Following the evaluation of the cracked structure, a suitable methods of concrete crack repair procedure can be selected.

Successful repair procedures take into account the cause(s) of the cracking. For example, if the cracking was primarily due to drying shrinkage, then it is likely that after a period of time the cracks will stabilize. n the other hand, if the cracks are due to a continuing foundation settlement, repair will be of no use until the settlement problem is corrected. Following is a survey of crack repair methods, including a summary of the characteristics of the cracks that may be repaired with each procedure, the types of structures that have been repaired, and a summary of the procedures that are used. Epoxy injection !racks as narrow as ".""# in. ("."$ mm) can be bonded by the in%ection of epoxy. &he techni'ue generally consists of establishing entry and venting ports at close intervals along the cracks, sealing the crack on exposed surfaces, and in%ecting the epoxy under pressure. (poxy in%ection has been successfully used in the repair of cracks in buildings, bridges, dams, and other types of concrete structures ()!* $"+,). -owever, unless the cause of the cracking has been corrected, it will probably recur near the original crack. *f the cause of the cracks cannot be removed, then two options are available. ne is to rout and seal the crack, thus treating it as a %oint, or, establish a %oint that will accommodate the movement and then in%ect the crack with epoxy or other suitable material. .ith the exception of certain moisture tolerant epoxies, this techni'ue is not applicable if the cracks are actively leaking and cannot be dried out. .et cracks can be in%ected using moisture tolerant materials, but contaminants in the cracks (including silt and water) can reduce the effectiveness of the epoxy to structurally repair the cracks. &he use of a low/modulus, flexible adhesive in a crack will not allow significant movement of the concrete structure. &he effective modulus of elasticity of a flexible adhesive in a crack is substantially the same as that of a rigid adhesive because of the thin layer of material and high lateral restraint imposed by the surrounding concrete. (poxy in%ection re'uires a high degree of skill for satisfactory execution, and application of the techni'ue may be limited by the ambient temperature. • Clean the cracks0 &he first step is to clean the cracks that have been contaminated1 to the extent this is possible and practical. !ontaminants such as oil, grease, dirt, or fine particles of concrete prevent epoxy penetration and bonding, and reduce the effectiveness of repairs. 2referably, contamination should be removed by vacuuming or flushing with water or other specially effective cleaning solutions.  Seal the surfaces: Surface cracks should be sealed to keep the epoxy from leaking out before it has gelled. .here the crack face cannot be reached, but where there is backfill, or where a slab/on/grade is being repaired, the backfill material or sub base material is sometimes an ade'uate seal. ) surface can be sealed by applying an epoxy, polyester, or other appropriate sealing material to the surface of the crack and allowing it to harden. *f a permanent glossy appearance along the crack is ob%ectionable and if high in%ection pressure is not re'uired, a strippable plastic surface sealer may be applied along the face of the crack. .hen the %ob is completed, the surface sealer can be stripped away to expose the gloss/free surface. !ementitious seals can also be used where appearance of the completed work is important. *f extremely high in%ection pressures are needed, the crack can be cut out to a depth of 34# in. (3+ mm) and width of about +45 in. (#" mm) in a 6/shape, filled with an epoxy, and struck off flush with the surface.  *nstall the entry and venting ports. &hree methods are in general use0 3. Fittings inserted into drilled holes: &his method was the first to be used, and is often used

piles and pole). (#" mm) in diameter and 34# to 3 in. &his treatment reduces the ability of moisture to reach the reinforcing steel or pass through the concrete. +. the in%ection should proceed from one end of the crack to the other in the same manner. )nother method recently being used is a vacuum or vacuum assist method. &he pressure used for in%ection must be selected carefully. acrylics and polyesters have proven successful. urethanes. Interruption in seal: )nother system of providing entry is to omit the seal from a portion of the crack. routing and sealing can be accomplished on vertical surfaces (with a non/sag sealant) as well as on curved surfaces (pipes. usually with the use of a mechanical stirrer. asphaltic materials. (#" to 3""/mm) diameter: that intercepts the crack at a number of locations. &he procedure is most applicable to approximately flat horizontal surfaces such as floors and pavements. +. #.  Inject the epoxy: -ydraulic pumps. (3+ to #$ mm) below the apex of the 6 grooved section. the surface seal should be removed by grinding or other means as appropriate.3). or where hydrostatic pressure is applied. &he method entails drilling a hole into the crack. !ement grouts should be avoided due to the likelihood of cracking. or air/actuated caulking guns may be used. including epoxies.outing and sealing of cracks can be used in conditions re'uiring remedial repair and where structural repair is not necessary. !are must be taken to mix only the amount of adhesive that can be used prior to commencement of gelling of the material. &his method can be used when special gasket devices are available that cover the unsealed portion of the crack and allow in%ection of the adhesive directly into the crack without leaking. or polymer mortars. epoxies are used1 however. like a paint mixing paddle.hen the cracks are not 6 grooved . silicones. the sealant should be sufficiently rigid to support the anticipated traffic. approximately +45 in. ) common and effective use is for waterproofing by sealing cracks on the concrete surface where water stands. For horizontal cracks.  !lternati e procedure: For massive structures. &ypically. . the epoxy is still flowing into unfilled portions or leaking out of the crack. an alternate procedure consists of drilling a series of holes 7usually 849 to 5/in. &he flush fitting has an opening at the top for the adhesive to enter and a flange at the bottom that is bonded to the concrete. Bonded flush fitting: . &he sealants may be any of several materials. isolated cracks. *ncreased pressure often does little to accelerate the rate of in%ection. &ypically.  Routing and sealing . causing surface stains or other problems. *f the crack is vertical or inclined. For floors. a method fre'uently used to provide an entry port is to bond a fitting flush with the concrete face over the con%unction with 6/grooving of the cracks. -owever. &his method involves enlarging the crack along its exposed face and filling and sealing it with a suitable %oint sealant (Fig. paint pressure pots. &he other techni'ue is to in%ect the cracks from one side and pull a vacuum from the other. *f the pressure can not be maintained. the in%ection process should begin by pumping epoxy into the entry port at the lowest elevation until the epoxy level reaches the entry port above.$/m) intervals. . "here are t#o techni$ues: one is to entirely enclose the cracked member with a bag and introduce the li'uid adhesive at the bottom and to apply a vacuum at the top.  Mix the epoxy: &his is done either by batch or continuous methods.outing and sealing is used to treat both fine pattern cracks and larger. polysulfides. holes are spaced at $/ft (3. &his is a common techni'ue for crack treatment and is relatively simple in comparison to the procedures and the training re'uired for epoxy in%ection.  Remo e the surface seal: )fter the in%ected epoxy has cured. the adhesive components are premixed according to the manufacturers instructions. *n batch mixing. &he crack is full if the pressure can be maintained.

cleaning the holes. to #$ mm). hand tools or pneumatic tools may be used. &he bond breaker may be a polyethylene strip or tape which will not bond to the sealant. from 345 to 3 in. with either a non shrink grout or an epoxy resin/based bonding system.Satisfactory sealants should be able to withstand cyclic deformations and should not be brittle.#). and dried. without a concentration of stress on the bottom (Fig. Stitching may be used when tensile strength must be reestablished across ma%or cracks. and anchoring the legs of the staples in the holes. (. ) concrete saw. or water blasting. &he groove is then cleaned by air blasting. ) sealant is placed into the dry groove and allowed to cure. +. &he stitching procedure consists of drilling holes on both sides of the crack. Stitching Stitching involves drilling holes on both sides of the crack and grouting in </shaped metal units with short legs (staples or stitching dogs) that span the crack as shown in Fig +.+. sandblasting. !areful attention should be applied when detailing the %oint so that its width to depth aspect ratio will accommodate anticipated movement ()!* $"5. typically. &he procedure consists of preparing a groove at the surface ranging in depth. . ) bond breaker may be provided at the bottom of the groove to allow the sealant to change shape.).

+. &he reinforcing bars can be spaced to suit the needs of the repair. depending on the design criteria and the location of the in/place reinforcement. and care is needed so that the problem will not merely migrate to another part of the structure. extending at least 39 in. . +.  %re&stressing steel 2ost/tensioning is often the desirable solution when a ma%or portion of a member must be strengthened or when the cracks that have formed must be closed (Fig.!dditional reinforcement  !onventional reinforcement !racked reinforced concrete bridge girders have been successfully repaired by inserting reinforcing bars and bonding them in place with epoxy. &his techni'ue uses pre stressing strands or bars to apply a compressive force. >o. &his techni'ue consists of sealing the crack. 5 or $ (3" ? or 3$ ?) bars are used.$ m) each side of the crack. )de'uate anchorage must be provided for the pre stressing steel.$). &hey can be placed in any desired pattern.5). filling the hole and crack with in%ected epoxy and placing a reinforcing bar into the drilled hole. &ypically. drilling holes that intersect the crack plane at approximately =" deg (Fig. (".

+. &he grout key prevents transverse movements of the sections of concrete ad%acent to the crack. &he . ) hole 7typically # to + in.. ($" to 8$ mm) in diameter: should be drilled.). &his method is most often used to repair vertical cracks in retaining walls. centered on and following the crack. &his techni'ue is only applicable when cracks run in reasonable straight lines and are accessible at one end.'rilling and plugging @rilling and plugging a crack consists of drilling down the length of the crack and grouting it to form a key (Fig.

the finer the cracks that can be filled. (ach layer should be thoroughly compacted over the surface using a blunt stick or hammer. . *f the keying effect is essential. For some polymers the failure crack will occur outside the repaired crack. &he procedure consists of cleaning the concrete along the crack1 installing built/up seats (grout nipples) at intervals astride the crack (to provide a pressure tight connection with the in%ection apparatus)1 sealing the crack between the seats with a cement paint. producing intimate contact between the mortar and the existing concrete. and each underlying layer should be scratched to facilitate bonding with the next layer. *f water/tightness is essential and structural load transfer is not. the portion ad%acent to the surface should be widened to a slot about 3 in.ater blasting followed by a drying time may be effective in cleaning and preparing these cracks. the fiat being grouted. )fter the crack is filled.""3 to ". (3" mm) thick. urethanes. strength. and some low viscosity epoxies have been used successfully. For small volumes. &he lower the viscosity.key will also reduce heavy leakage through the crack and loss of soil from behind a leaking wall. and the patch remains tight and can have good 'uality with respect to durability."+ to # mm) by gravity filling. (". the pressure should be maintained for several minutes to insure good penetration. sealant. depending on the width of the crack. and water tightness. &he typical procedure is to clean the surface by air blasting and4or water blasting. Cecause of the low water/cement ratio of the material. &o minimize shrinkage in place. or grout1 flushing the crack to clean it and test the seal1 and then grouting the whole area. @ry pack can be used for filling narrow slots cut for the repair of dormant cracks.  'ry packing @ry packing is the hand placement of a low water content mortar followed by tamping or ramming of the mortar into place. (#$ mm) wide and 3 in. &he repair should be . &his method is effective in stopping water leaks. . Cefore a crack is repaired by dry packing. (#$ mm) deep. the mortar should stand for 34# hour after mixing and then should be remixed prior to use. but it will not structurally bond cracked sections. Shear (or tension) tests can be performed with the load applied in a direction parallel to the repaired cracks (as long as reinforcing steel is not present in the core in or near the failure area). a pump should be used. &he use of dry pack is not advisable for filling or repairing active cracks. a manual in%ection gun may be used1 for larger volumes. !ores taken at cracks can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the crack filling.ater reducers or other admixtures may be used to improve the properties of the grout. there is little shrinkage. the resilient material can be placed in a second hole. (ra ity Filling Aow viscosity monomers and resins can be used to seal cracks with surface widths of ". . &he depth of penetration of the sealant can be measured. may be repaired by filling with 2ortland cement grout. the water/cement ratio should be kept as low as practical to maximize the strength and minimize shrinkage. -owever. &he slot should be undercut so that the base width is slightly greater than the surface width. (routing  %ortland cement grouting . particularly in gravity dams and thick concrete walls."9 in. Brout mixtures may contain cement and water or cement plus sand and water. -igh/molecular/ weight methacrylates. the drilled hole should be filled with a resilient material of low modulus in lieu of grout. &he mortar should be placed in layers about +49 in.ide surfaces should be permitted to dry several days to obtain the best crack filling.

seismic loading is suited for construction in seismically active regions."5 to #.apid urban and industrial growth demands more land for further development. Brouting is in%ection of pumpable materials to increase its rigidity. Slabs with working cracks can be overlaid if %oints are placed in the overlay directly over the working cracks. an overlay thickness as low as 3/345 in. Skid/resistant aggregates are often mixed into the material or broadcast onto the surface to improve traction. Bround freezing converts pore water to ice to increase their combined strength and make them impervious. sloping walls. are discussed.  Surface treatments Aow solids and low/viscosity resin/based systems have been used to seal the concrete surfaces. epoxies.einforced soil steel is used for retaining structures. ." in. &he field of ground improvement techni'ues has been recognized as an important and rapidly expanding one. ?aterials such as urethanes. &hey are most suited for surfaces not sub%ect to significant wear. but not necessarily repair a slab. (lectro osmosis makes water flow through fine grained soils. Suitable polymers include styrene butadiene or acrylic latexes. &hese. 2reloading method is used to remove pore water over time. ?icro pile gives the structural support and used for repair4replacement of existing foundations. Beogrid etcD. -eating is used to form a crystalline or glass product by electric current. ?echanically stabilized earth structures create a reinforced soil mass. 6ibro/ compaction increases the density of the soil by using powerful depth vibrators. and acrylics have been applied in thickness of ". as well as other interior slabs may be coated effectively after cracks are treated by in%ecting with epoxy or by routing and sealing. *n highway bridge applications. &he %et grouting is 'uite advanced in speed as well as techni'ues when compared with the general grouting. . &he simplest method of moist curing is to support a strip of folded wet burlap along the length of the crack. 6acuum consolidation is used for improving soft soils by using a vacuum pump. &he geo methods like Beosynthesis. or by silica fume concrete. ) erlay and surface treatments Fine surface cracks in structural slabs and pavements may be repaired using either a bonded overlay or surface treatment if there will not be further significant movement across the cracks. dams etcD. (+" mm) has been used successfully. 6ibro replacement stone columns improve the bearing capacity of soil whereas 6ibro displacement method displaces the soil. (lectro kinetic stabilization is the application of electro osmosis. with #" percent usually being optimum. including treatment of very fine cracks. &he resin solids should be at least 3$ percent by weight of the 2ortland cement. (3 to $" mm). *n order to meet this demand land reclamation and utilization of unsuitable and environmentally affected lands have been taken up. depending on the material and purpose of the treatment. verlays and surface treatments can be appropriate for cracks caused by one/time occurrences and which do not completely penetrate the slab.  Overlays Slabs containing find dormant cracks can be repaired by applying an overlay.EME+": . &he ground can be improved by adapting certain ground improvement techni'ues. <nbounded overlays may be used to cover.cured by using either water or a curing compound. (R)*+' IM%R). Cridge decks and parking structure slabs. Soil nailing increases the shear strength of the in/situ soil and restrains its displacement. hitherto useless lands for construction have been converted to be useful ones by adopting one or more ground improvement techni'ues. polyesters. such as polymer modified 2ortland cement mortar or concrete.

educe post/construction Settlement .*ES: /0 . 20 . &he soil site is covered with an airtight membrane and vacuum is created underneath it by using dual venture and vacuum pump. -owever. the consolidation of the soils is time dependent. sometimes referred to as 6ibrofloation.EME+" "EC-+I. &he vibrators used by &erraSystems consist of torpedo/shaped probes 3# to 3.educe secondary compression. !%%1IC!"I)+S: • .IBR)&C)M%!C"I)+: 6ibro/compaction. • !ombine with embankment pre/load using the increased stability 30 %RE1)!'I+(: 2reloading has been used for many years without change in the method or application to improve soil properties. • !ombine with a water pre/loading in scare fill area. 6ibrocompaction is performed with specially/designed vibrating probes. @egree of consolidation.eduction of foundation settlements.(R)*+' IM%R). &he pore water dissipation reduces the total volume causing settlement. &he principle behind vibrocompaction is simple. ) compacted radial zone of granular material is created !%%1IC!"I)+S: • . Coth horizontal and vertical modes of vibration have been used in the past. &he technology can provide an e'uivalent pre/loading of about 5. 6arved silts and clays. • . 2reloading or pre/compression is the process of placing additional vertical stress on a compressible soil to remove pore water over time. @redged material &he design considerations which should be made are bearing capacity.!CC*M C)+S)1I'!"I)+0 6acuum !onsolidation is an effective means for improvement of saturated soft soils. Surcharging is an economical method for ground improvement. &he method is used to build large developments on thick compressible soil. &he probe is first inserted into the ground by both %etting and vibration. is the rearrangement of soil particles into a denser configuration by the use of powerful depth vibration0 6ibrocompaction is a ground improvement process for densifying loose sands to create stable foundation soils. inches in diameter which vibrates at fre'uencies typically in the range of +" to $" -z.$m high conventional surcharge fill. granular material. )fter the probe reaches the re'uired depth of compaction. @ensification *mprove bearing capacity . &he combined action of vibration and water saturation by %etting rearranges loose sand grains into a more compact state.eduction of risk of li'uefaction due to seismic activity. usually sand. !%%1IC!"I)+S: • • • • • . soft clay. • 2ermit construction on granular fills. Slope stability. &he soils treated are rganic silt. 6acuum/assisted consolidation preloads the soil by reducing the pore pressure while maintaining a constant total stress.eplace standard pre&loading techni'ues eliminating the risk of failure. delaying construction pro%ects making it a non/feasible alternative. is added from the ground surface to fill the void space created by the vibrator.

<>@ FREE6I+( !%%1IC!"I)+S: • • • • • &emporary underpinning &emporary support for an excavation 2revention of groundwater flow into excavated area &emporary slope stabilization &emporary containment of toxic4hazardous waste contamination 90 .et top feed method • @ry bottom feed method • ffshore bottom feed method Summary: . excess pore water pressure is readily dissipated by the stone columns and for this reason.IBR)&RE%1!CEME+": &he stone columns and intervening soil form and integrated foundation support system having low compressibility and improved load bearing capacity. B.elative density. (nergy re'uirements. "he ground free7ing considerations are &hermal analysis8 . 2ermeation. reduced settlements occur at a faster rate than is normally the case with cohesive soils.i:ro Replacement 2rinciple • . *t uses electrical current to heat the soil and modify the physical characteristics of the soil. temperatures can range between +"" and 3""" degree !elsius. &he important 6ibro/replacement stone columns are Bround conditions. bonding together ad%acent particles of soil or blocks of rock to increase their combined strength and make them impervious. %RI+CI%1ES )F . . .eplacement extends the range of soils that can be improved by vibratory techni'ues to include cohesive soils. "here are different types of installation methods which can be broadly classified in the following manner0 • . *n cohesive soils.efrigeration system geometry8 &hermal properties of soil and rock8 freezing rates. &he impact on ad%acent structures and utilities should be considered when heating is used. @epending on the soil. .einforcement • @rainage . &he ice then acts as a cement or glue. !oolant4 refrigerant distribution system analysis. -eating soils permanently alters the properties of the soil. @egree of saturation.IBR)&RE%1!CEME+" S")+E C)1*M+S: 6ibro/. !%%1IC!"I)+S: • *mmobilization of radioactive or contaminated soil • @ensification and stabilization 50 (R)*+' FREE6I+(: Bround freezing is the use of refrigeration to convert in/situ pore water to ice.40 -E!"I+(: -eating or vitrifaction breaks the soil particle down to form a crystalline or glass product.einforcement of the soil with compacted granular columns or Estone columnsF is accomplished by the top/feed method.

E+ESS (H!(AA(>& (H!(AA(>& (R)*+' ".oad and railway embankments !ommon applications ?aximum depth Aand 4 offshore application • #"/5" m • Coth .eduction of the risk of li'uefaction due to seismic activity Slope stabilization 2ermit construction on fills 2ermit shallow footing construction RE1!"I. silt and sand Soft and ultra soft silts (slimes) Soft and ultra soft clays Barbage fills (ffect(s) • *ncreased shear strength • *ncreased stiffness • .E EFFEC"I.)pplicable soil(s) • • • • ?ixed deposits of clay.educed li'uefaction potential • • • • • • • )irport taxiways and runways !hemical plants Storage tanks G silos 2ipelines Cridge abutments and approaches ffshore bridge abutments .%E S)>@S S*A&I S)>@S .IBR)&RE%1!CEME+" !%%1IC!"I)+S: • • • • • • .eduction of foundation settlement *mprove bearing capacity4reduce footing size re'uirements .

alls.S"R*C"*RES: ) segmental. !%%1IC!"I)+S: • .einforced Soil Slopes. • For walls reinforced with metallic strips. bar mats. to create in/situ soil and restrain its displacements. %RI+CI%1ES: • &he reinforcement is placed in horizontal layers between successive layers of granular soil backfill. • ?S(. load is transferred from the backfill soil to the strip reinforcement by shear along the interface. • For walls with ribbed strips. • Facing panels are typically s'uare. right/of/way. load is similarly transferred but an additional component of strength is obtained through the passive resistance on the transverse members of the reinforcement.SS/ . or grid reinforcement. S"!BI1I6E' E!R". • )nother use of reinforcement in engineered slopes is to improve compaction at the edges of a slope to decrease the tendency for surface sloughing.C)B( B @ @ ?).)@)&* >) B @ > & )22A*!)CA( MEC-!+IC!11.$m J# in area. rectangular. !%%1IC!"I)+S: . hexagonal or cruciform in shape and are up to 5. &he basic design consists of transferring the resisting tensile forces generated in the inclusions into the ground through the friction mobilized at the interfaces.B*>)A & B (H!(AA(>&(@(2(>@*>B > B. 'ESI(+: !urrent practice consists of determining the geometric reinforcement to prevent internal and external failure using limit e'uilibrium of analysis. (ach layer of backfill consists of one or more compacted lifts. • ) free draining. S)I1 +!I1I+(: &he fundamental concept of soil nailing consists of reinforcing the ground by passive inclusions. closely spaced.SS structures are cost effective alternatives for new construction where the cost of embankment fill. non plastic backfill soil is re'uired to ensure ade'uate performance of the wall system. and other consideration may make a steeper slope desirable. when the face batter is shallower. precast facing mechanically stabilized earth wall employs metallic (strip or bar mat) or geosynthetic (geogrid or geotextile) reinforcement that is connected to a precast concrete or prefabricated metal facing panel to create a reinforced soil mass. • ./ ?echanically Stabilized (arth .S*A&S !A)IS ?*>(S2 *AS @<?2(@ F*AA B). when the face batter is generally steeper than 8" degrees.

disturbances and noise. @ay lighting. in some circumstances steel pipes. natural and artificial. (routing selection considerations are Site specific re'uirement.*ES: . <tilities damage. originally in a precarious condition due &o differential settlement. ) similar )ttempt was made in the present case study in which the bearing capacity of the (xisting foundation system of a building was restored to safety using micropiles. was restored to safety using micropiles. (routing can :e pre ented :y !ollapse of granular soils. Soil type. &he e'uipment can be further adapted to operate in locations with low headroom and severely restricted access. (stablish ob%ectives of grouting program."o with the horizontal were used and the friction between the pile and &he soil was used as the design basis in evolving the remedial measures. !%%1IC!"I)+S: • • • • • • For Structural Support and stability Foundation for new structures . reduced ground movement.epair 4 . @evelop performance prediction. driven at )n angle of . at any angle below horizontal. 2erform special geotechnical study. slope and landslide stabilization Soil strengthening and protection E<!M%1E: *n *ndia. Settlement under ad%acent foundations. coated wooden piles are used as cost/effective ptions in improving the bearing capacity of foundation or restrict @isplacements to tolerable levels and similar uses in stabilization of slopes. @evelop initial grouting program. (E+ER!1 (R)*"I+(: Brouting is the in%ection of pumpable materials into a soil or rock formation to change the physical characteristics of the formation. with the capability of sustaining high loads (compressive loads of over $""" K>). 2redictable degree of improvement 'ESI(+ S"E%S: • • • • • • • *dentify underground construction problem. Sridharan and ?urthy (3==+) described a !ase study in which a ten/storeyed building.efine design and prepare specifications. with minimal vibration. Soil groutability. (R)*"I+( "EC-+I. .&he drilling e'uipment and methods allows micro L piles to be drilled through virtually every ground conditions. !ompare with other solutions. Balvanized steel 2ipes of 3"" mm diameter and 3" m long with bottom end closed with shoe. 2orosity.eplacement of existing foundations )rresting 4 2revention of movement (mbankment. strengthening of foundations are common. (routing can pro ide *ncreased soil strength and rigidity.• Stabilization of railroad and highway cut slopes • (xcavation retaining structures in urban areas for high/rise building and underground facilities • &unnel portals in steep and unstable stratified slopes • !onstruction and retrofitting of bridge abutments with complex boundaries involving wall support under piled foundations MICR) %I1ES: ?icro/piles are small diameter piles (up to +"" mm).

which in turn solidifies. . # cut/off walls by grouting and %et grouting. &hese binders break up the soil structure completely and mix the soil particles in/situ to create a homogeneous mass. Brouting contractors use ultra high/pressure fluids or binders that are in%ected into the soils at high velocities. E<!M%1E: "eesta 'am > India !ut off 4 %et grouting and grouting <pstream and downstream cofferdams. particularly in the treatment of load bearing soils under new and existing buildings1 in the in/depth impermeabilization of water bearing soils1 in tunnel construction1 and to mitigate the movement of impacted soils and groundwater.&he various in%ection grouting techni'ues used by grouting contractors for ground improvement 4 ground modification can be summarized as follows0 • • • • 2ermeation !ompaction Brouting0 !la'uage Met Brouting =E" (R)*"I+(: Met grouting is a general term used by grouting contractors to describe various construction techni'ues used for ground modification or ground improvement. &his ground modification 4 ground improvement of the soil plays an important role in the fields of foundation stability.