UNIT ELEVEN TYPES OF BILLS OF LADING There are several types of bills of lading and these include the

following: 1. Shipped bill of lading: Under the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 19 !" the shipper can de#and that the shipowner supplies bills of lading proving that the goods have been actually shipped. $or this reason #ost bill of lading for#s are already printed as shipped bills and co##ence with the wording: %Shipped in apparent good order and condition%. &t confir#s that the goods are actually on board the vessel. This is the #ost satisfactory type of receipt" and the shipper prefers such a bill as there is no doubt about the goods being on board and conse'uent dispute on this point will not arise with the ban(ers or consignee" thereby facilitating earliest financial settle#ent of the e)port sale. . Recei ed bill of lading: This arises where the word %shipped% does not appear on the bill of lading. &t #erely confir#s that the goods have been handed over to the shipowner and are in his custody. The cargo #ay be in his doc( warehouse*transit shed or even inland. The bill has therefore not the sa#e #eaning as a %shipped% bill and the buyer under a C.&.$. contract need not accept such a bill for ulti#ate financial settle#ent through the ban( unless provision has been #ade in the contract. $orwarding agents will invariably avoid handling %received bills% for their clients unless special circu#stances obtain. +. Th!o"gh bill# of lading: &n #any cases it is necessary to e#ploy two or" #ore carriers to get the goods to their final destination. The on,carriage #ay be either by a second vessel -e.g. to the Seychelles &slands via .o#bassa or /o#bay0 or by a different for# of transport -e.g. to destinations in the interior of Canada0. &n such cases it would be very co#plicated and #ore e)pensive if the shipper had to arrange on,carriage hi#self by e#ploying an agent at the point of tranship#ent. !. G!o"page Bill of Lading: $orwarding agents are per#itted to %group% together particular co#patible consign#ents fro# individual consignors to various consignees" situated usually in the sa#e destination country*area" and despatch the# as one consign#ent. The shipowner will issue a groupage bill of lading" whilst the forwarding agent" who cannot hand to his principals the shipowners1 bill of lading" will issue to the individual shippers a Certificate of Ship#ent so#eti#es called %house bills of lading%. At the destination" another agent wor(ing in close liaison with the agent forwarding the cargo will brea( bul( the consign#ent and distribute the goods to the various consignees. This practice is on the increase" usually involving the use of containers and particularly evident in the continental trade and deep sea container services. &t will doubtless increase with containerisation develop#ent and is ideal to the shipper who has s#all 'uantities of goods available for e)port. Advantages of groupage include less pac(ing: lower insurance pre#iu#s2 usually 'uic(er transits2 less ris( of da#age and pilferage2 and lower rates when co#pared with such cargo being despatched as an individual parcel*consign#ent. 3. T!an#hip$en% Bill of Lading: This type is issued usually by shipping co#panies when there is no direct service between two ports" but when the shipowner is prepared to tranship the cargo at an inter#ediate port at his e)pense. 4. &lean Bill# o Lading: 5ach bill of lading states %in apparent good order and condition%" which of course refers to the cargo. &f this state#ent is not #odified by the shipowner" the bill of lading is regarded as %clean% or %unclaused%. /y issuing clean bills of lading the shipowner ad#its his full liability of the cargo described in the bill under the law and his contract. This type is #uch favoured by ban(s for financial settle#ent purposes.

6. State which type of /*.&. issued to a shipper when he delivers the goods into the custody of the shipowner or his agent -e.0 or cost" insurance" freight -C. .hand cases72 8wet or stained cartons%2 %da#aged crates%2 %two cartons #issing%2 etc. This type of bill of lading is usually unacceptable to a ban(. #ost satisfactory< =ow does the %>eceived /*.ading% confir#< :hy is this type of /*.&. #eans that the price 'uoted by the vendor includes the price of the goods and all e)penses up to and including the cost of loading the goods on to the vessel. &la"#ed Bill# of Lading: &f the shipowner does not agree with any of the state#ents #ade in the bill of lading he will add a clause to this effect" thereby causing the bill of lading to be ter#ed as %unclean%" %foul%" or %claused%. is described in each of the following state#ents: -a0 /*. are two widely used types of contract of sale. covering the carriage of goods to its destination partly by sea and partly overland" or where sea transport occurs by two or #ore ships2 -c0 /*. Undoubtedly" to the shipper" the #ost useful type of bill of lading is the clean" negotiable %through bill% as it enables the goods to be forwarded to the point of destination under one docu#ent" although #uch international trade is based on free on board -$. and C.%< :hen is the %Through /*.%. E(ER&ISES I &O)PRE*ENSION AND VO&ABULARY 1. 1@. differ fro# the %Shipped /*.9. &t does not include the cost of sea freight. :hat does the %Shipped /ill of .%< Give so#e other ter#s for a %claused /*. 4.g. to the shipper< 5)plain and discuss the trade clauses abbreviated by $. containing clauses that the goods or the pac(aging are not satisfactory" or that the contents" weight" #easure#ent" 'uality" or technical specification of the goods are not (nown to the carrier2 . 11./.$. /oth $. and . There are #any recurring types of such clauses including: inade'uate pac(aging2 %unprotected #achinery72 %second. &n what does a %clean /*./.ading% the #ost useful type of /*. wharfinger or doc( authority0 before the ship has arrived or before the ship is ready to receive the goods2 -b0 /*.C. -see Unit l0. $.$.% used< :here is this type of /*. :hy is the clean" negotiable %through /ill of ." the price 'uoted includes the cost of the goods" the cost of insuring the goods to destination" and the freight or cost of transport.$. in connection with Groupage /*.9. The clause %shipped on dec( at owner1s ris(% #ay thus be considered to be a clause under this heading.% and its function" in particular with containers. 3.% differ fro# a %claused /*. 9.&.9. 'UESTIONS l.$. +. 5)plain the #eaning of the abbreviations $C.&. and C. &n the case of C. ?. 6. particularly applied and why< 5)plain the %Groupage /*. !.0 contracts and" with regard to the latter" the seller has no further interest in the #ove#ent of the goods once they reach their port of destination././.9.

The following verbs have been used in the te)t ta(ing the noun /&. Collocations.ading The following verb ta(e the nouns G99CS and CA>G9 as their obAects: e.ading E9UE -as obAect0 /ill of . . Specially suitable for the ship#ent of containers.g. II GRA))AR 1.: deliver forward despatch hand over ta(e over insure receive ship the goods*cargo . Co#plete the #issing words -nouns and adAectives or adverbs0: -nouns: $>5&G=T" BA.9AT" G99C" ADDA>5ET" SA$5.ading. 9$ . separate Certificates of Ship#ent are issued.F0 Shipped on " in good order and condition" weight" #easure2 #ar(s" nu#bers" 'uality" contents and of the goods un(nown" for carriage to the port of " or so near thereunto as the vessel #ay get and lie always " to be delivered in the li(e order and condition at the port unto Consignees or their Assigns" they paying as per note on the #argin plus other charges incurred in accordance with the contained in this /ill of . issued when the goods are carried by two or #ore ships2 -h0 /*. bearing no clauses or endorse#ent as to the defective condition of the goods or pac(aging" etc.%..-d0 /*. $or various shippers*receivers under the sa#e /*.: -g0 /*. issued after the goods have actually been loaded into the ship2 -e0 /*. referring to the goods for a nu#ber of receivers" but the goods is despatched and carried as one consign#ent only.AC&EG as obAect: B5>/ accept endorse issue B5>/ #a(e out pass present supply transfer E9UE -as obAect0 /ill of .U5" /9A>C" D>9B&S&9ES" C9EC&T&9E" C&SC=A>G52 adAective*adverbs: A$9>5SA&C" A$. 9pposite to Straight or 9rder /*.2 -f0 /*. bearing the words %or his or their assigns%" also referred to as an %order /*.

ation*.ance .ing . !. .erchant0. &f we -can0" we -receive0 the cargo for ship#ent. Condition &&&.: The shipper can de#and that the shipowner supplies bills of lading proving that the goods have actually been snipped.#ent .eaning state a person * thing which the act of activity state" action state" 'uality condition * state condition * state .carriage by hi#self.tion . Consider the following e)a#ple : &t would be very co#plicated and #ore e)pensive if the shipper had to arrange the on.ity . Supply the right for# of the verbs in brac(ets -present conditional or preterite0 as re'uired and translate the sentences into Croatian: 1.. Dredali bis#o va# poKilA(u (ad biste na# predoJili originalni pri#Aera( teretnice. The ship -not leave0 the port if the cargo -not stow0 properly. %U(rcaA" is(rcaA" i isporu(u*predaAu robe organiGirat Ie -arrange0 voGarov agent" u(oli(o niAe dogovoreno -agree0 drugaJiAe.% . 1. .or . &f the shipper -not agree0 with the state#ent" he -not ship0 the goods. Try to find so#e #ore e)a#ples in the previous Units.is# ... Ca se (rcatelA i brodar sloLe" #ogli bis#o u(rcati robu od#ah. The buyer -not accept0 such a bill of lading if a special provision -#a(e0 in the contract.transfer $ind the instances of such collocations in the te)t and write down the sentences where the sa#e appear" e. 5)a#ple i#portance shipper" operator destination shipping ship#ent Huality inter#odalisa# friendship . Ca #ogu" predao bih ti sva robna do(u#enta -shipping docu#ents0.ship III TRANSLATION 1. Suffi) ..g. +. . +. EaruJitelA -trgovac0 ili nAegov opuno#oIeni( -Assign0 ponudit Ie -tender0 robu (ada brod bude spre#an Ga u(rcaA i ona(o brGo -as fast as0 (a(o Ae brod #oLe pri#iti" te" sa#o a(o BoGar to GatraLi" ta(oMer van redovnog radnog vre#ena" ne (rKeIi -notwithstanding0 obiJaAe -uGance0 lu(e -custo#0. ." (ad bi (rcatelA #orao sa# organiGirati dalAnAi priAevoG. er*. :ord for#ation: So#e of the endings to for# nouns are listed in the table. +. /ilo bi veo#a (o#plicirano i s(upo da (rcatelA #ora sa# organiGirati dalAnAi priAevoG. . &s(rcaA" us(ladiKtenAe i isporu(a ide na teret -at e)pense0 naruJitelAa -.