Methods ………………………………....4 5...4 Data Cleansing & Purging ………………………. 19 4.3 The AS/400 and SAP R/3 ………………………..... Analysing Data ………………………………………….. 3.. 3.2.3 5..0 Data Migration within SAP R/3 …………………………….3....……………...3 Intermediate Documents (IDOC) ……….4..3.2 Import Interfaces .. 4.. 5.4 BAPI …………………………………….3. 5.1.2 Integration ………………………………………. 5.1 Batch Input (BI) …………………………. 4.3..3.3.

. E SAP Data Transfer Matrix. B Objectives & Deliverables. D ASAP Documentation.0 Conclusions . F Business Object Transfer Programs. 36 6.38 References Appendices A Project Experience.………………………………………………… 37 ..5. G ISO 9126: 1991 Software Evaluation H Legacy System Migration Workbench vii .6 5.7 Evaluation Results ……………………………………… 34 Summary ……………………………………………….. C Marking Scheme & Interim Report Header Sheet.

and analyse these and the methods used in implementation. Project Concept. v . as the potential future employment benefits from being involved with a live SAP implementation will be invaluable. a live project involving Data Migration would be appropriate. as it has consequences throughout the whole business system. I have been able to gain a wide breadth of knowledge much quicker from the project due to the structure of the MSc modules I have taken and the content of them. The project objectives were highlighted and a project plan was developed. the desired completion date and fully completed date. Information Systems Engineering and Distributed Information Management. It was decided that to obtain an overall understanding of the implementation and the SAP R/3 system. This was duly accepted. Information Modelling. Project Objectives. The modules that have been very relevant to the project were in the main Business Process Re-engineering. Project Management. the Legacy System Migration Workbench (LSM). generally as follows. The following tables represent the requirements for each objective. Module Appreciation. Title: DATA MIGRATION FROM VARIOUS LEGACY SYSTEMS TO SAP R/3. Initial aim? To identify the data migration techniques in SAP R/3 as well as the accompanying legacy systems at AETC Ltd. As can be seen I have defined a column for the information requirements. Business Information Systems. researching the details of AETC's Legacy systems and the elements involved in data transfer within the SAP R/3 system. The project has entailed being initially trained to use the data migration tool.Project Development.

Info Comp Date Completed Area/ Content What legacy systems are being migrated from? Architecture of legacy systems? Is there a link with the SAP R/3 system? What transfer programmes are available? How do these Programme dumps for data. Architecture of SAP? Methodologies etc? Solutions. 5. Prepare legacy database. etc. 17/08/00 24/08/00 24/08/00 24/08/00 What are the differences between each? Is there a limit to the data they can take? Are there possibilities for improvements? • To draw conclusions on Data Transfer/ Migration from Legacy Systems to SAP R/3. • 04/08/00 08/08/00 08/08/00 10/08/00 To evaluate the current process of Data Migration within the SAP R/3 system. i. Quality of DBMS? What are its pros/ cons. Map legacy data to R/3.OVERALL OBJECTIVES: • To undertake a comprehensive study of the SAP R/3 System (a review). when. Info Comp Date Completed Area/ Content What is SAP? What is its position in Market Place for ERP? What does it offer? Integration with modules etc What are its functionality’s? Portability. • 19/07/00 20/07/00 21/07/00 21/07/00 21/07/00 21/07/00 To examine the issues of Data Transfer from manual to automatic.e. To complete by the 31/08/00 *. Kronos. how and why? Why is it costly when implementing a new system? Data Transfer for business objects: 1. AS400 system. from which AETC are extracting data. Info Comp Date Completed Area/ Content What factors have to be taken into account when migrating data? Data cleansing/ purging: what. Identify fields. 2. interface with other systems? Is the data transfer consistent in the legacy system? Transfer error in data.With reference to AETC Limited. v . Info Study each and test with various Comp Date Completed Area/ Content What migration techniques are available? sets of data. etc. Best Practice? Changes to company practises? Importance of using standard SAP? Identification of possible risks and opportunities for improvement? • 07/07/00 07/07/00 14/07/00 14/07/00 14/07/00 14/07/00 14/07/00 14/07/00 To study the current Legacy Systems*. 3. 4. Analyse legacy data. Transfer data.

ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Task Nam e Draft Interim Report Full time on Project Project Planning Study SAP R/3 System.The tables were used to initiate targets and milestones. The project schedule was defined at the start of same and has been adjusted to accommodate variations as and when they arise. the initial objective provided an all round understanding of the possibilities and allowed the ongoing objectives to be satisfied as appropriate. Initial Project Schedule. 07 Feb '00 S W 20 Mar '00 01 May '00 S T M F T 12 Jun '00 S W 24 Jul '00 S T ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Task Nam e Draft Interim Report Full tim e on Project Project Planning Study SAP R/3 System. inc background reading Evaluating Legacy Systems for data migration Examine issues of Data Transfer Evaluate current process of Data Migration Conclude on Data Migration from Legacy Systems Write up Project Re-Plan.e. a flow process. i. inc background reading Evaluating Legacy Systems for data migration Examine issues of Data Transfer Evaluate current process of Data Migration Conclude on Data Migration from Legacy Systems Write up Project inc Re-writes May June July August 07 14 21 28 04 11 18 25 02 09 16 23 30 06 13 20 The above project schedule was more conducive to working on what is. so that information could be confidently obtained and the objectives could be satisfied successfully. vii . by its application.

They supply such companies as Rolls Royce. To study the current Legacy systems from which AETC Ltd are extracting data. 9. but was very relevant to the Information Systems perspective. highlighting the background to SAP. The aim of the project is to identify the data migration techniques in SAP R/3 as well as the accompanying legacy systems at AETC Ltd. ABB and GEC. To evaluate the current process of Data Migration within the SAP R/3 system. 7. they are listed as follows. The project topic was not a defined internal MSc project. The possibility of undertaking a project with AETC Ltd (an ex employer of the author) was highlighted through management contacts at the company. from a number of legacy systems. as implemented into a live roll out at AETC Limited. The project will focus on the Data Migration to the ERP system. SAP R/3 is to replace the existing legacy systems namely the IBM AS/400. as a pilot for the roll out to its American parent company Precision Castparts Corporation (PCC). 8.1. with components for both Aerospace and Industrial markets. 10. AETC Ltd is an Investment Casting company that specialises in the manufacture of components for the hot section of the Gas Turbine Engine. Chapter 2 is designed to satisfy the first objective and provide an overview of the SAP R/3 system. SAP R/3. Pratt & Whitney. 6. v . as well as providing a comprehensive reference list. and analyse these and the methods used in implementation. which has become a bespoke and inflexible system and therefore has become increasingly expensive to maintain. as well as identifying the technical aspects associated with the system. To draw conclusions on Data Transfer/ Migration from Legacy systems to SAP R/3. To undertake a comprehensive study of the SAP R/3 system (a review). The company at the time of writing is implementing R/3 into its facilities. To initiate the process a number of objectives were defined to facilitate the achievement of the project. To examine the issues of Data Transfer from manual to automatic. The report is divided up into Six Chapters with the addition of various appendices that support the material within each.0 Introduction.

Chapter 4 investigates the various transfer techniques that are used within SAP. Identifying the issues involved with migrating data from legacy systems and the methods adopted. the Legacy System Migration Workbench and its associated interfaces. and highlights the overall issues that need to be identified and addressed when data migrating. v .Chapter 3 is aimed at satisfying the second objective by the identification of the legacy systems in use at AETC Ltd and what if any characteristics they provide for effective migration to the SAP R/3 system. The final Chapter draws together conclusions from the previous chapters. looking primarily at the tool. Chapter 4 and 5 outline the process of data transfer and migration within SAP R/3. as well as the SAP R/3 tools used for data transfer.

Twenty eight years later. R/3 (for Client/ Server computing) and mySAP. these being R/2 (for Mainframe computing).000 employees (SAP AG Annual report.1999. first developed by five former IBM German systems engineers in 1972.2. 7 of the top 10 with 1999 revenues of ∈5. 6 of the top 10 use SAP. SAP AG is a worldwide company based in Walldorf.11bn and almost 23. 2. SAP is an Integrated Business system that has evolved from an original concept. This chapter introduces SAP R/3 by describing the structure and functionalities of SAP and in addition. v .1 Market Position. All three are integrated systems with the latter two being e-business enabled via the Internet. The boom continued by 1999 it held 32% of the ERP market (Tapsell. www. SAP AG was the largest listing in terms of market capitalisation on the New York stock exchange at $70billion. SAP™ stands for Systems. 7 of the most profitable use SAP. 1999).1 SAP AG. Computer and Petroleum companies use the company has developed into the industry leader and fourth largest independent software company. 6 of the top 10 Chemical companies use SAP.0 A Review of SAP R/3. the architecture and methodologies that SAP follow in implementation. that integrate the processes within enterprises and among business communities. 9 of the top 10 with the highest market value use SAP. 2. Applications and Products in Data Processing.1. 8 of the top 10 Electronic and Food manufactures use SAP. 1999). providing enterprise wide solutions. The company has pioneered the development of ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) software systems in the client/ server market. the following lists these ( SAP AG has developed three very distinctive and powerful software products in the ERP market. Germany. SAP holds a superior standing with the Fortune 500 companies.

com. The required data is keyed in or inputted automatically from peripheral equipment. pay and hire human resources. 1998) vii . Human Resources: This involves the full set of capabilities required to manage. It comprises a set of business modules that are designed from industry 'Best Practice' techniques. a bar-code scanner. sales order management. Fig 1. referred to as modules.3 What does SAP R/3 offer? SAP is now targeting small to medium sized companies in order to expand their markets and knowledge. 2. The software is built to operate in the client/ server market.3. 2. depending on the circumstances (www. 2000). and is transacted in the background. including materials management. production planning & control and Project Management.1 Modules. Controlling Assets management and a Project System. Sales & Distribution: This function provides customer relationship management. quality management. plant maintenance. SAP uses relational tables and adopts transactional processing to present information to the user (Blain et al. SAP R/3 provides a complete set of integrated applications. 1997). They include the following: Finance and Accounting: This includes Financial Accounting. it's not just the large multinationals that can afford to implement SAP. shipping and transportation management. within the database server via the application server (if a 3-Tier architecture is utilised). It is then presented in the SAP user interface for its required use. which is where the business logic can be held either on the server or partly on the client. distribution.2 What is SAP R/3? SAP R/3 is an integrated Enterprise Resource Planning system. schedule. These are developed around industry best practice by SAP and cover most business functions. Principal Modules within SAP (Scapens et al. configuration management. i.e. Manufacturing & Logistics: This is the most complex function and comprises the largest set of modules.This demonstrates the extent of the SAP software and customer spread across industries worldwide.

Fig 2. although it is also applied within the service and sales sectors. vii . The global take up of the system and as a result SAP's market leadership. means that each module can access other business modules (depending on the information structure of the database tables) and provide real-time information on any aspect of the enterprise. Hierarchical) is said to be better suited to SAP R/3 due to the structure of the software itself (Scapens et al. Bancroft et al (1998) argue that there is no other comparable product available in the market place.3. appears to satisfy this observation. i. A company that has a top down structure (i. the R/3 system is client/ server based with the integrated modules residing on the of R/3 database. 1998). The Family of SAP R/3 Modules (Hernandez.e. so as to reduce the possible consequences in other modules (as data is integrated and used elsewhere in the system). A fully integrated system.The array of R/3 products are shown in the SAP matrix as follows. As a result SAP has stated that companies should re-engineer their business wherever needed. The figure represents how the R/3 system is structured. SAP R/3 is most effective when it is applied within a manufacturing environment.2 Integration. that satisfies the company wide set of totally integrated solutions as well as R/3.e. 1997) 2. Scapens et al (1998) reiterates this by recognising that most SAP implementations are accompanied by business process re-engineering.

very expensive. explains that SAP manages to produce many positive benefits. which it does brilliantly (Durban. The legacy system concept and implications will be discussed in the next chapter. 1999). 2000). still has to be adapted to the particular needs of the business. They identified that prior to the implementation of SAP they estimated they had 200 legacy systems across 80 sites. in reality. 2.2. These have been targeted at the SME market (Manufacturing Computer Solutions. vii . Once SAP R/3 is installed there are many elements within the package that can be 'turned on' to improve productivity and automate many processes. SAP R/3. With most companies there needs to be a major development phase involving not only configuration and re-engineering.4 Advantages. future SAP releases will require modification and SAP’s expensive involvement. Although customisation is in theory not an advisable road to take. There are however SAP R/3 versions called Industry Solutions that come pre-configured and customised. such as ‘Workflow’. This will be discussed in the next chapter. The major benefit of implementing SAP R/3 is the reduction in overall costs that are generated from not having to maintain the separate legacy systems. a different set of issues are created.3 Configuration & Customisation. although designed around industry best practice solutions. Bancroft (1998) and Macmillan (1998/99) support this view. through the design of the system of transaction processing. Once SAP was introduced the legacy systems were reduced to less than 10 and the year on year cost benefits were considerable (Lienert.3. as there is a possibility of ‘hot patches’ and updates to SAP not functioning on the customised system. e. By modifying the standard software package into a ‘bespoke’ system. 1998). 1996). (Scapens et al. after they have configured each module to its full capabilities. Giles Farrow who is Reporting Systems Manager at Guinness Ltd.3. There is a risk that customisation can become problematical and due to the expertise required.g. but customisation of the generic package. One of the most quoted examples of legacy system numbers is that of Owens-Corning Fiberglass corporation in Ohio (they were one of the original SAP customers in America). a company may have to undertake some customisation.

Test and configure. Because SAP does not customise a system to a client’s needs. end user training and fine tuning. crossfunctional communication and a supportive organisational structure. 5. from both reading and active involvement in actual in site system preparation. which takes advantage of the Internet as a communication tool. 1998). Realisation . Project Preparation . which are self-explanatory. Final Preparation . Fig 3. To gain the necessary benefits from R/3 and the support of SAP.Move from pre-live to a live operation. SAP is continuously updating their modules in order to become more flexible in operation and more user friendly. ensuring corporate wide consistency of information (Lienert.2.Implement business process requirements from Blueprint. Business Blueprint . It is very apparent to the author.4. 2. that the implementation of SAP R/3 requires superior skills in managing the process and the ongoing business.System A result of this is mySAP.Detailed documentation of results from project preparation & refine goals. It details all the elements within an implementation and is defined on a ‘roadmap’.Fast Track Implementation (Accelerated SAP. including end user support. 4.1 Standard SAP. 2. Go Live & Support . The system being a standard package also requires high quality. ASAP Roadmap . keeping as close to the standard package as possible is very important. Implement system. Phases of ASAP. The roadmap is split into five sections and is shown below (more detail in Appendix D). 1996). Includes development of data migration steps. 1. 2.2 Methodologies. AETC are using SAP’s Accelerated SAP methodology which is a process-oriented (rather than a task-oriented) approach to implementation. vii . 3.Initial planning and scoping of project objectives.4. it forces business processes to be tightly integrated across applications and across departments.4 Opportunities for Improvement.

4.4. The package itself comes with many software development tools. SAP invests a great deal into systems development. The LSM is an addition to R/3 that allows the conversion and transfer of legacy data from the legacy systems.2. SAP provide resources for a total implementation.5 Application Service Providers. they are developing the e-business solution for companies as well as improving certain modules and incorporating extra functionality. 2. which is used in Geraldine McBride who is SAP New Zealand MD states that the aim is to give companies predictive knowledge to make future decisions (Tapsell. 1999). however BT has been providing a service for certain modules within SAP R/3 for two years. a new phenomenon that is being born with the is an issue that would be an interesting area for future projects.4 This has placed SAP in the position they are in today and the position they will surely maintain in the future.400 software developers (www. update or deletion of any data or programme. With the launch of mySAP. 2000). SAP has launched their very own ASP called SAP Hosting in February of this year (www.4. 2. However this route tends to be an vii . Macmillan (1998/99) claims that most companies feel a fully adopted enterprise wide solution is far cheaper than the development and maintenance of a bespoke (legacy) system. the Legacy System Migration Workbench (LSM) and other integrated SAP Business Partners. it is said that this isolates the users from technology changes (Ranger.3 Investment. The strategy is to embed and improve new concepts such as Knowledge Management and Customer Relationship Management. 2. 2000).4. This. The R/3 data dictionary stores every modification. making the whole process of migration far more efficient and Giga Information Group states that companies should not use ASP's for ERP's. It seems that in the new millennium companies are out-sourcing their complete IT infrastructure to ASP (Application Service Providers). including the ABAP/4 Development Workbench. As these virtual businesses operate and maintain an organisations applications. SAP employs 5. however. SAP's growth has come through a partnership between various companies within varying sectors of business.

Bancroft et al (1998) argue that this is not the case as there have been no recent developments in this technology and therefore no other comparable integrated system. complexity and corporate strategy. In the authors view implementing SAP R/3 is very complex. Risks Bancroft et al (1998) states four possible risks with SAP R/3. the Integration of new technologies. vii . involving very detailed work plans and schedules to assure a smooth and well executed cross over. The final partnership provides the addition of upgrades to the SAP software. database and operating systems. the many changes and configurations are almost always undertaken successfully. Bancroft et al (1998) states that the sheer scale of an implementation can overwhelm a SAP implementation team. SAP in all probability will not fit easily into a company’s corporate strategy and culture. SAP is a standalone system that is based on 1980’s client/server technology. it is handled through a VAR (Value Adding Reseller).4. Initially once a SAP product is chosen. It requires fundamental changes in technology. business processes. Because of this there has been an alleged slow take-up. SAP R/3 solutions are designed around American best practices and can therefore be difficult to implement worldwide. these are based around technology. flexibility. Opportunities and Weaknesses.7 Risks. as this usually involves a huge change in culture. allowing it to merge efficiently into the companies operations. Due to its flexible integration capabilities.expensive option. The VAR is a SAP certified company that provides all the consultancy needs for the installation of each module (defined by the package the company decides to purchase). 2. as only Oracle seems to be a close competitor. which is significant. This is the main reason why SAP provides a VAR to offer a solid grounding of understanding that is vital if the installation is to be successful. management structures and job functions. The other elements of the implementation partnerships include Platform and Hardware services. when re-engineering your business is part of the implementation. This appears to be the case.

e. is the combination of up to the minute technology with comprehensive business functions. Farrow highlights the fact that extracting meaningful data from SAP R/3 for business decisions is very difficult. as customisation is an expensive option. These advantages can easily outweigh the objections to implementation. MySAP. and is due to R/3’s uniquely constructed tables. i. This is achieved by the integrated relational database. from the integration of business processes and having a reduced number of legacy systems to maintain to the reduction in overall operating costs.6 Summary. above which the system components are independent of the hardware and software environment (SAP AG. SAP R/3 is an integrated modular business process reengineering ERP. this is where SAP gets its tag of ‘Guaranteed Portability’. These are combined in their own level. SAP has many business partners that can support a customer's implementation from start to finish and throughout the life of the software. the outstanding feature of the components. However Giles Farrow (Durban. 1999) admits that its design principles for information management are completely reversed. 2. is the latest ERP software from SAP and is evii . through its Open Architecture structure and Portability. SAP R/3 gains all its functionality.Opportunities There are many opportunities to be gained by implementing SAP. which can be fully configured and customised only if absolutely necessary. the integrated modules and the adaptability in the configuration of them. 1998). SAP is a German company that develops the leading integrated Enterprise Resource Planning software.5 Functionalities. According to the SAP 50 Basis Training Guide. The high level of application integration ensures that all functions can be accessed directly through the system and therefore by the user (SAP AG. 1998). It also enables interfacing through various standard protocols and networks. Weaknesses As mentioned SAP is designed for transaction processing. The Open architecture that SAP adopts also makes it fully compatible with most software and hardware. The only viable option is to obtain the services of an ABAP programmer to customise (previously deemed to be a bad idea) the interfaces and pull the information from the required tables.

business enabled. SAP R/3 has an open architecture where it is platform independent and cross functional in every aspect. vii .

is ever demanding and changing. RPG (Report Program Generator) and can be accessed via IBM’s CL (Command Language). IBM AS/400 server system. i. that allows the company to make accurate decisions. database software and system management tools. There is therefore no need to source these essential components from different vendors. AETC Limited operates their business processes on the industry standard. The market and competition in their field of business. application programs and all other forms of hardware and software that a company may own’ (SES Software Holdings Limited. As a result certain elements of the software components have been developed to suit their particular business and operational needs. it comes complete with operating system. ‘Legacy systems are the information resources currently available to the organisation.0 Legacy Systems. networks. databases. and so requires the business system to either change with it or be able to provide the necessary information. This also includes any paper systems. 1995).000 units every year and has become the first choice for any level of enterprise (Midrange Computing Editors. 3. The software programs are written in the AS/400 language. 1997). vii .000 sold in over 120 countries.g. 2000). The 400 can also run a variety of Java and Windows NT software components. IBM sells on average 50. personal computers. with over 600.3. developed to run on it (Midrange Computing Editors. 1997).000 licensed applications and 3. They include existing mainframes.500 client server applications. AETC’s AS/400 system has been customised over the last 14 years and has consequently become a bespoke system. They initially adopted same because of its tried and tested excellence in hardware and software integration. IBM’s AS/400 is the world’s most popular multi-user business computer.e.1 The AS/400. e. The AS/400 runs on the renowned OS/400 operating system that has more than 28. It's installed in 98 percent of the Fortune 500 companies and is enabled in 49 languages (IBM Corporation. etc. serial terminals. manually indexed systems. operating systems.

but requires manipulation in the payroll system to add value.1.1 Business Information. e. Customers and so on. This allows an organisation to make real-time decisions by managing labour resources proactively and more efficiently (Kronos Incorporated. from Name and Address to Next of Kin and Job Function. Vendors. employees (Kronos Incorporated. which is required for costing). ROF. One is dedicated to the business functions of the company. Operation Routings. The system's base application provides a foundation upon which other integrated modules make up the midrange market's most powerful. The system is specifically written in RPG/ CL so it can operate on the OS/400 platform.Within AETC four AS/400 units are operated. employee time is accounted for against various jobs that are carried out. This uses an API that communicates the exchange of data via the IPX protocol. 2000).2 Kronos. Human Resources information is all aspects involved with employees.1. NGV and PCF) from Manufacturing information. to Human Resources information to Payroll information. The TimeKeeper is an integrated solution for proactively managing your organisation’s most valuable and expensive resource. Manufacturing information includes such things as Part numbers. The main AS/400 server holds all the central AETC business information (for BMF. This added value takes place through transferring the data. A Flat-File (ASCII) is created through an RPG program and transferred by an IBM function called SNADS (Systems Network Architecture Distribution Services). most flexible solution for frontline labour management. AETC uses the Kronos TimeKeeper/ AS system for Time & Attendance. They run particular elements of the business. these are AS/400 compliant software programs. This is the standard communication function used to communicate between AS/400’s. 2000). Materials used. 3. as the data has to be ‘formatted’ so the Unipay system can make use of it. They also have an AS/400 at their Leicester site that runs an ERP system called MAPICS. The data is recorded via Swipe Cards through Terminals. and another is configured to hold their Time and Attendance system from Kronos.g. the information is taken from Kronos and Unipay respectively.e. For HR and Payroll. 3. Work in Progress. but will expand its use for Job Booking (i. Costs. the Payroll system is called UNIPAY from Rebus. vii .

They are stored not on the AS/400 but on Windows NT Servers and are vaulted by file name. 3. but are still critical to the operation of the business. is carried out. There is a Workflow module within SAP that could be used to automate the approvals of purchase requisitions.4 MAPICS.1. but will be utilising it further for its capabilities in Workflow. information or tasks are passed from one participant to another for action. MAPICS/ DB (Manufacturing Accounting and Production Information Control System/ Database) is an ERP software that is capable of operating on the AS/400 and is used at the company’s Leicester Site (NGV). Lotus notes however. 3. The MAPICS system is queried and accessed using CL via the standard AS/400 interface. will be interfaced to SAP. it can then interpret the data and calculate the relevant information for every employee. There are other business systems that are separate from the AS/400. Operational procedures are such systems that are crucial to standard organisational practice. as well as machining of raw castings.1. in whole or part.1. according to a set of procedural rules. 2000). Unipay is also written in RPG and receives data from Kronos via the SNADS function.3 Unipay. and will use workflow for a process called Non Conformance Reporting (NCR). The company also uses Lotus Notes software for email etc. where machining of pre-assembled Nozzle Guide Vanes. therefore the filename is the only key identifier. during which documents.5 Other Systems. The software used for this is called Data Ease (this has now been phased out and has been removed from the system) (Breen. The Workflow Management Coalition (1999) define this as the automation of a business process. vii . The information relating to these systems includes documents such as Standard Practice Instructions or Production Planning Sheets.3.

this sits between the applications and the hardware. e. The biggest problem facing the company with regard to their legacy systems is that they have limited integration between each other (Breen. Ricke (2000) describes the structure of the blueprint as a guide that helps its users choose the technologies and products needed to create a solution. This is defined within IBM’s ‘OPEN’ Blue print. Having a bespoke system that also runs external software like Unipay and Kronos for Payroll and some HR functionality. a possibility of missing data or no data at all in a particular system.3 Architecture of the Legacy Systems.g. 3. The AS/400 system holds the majority of the legacy data. it then has to be replicated into both the Kronos and UniPay systems. vii . 2000). and it is therefore necessary to compare the architecture of the legacy to the SAP R/3 architecture and expose any similarities that may aid in migration. There are a number of problems that have been highlighted with regard to the effectiveness of the current Legacy systems. the traceability & quality audit trails required in the aviation industry. It allows for hardware independence.3. this seems to contradict the IBM philosophy. This can lead to many problems including incorrect input of data. 3. When one considers. The openness of the system is enhanced through a number of features such as TIMI (Technology Independent Machine Interface).1 Open Standards. The main points are that they either do not hold the necessary data for accurate business decisions (i. If a new employee is added to the AS/400 human resources system. means that some data is constantly repeated.2 Legacy Problems. where there are no restrictions. In effect it provides a technology independent base for system design.3.e. then obviously the existing system has its inherent weaknesses. the data is obsolete and inaccurate) or that the information available has to be manipulated to become value adding to the company. The AS/400 uses a unique layered architecture that enhances its integration with other hardware and software.

3. Dawson (1998) identifies a number of similarities and elements that make SAP R/3 and the AS/400 so compatible.3.e.e. which are fully integrated into the system. 1999). Both are accessed using a form of SQL that has been modified to suit the particular language.3 The AS/400 and SAP R/3. It uses an object-orientated architecture to store and retrieve information. vii . The AS/400 is also platform independent due to its range of client communication software (Powers. Open technology). and connection through numerous communications protocols (Powers. which gives it the possibility to operate within Windows. it is designed to run on Windows and Unix servers. Firstly there is the object-oriented nature of the SAP application and its accompanying language which bonds well with the object oriented architecture of the 400 and the RPG language. The objects in the AS/400 are used to store data in Physical files or tables. 2000). The OS/400 runs on 64-Bit RISC processor technology and uses a single level storage system (i. these also add to the AS/400’s high integration factor (IBM Corporation. 2000). Macintosh and OS/2 workstations. i. Unix. such as system management as well as communication and network protocols (TCP/IP. Ethernet respectively). SNA and ATM.2 Integration. as well as many relational databases (SAP R/3. The SAP GUI can operate across the board on Windows.e.3. where an object represents a table (IBM Corporation.3. both memory and disk storage are treated as one virtual address space). Unix. SAP has been developed to be platform independent (i. The AS/400 client/ server capability also allows for platform independence. this is also how SAP is structured and based. The AS/400 has all the functions required. 1999). OS/2 and Macintosh. The AS/400 is the champion of client/ server technology and uses the DB2/400 relational database as its database server for the OS/400 operating system. but still uses the standard syntax. Token Rings. 1999/2000).

Ethernet or ATM network). the AS/400 is fully integrated and SAP is a total environment application (i. The AS/400 has a number of programs that can be used in migrating data. Client Access integrates the AS/400 with the clients and provides a great deal of functionality in connection to obtain business information.1 Transfer Program Interfaces.e. This however is not the only connection that the AS/400 and clients can use to communicate by. printer or to file. 1998). 3. vii . as previously mentioned the AS/400 uses SNADS (as well as TCP/IP . which is also designed for a server environment.4. as it needs the ASCII format to allow the target to recognise the data structure. Database. etc) as stated by Dawson (1998).a SAP standard protocol) to communicate with other AS/400’s. Change Management. applications and resources across the enterprise (Hutt et al. The AS/400 uses a particular transfer program for the PC environment called Client Access.The major similarity involves the functional aspect of each. Editor.4 Transfer Programs. Firstly the AS/400 has a standard Query Report Writer. The standard data transfer operation requires a flat file.2 Data Structure. Programming Language (ABAP/4). through an IPCS (Integrated PC Server) formerly FSIOPS as described by Hirsch (1995) and Ahn et al (1998). The Client Access interfaces through a standard windows GUI and uses the IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) protocol. Windows NT is the choice of platform that runs AETC’s Microsoft products and Lotus Notes software. 3. It would be prudent to investigate the transfer programs available. 3. which uses SQL type commands to access tables and can output to a screen. Data Transfer. This connection works at the network level of the communication (the network level being a Token Ring.4.

Once the transfer file is in the flat file format. 2000). vii .5 Summary. the consistency of transfer is 100%. The data transfer programs used within the current legacy systems is Client Access and is very effective at the job it is required to do. there is very rarely any discrepancies with data once transferred.e. The reason for migration is that the information available has to be manipulated to add value to the function of the business. Legacy systems include bespoke IBM AS/400 applications as well as off the shelf packages that integrate with the AS/400. AETC is migrating from four AS/400 systems. used for different parts of the business. 3. it would only happen if the user had defined the wrong path or had used incorrect SQL commands (Breen. There are certain elements of both the SAP R/3 and AS/400 architectures (i. The openness and integration of the architectures allows for communication and platform independence. that facilitates the migration at the logical level. object oriented structure).

but there are others to note such as Hudicka. Data Mapping is validated and implemented through 'scripts'. Determine procedures and who will perform tasks. There are many issues prior to migration that need to be fully understood and effectively planned. 4. Fig 4. Data Migration is an iterative process. Phases Pre .e.e. As data migration requires major effort from a company’s resources. vii . Identify Logical errors and execute mapping to resolve it. is certainly not the case. The Phases of Data Migration (Hudicka. Hudicka (1999) has the view that people do not fully understand the complexities of data migration when a number of heterogeneous sources are involved. Pilot run of the test data. This is a subset of the last two and Maintenance. where the data model will be complete. when mapping data. i.4.0 Data Transfer. as any change to the data element or ‘Object’ in SAP will change the data model.1 Dulcien Inc. SAP has a standard methodology.Strategy Strategy Pre .Design Design Pre . it is essential to have a sound methodology prior to undertaking a migration project. Clean up is undertaken here & revision of data model. Data Migration is possibly the most significant stage of any new system implementation. 4. i. This is essentially the start of data mapping.Analysis Analysis Pre . it integrates with all stages of project development and includes the following. 1999). The author having first hand experience can understand the implications of the view put forward. which have been put through the test phase.Test Test Implementatio n Revise Maintenance Explanation Determine the scope of the migration – data to be migrated and from what systems. as the perception of being able to move data simply. In most literature read. Hudicka (1999) has outlined a methodology that should be developed in line with the overall phases of the project.1 Methodologies. the view is that migrating data is the most costly and demanding on resources.1. developed from legacy reports and user feedback. after Testing is finalised. In parallel with the core Analysis of the project. Determine whether or not the scope is achievable by examining the actual data. Looks at Logical errors and physical errors – identifies flaws in files.

As defined in the review chapter most SAP implementations follow the SAP standard ‘Accelerated SAP’ implementation programme. The five phases represent different stages in implementation. 4. by identifying the milestones that need to be reached for the whole project. vii .Hudicka identifies the need for a strict methodology. so the consequences of the complexities involved are identified early on. with pre-planning being a major element. The emphasis on methodologies is apparent when comparing the two. who were able to guide them in ascertaining their requirements for migration to SAP R/3. ASAP angles slightly differently (as data migration is an integrated part of R/3). BAPI is a method of data transfer and will be explored further in the next chapter. but in great detail especially with regard to its important role within the project. where any external applications can use the business object (SAP AG. Only in the Realisation (discussed in Chapter 2) stage is data migration explored. similar to Hudickas but not in the same detail. as in most other systems development. data migration is not deemed to be of such importance.1. in understanding the obligation to R/3. He stresses that data migration should be initiated at the first planning stage of a project development. The objects are called up by SAP’s BAPI (Business Application Programming Interface). 1997). AETC Limited have considerable experience of large project development and have been able to obtain outside expertise from the VARs. 4. Hudickas’ highlights the requirement for data migration throughout all phases (but is driven at projects where data migration is overshadowed). this has enabled AETC to plan their implementation effectively from start to finish.2 SAP Data Transfer. SAP uses 'business objects' to describe a business process and could be for example a Purchase Order.2 ASAP Methodology.

to the SAP R/3 database. Inc. • • • • • • • • • Identify the Fields Analyse Legacy Data Map Legacy Data to R/3 Prepare the Legacy data Transfer Data Understand the data to be transferred and required Business Object.SAP follows a standard process for migrating the Business Object. Mapping assigns specific legacy data to SAP fields. the migration is taking place from the legacy systems as defined in chapter two. 1999) The above flow chart provides an overview of the whole process of data migration within SAP. In AETC’s implementation. Hudicka (1999) defines data migration as the collective process of data extraction. Transactional data and Customising Data (Blain. Flow Chart of Transferring Business Objects (SAP Labs. before migration takes place. Determine legacy file structure. SAP uses several types of data that are identified in its data dictionary. Determine the Target file structure.1 Types of SAP data. vii . The data types are identified by their functional purpose. There are several methods that can be used in SAP to transfer data.3 Analysing Data. Fig 5.3. 1997). 4. It defines the conversion process of the data. As highlighted within this chapter there are a number of issues that need to be considered fully and understood. 4. to how the data is formatted for SAP conversion. Cleanse and Purge data before conversion Convert Legacy file to a Flat file (ASCII) format. these being Master Data. Transfer data into R/3 by one of the methods available. from knowing your legacy systems and data. by moving data sets from one or more sources to an additional source. it uses the following flow process. Determine relevant data in legacy system for R/3. transformation and cleansing.

These are not just the common problems faced. transaction data relating to a new purchase order. Secondly there is a need to understand the structures of the data sources involved. this can vary as data can come from heterogeneous data sources that are not necessarily part of the main database systems. inaccurate and duplicated data. A companies database historically can become overrun with obsolete. vii . etc. which involves data that does not conform to system standards. 2000). An example of this at AETC is the data held for a material identification number on the AS/400. the SAP R/3 database. i. Initially those involved in migrating data need to understand firstly what data is to be migrated from the legacy system. would be assigned to the Vendor Master (SAP AG.e. for instance a Material Master. This will provide the persons involved with an understanding of what data is relevant and how the legacy data is to be structured within the SAP system. this kind of data is commonly known as ‘Dirty Data’ (Hudicka. Number and Suffix (Breen.e. Therefore preparatory formatting is essential to get the required information into the correct migration format for SAP. 1999). Transactional Data (Dynamic) is used during data processing and is assigned to certain master data. Material Group Codes.3. This is normally associated with the target system. This is critical business information that is migrated across as a set of SAP Business objects. SAP uses business objects (as its Object Oriented Language) to encapsulate R/3 processes and data.3 Problems with Data.g. The necessary data is displayed within three fields as a Category. 1998). and make them available to the R/3 system (SAP AG. e. Vendor Master. e. 4. Customer Master.g. as SAP displays this in just one field.Master Data (Static) is that which should change infrequently. Customising Data includes system setting data and can control the business process. This is not in an acceptable data format for SAP. 1999).3.2 Issues with Data Transfer. 4. i. It is at this point that the persons involved in migration realise the criticality of the data and the consistency of their database. there is a further classification of problem data.

but AETC did not have a valid material master in its entirety at the PCF (Cawtheray. if a non-recognisable character is contained within the data. which was a very lengthy and expensive process that involved data cleansing of their AS/400 system. Data cleansing is the process of removing dirty data from the legacy database. 1999). depending on the complexities of the cleansing required. The result being the need to create one. data cleansing can be a large percentage of this. vii .There are other issues such as Invalid Characters and Character Combinations (Hudicka. especially with Data Cleansing and Purging.3. AETC has needed to go through a major cleansing and purging program. data migration as a whole is said to take up around 20% of the entire implementation budget (R/3 Simplification Group. Null values are not ideal and SAP uses a standard ‘no data’ value. 2000). the ABAP generated program will place the data within speech marks. There is another step that is known as ‘Data Purging’ and is identified as being the deletion process for obsolete and unwanted data. There are certain conditions that need to be followed. 1997). 1999) are not anticipated and dealt with there is a costly consequence of having invalid data being migrated into the target system. An example of this is text containing commas and single quotes (Breen. If these data violations (Hudicka. the result of which creates a valid and consistent database (including any external paper systems etc).4 Data Cleansing & Purging. as with any database. The majority of data cleansing is focused on correcting the database so that the data is accurate. valid and current (Blain. typically ‘/’ to represent this. This key area will be discussed in the next section. 2000). In SAP during an upload of data. 2000). Cleansing data can require a major effort and be very costly. this can then be edited out. A problem that arose during the analysis stage at AETC identified that SAP required a ‘Material Master’ file as a business object. which may not be supported by the target system. when creating their material master at the PCF. in order to create the required file. 4. This situation identifies the major effort required in data migration. but need to be altered.

3. header and item levels are used to reference the data. SAP R/3 also uses the relational database architecture which is designed around thousands of tables and a number of proprietary mechanisms (Durban. Table Pools A pooled table has data stored in the appropriate table pool. Clustered Table A clustered table has data stored in the appropriate table cluster. vii . Although there is a logical structure. 2000). This allows for faster retrieval of information and greater management of data (IBM Corporation.e. These are commonly known within R/3 as Check Tables (Norvell. i. SAP requires defined links between master data and the underlying tables.4. This gives a sense that the data stored within SAP is highly structured and uses the standard foreign key to emphasise relationships and dependencies between tables. to allow for the transactions to take place. F. i. The lack of a defined link is highlighted with certain 'Master Data’. Transparent Table There is a third category of table called a transparent table that is created in the database. similar to a ‘view’ created within SQL. which are defined within the ABAP Data Dictionary. 2000). several records from different cluster tables can be stored together in one physical record in a cluster table. The AS/400’s DB2/400 uses singlelevel storage. there is no defined common structure to the data with regard to the integration between the AS/400 and SAP R/3 (Breen. data of several tables can be stored together as a table pool in the database. 2000). The SAP database requires far more data than the AS/400 currently holds and this must be in a particular format for SAP to be able to make use of it. where each object (used to handle information) is addressed with a location in storage. The header level defines the top level of a file and the mandatory fields to be used within SAP for controlling the transaction. Codd’s twelve rules as set out by Date (2000). Within the tables. The data source (AS/400) and target system (R/3) are of the relational database design and therefore follow E. 1999) such as Pooled and Clustered tables.e. for example ‘Routings’ and ‘Bills of Materials’.5 Data Source Structures.

to be able to reduce script processing time and to be able to automatically detect any data integrity violations. The detail of the header level is held within the item level.4. to be able to generate code mapping (as defined in SAP Object transfer). which are identified in section 4. The data has no automatic consistency checks. it is then possible to decide what method to use to transact the objects into SAP. then manual entered data has to be re-entered (R/3 Simplification Group.e. There is a standard set of guidelines that is used to determine the transfer method. and is primarily determined by the volume of data to be migrated. SAP uses an object to define master data (i.e. 4. which is developed for a specific Business Object and ensures data consistency. the field formats must conform to how they are set up in the SAP database. Part Number and Plant. Electronic or Manual. Electronic data Transfer is via a standard program. i. vii . Once the type of transfer is determined. The Header has a one to many relationship (1 M) with the item level. If configuration changes are made to the table. Manual data entry is carried out when there is little data to transfer. as the format has to be exact. This will be evaluated in the next chapter. but it also uses this information to deduce the type of data transfer. as being able to report its operation. The Electronic transfer method available within SAP has all and more of these functions designed into its operation. 4. which can be viewed in Appendix E. as it is transacted directly into the R/3 database.e.4. of which there are a number. It can also be performed by one of the other methods. 1999).g.1 Transfer Methods. This is a decision made by the migration team.1.e. the business objects). i. The part has many materials that go into its manufacture and therefore is seen as being multi-level. Hudicka (1999) outlines the features required for a data transfer tool.4 Electronic vs Manual. It therefore has to go though a stringent process of accuracy and completeness checks. an example of this could be a Bill Of Material (BOM) for a given part number.

The data can then be imported into the R/3 system via one of the aforementioned interfaces. which will be highlighted in the next section. Legacy Systems) as well as SAP R/2 systems to SAP R/3. etc. The LSM supports conversion of data from the legacy system in a convenient way. BAPI's (Business Application Programming Interfaces) or IDOC's (Intermediate Documents). as the SAP software may not work correctly (when data is transacted. This allows companies to migrate data from non-SAP systems (i. CATT . SAP R/3 incorporates a migration tool called the LSM. 2. 1. Within SAP R/3 the following transfer methods are available. Batch Input interface. 1999). It is important that all data is transacted through using one of the defined methods.Used to develop ABAP transfer programs. It also has the added benefit of providing a recording function that allows you to generate a business object in an entry or change transaction.e. SAP Workbench .Computer Aided Test Tool which allows the recording of transactions. such as • Batch Input (BI). the use of which depends on the business object defined. The LSM was developed from the old R/2 – R/3 data transfer workbench. it has a logical method that can be followed easily. All of the data held on the AETC legacy systems was manually formatted during the cleansing process and presented in a flat file format. Logs are created defining the meta data of the data transferred. i. LSM . 4. using primarily the Legacy System Migration Workbench. Direct Input (DI). (R/3 Simplification Group. which is integrated into the capabilities of the LSM (R/3 Simplification Group. 3. These flat files (that represented the business objects) were then automatically transacted into the R/3 database.5 Legacy System Migration Workbench (LSM). 4. size.If the manual method is used.) (R/3 Simplification Group.e.The Legacy System Migration Workbench uses standard interfaces. including location. SAP Data Transfer Programs – Used for transferring standard SAP Business Objects. 2000) vii . 1999). the data is transacted in manually.

e. the LSM or can be transacted manually.4. whereas SAP identifies data migration as the penultimate event in implementation. Data can be transferred electronically by numerous methods within SAP.6 Summary. vii . Hudickas methodology emphasises data migration activities throughout an implementation. instead of fields and records that is migrated as a whole into the R/3 database. these involve consistency. structure. SAP defines a data object. i. type and cleansing. There are many issues regarding the structure and format of data before migration can take place.

1999). Information Technology . test recorded transactions (SAP AG.g. by using established mapping conversion rules that the SAP R/3 tables require for a relevant business object (Gradl et al. such as the standard programs. These specific programs. These are accessed by entering the 'Transaction Code' either within the LSM or with the SXDA (Data Transfer workbench) within which there is a drop down list of objects. There are a number of sub-characteristics that are available within each main characteristic (see Appendix G).1 Evaluation Characteristics. The criteria to be used is based on the ISO/ IEC 9126: 1991. The Computer Aided Test Tool (CATT) is used primarily for creating manual and automatic test cases e. They have been designed to accurately map the standard fields. and therefore have assured results in data consistency. There are alternative methods e.0 Data Migration within SAP R/3. As previously stated SAP has a standard tool. If a standard program is not available then other methods can be used. The author has taken the view.Software Product Evaluation (Quality characteristics & guidelines for their use) standard. all with varying degrees of operation.5. The standard method of migration. the ABAP Workbench (which is the core tool within SAP) that can be used to develop a transaction program. there are several methods available to transfer data into the SAP R/3 database.g. This section will highlight each and use the ISO standard for evaluating software. that the methods available are functionality’s of the overall software product R/3 and therefore not stand-alone systems. 5. is to use the built in programs that are provided to transact the various business objects into the R/3 database (see Appendix F). As identified in the previous chapter. have been developed from tried and tested solutions for migrating objects from source to target. 1998). vii . that automates the whole process of transacting data. the LSM.

The following sections will give a brief description of the tool and the method it uses for transfer. fault removal etc. which can be customised depending on which 'interface' is chosen initially. Attributes of software to allow modification. deleted or changed and then migrated (in the flat file format). Attributes of software that allows ability to prevent unauthorised access. effects. The process takes the user through the whole vii . The relevant characteristics in Fig 6 will be identified according to the manner in which the characteristic fit the tools. Attributes of the software to allow effective operation & control by user. via a 26-step migration process. Attributes of software that allows it to adapt to other environments. 2000). Attributes of software that bears on the provision of correct results.2 Legacy System Migration Workbench (LSM).ISO 9126:1991 Characteristic Description. The LSM is a multi-functional tool and allows business objects to be created. failures or identification of parts to be modified. Attributes of software that adheres to standards of portability. in that environment. To recover data and re-establish its level of performance. Table of Characteristics ISO 9126:1991 (ISO/IEC 9126:1991. Attributes of software that bears on the frequency of failure by faults. Attributes of software that allow it to interact with specified systems. Portability (6) Adaptability (a) Conformance (c) Replaceability (d) Fig 6. 5. Attributes of software that allows the unexpected effect of modifications. Attributes of software that allows users to recognise the application. i) Sub – Charact eristic Functionality (1) Suitability (a) Accuracy (b) Interoperability Security (d) (c) Attribute of software that provides set of functions for specified tasks. Attributes of software that allows the user to learn the application. Resource Behaviour (b) Attributes of software that bear on the amount of resources used in performing function. Attributes of software that allows opportunity to use it in place of another piece of software. Reliability (2) Usability (3) Maturity (a) Recoverability (b) Understanding (a) Learnability (b) Operability (c) Efficiency (4) Time Behaviour (a) Maintainabilit Analysability (a) y (5) Changeability (b) Stability (c) Testability (d) Attributes of software that bear on effort needed to diagnose deficiencies. Attributes of software that on effort to validate the software. Attributes of software that provides response & processing time & throughput rates in performing its function.

which can then be imported by one of the Interfaces. This creates the load file. mapping conversion rules and the actual required flat file.2. the following sequential process is used to transact the object into the LSM. This process determines the structural relations between source and target and defines how the fields will be mapped & converted. The LSM process involves inputting source files that have been converted into a flat file and read into the LSM. vii .migration concept by defining object attributes. Accelerating Data Migration: LSM Workbench How LSM Workbench works One or several files Legacy data on PC Read data Structure relations Read data L egacy data on application server Field mapping Convert data R/3 Standard Conversion rules Converted data Batch Input processing Direct Input processing IDoc inbound processing SAP AG July 1999 21 Fig 7. Once the ‘object’ is identified. structures. 5. The LSM Workbench Process (R/3 Simplification Group. using one of the available interfaces. The data is converted.1 How the LSM Works. relationships. 2000) The first stage of the migration process is to determine the Project name and the desired object that is to be transferred.

This is the most common interface (for standard transfer programs) and is used to transfer large amounts of data. It is possible to see how the BI is processed.2 Import Interfaces. in the background (a Log is generated and provides a history). Once the LSM generates the ABAP transaction program it is then required to be transacted. 5. 2000) Once a step is complete a log is created. which is a data file that has details of conversion rules etc that have been previously defined. It follows the same screen transactions that one would have to follow if doing same manually.1 Batch Input (BI). foreground (ability to step through the transactions. this is achieved by one of the four interfaces. which was highlighted by the author and Hudicka in chapter 4. ie.2.Command Line: Enter transaction code Customised migration process for a Batch Input Interface. When the BI is run it creates a BI session.2. Fig 8. It also checks for errors in the data before transacting it into the database (R/3 Simplification Group. BI simulates manual entry. The interfaces update the database and provide the consistency needed for an accurate database.e. 1999). vii .2. recording the history 5. similar to online entry) or display errors only (errors are shown and can be amended online). i. Steps in LSM Migration Process (R/3 Simplification Group.

a data dictionary.2.e. 5. 1999) 5.4 BAPI. transport of a program. 1.3 Intermediate Documents (IDOC).2. It can then be transported (the SAP term for transferring programs.2 Direct Input (DI). when restarted there is no need to change the flat file. This process is an option for bulk data transfer. defines the Business Object and provides the attribute of reusabulity due to its purpose.2. The IDOC technique converts read data into 'packages' and stores same in its own format. Master Data. where the program can be compiled and run. The BAPI as defined in section 4.2. 1999). 1999). as the data was transacted successfully and when re-run does not duplicate the records. If the user starts the program directly and it aborts prematurely. 2. It is also a test environment (this includes the CATT also).2. but was not used while the author was at AETC. configurations etc) into the system. as with the re-usable conversion rules of the migration objects (R/3 Simplification Group. The ABAP Workbench allows the creation of a flat file (as with the BAPI). If the DI program aborts mid way through processing.2. It is used to check data thoroughly. but does not have the capability of BI with processing options. vii . Fortunately there are two methods available. i. (R/3 Simplification Group. the user must be able to identify which records were correctly transacted and delete them from the flat file. It provides general functions such as correction to a program.3 ABAP Workbench. etc.5. until it is called up by the program and processed (R/3 Simplification Group. 5. The DI method is available for some core business objects. The IDOC was developed to exchange messages between systems.2.

The Dictionary can be used to generate database objects like tables and indexes. The CATT is the fully integrated test tool of the ABAP Workbench. Menu Painter Ability to design menus that appear in the GUI Fig 10.e. data relationships. and other information. ABAP Functions in detail (SAP AG. Function Builder The Function Builder is used to define and store function modules. A library is available to write new modules and look up information on existing modules.Fig 9. Ability to define and save data definitions Ability to store documentation.can also be recorded using the LSM). i. assign parameters to the module and export this to create a text file. 1999) Tool Repository Browser Dictionary Function Ability to display and edit hierarchical lists of development objects. ABAP Editor Ability to create and edit program code. 5. help information. Once the file is tested. 1999) The above table represents the functions of the workbench in detail. Screen Painter Ability to design screens in an application's GUI. data transfer can take place. The definitions are stored centrally and are therefore available for use anywhere in any program throughout the system.4 Computer Aided Test Tool (CATT). It CATT uses the following sequence. an automatic transaction that has been recorded (part of its function . ABAP Workbench Screen – Version 4. The Dictionary is a central storage area for system-wide data definitions. vii . The CATT is used to create manual and automatic test cases. record transaction. generate test module (using the relevant transaction screens involved).5B (SAP AG. The Function Builder stores these modules centrally. SAP AG states that the tool is very flexible in transferring data and acts very similar to a BI.

where five represents the best correlation to the characteristic.6 Evaluation Results. There is a visible relationship between the various ‘tools’. AETC have made good use of the LSM but have not needed to use the IDOC or BAPI functions. due to the effectiveness of the BI. Using the LSM as a point of reference for the others. the preferred method is to use the standard business programs that can be initiated by using the SXDA transaction code. e. DI and Recording capabilities.1). AETC have used a standard transfer program in the AS/400 (Client Access) to import the data into a flat file. regarding the appropriate characteristics (section 5.7 Summary. testing. 5. by exporting it into an Excel spreadsheet. The standard vii .g. The following evaluation is based on the ability to create a data transfer program and uses a rating to define the effectiveness of each tool. The LSM as identified is the standard tool and is designed to create a transaction program and use its interfaces to transact data into the R/3 database. 5. consequently these two tools will be 'integrated' and evaluated as one. The evaluation shows that although the ISO standard characteristics are reasonably rigid an integrated tool can contain certain design elements that meet the requirement characteristics.5.5 Tool Similarities. consistency checks and the ability to perform recordings. It uses the ABAP editor to create code for a transaction and can test same within the ABAP Workbench (Norvell. As a result AETC were able to use the LSM to migrate this data into R/3 by highlighting which fields were relevant to SAP by using the SAP standard field names. The ABAP workbench obviously underpins both of these tools because of the ABAP language and the integration of the CATT. there are certain attributes of CATT that are integrated into the LSM functionality’s. 2000). SAP uses a number of methods to create a transaction program. It is acknowledged that the CATT is a functionality of the ABAP workbench. The rating will use a measure of 1 to 5.

programs already have the required defined structures of the file and designate certain values to certain SAP fields for the particular business object. vii . The author reiterates that migrating data is the LSM's core design function. The evaluation of each tool using ISO 9126:1991 has proven that the LSM satisfies a majority of the characteristics to a reasonable efficiency. It can perform other operations such as defining a recording for a transaction. Direct Input. IDOC or BAPI interface. The ABAP Workbench is a multifaceted tool. which is used primarily for program development. as does the ABAP workbench. SAP has developed a migration tool called the LSM that can create and transact a business object into R/3 by using a Batch Input.

SAP has been the pioneering force in the revolution of improving business integration and performance. in order to limit the amount of customisation that may otherwise take place. due to its process rather than task oriented nature. SAP requires very careful appraisal in its planning stage. Its fully integrated modular structure. the LSM. R/3's architecture plays a key role in its adoption as 'open standards' and 'platform independence' will surely continue to dominate the software market. Its market leadership with R/3 the ERP system for the client/server market is proving to be unbeatable. in the respect that existing processes and procedures will after reengineering be changed in many cases completely. provides the needed consistency that most databases fail to achieve. the whole process of implementing R/3 is very demanding on an organisation. if the process is to be successful there are a number of fundamental issues that need to be understood. i. SAP however is not the ideal software package in its standard form. the use of the various SAP tools. inaccurate and duplicated data. as the R/3 system will only be as good as the data that is in being transacted into the system. SAP is a very complex system and as such. A smooth implementation is paramount.6. by developing enterprise wide systems. The users must understand what historical data will be of use and in what format it needs to be. Data migration is the fundamental building block for the whole system. following SAP's ASAP methodology will provide a framework to follow. The challenge is to identify these early on and purge them from the system. Data migration to SAP from legacy systems is a very structured and logical process. The author concludes that data migration is certainly an element that if planned successfully can aid effective implementation. As with any other new complex system implementation there are hidden problems that can hamper progress and hence success. The validation measures within the tools create data integrity and the SAP business objects vii .e.0 Conclusions. transaction processing and effective reporting capabilities have convinced companies in ever increasing numbers to deploy same in place of their legacy systems. There will always be a necessity to cleanse the data before migration as a database can become overrun with obsolete. It is an opportunity for process change.

Overall the completed project has satisfied the objectives that were initially set. within the scope of what is a live project at AETC Ltd. assists greatly in actual data preparation and utilising a tool that can query the database and download data into a file can save considerable time. The project’s completion has without doubt been assisted by a clear. Data migration is stated to take up about 20% of the overall implementation budget.e. then data migration becomes a large constituent of this and therefore requires overall effective planning and management. vii . The end product should have hopefully attained and satisfied. concise and achievable plan. It is true to say that the amount and complexity of data that needs to be captured and processed simply cannot be underestimated. The only flaw is the inherent inconsistencies with manual data entry. which is only limited to user entry. The contents have highlighted the key issues that were identified. It is also important to understand the relationships within the SAP database structure and how the data will relate to this. the AS/400. i.extend the consistency. the standards that the intended audience require. when one takes into account that a SAP implementation can run into the millions. Understanding the structure of the existing legacy systems.

J & Consultancy. SAP R/3 Implementation for AS/400. Apex Systems Ltd (1999). A (1997).htm Durban.htm Breen. Coffee Break. SAP R/3 Business Blueprint: Understanding the Business Process reference model.mysap. AETC Limited. SAP AG Ahn. AS400 Integrated File Server (FSIOP). R (2000). J. no. Making Migration. 6.J (2000) http://www. http://www. Blain. F (1998). Sprengel. McGraw-Hill. H..html http://www. Terminology & Glossary.gartnerweb. Keller. Issue 3. IT Projects. Date.. pp 38-40. Manning.html Hirsch. • • • • • • • • • • • • • Accelerated SAP (1998). AETC http://www. J (1999).tug. SAP AG. Hofstetter. T. Prentice Hall. Data Migration Introduction. Access denied how Guinness overcame the difficulties of extracting data to populate a data warehouse with valuable business 2nd Edition. L. www. Curran. M (1998).A (1997). J. Implementing SAP R/3. International Business Machines vii ..version 4. H (1995).htm Gradl. p 8. Dawson. The SAP R/3 Handbook. & Ladd. Doc No. Accelerated Data The Database Relational Model: A retrospective review and analysis. IT Manager.cfm?bi=980401. http://www.15. WFMC-TC-1011. • Faden. http://www. Special Edition Using SAP R/3. Addison-Wesley Publishing company. 3rd Edition. & Zimmer. Seip..H. Que Corporation. The Workflow Management Coalition Specification. Data Migration. Apex Systems..References.6. ASAP World (1997). M (1999). Cawtheray. C. J & Dascakowsky.cfm Dulcian (2000). Perera. A (1998). Data Cleansing helps E-Business run more efficiently: Data Mining & ECommerce have exposed problems with the management of information.midrangecomputing. 2nd Information Week Online. K (1998). P (2000). http://advisor. N. J. • • • • • • Gradl. L. Accelerated SAP Implementation Assistant. SAP and the AS/400. Vol.on. Managing Information. Workflow Management (1999). M (2000).0.

Dulcian. p 8. Ryymin. Release 4.. 6. p 9. Steen. http://www. Roehm.5. Midrange Computing Editors (1997).as400. Lee. Inc. News & Analysis: Manufacturers to be offered pre-configured SAP. J. www.6. Manufacturing Computer Solutions (2000). • • • • • • • • • • • • IBM Corporation (2000). SAP Labs.cfm. Rizzo. ISO/IEC 9126:1991 (2000). Computing . SAP 50 Basis Technology. vol. Kin. vii .V. Avalon Systems Development Ltd.R (1999). Inc. SAP AG (1997). N.M. R/3 Simplification Group (1999). J. S (1999). AS/400 System Handbook.htm. R/3 Simplification Group (1999).midrangecomputing. The complete data migration methodology. pp 336-359.. IBM Corporation. http://www.3rd August. A (2000).dulcian. M (1998/99).. Hosting: beware the shake-out. M. Hudicka. Powers. SAP you say your Data’s Hudicka. pp 18-23. J.R/3 Release 3 Dimensional framework for information technology solutions. vol.dulcian. Vebele. Initial Data Transfer Made Easy: Step by Step guide to SAP Initial Data Transfer. BAPI Introduction and Overview. B. Huh?!?. http://publib. Coffee Breaks with the Editors. Inc. TimeKeeper AS Suite. G. Dulcian. SAP AG (1998)... vol. Getting in the Pink. MSc Project .School of Computer Studies.39. Data Migration of Non. Release 4. SAP AG. Inside AS/400 Client Access for Windows 95/NT V3 R1 Mod2.• • • • http://www. Information technology: Software product evaluation (Quality characteristics and guidelines for their use).. http://www.0B – 4. IBM Systems Kronos Incorporated (2000). R/3 Simplification Group (2000). Technical Notes. no. Manufacturing Computer Solutions.htm.6.. 5. SAP Inc. H (1997). D.SAP Systems to R/3: Quick introduction to working with the Legacy Systems Migration Workbench – Version 1. So. Inc. Data Transfer Made Easy: Step by Step guide to SAP Data Transfer. SAP ABAP Consultant.R (1999). Lienert.kronos.sapfans. Norvell. SAP AG.. A (1996).boulder.0. Smith. J. S (2000). AS/400 Guided Tour. • • • • Ranger. no.C.PDF. International Standards Organisation. no. Enterprise-wide Systems in Education: A Case Study of SAP R/3 at the University of Leeds. M. D (2000).2. International Technical Support Organisation – Rochester Hutt.cfm?bi=970618. Management Review.

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Appendix A: Project Experience vii .

vii . which in the case of SAP is normally very expensive. especially one of this scale and relevance. There is also the benefit of gaining knowledge from professionals involved with implementation. I have gained valuable experience in a field. SAP R/3 as a whole is a very complex system to implement. there are numerous publications. which in today’s labour market is very important. Identifying the required scope. literature and knowledge to achieve them has provided an excellent future in project management. to a successful project. SAP R/3’s underpinning methods are certainly cutting edge and trying to understand fully what it can achieve has been an absorbing experience. It is absolutely essential to be involved within a live implementation because of the access to documentation that would otherwise need to be purchased. that I might not have done with an in house project. Its flexibility in both operation and integration is without doubt superior to any other product on the market. Above all careful planning is absolutely essential and understanding how to satisfy the objectives is of paramount importance. I believe I have gained three positives from the project. and without question needs dedicated project management. Having clearly defined objectives and a plan of how they are to be achieved has certainly been very beneficial. I believe the environment and knowledge that I have been involved with has enabled me to develop and further my inter-personal and management skills. there is little or no information available that both describes and encourages the pro-active management of a data migration project. 1. 3. I have been able to interact with highly qualified professionals. I have found it quite strange that software implementations have such highly specific guidelines for project management.Project Experience. Having the opportunity to undertake a project within a working environment has been a very rewarding experience. 2. documentation’s etc that back this up. In the case of an implementation that involves data migration. as my career progresses.

not produce some statements that are confusing. then step back and focus on a small part of the project that can be achieved without any problems. This will give the feeling of flow and will improve the overall productivity of the project. keeping an effective reference list or making sure the whole project is formatted correctly. I feel it is biased or too focused towards a software development project. then the MSc Project Handbook should be able to guide the student along. vii .e.Due to the remit of this project. i. I have found it stressful at times with regard to following the MSc Project handbook. If a student wishes to understand an element of the course in more detail. Above all. try and obtain a project that is value adding and enjoy it. is if an obstacle interrupts the train of thought. four months goes very quickly. My advice to any future project undertaken.

Appendix B: Objectives & deliverables vii .

Data Migration from various Legacy Systems to SAP R/3. At the end of the project. To draw conclusions from Data Transfer/ Migration. A copy should be given to the supervisor and a copy retained by the student. Any such revision should be noted on this form. To analyse the current Legacy Systems. with the agreement of the supervisor of each project. Roberts) by 7th April 2000. To examine the issues of Data Transfer from manual to automatic transfer. a copy of this form must be included in the Project Report as an Appendix.School of Computer Studies MSC PROJECT OBJECTIVES AND DELIVERABLES This form must be completed by the student. To evaluate the current process of Data Migration within the SAP R/3 system. i. AS400 system etc.e. vii . Martin Dyer. External Organisation*: *(if applicable) AETC Ltd. Amendments to the agreed objectives and deliverables may be made by agreement between the student and the supervisor during the project. Prof. from which AETC are extracting data. Student: Programme of Study: Supervisor: Title of project: Geoffrey WARRISS. and submitted to the MSc project co-ordinator (Mrs A. Information Systems. AGREED MARKING SCHEME Understand the Problem Produce Solution * a Evaluation Write -Up Appendix A TOTAL % 20 40 20 15 5 100 * This category includes Professionalism (see handbook) OVERALL OBJECTIVES (continue overleaf if necessary): • • • • • To undertake a comprehensive understanding of the SAP R/3 System.

An Interim report.DELIVERABLE(s): 1. 3. Signature of student: Signature of supervisor: Agreed objectives and deliverables (continued): Date: Date: Amendments to agreed objectives and deliverables: Date Amendment vii . A final presentation of the overall project. 2. A project report.

Appendix C: Marking Scheme & Interim Report Header


Appendix D: ASAP Documentation


Appendix E: SAP Data Transfer Matrix


or 6 1 Poor 0 Extensive 0 Many 0 Complex 0 6 to 10 2 Complex 0 >10.500-10.000 Weight Number of data element translations Weight Complexity of legacy data Weight Number of SAP input data Weight Complexity of SAP input Weight Does an SAP transfer program exist? Weight Can data be entered as needed? Weight See note 1 1 3 Good 2 Little 2 Few 2 Simple 1 1 or 2 0 Simple 1 Yes 5 Yes 0 0 2 or 3 2 Fair 1 Average 1 Average 1 Average 0 3 to 5 1 Average 0 No 0 No 1 1 4. the SAP input is complex.Conversion Evaluation Matrix Score Number of Objects Weight Number of Legacy Inputs Weight Quality of legacy data Weight Amount of legacy data editing < 500 501-2. and an SAP standard data transfer program exists. 2. 3. but the evaluation factors should be carefully reviewed before deciding a recommended course of action. an automatic conversion is the best solution. A score of 10 or more indicates that an automated conversion is justified. the legacy data is complex. vii .000 2 >6 0 Extra-complex 1 >10 3 Extra-complex 1 Total Score: Notes: 1. If the number of objects is less than 500. a legacy data report and manual data input should be used. 4. Otherwise. A score between 5 and 10 indicates that either a manual conversion or an automated conversion may be a cost-effective solution.500 2.5. A score of 5 or less indicates that a manual conversion is the most cost-effective solution.

Appendix F: Business Object Transfer Programs vii .

General Functional Location Object Link Equipment Maintenance Plan vii .SAP Standard Business Object Data Transfer Programs. Module Financial Accounting Business Object Accounting Documents Assets G/L Account Master Customer Master Vendor Master Program/ Transaction RFBIBL00 RAALTD01 (Batch Input) RAALTD01 (Direct Input) RFBISA00 RFBIDE00 RFBIKR00 RFBVAT_0 RFBVCA_0 RFBVD__2 RFBVGB_0 RFBVIT_0 RFBVES_0 RFBCH_0 RPUSTD00 RPULKT00 RHALTD00 RCCTBI01 RCCLBI01 RCCLBI02 RCCLRI03 RMDATIND RM06IBI0 RM06BBI0 RM06EEI0 RM06EEI1 Purchase Order RM06EEI1 Order Development RSTXLITF Long Texts RM07RRES RM07MMBL RFBIKR00 CG31 CG32 CG33 RIIBIP00/IBIP RIIBIP00/IBIP RIIBIP00/IBIP RIIBIP00/IBIP RIIBIP00/IBIP RIIBIP00/IBIP RIIBIP00/IBIP FI.Bank Data Transfer of Bank Data (Austria) Transfer of Bank Data (Canada) Transfer of Bank Data (Germany) Transfer of Bank Data (Great Britain) Transfer of Bank Data (Italy) Transfer of Bank Data (Spain) Transfer of Bank Data (Switzerland) Master Data (Organisational Units) Payroll Account Personnel Planning Data Create Characteristics Create Classes Create Classification Change Classification Material Master Purchase Information Records Purchase Requisitions Open Purchase Order Human Resources Materials Management Reservations Stocks (Inventory Management) Vendor Master Materials Management Phrases (EH&S) Sources Substances Plant Maintenance Measuring Point Measurement Documents Notifications .

EIS Sales & Distribution Several Records for SAP-EIS Condition Records (Pricing) Customer Master Open Sales Orders Invoicing External Transactions Warehouse Management Storage Bins Stocks on Storage Bins vii .Scheduling Maintenance Plan Order Confirmation Equipment Task List General Maintenance Task List Functional Location Task List Production Master Create Bill of Material Change Bill of Material Create variant Bill of Material Create Bill of Material with Long Texts Routings/ Task Lists Documentation Info Record Demand Management RIIBIP00/IBIP RIIBIP00/IBIP RIIBIP00/IBIP RIIBIP00/IBIP RIIBIP00/IBIP RCSBI010 RCSBI020 RCSBI030 RCSBI040 RCPTRA01 RCVBI010 RMMM60BI (Batch Input) RM60IN00 (Direct Input) RKCFILE0 RV14BTCI RFBIDE00 FVINVB00 RVAFSS00 RLPLAT00 RLBEST00 Production Planning SAP.

Appendix G: ISO 9126 : 1991 Software Evaluation vii .

A. 4.2) NOTE -.1) Functionality Suitability: Attribute of software that bears on the presence and appropriateness of a set of functions for specified tasks. `Users' may be interpreted as most directly meaning the users of interactive software. 2. (ISO 9126: 1991. (ISO 9126: 1991.1. 4. Usability must address all of the different user environments that the software may affect.2.Functionality A set of attributes that bear on the existence of a set of functions and their specified properties. (ISO 9126: 1991. Usability defined in this International Standard as a specific set of attributes of software product differs from the definition from an ergonomic point of view.3. 4. A. Users may include operators.2) Recoverability: Attributes of software that bear on the capability to re-establish its level of performance and recover the data directly affected in case of a failure and on the time and effort needed for it. (ISO 9126: 1991. input. A.2) Reliability Maturity: Attributes of software that bear on the frequency of failure by faults in the software. whether accidental or deliberate. The functions are those that satisfy stated or implied needs. design and implementation. and on the individual assessment of such use. A.2. 4. to programs and data.5) Reliability A set of attributes that bear on the capability of software to maintain its level of performance under stated conditions for a stated period of time. A. which may include preparation for usage and evaluation of results.2. Failures due to these faults depend on the way the software product is used and the program options selected rather than on elapsed time. A.3) Compliance: Attributes of software that make the software adhere to application related standards or conventions or regulations in laws and similar prescriptions. A.2. (ISO 9126: 1991. A. A.1) Accuracy: Attributes of software that bear on the provision of right or agreed results or effects.3) Usability A set of attributes that bear on the effort needed for use.2.2. operation control.2. (ISO 9126: 1991.2.2. (ISO 9126: 1991. by a stated or implied set of users.Interoperability is used in place of compatibility in order to avoid possible ambiguity with replaceability. (ISO 9126: 1991.1.2) vii . 4. (ISO 9126: 1991. (ISO 9126: 1991.2) Interoperability: Attributes of software that bear on its ability to interact with specified systems.2. (ISO 9126: 1991.Wear or ageing does not occur in software.2.3) Usability Understandability: Attributes of software that bear on the users' effort for recognising the logical concept and its applicability.2.3.4) Security: Attributes of software that bear on its ability to prevent unauthorised access. A. (ISO 9126: 1991.2.3) NOTES 1.1. end users and indirect users who are under the influence or dependent on the use of the software.1. A. (ISO 9126: 1991.2.1) Learnability: Attributes of software that bear on the users' effort for learning its application (for example. where other characteristics such as efficiency and effectiveness are also seen as constituents of usability.1. Limitations in reliability are due to faults in requirements.1) Fault tolerance: Attributes of software that bear on its ability to maintain a specified level of performance in cases of software faults or of infringement of its specified interface. (ISO 9126: 1991.3) NOTE -.1. (ISO 9126: 1991. output). (ISO 9126: 1991.

(ISO 9126: 1991. hardware or software environment.Modifications may include corrections.2.2.2.The environment may include organisational.2.3) Testability: Attributes of software that bear on the effort needed for validating the modified software.5. A. A. A.2.2) Stability: Attributes of software that bear on the risk of unexpected effect of modifications. A.2. A. A. maintaining or sustaining staff. 4. Replaceability is used in place of compatibility in order to avoid possible ambiguity with interoperability. (ISO 9126: 1991. (ISO 9126: 1991. (ISO 9126: 1991. 4. A.4.6. A. (ISO 9126: 1991.4) Efficiency Time behaviour: Attributes of software that bear on response and processing times and on throughput rates in performing its function.2. vii .2.6) Portability Adaptability: Attributes of software that bear on the opportunity for its adaptation to different specified environments without applying other actions or means than those provided for this purpose for the software considered. hardware facilities. (ISO 9126: 1991. (ISO 9126: 1991.5.5.5) NOTE -.5.3) Efficiency A set of attributes that bear on the relationship between the level of performance of the software and the amount of resources used.6.2) Maintainability A set of attributes that bear on the effort needed to make specified modifications. (ISO 9126: 1991. (ISO 9126: 1991. A. print paper. (e. (ISO 9126: 1991.5) Maintainability Analysability: Attributes of software that bear on the effort needed for diagnosis of deficiencies or causes of failures.1) Resource behaviour: Attributes of software that bear on the amount of resources used and the duration of such use in performing its function. A. 4.4) NOTE -. (ISO 9126: 1991.6.Operability: Attributes of software that bear on the users' effort for operation and operation control.2. (ISO 9126: 1991. materials.1) Installability: Attributes of software that bear on the effort needed to install the software in a specified environment.2) Conformance: Attributes of software that make the software adhere to standards or conventions relating to portability.4. and in requirements and functional specifications. (ISO 9126: 1991. 4. under stated conditions.2. 4. floppy disks) and services of operating.3.6. A.3) Replaceability: Attributes of software that bear on the opportunity and effort of using it in the place of specified other software in the environment of that software. (ISO 9126: 1991.Resources may include other software products.1) Changeability: Attributes of software that bear on the effort needed for modification. or for identification of parts to be modified.4) NOTES 3.2.4) Portability A set of attributes that bear on the ability of software to be transferred from one environment to another. fault removal or for environmental change. 4. (ISO 9126: 1991. improvements or adaptation of software to changes in environment.6) NOTE -. (ISO 9126: 1991. (ISO 9126: 1991.g.

must be interpreted as a rated value. no general levels for rating are possible. Rating levels definition : Quantifiable features can be measured quantitatively using quality metrics. for instance. 5. namely measurement. the results of the evaluation of the different characteristics must be summarised. Then the summarised quality is compared with the other aspects such as time and cost. using. decision tables or weighted averages. i.3. Rating: In the rating step. The result is values on the scales of the metrics. The concept has been introduced as a subcharacteristic of its own because of its importance. The need exists to establish metrics that correlate to the characteristics of the software product. vii .e. Assessment criteria definition : To assess the quality of the product. the requirements derived from the overall product may differ for the different components. and must be defined prior to the development. Evaluation process Source ISO 9126: 1991. Since quality refers to given needs. The evaluation process consists of three stages and it may be applied in every appropriate phase of the life cycle for each component of the software product: Quality Requirement Definition: The purpose of the initial stage is to specify requirements in terms of quality characteristics and possible subcharacteristics. 5. Requirements express the demand of the environment for the software product under consideration. rating and assessment. Measurement: For measurement. They must be defined for each specific evaluation. Finally managerial decision will be made based on the managerial criteria. The result. because the metrics from the user's view are crucial. the rating level is determined for a measured value. The evaluator has to prepare a procedure for this. the measured value. The procedure usually will include other aspects such as time and cost that contribute to the assessment of quality of a software product in a particular environment. [. The result is a statement of the quality of the software product. This stage consists of three components: Quality metrics selection : The manner in which quality characteristics have been defined does not allow their direct measurement.. divided into ranges corresponding to the different degrees of satisfaction of the requirements. The result is a managerial decision on the acceptance or rejection. Metrics used in the development process should be correlated to the user respective metrics. or on the release or no-release of the software product.4. As a software product is decomposed into major components. Evaluation Procedure: The last step of the Evaluation Process Model is refined into three steps.] Metrics can differ depending on the environment and the phases of the development process in which they are used. the selected metrics are applied to the software product. Evaluation Preparation: The purpose of the second stage is to prepare the basis for evaluation. Replaceability with a specific software does not imply that this software is replaceable with the software under consideration. Assessment: Assessment is the final step of the software evaluation process where a set of rated levels are summarised. Replaceability may include attributes of both installability and adaptability.. Every quantifiable feature of software and every quantifiable interaction of software with its environment that correlates with a characteristic can be established as a metric.

Appendix H: Legacy System Migration workbench vii .