You are on page 1of 207

2009 Fluor. All Rights Reserved.

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


Gobind Khiani, P.Eng

DISCLAIMER

- The content of this presentation are intended for
educational purposes only and do not replace
independent professional judgment. They do not
constitute advice and should not be relied upon in
making or refraining from making) any decision.

- Statement of fact and opinions expressed are
those of the speaker alone and are not the
opinion or position of his employers, past or
present, nor those of the professional bodies and
committees in which he participates.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
To establish baseline
framework using existing
ELM(Energy Lean
Management Systems- Part 1)
and the Specs.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Energy Lean
Management
Systems Part 1
Pressure Safety Valve Vs Safety Relief Valve
Pressure Safety Valve(PSV) ISA Symbol
Valve which is designed to relieve excess pressure.
Designed to be snap-acting open/closed.
Pressure Relief Valve(PRV, Upstream pressure)
(PCV, Downstream pressure)
A valve which opens in throttling action or in
proportion to the increase in pressure over the
opening pressure. Essentially a regulator.
Safety Relief Valve(SRV) Not used in ISA
Symbology
An automatic pressure relieving device. This is
similar to a Pressure Safety Valve.
ELM Common Terms used in Pressure
Relief/Safety Valves
Set Pressure: The inlet pressure at which the PSV or
PRV is adjusted to open under service conditions.

Actual Orifice Area (ASME Area): The measured
minimum net area which determines the flow through a
valve.(applies only to PSV)

Coefficient of Discharge: The ratio of the measured
relieving capacity to the theoretical relieving capacity.

MAWP: The maximum gauge pressure allowable at the
top of a completed vessel in its normal operating position.
ELM Common Terms used in Pressure
Relief/Safety Valves

Accumulation: The pressure increase over the MAWP
of the vessel during discharge.

Overpressure: The pressure increase over the set
pressure of a PRV.

Relieving pressure: The sum of the set pressure and
over pressure.

Blowdown: The difference between the set pressure
and the closing pressure of a PSV.

ELM Common Terms..Contd.2
Back pressure is the pressure that exists at the outlet of a
pressure relief device as a result of the pressure in the
discharge system. It can be broken down as follows:
Constant
Superimposed
Built-up
Variable

Effects due to back pressure may include variations in
opening pressure, reduction in flow capacity, instability, or a
combination of all three.



ELM Common Terms..Contd 3

Design Pressure: Design Pressure is equal to or less than
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP). MAWP is the
maximum gauge pressure at the top of the vessel. Set Pressure
should not be more than 90% of the MAWP.

Test Pressure: Cold Differential Test Pressure is the pressure
at which the PSV/SRV is set to open on the stand with
corrections for service conditions; for example, Temperature
and Constant Back Pressure.

Set Pressure: The inlet gauge (static) pressure at which the
PSV is set to open. This pressure can be defined differently by
each manufacturer but has to be shown in the National Board's
'Red Book.' For example, definition of Set Pressure for Air, Gas,
or Steam is 'initial audible discharge' (not 'pop').

Energy Management Criticality

Energy Management Characteristics of
Pressure Relief/Safety Valves
These Valves are designed to:
1. Open and relieve excessive pressure in piping systems.
2. They close automatically after fail below set pressure
(normal pressures are restored) by system design.
3. These valves function or act when normal operating
controls fail to act.

NOTE: These valves are :
- Not designed to control the normal operating pressure.
- Most critical valve in a pressurised piping system.
- These are commonly known as Pressure Relief/Safety
Valves(PRSV)

ELM Purpose of Pressure Relief/Safety Valves


Protection of:
- Personnel, plant, property, production.

Used towards Compliance of:
- Regulatory requirements, Insurance, Safety and
Codes.
ELM Specifications on Pressure Relief Valves

1.0 Introduction
2.0 References
3.0 Life Cycle
3.1 Design
3.2 Installation
3.3 Operation
3.4 Maintenance / Servicing
3.5 Reset / Replace
4.0 Responsibilities
4.1 Engineering
4.1.1 The Project Engineers Responsibilities
4.1.2 The Facility Engineers Responsibilities












































FORM
ELM Specifications on Pressure Relief Valves

4.2 Inspection
4.2.1 The QA Site Leads Responsibilities
4.2.2 The Facility Integrity Coordinators Responsibilities
4.3 Operations & Maintenance
4.3.1 The Chief Engineers Responsibilities
4.3.2 Operations and Maintenance Personnel's
Responsibilities
4.4 PRD Service Company
ELM Specifications on Pressure Relief Valves
5.0 Transportation Requirements.
6.0 Forms
7.0 Record Keeping Systems
8.0 PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE REPLACEMENT and
RESET AUTHORIZATION FORM
9.0 PSV TURNAROUND INFORMATION DATA FOR
PRD AUDIT FORM Static Data Verification
PRD AUDIT FORM Visual Inspection Installation Checklist
10.0 PRD SERVICE DEFERRAL REQUEST FORM


Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


Types of Pressure Relief
Valves
Types of Pressure Relief/Safety Valves
Relief Valve used in liquid
service.
Safety Valve used in
vapor/gas service.
Safety relief valve liquid or
vapor/gas service.

Relief Valve in Liquid Service


These valves are:
- Operated by static inlet pressure.
- Opens in proportion to the
Pressure over the system opening
pressure.
Safety Valves in vapor/gas service
These valves are:
-Automatically actuated by
static inlet pressure.
-Characterized by rapid pop
action or opening.
-Typically has exposed or
open spring area.
-Process media goes
via/through valve.
Pressure Safety Valves-Liquid or vapor/gas
service






These valves are:
Opening mechanism type.
- Quick opening or pop
opening.
- Proportional.
Two designs
- Conventional
- Balanced
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


Types of Designs:
-Direct Spring loaded valve.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


Spring Loaded PSVs are designed as:
- Spring force holds disc closed by pressing disc
against the nozzle.
- Downward force maintains seat seal.
- When force of flow from below increases to a
pressure greater than that of spring above, the disc
lifts.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


Spring loaded PSV operation:
- Closed position:
- The spring force higher
Than upward system pressure
On disc.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Spring loaded PSV
operation
Open Position:
Spring force is
reduced due to
force from inlet
flowing pressure on
disc.
Pressure Relief/Safety valve 101

Huddling Chamber is useful:
- Assist in full-lift of valve.
- At a set point, increases the
Pressure area exposed to.
- Uses direction change of
Flowing process to obtain
Lift.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

The earlier slides from 20-27 discussed the
Conventional direct spring loaded PSVs
Basically these PSVs are:
- Spring housing vented to discharge at side of valve.
- Operational characteristics are:
Opening and closing pressure, relieving design and
capacity.
Operational characteristics directly affected by
changes in back pressure in outlet of valve.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valves 101

Now we will discuss
-Balanced direct spring-loaded PSVs
The design of these incorporate
Means of minimizing effect of
Back pressure on operational
Characteristics of valve
By using bellows.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101 Pilot
Valve
Pilot Valves
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Pilot Control Benefits:
Robust and insensitive to vibration
safe operation also in case of vibration
and oscillation in the plant
Wide pressure range from
2,5 102 bar / 36 1480 psig ensures
the applicability for a variety of application
fields
Simple material change as all pilot parts
are lathe formed. So also parts of custom material
can easily be produced
Back flow preventer integrated into manifold
block to improve the the variable use of the standard design

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Pilot Operated Valve Benefits:
Integrated control lines of the pilot in the cover. Reduction of
the danger of leakage points, pipeline damages and
freezing of condensate.
Integrated brackets at the body for an
easier handling and a safe assembly.
Self draining body angle type avoids
residues and reduces corrosion
Soft seal discs meet the increased
Requirements of the functional tightness
All process-wetted parts in tubing and pilot valve are either
..stainless steel or nickel-coated

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Options available on Pilot operated valve are:

-Back flow preventer.
-Remote Sensing.
-Field test connector.
-Pilot supply filter.
-Manual blow down.
-etc
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Pilot operated PSVs
Closing action:
-Pilot control valve diverts
System pressure to the
Main valve.
- Piston force downward
Becomes less than
Seat area upwards.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Pilot operated PSVs
Opening :
-Once the valve senses
Inlet pressure has
Reached set pr.
-Closes inlet pr., sensing
Line, dome.
-Opens vent line, allowing
Dome pressure out.
-Allows pressure under disc
To push up, opening main valve.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


Pilot Operated PSVs Principal of Operation:
Reseat action of pilot valve by:
-Senses inlet pressure decreased to closing pressure.
-Closes vent line.
-Allows pressure from sensing line to fill dome.
- Forces disc down onto seat.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Vacuum direct spring loaded PVSV(ISA Symbol)
-These PSVs admits fluid to
Prevent an excessive internal
Vacuum.
- Re-closes to prevent
Further fluid flow after normal
Conditions are restored.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
These images are for a Temperature direct spring
loaded PSVs
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


Rupture Pin Relieve Valve operates as:
Pin Buckles at 3points.
Buckling force > Valve seal friction.
Full open at set point.
The operation is simple as the pin bows the piston
moves up just enough to remove seal stiction.
However the pin is within the elastic limit and the
piston remains on seat.


Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Rupture Discs
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


Codes, Regulations and Standards Authorities are:
- ABSA
- API
- ASME
- NBB-PVs
- Absa Safety Valve GuidelinesAB524, AB525,
AB506 & AB516


Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


There is one thing we know for sure about a plan:
As soon as we finish planning,
the plan is going to change

Management of Change is not about preventing
change it is about Managing the Change.

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Pressure Safety Valves!!!!!!
Why..
What.
How......
When....
Where..........

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
- Pressure Safety Valve.
- Relief Valve.
- Safety Valve.
- Safety Relief Valve
- Conventional, spring loaded.
Bellow valve.
- Pilot operated valve.
- POV with Reverse flow
preventer.
- POV with Auxiliary filter and
field test Capabilities.
- POV with pilot discharge
tubed to main Valve outlet.

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
ASME/ANSI B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
ASME/ANSI B16.34 Valves Flanged Threaded,& Welded End
ASME/ANSI PTC 25 Performance Test Code
ASME PTC 25 Pressure Relief Devices Performance Test Codes
National Board of Boilers and Pressure Vessel Inspectors Code.
API 520 Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure-Relieving
Devices in Refineries.
APIRP 521 Guide for Pressure Relieving and Depressurizing
Systems.
API 526 Flanged Steel Pressure Relief Valves.
API 527 Seat Tightness of Pressure Relief Valves.
API 576, 580 & 581 Risk Based Inspection


Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
AD 2000 Venting Atmospheric & low Pressure Storage Tanks .
ISO 4126 - Part 1 Safety devices for protection against
excessive pressure, Part 1: Safety Valves
ISO 4126 - Part 4 Safety devices for protection against
excessive pressure, Pilot operated safety valves.
ISO 4126 - Part 9 Safety devices for protection against
excessive pressure, Application and installation of safety
devices excluding standalone bursting disc safety devices.
Pressure Vessel Relief Committee,
IPEIA
NACE
ABSA, AB506, 516, 524 & 525

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
The Committee's function is to establish rules of
safety governing the design, the fabrication and
the inspection during construction of boilers and
unfired pressure vessels, and to interpret these
rules when questions arise regarding their intent.
The objective of the rules is to afford reasonably
certain protection of life and property and to
provide a margin for deterioration in service so as
to give a reasonably long safe period of
usefulness
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

ASME CODE, SECTION I, Fired Vessels,
Code Stamp V

This is a construction code covering power, electric
and miniature boilers and high temperature boilers
used in stationary service. This section includes
power boilers used in locomotive, portable and
traction service. Above 15 PSIG.

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

ASME Section I, Performance Requirements
3% maximum overpressure at rated capacity.
6% maximum blow down.
Set pressure tolerance:
+/- 2 psi Pset>70 psig
+/- 3 psi 71 psi<Pset<300 psi
+/- 10 psi 301 psi<Pset<1000 psi
+/- 1% Pset>1000 psi
Must c/w lifting lever.
Must c/w data plate showing rated capacity in lb/hr steam.

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


ASME CODE, SECTION III, Nuclear
Vessels, Code Stamp NV

This section covers the design, fabrication and
installation of equipment and vessels for use in
nuclear facilities.

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

ASME CODE, SECTION IV, Heating
Boilers, Code Stamp HV

This code covers the design, fabrication, installation
and inspection of steam heating, hot water heating
and hot water supply boilers which are directly fired
by oil, gas, electricity or coal.


Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


ASME CODE, SECTION VIII
Pressure Vessels, Code Stamp UV

Basic rules for the construction, design, fabrication,
inspection and certification of pressure vessels.
These rules have been formulated on the basis of
design principles and construction practices
applicable to vessels. Stamping and coding are also
covered in this section.

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
ASME Section 8, Performance Requirements
Maximum overpressure at rated capacity:
10% (or 3 psi) - single valve
16% (or 4 psi) - multiple valves with at least one set at or lower
than MAWP
21% - overpressure due to fire.
No mandatory blowdown, however, adjustable blowdown
valves must meet 7% test during certification. Recommend
keeping operating pressure < 90% of Pset.
Set pressure tolerance:
+/- 2 psi Pset<70 psi
+/- 3% Pset>70 psi
Lifting lever required for water >140F, air or steam service.
Must c/w dataplate showing rated capacity in SCFM air,
USGPM water or lb/hr steam
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

NATIONAL BOARD OF BOILERS
& PRESSURE VESSEL INSPECTORS

The N.B. represents the enforcement agencies who
assure adherence to provisions of the ASME boiler
and pressure vessel code. Its members are the chief
inspectors or other jurisdictional authorities who
administer the boiler and pressure vessel safety laws
in the united states and Canada.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

NATIONAL BOARD OF BOILERS
& PRESSURE VESSEL INSPECTORS

Sets Inspection Standards
Qualifies Inspectors
Works for Owners, Insurers
Maintains Records (Red Book)
Looks into Violations
Covers Repair

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
ASME/NB Certification Program

Valve Capacity Certification
(Once when valve is released)
To establish coefficient of discharge = K

Manufacturer/Assembler Certification
(Once every five years)
To review facilities and QC procedures
To test two production valves for performance &
capacity


Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
API RP520 Part I- Sizing & Selection
Part II-Installation
API RP521 Guide for Pressure-Relieving &
Depressurizing Systems
API Std.526 Flanged Steel Safety Relief Valves
API Std.527 Seat Tightness of Pressure Relief
Valves
API Std.2000 Venting Atmospheric & low Pressure
Storage Tanks
API576, 580 & 581 Risk Based Inspection

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
API 520 Part 1, Sizing and Selection

The information in this recommended practice is
intended to supplement the information contained in
Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code. It contains
Terminology
Pressure - Level Relationships
Causes of Overpressure
Basis of Relief Capacities selected conditions


Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
API 520 Part 2, Installation

The information in this recommended practice is intended to
cover methods of installation for pressure relief devices for
equipment that has an MAWP or 15 psig or greater. It
contains
Inlet Piping to PRDs
Discharge Piping from PRDs
Isolation Valves
Bonnet / Pilot Vent Piping
Drain Piping
PRD Location (Pressure Drop etc)
Multiple PRVs staggered settings


Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
API 521, Guide for Pressure Relieving and
Depressurizing Systems
Developed as a guide for plant engineers in the
design, installation, and operation of pressure-
relieving and depressuring systems. It also
recommends economically sound and safe practices
for pressure relief. It contains
Causes of Overpressure
Determination of Individual Relieving Rates
Selection of Disposal Systems
Disposal Systems

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
API 526, Flanged Steel Pressure Relief Valves
This standard is a purchase specification for flanged
steel pressure relief valves including direct spring
loaded pressure relief valves and pilot operated relief
valves. It contains
Design
Material
Inspection and Shop Tests
Identification and Preparation for Shipment
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
API 526 has standardized the following items:
OOrifice designation and area(D to T)
OValve size and pressure rating,
inlet and outlet
OMaterials
OPressure-temperature limits
OCenter-to-face dimensions, inlet and outlet
OSizing independently from manufacturer
OInspection and shop tests
OIdentification and preparation for shipment
OFlanged safety valves only

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
API 527, Seat Tightness of Pressure Relief Valves
This standard describes tests to determine the seat
tightness of metal and soft-seated pressure relief
valves. Valves of conventional, bellows, and pilot-
operated designs are covered. Acceptable leakage
rates are defined. It contains
Testing With Air
Testing With Steam
Testing With Water
Testing With Air Another Method

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
NACE

There are different NACE specifications that can be
met when selecting PSVs
- NACE MR 0175 (2002)
- NACE MR 0175 /ISO 15156 (2003)
- NACE MR 0103
Basic difference between these standards is hardness
testing of parts newer standards requires hardness
testing of pressure containing parts.

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Absa
Absa the pressure equipment safety authority, is
authorized by the Alberta Government for the
administration and delivery of safety programs related
to boilers, pressure vessels and pressure piping
systems in Alberta. These safety programs are
provided to ensure public safety and include the
complete life cycle of boilers, pressure vessels and
pressure piping systems. The Safety Codes Act allows
an ABSA Safety Codes Officer to inspect a boiler or
pressure vessel. ABSA is also responsible for the
certification of pressure welders, inspectors and power
engineers for the operation of a power or heating boiler.

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Absa Guidelines on:

Operation, Inspection,
Handling and Servicing of
Pressure Relief Valves
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

Absa currently adheres on Pressure Relief Valves by
following guidelines and regulations are:
AB 506 and 524.
ASME PTC-25
ASME Section I,IV, VIII, CSA B51 code.
ASME B31.1, NFPA-58 & 59, ANSI K61.1/CGA G-21
API520 Part I and II
NB-23 and NB-18
AB506, API576, 580 & 581

Absa, AB-506

The AB 506 and the following documents have been
issued by the Administrator to define the
requirements that must be met for in-service pressure
equipment under the PESR. When sections of the
recognized industry standards such as the NBIC and
API Codes are referenced in documents issued by
the Administrator, the requirements in these sections
must be met.

Absa, AB-506...Contd.2
15.0 INSPECTION AND PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
SERVICING DATE DEFERRAL AND REVISION
Table 1, shows the maximum time that may be
allowed to elapse between thorough inspections and
PRV servicing intervals. Equipment shall be
inspected/serviced by this interval date, unless the
interval has been deferred or revised in accordance
with Section 15.0.
Owner-users must maintain documented procedures
to control and document deferrals and revisions.

Absa, AB-506...Contd.3

17.0 PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICES
PESR Section 38(1) requires owners to ensure that all
equipment in the pressure system has suitable
overpressure protection to ensure that its authorized
maximum allowable working pressure is not exceeded.
The owner must ensure that all pressure-relief
devices, and the instrumentation and controls that are
necessary to ensure the safe operation of the pressure
equipment, are periodically examined, tested, and
maintained by competent persons in accordance with

Absa, AB-506...Contd.4

documented work processes.
API RP-576 and NBIC Part 2 covers information
regarding the inspection and servicing of
pressure-relief devices. The applicable
information in these documents should be used
to ensure that the pressure-relief devices are
inspected maintained and serviced in
accordance with this section.

Absa, AB-506...Contd.5
17.1 Isolation Valves
The Administrator may accept the installation of block
valves in pressure relief piping for pressure vessels if the
owner meets the requirements of ASME Section VIII,
Division 1 and Appendix M, and submits the relevant design
and rationale to ABSA.

The owner must have an auditable management system
that establishes procedures and training requirements for
the control of such valves. This management system must
be available for review by ABSA at all sites where block
valves are installed in the pressure-relief path.

.


ABSA, AB-506Contd.6
A typical management system would include the
following:
-A description of where block valves would be installed;
-The personnel responsible for the system;
-How the valves would be locked or sealed in the proper
position;
-How the valves would be periodically checked;
-Pressure Equipment Inspection & Servicing
requirements AB-506, 2009-05-29 Revision: 6 Page 26
of 34.The procedure required for isolation or servicing of
the pressure-relief device; and the associated training
requirements of all people who work with the pressure
equipment involved.
Absa, AB506...Contd.7
17.2 Maintenance of Pressure Relief Devices

PESR Section 39 states:
-adjustable parts of a pressure-relief device must be sealed at
the time of servicing and remain sealed during operation;
-seals must be installed in a manner that prevents changing the
adjustment of a pressure-relief device without breaking the seal;
-a pressure-relief device must be serviced at an interval
acceptable to the Administrator;
-a pressure-relief valve may be serviced, repaired, set, or
sealed only by a person who holds a Certificate of Authorization
Permit described in.
Absa, AB506...Contd.8
Section 11 and who complies with Section 13.
-Online Visual Examination
-A online external visual examination of pressure-relief devices
shall be carried out by a competent person at appropriate intervals,
based on the pressure-relief device history.
-The maximum interval for this on-stream examination is five years.
-The scope of this examination shall ensure that:
-the correct device is installed and that the seals are intact;
-there is no external damage or leaks;
-the company identification provides means to establish the last
servicing date and correct set pressure for the equipment protected
by the device;
-there are no blinds or closed valves that would prevent the device
from functioning;


Absa, AB506...Contd.9
-any isolating valves in the path of relief valves are locked and
controlled;
-discharge piping is secured and clear; and correctly installed to
prevent build up of liquids;
-any weather protection is in place;
-suitable records are maintained to document the on-line visual
examination;
-any lifting lever is operable and positioned correctly; and
-any rupture disc is properly installed and oriented.
-Pressure Equipment Inspection & Servicing Requirements AB-
506, 2009-05-29 Revision: 6 Page 27 of 34

Absa, AB506...Contd.11

17.3 Pressure Relief Valve Servicing Intervals
Table 1, shows the maximum periods of time a pressure-relief valve may remain in
service before it requires servicing, unless it has been deferred or revised in
accordance with Section 15.
The term pressure-relief valve (PRV) applies to safety valves, safety relief valves, and
relief valves. The applicable progressive interval grading and known service
requirements covered in Section 12 shall be used to determine servicing
interval for pressure relief valves.
The interval grading system does not apply for thermal relief valves and other
protective devices not classed as pressure relief valves. These shall be inspected,
tested and serviced/replaced at appropriate intervals based on their service history.
PRV s must be serviced by an organization that has a valid ABSA Certificate of
Authorization Permit to service pressure-relief valves. It is the owner s
responsibility to ensure that the organization servicing the PRV is competent for the
scope of work. Authorized PRV-servicing organizations are listed on the absa.ca

Absa, AB506...Contd.12
The owner must have appropriate work processes,
methodology, and assessments to ensure that the intervals
assigned are appropriate. The servicing interval shall be based
on the history in a particular fluid service, cleanliness, and other
servicing information. It shall also be assessed by performing an
as-received pop test (pre-test). This is required for all process
valves, unless the valve is extremely fouled and dirty or if a
valve is in a hazardous service that may require neutralizing.
When a valve is replaced it may still need to be assessed
through pre-pop, dismantling etc. in order to establish a suitable
interval for the valve that has been installed (refer to API RP-
576).
When a pressure-relief valve servicing report indicates the valve
was in unsatisfactory condition when it was removed from
service, a lower interval may be required. The owner should
conduct a root cause analysis for the purpose of preventing
reoccurrence, because reducing the length of the service
interval may not always address the cause.

Absa, AB506...Contd.13

This is particularly important when the valve fails the service
pre-pop test or is otherwise found to be in an inoperable
condition.
Appendix B shows factors that may need to be considered when
assigning servicing intervals for pressure-relief valves.
Servicing records and other data must be reviewed by the
Inspector, except as otherwise specified per the owner-user s
quality management system. The assigned servicing interval
must be approved by the Inspector.
Servicing records and other required information to support the
assigned servicing intervals must be maintained on file.

Absa, AB506...Contd.14
17.4 Rupture Discs
The device must be inspected at the assembly stage to
verify that it has been installed correctly and that the
disc meets the requirements defined in Section VIII,
Div. 1.
Rupture discs shall be inspected and replaced at
scheduled intervals, based on the applicable
manufacturer s recommendations and equipment
history.
The owner shall maintain documented work processes
to ensure the correct rupture discs are installed and
maintained safely.

Absa, AB516
Clause 37 Owners responsibility
Clause 38 Over pressure protection
Clause 39 Pressure Relief Valves
Adjustable parts of a pressure relief device must be
sealed at the time of servicing and remain sealed during
operation.
Seals must be installed in a manner that prevents
changing the adjustment of a pressure relief device without
breaking the seal.
A pressure relief device must be serviced at an interval
acceptable to the Administrator.
A pressure relief valve may be serviced, repaired, set or
sealed only by a person who holds a certificate of
authorization permit described in section 11 and who
complies with section 13.


Absa, AB516...Cont.2
Any change to the adjustable parts of pressure relief devices
must be done on a controlled basis, as this can affect system
operation and safety. Adjustments must be made by a
competent person who holds any required qualifications
under the Act.
For servicing intervals, see policy document AB-506,
Inspection and Servicing Requirements.
17.3 Pressure Relief Valve Servicing Intervals
Table 1, shows the maximum periods of time a
pressure-relief valve may remain in service before it
requires servicing, unless it has been deferred or
revised in accordance with Section 15.

Absa, AB516...Cont.3
The term pressure-relief valve (PRV) applies to safety
valves, safety relief valves, and relief valves. The
applicable progressive interval grading and known
service requirements covered in Section 12 shall be
used to determine servicing interval for pressure relief
valves.
The interval grading system does not apply for
thermal relief valves and other protective
devices not classed as pressure relief valves.
These shall be inspected, tested and
serviced/replaced at appropriate intervals based
on their service history.


Absa, AB516...Cont.4

PRV s must be serviced by an organization that
has a valid ABSA Certificate of Authorization
Permit to service pressure-relief valves. It is the
owner s responsibility to ensure that the
organization servicing the PRV is competent for
the scope of work.

Authorized PRV-servicing organizations are
listed on the absa.ca website.

Absa, AB516...Contd.5
The owner must have appropriate work processes, methodology,
and assessments to ensure that the intervals assigned are
appropriate. The servicing interval shall be based on the history in
a particular fluid service, cleanliness, and other servicing
information. It shall also be assessed by performing an as-received
pop test (pre-test). This is required for all process valves, unless
the valve is extremely fouled and dirty or if a valve is in a
hazardous service that may require neutralizing. When a valve is
replaced it may still need to be assessed through pre-pop,
dismantling etc. in order to establish a suitable interval for the valve
that has been installed (refer to API RP-576).
When a pressure-relief valve servicing report indicates the valve
was in unsatisfactory condition when it was removed from service,
a lower interval may be required. The owner should conduct a root
cause analysis for the purpose of preventing reoccurrence,
because reducing the length of the service interval may not always
address the cause.

Absa, AB516...Contd.6
This is particularly important when the valve fails the service
pre-pop test or is otherwise found to be in an inoperable
condition.
Appendix B shows factors that may need to be considered when
assigning servicing intervals for pressure-relief valves.
Servicing records and other data must be reviewed by the
Inspector, except as otherwise specified per the owner-user s
quality management system. The assigned servicing interval
must be approved by the Inspector.
Servicing records and other required information to support the
assigned servicing intervals must be maintained on file.
Pressure Equipment Inspection & Servicing Requirements AB-
506 - 2009-05-29 Revision: 6 Page 28 of 34

Absa, AB516............Contd.7
17.4 Rupture Discs
The device must be inspected at the assembly stage
to verify that it has been installed correctly and that
the disc meets the requirements defined in Section
VIII, Div. 1.
Rupture discs shall be inspected and replaced at
scheduled intervals, based on the applicable
manufacturer s recommendations and equipment
history.
The owner shall maintain documented work
processes to ensure the correct rupture discs are
installed and maintained safely.

Absa, AB516...Contd.8
18.0 REPAIRS AND ALTERATIONS OF IN-
SERVICE PRESSURE
EQUIPMENT
PESR Section 40 covers specific requirements for
repairs and alterations to in-service pressure
equipment.
AB-513 has been issued by the Administrator to
provide guidance on the application of requirements
established in the (PESR). AB-513 provides detailed
information on the inspection and certification
requirements for repairs and alterations
Absa, AB-524
The AB-524 requirements becomes mandatory effective January 1,
2014.
The period until December 31, 2013 is expected to be utilized by the
industry to:
implement and practice the requirements;
identify gaps in their QMSs, take corrective action and upgrade the
equipment as necessary to ensure compliance by January 1, 2014;
validate the effectiveness of the requirements and provide feedback to
ABSA to help improve the requirements.
In order to assist the industry achieve compliance by the mandatory
date of January 1, 2014, ABSA will conduct audit of each certified
shop by Dec. 31, 2013 and provide feedback to the auditors in regards
to the gaps between their current practices and the requirements.


Absa, AB524...Contd.2
3.0 Key Requirements:
CAP is required to manufacture, assemble, repair, service,
set or seal PRDs (PESR 11).
The design of PRDs must be registered with ABSA (PESR 14
and CSA 4.2)
CRN must be stamped on the PRD s Name Plate (CSA 5.1.1)
PRDs must be ASME Code stamped (CSA 5.3.1)
Pressure equipment must be protected by PRVs or other
means of overpressure protection acceptable to the
Administrator [PESR 38(1)].
A PRD must be set to open before the pressure in the
pressure equipment exceeds the MAWP of the pressure
equipment [PESR 38(2)].

Absa, AB524...Contd.3

Overpressure protection system must be designed and
maintained so that maximum pressure in the pressure
equipment does not exceed the prescribed limit of
overpressure allowed in the applicable code declared
in force by the PESR [PESR 38(3)].
Adjustable parts of PRDs must be sealed at the time of
servicing and remain sealed during the operation
[PESR 39(1)].
A PRV must be serviced.

Absa, AB524...Contd.4
The following codes and standards include requirements
for Pressure Relief Devices and have been adopted through
the PESR (Sec. 6 of PESR).
Compliance with the requirements of the adopted codes is
mandatory: CSA B51, Boiler, pressure vessel and pressure
piping code: CSA B51 Code establishes requirements for the
construction and servicing of Pressure Relief Devices in
Canada. The code has been adopted by all pressure
equipment jurisdictions in Canada and therefore
compliance with it is mandatory throughout Canada (the
application of the requirements may vary). Requirements
regarding the design registration [Canadian Registration
Number (CRN)], Clauses 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3; quality control
program and registration with the local pressure equipment.
Jurisdiction for manufacturers and servicing organizations..
Absa, AB524.Contd.5
The pressure equipment safety authority {ABSA:
D0264943.DOC .7}AB-524 Edition 2, Rev 0 Issued
2013-01-01 Page 12 of 45.
dismantle and inspect the internals before cleaning
and servicing, and, record the observations in the
service report; service and/or repair the PRV;
re-set the set pressure of the PRV when requested by
the owner and record the new settings in the service
report. A Repair Name Plate shall be
securely installed beside the original name plate;
replace parts and record the information in the service
report. OEM parts must be used;

Absa, AB524...Contd.6
Organizations who manufacture, assemble, inspect, repair,
service, set or seal PRVs are required to understand and have
access to a current copy of this Code.
ASME Section I, IV, VIII-1, VIII-2, VIII-3 Codes:
ASME Sections I, IV, VIII-1, VIII-2, VIII-3 Codes include
requirements for the manufacturers and assemblers of PRDs. The
requirements cover design, manufacturing, assembly, materials,
welding, examination, testing and certification of PRDs.
All of the requirements included in the ASME Codes are
mandatory for the manufacturers and assemblers. Many of
those requirements are also mandatory for the servicing
organizations.
Manufacturers and assemblers are required to understand and
maintain current copies of the applicable ASME Codes. Repair
and Servicing organizations are required to understand and
have access to the current copies of the applicable ASME
Codes.


Absa, AB524...Contd.7
Manufacturers and assemblers are required to understand
and maintain current copies of the applicable ASME Codes.
Repair and Servicing organizations are required to
understand and have access to the current copies of the
applicable ASME Codes.
ASME PTC-25, Pressure Relief Devices Performance Test
Code:
ASME Sections I, IV and VIII-1 Codes state that the definitions
relating to pressure relief devices in Section 2 of ASME PTC 25
shall apply.
Organizations who manufacture, assemble, inspect, repair,
service, set or seal PRVs are required to have access to a
current copy of this Code.


Absa, AB524...Contd.8

NBIC 23, National Board Inspection Code:
The National Board Inspection Code, NBIC-23 provides
technical guidance for maintaining the integrity of in-service
pressure equipment and servicing the PRVs. NBIC is not
mandatory in Alberta. Companies who meet the requirements
of NBIC, NB s rules, and, when certified by the NB, are
permitted by NB to apply the VR stamp to the serviced PRVs.
NBIC is considered as a recognized and generally accepted
good engineering practice by the pressure equipment
industry. Historically, the PRVs service industry in Alberta and
ABSA have closely followed the recommendations of NBIC.

Absa, AB524...Contd.9
Organizations who inspect, repair, service, set or seal PRVs are
required to understand and maintain a current copy of the NBIC-23.
NB-18 National Board Pressure Relief Device Certifications:
The publication lists the PRDs that are certified by NB. Each device
description includes information about the manufacturer, certification
number, design number, type of PRD, ASME Code of construction, test
medium, set pressure definition and blowdown. The publication is updated
The pressure equipment safety authority
{ABSA: D0264943.DOC .7}AB-524 Edition 2, Rev 0 Issued 2013-01-01
Page 11 of 45. Monthly and is available free of charge
from the NB website at ww.nationalboard.org.
PRV repair and servicing organizations are
required to maintain access to a current copy of
NB-18.


Absa, AB524.Contd.10
Codes and Standards referred to in the CSA and ASME
Codes:
When other codes and standards are referred to in the CSA
B51 and applicable ASME Codes, compliance with those
codes and standards is mandatory. Examples of some of the
referred to codes and standards are ASME PTC-25, ASME
Section IX for welding, ASME Section V for NDE.
API-527 for seat tightness testing, API-520 and API-521.
When the referred to codes or standards form part of the
activities certified by the CAP, the understanding and
maintenance of the applicable sections of those codes or
standards is mandatory.

Absa, AB524.Contd.11
API-576, API-520 Part I and Part II, API-521:
API-576, API-520 Part I and Part II, API-521 standards are
recognized and generally accepted as good engineering
practice by the petroleum, process and PRD industry. API-576
Standard provides information about causes of improper
performance, inspection and testing methods of PRDs; API-520
Part I covers sizing and selection of PRDs; API-520 Part II
covers installation of PRDs and API-521 deals with design
criteria, causes of overpressure, relieving rates and disposal
systems.
It is recommended that the organizations implement the
applicable practices of the API standards and maintain
current copies as necessary.


Absa, AB524...Contd.12

Maintenance Manuals:
Current editions of manufacturers maintenance manuals, drawings,
specification sheets shall be maintained by the service
organizations.
Note: Electronic access in lieu of maintenance of hard copies is
acceptable, provided the provision is described in the document
control process.
3.3 Scope of Alberta's Bench Testing program:
The scope of Alberta s Bench Testing program for in-service PRVs
is limited to servicing, set pressure testing, seat tightness testing
and sealing. Capacity and Blowdown tests are not within the scope
of the program. When servicing in-service PRVs, all requirements
of the applicable ASME Codes apply except for those pertaining to
capacity and blowdown testing.

Absa, AB524...Contd.13

When a PSV is received for servicing, the service
organization shall:
inspect the PSVs in the as received condition at the service
shop and record the observations in the service report;
pretest the PRV to the tolerance limits specified by the
applicable ASME Code and to the set pressure definition as
defined in NB-18 or manufacturer s specifications. Record the
results in the service report;

Absa, AB524...Contd.14
Conduct the set pressure test:
After a PRV is serviced, parts repaired/replaced as necessary and
assembled, it must be set and tested to the set pressure. The set
pressure test shall meet the requirements of the set pressure
definition specified in NB-18 or manufacturer s literature and the
tolerance limits specified by the applicable ASME Code of
construction.
Conduct the performance test:
Upon completion of the set pressure test, pressure shall be further
increased to confirm that the PRV attains sufficient lift within the
accumulation tolerances specified by the applicable ASME Code
of construction.
perform a seat tightness test in accordance with the requirements
of the manufacturer or API-527 whichever is applicable and record
the results in the service report; attach a service name plate (tag)
in accordance with the requirements of
Organizations QMS; seal the adjustable points; provide a service
report to the owner.

Absa, AB524...Contd.15
Test medium:
1. Air/gas PRVs:
Bench testing: PRVs designed for air/gas medium shall be tested with air or a
suitable inert gas at the service shop.
Field testing using an assist lift device: Process fluid
2. Steam PRVs:
Bench Testing:
PRVs used in steam service shall be tested with steam except as
follows:
- ASME Section IV Code stamped heating boiler safety valves set at or below 103
kPa (15 psi) may be tested with steam or air.
- O/Us who are certified by ABSA to service, set and seal their own PRVs may test
and set ASME Section VIII-1 & 2 steam service PRVs with air provided the
manufacturer s steam to air correction actor is applied. O/Us may get their PRVs set
on air by an ABSA certified PRVs servicing shop provided the owner:
- provides the documentation to the shop regarding the correction factor;
- provides the manufacturer s procedures to the shop for applying the correction
factor;
- ensures that the PRV shop employs technicians who are trained in setting and
testing the steam service PRVs with air.

Absa, AB524...Contd.16

For PRVs used in steam service which could not be tested with steam
because of the limitations of the steam facilities at the service shop, the
PRV may be set with air at the shop provided the final set pressure
verification is done with steam at the owner s or other suitable steam
facilities. Steam service PRVs set on air shall have a red tag attached,
warning the owner that final setting on steam is required. The red tag
shall be of min. 50mm x 75mm (2 x 3 ) size, made of durable material
that could not be easily ripped off and be substantially as shown in the
diagram.
The red warning tag shall be securely attached with service
company s seal and include the following information:
Required wording on the Front Side of the Red Tag:
WARNING
This PRV was set on air, final setting on steam required

Absa, AB524...Contd.17
The name of the service company;
Date
Type/Model No.
ASVS Number
Required wording on the Back Side of the Red tag:
This tag must be replaced with a Test Only tag after final setting on
steam by an ABSA certified service company who conducted the test.
If the PRV was serviced, the organization who serviced the PRV shall
also install a Service Name Plate .
Upon verification of the set pressure of the PRV with steam, the red
warning tag shall be replaced with a Test Only Name Plate (tag) by an
authorized service organization who tested the PRV with steam.
It is permissible for one authorized organization to service the valve and
another organization to set it with steam provided the activity is described
in their respective written description of the QMS's.


Absa, AB524...Contd.18
Field testing using an assist lift device: Steam.
All ASME Section I PRVs in steam service shall be tested with steam.
3. Liquid PRVs:
Liquid PRVs shall be tested with water or other suitable liquids except for
ASME Section IV Code stamped heating boiler safety relief valves set at or
below 1103 kPa (160 psi) which may be tested with water, steam or air.

Verification Testing:
During the audit the service organization shall demonstrate set pressure and
seat tightness testing of one PRV each for each fluid service.
3.5 PRD design registration requirements:
Design of a PRD shall be registered with ABSA. The registration of the
design is the responsibility of the manufacturer. The registration of the design
is indicated by the CRN stamping on the PRD s name plate. A CRN number
must include a digit 2 or letter C after the period to be legal for use in Alberta.

Absa, AB524..Contd.19
Key documents and records: Examples of documents and records that
may be controlled under this section include:
- A written description of the QMS (electronic or hard copy)
- Codes and standards
- Manufacturer s maintenance manuals
- Manufacturer s PRV specification documents
- Manufacturer s drawings
- Purchasing documents
- Approved vendor s list
- Planning documents
- Contract documents
- PRD specification sheets
- PRV service sheets
- PRD data sheets
- Documents of external origin
- Any other documents considered important by the organization

Absa, AB525
Cases where the Use of PRVs is Mandatory
The use of PRVs is mandatory for:
A. Boilers (for example: ASME BPV Codes, Section I and
Section IV require safety valves and do not consider the
OPPSD principals);
B. Boiler external piping as defined per ASME B31.1;
C. Pressure vessels designed in accordance with paragraph
UW-2(c) or (d) of ASME BPVC, Section VIII, Div. 1
D. Pressure vessels in public occupancy;
E. Fired-heater pressure coils;
F. Thermal liquid heating systems; and G.Systems which, by
virtue of potential chemical reactions, are not self limiting with
respect to pressure.

Absa, AB525...Contd.2
5.0 Overpressure Protection Requirements
Overpressure protection is considered the last line of defense against
possible catastrophic failure of pressure equipment. The function of
overpressure protection is to: Protect people, Prevent unsafe operation of
pressure equipment, Protect equipment from failure due to overpressure,
Prevent loss of production.
Section 38(1) of the PESR requires that the owner of pressure
equipment must ensure it has overpressure protection that is:
(a) a pressure relief valve that meets the requirements of the ASME
Code, or
(b) other means of overpressure protection acceptable to the
Administrator. According to the PESR, a pressure relief valve that meets
the requirements of the ASME Code is required for protection of all
pressure equipment unless the pressure equipment is protected by some
other means acceptable to the Administrator. The Administrator may
accept an alternative means of overpressure protection that is not a PRV,
or the Administrator may issue a Variance for the means of overpressure
protection
Absa, AB525...Contd.3
or the Administrator may issue a Variance for the means of
overpressure protection.
Pursuant to Section 14(3) of the PESR, an applicant for
the registration of a design must submit the information
that the Administrator requires. Sections 14, 15, 16,17,
and 18 of the PESR specify requirements for design
registration.
When the use of PRD, OPPSD, and/or other means of
overpressure protection is considered to support pressure
piping or pressure vessel applications, each design
submission for registration needs to satisfy the design
submission requirements specified in this document in
addition to the requirements specified in the PESR and the
code of construction.

Field Inspection
Inspection of Valve - Do a visual inspection of the inlet and outlet. Many
types of deposits or corrosion products may be loose and may drop out during
transportation.

Inspection of Adjacent Inlet and Outlet Piping - As soon as the
PRV is removed, the upstream and downstream piping should be checked for
corrosion, indications of thinning, and deposits that could interfere with valve
operation.

Transportation of Valves to Shop - Before shipping the valve, flange
faces should be arranged to protect gasket surfaces. The valves should be
transported in the upright position. Rough handling can change the set pressure
or otherwise damage internal parts.

Corrosion
Nearly all types of corrosion are
present in petrochemical
service.
Pitted or broken valve parts.
Deposits of corrosive residue.
Deterioration of the materials.
Exposed studs vulnerable to
environmental corrosion
attacks.
Corrosion can usually be slowed or
stopped by the selection of more
suitable valves or valve material. Also
by better workmanship in the shops
maintenance and repair section. A
bellows seal can be used to protect the
internals.
Damaged Seating Surfaces
Many Causes of Damaged Seats
Corrosion
Foreign Particles (scale, deposits,
dirt, slag, etc.)
Chatter ( inlet pressure drop)
Careless handling
Start-up leakage
Alignment
Incorrect ring settings
Failed Springs
1. Weakening of the Spring
(reduction of set pressure or
premature opening).
2. Total Failure (uncontrolled
valve opening.

Failed springs are almost always caused by
corrosion.
Surface Corrosion
Stress Corrosion
Where corrosion prevails:
- Change spring material
- Install bellows
- Spring coating
Plugging and Sticking
Solidified
products can
plug various
parts of the
valve and
connecting
piping.
Sticking of
internal parts
caused by
corrosion,
foreign particles
or poor
alignment
causing galling.

Balanced Bellows
All Bellows valves should
have bonnet open to
atmosphere however, if in
sour gas application,
should be vented to safe
area.
Balanced Bellows
Operators should be aware of
bellows equipped valves to
ensure vent plugs are
removed. Failure to do can
result in increased
backpressure and failure to
open at designated set
pressure.
Piping on Inlet/Outlet
Swage
Vessel
PSV
Check to ensure inlet piping isnt
increased in size from the vessel outlet.
This can cause a failure to relieve
properly because of backflow within the
nozzle area.
Check for reduction in
the outlet piping size. This
can create a massive
difference in capacity of
the valve.
Misapplication of Materials
If ordering new valves or replacement valves, your vendor
would need to know if there are special applications to
consider such as:
-temperature (compressors can have high temps on their
psvs)
-vibration (some styles of valves are more susceptible to
vibration damage)
-special process (e.g.. Stainless steel cant be used on
chlorides)
Care must be taken to record the identity and location of
valves where special materials are required.





More Causes.


Rough Handling- dropping from treaters
Improper Operating Gap- too close to set pressure
Improper Location, History or Identification
Improper Installation- too much strain on flanges
Improper Valve Design



Pre-Testing & As Found Condition
The valve is placed on the test
stand and pressured to find its
as received relieving pressure
(Pre-Test). The purpose is to
determine if the valve would
have worked in its immediate
application.
This is critical for developing a
time frame for the next service
date.
As found condition
determines if extensions or
decreases in service time frames
are to be considered.
HANDLING PSVs
ALL PRVs must be treated as sensitive, pressure
monitoring devices.
Frequently valves which are dropped, damaged, or handled
poorly, do not operate properly when reinstalled.
HANDLING PSVs
The tubing on a pilot valve
is critical to the operation
of the valve.
Carrying the pilot by the
tubing can often cause a
leak in the connection
thereby creating a potential
failure.
Always carry the pilot
valve using properly
installed lifting eyes or, by
the flanges.

HANDLING PSVs
Carry flanged valves
by the flanges or by
the pallet, if it is
mounted on a pallet.
This avoids the
potential of
grabbing in an area
where you could
break the seal wire
or put pressure on
the lift handle.



HANDLING PSVs
What not to do when Handling PSVs
Do not DROP Valves from any height.
Do not LIFT more than you physically are
able.
Do not THROW valves into shipping crates.
Do not LIFT valves by the lifting lever.
Do not RIG valves in or out without proper
equipment.
Do not break Wire Seals on PSVs
This Valve is not being
Handled Correctly
HANDLING PSVs
The owner / user must
insist that all PRVs
(new or serviced)
arrive onsite in a
vertical position.

This assures that the
internal components
remain properly
aligned and protected.
HANDLING PSVs
The installer must ensure that proper lifting equipment is used
when removing and reinstalling PSVs.

The owner / user may even consider the installation of special
lifting eyes on those valves which are high up or located in
difficult spots.

NEVER use the lift lever as a handle or a lifting hook for a web
sling as this will cause damage to the valves operation.

HANDLING PSVs
The installer must
ensure that proper
lifting equipment
is used when
removing and
reinstalling PSVs.

NEVER use the lift
lever as a handle
or a lifting hook
for a web sling as
this will cause
damage to the
valves operation.

HANDLING PSVs
HANDLING OF PSVs

Ensure that all
inlet and outlet
gasket surfaces
are clean and will
seal properly.

Also note the
internal surfaces
must be
inspected for
contamination.

HANDLING PSVs
Ensure you use
the correct
gasket for each
flange size so
there is no
restriction of
the inlet/outlet
and no
interference
with the bolt
holes.
HANDLING OF PSVs
When installing a
threaded valve, use
the hexagonal base
to tighten onto the
threaded pipe
connection.

Remove the valve in
the same way.

Never use a pipe
wrench on the body
of a pressure relief
valve.

HANDLING OF PSVs
The seal is the OEM or repair facility's way of guaranteeing
you the valve has been assembled or serviced by a national
board Certified / A.B.S.A. Registered Safety Valve repair shop.

It is imperative that the seals are not broken no
matter where they are located.

If the seal is broken it voids any assurance that
the valve has not been tampered with by others.

Although someone might accidentally break the seal during
installation it will still be necessary to recertify the valve
before a new seal is installed.

HANDLING OF PSVs
Bonnet cap seals Blowdown ring locking screw
HANDLING OF PSVs
Ensure all plugs are
removed from the
outlets of threaded
valves.
When left in, they act
as a plug on the valve
and can prevent the
valve from relieving
pressure when
overpressure situation
occurs. (Becomes a
potential bomb)

Transportation
Poorly shipped PSVs. This delivery should be rejected by receiving
deptt at plant site
Inspection Examples
Bolts in vibrating
service should
be checked for
fretting and
adequate to
ensure proper
tightening.
(no short bolting)
Installation Examples
What can happen when heat tracing
is not operating?
Before
After
141
Good triangle
Support
Installation Examples
Installation Examples


Any pressure changes on Pressure
Relief-Safety Valves have to authorized
by your company Engineer or by
someone in authority who can sign
appropriate forms. This is required by
ABSA to prevent a pressure change to
greater than the vessel is rated for.

A second data plate is required to show
new pressure, capacity, part number,
and date of change.
PSV Name Plate Information
Installation Examples


Any pressure changes on Pressure
Relief-Safety Valves have to authorized
by your company Engineer or by
someone in authority who can sign
appropriate forms. This is required by
ABSA to prevent a pressure change to
greater than the vessel is rated for.

A second data plate is required to show
new pressure, capacity, part number,
and date of change.
PSV Name Plate Information
What can be
right here?
Installation
Examples
Handle should
be oriented
downward to
prevent accidental
closing due to
vibration,
gravity, etc.
We can
avoid this?
Examples
Will these bolts
Hold when the
PRV relieves?
Certainly we
can avoid
this, Isnt it?
Installation Examples
Long
Unsupported
Moment
Arm
What can be
improved
here?
Examples
Discharge too
near deck
What can be
improved
here?
Installation Examples
Discharge
directed
downward
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

Criteria in Setting up of
Pressure Relief Valve in
Process Piping and
Systems of Operations in a
Plant
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

Criteria in setting up PSVs
-Single PSV : Allowable overpressure is 10% or 3psi,
which ever is greater.

- Multiple PSVs:
- 1
st
Valve: Maximum Set: MAWP is allowable
overpressure:16%
- 2
nd
Valve: Maximum Set:105% MAWP is allowable
over pressure:10.48%

Pressure Requirements per Code
Pressure Relief Valve
Characteristics
Pressure Relief Valve
Characteristics
Vessel
Pressure
%
Maximum
Allowable
Accumulation
, nonfire
Maximum
Allowable
Working
Pressure
(MAWP)
Set Pressure
Reset
Pressure
Operating
Pressure
(Any Practical
Level below
MAWP)
OVERPRESSURE
120
115
110
105
100
97
90
ACCUMULATION
BLOWDOWN
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Fire Sizing
Fire Gas Expansion: Assumes the protected vessel is
filled with gas.
Fire Vapor Generation: Assumes the protected vessel
is filled with liquid. There are three possible
scenarios:
-Know the capacity.
-Know the wetted surface area.
-Know the vessel dimensions.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

The Procedure used in fire sizing depends on the
Codes and Engineering practices applied at each
installation. Some procedures that may be used for fire
sizing codes and standards are:
API RP520, Part1
API 2000
NFPA 58
CGA S-1.3
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

Criteria in setting up PRVs for FIRE Case Scenario is:
-Single Valve: Allowable overpressure is 21%
-Multiple Valves: Maximum SET:
1
st
valve : MAWP
2
nd
Valve : 110% of MAWP
-Allowable Over pressure.
1
st
Valve : 21%
2
nd
Valve : 10%

Pressure Pulsations

Set Pressure MAWP
Leaks
Metal-Seated Spring PRV Pilot Operated PRV
Probable
Premature
Relief Cycles
And
High Maintenance
10%
5%
Operating Pressure
(Pos. Displace. Comp.)
Tight
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Protected System
PRV
An Ideal Pressure Relieving Device should
be:
LEAK-FREE TO SET PRESSURE
OPENS AT SET PRESSURE
RELIEVES ONLY THE INPUT INTO
THE PROTECTED SYSTEM
STABLE DURING RELIEF CYCLE
RE-CLOSES AT SET PRESSURE
(0% BLOWDOWN)

Pressure Relief/Safety Valves 101


Types of Pressure Relief
Valves and Applications
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


Types and applications:

Petrochemical industry
Chemical industry
All applications where
API is specified

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


Types and applications:

Chemical industry
Heating, Venting, Air conditioning
(HVAC)
Power plants (ASME VIII)
Paper industry



Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


Types and applications:

Chemical industry
LNG / LPG / Cryogenic systems
High pressure
Technical gases

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


Types and applications:

Food and Beverage industry
Pharmaceutical industry
Cosmetic industry
Chemical industry

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


Types and applications:

Chemical industry
High corrosive applications

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


Types and Applications:

Thermal expansion
Pumps and
compressors

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Components and Industry Options:

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
API Style Vs High Performance
Style
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Elastomeric bellow:
-Protects the moving parts and spring against dirt, corrosion,
impurities and the fluid itself.
-Set pressure range: p < 10 bar / 145 psig
ATTENTION: Elastomer bellows can not
be used for back pressure compensation.

Steel Bellows:
-Prevent changes in set pressure when the valve is
subjected to variable back pressure.
-Isolate the bonnet chamber and spring
against dirt, corrosion, impurities and
the fluid itself.
-Should be used at variable superimposed
back pressure or if the built up pressure
Exceeds 15 % of the valve set pressure.

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

Manufacturing Industry offers
options / features to Pressure
Relief Valves such as:

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


To prevent leakage and costly product loss as well as reduce
downtime and maintenance costs, it is important to select
appropriate sealing surfaces such as:

- Stellited
- O-ring disc
- Vulcanized soft seats
- Sealing plate
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Other /more options in Pressure Relief/Safety Valves are:
Heating jacket
Open bonnet
O-ring disc
Sealing plate
Disc stellited
Screwed cap
Plain lever
Packed lever
Bolted cap
Bolted lifting device
Drain hole
Stainless steel bellows
Test gag
Lift indicator
O-ring-damper

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Lifting Devices: Open Vs Closed
NOTE : ASME Code states that a lifting device must be used on:
air, steam and hot water applications over 140 F.

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
In applications with highly viscous fluids (low Reynolds
number)
a heating jacket with heated spacer ensures:
The proper function of a safety valve
The safety valve will not clog

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Change-over valves serve to connect two safety valves to
a pressure system. One safety valve is in operation and the other
one is on standby.
The standby safety valve can be disassembled and maintained
during the running operation the protection of the pressure
system against incorrect pressures remains guaranteed.

Advantages:
Continuous operation
Easy handling
Robust design
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Change over valves are used in multiple processes
applications :
where a shut down of the plant is not possible
where a shut down of the plant is not desired due to a
high technical effort.
By switching off the plant media could e.g. harden,
cement or congeal.
where a shut down of the plant is not wanted
in order to guarantee a continuous operation, e.g. in
natural gas storage tanks or refineries to increase the
time between scheduled shutdowns.

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101



Symptoms of Pressure
Relief Valves
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Leakage
Symptom 1 The safety valve seat is leaking .
Symptom 2 The safety valve body or shell is leaking.
Symptom 3 The safety valve is simmering.

Opening/ Closing
Symptom 4 The safety valve opens too early.
Symptom 5 The safety valve opens too late .
Symptom 6 The safety valve does not open .
Symptom 7 The safety valve closes too late .
Symptom 8 The safety valve does not close .
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

Operation/ Function
Symptom 9 The safety valve is chattering/ fluttering .
Symptom 10 The safety valve is fully open; pressure is rising above
max. relieving pressure.
Symptom 11 The safety valve does not achieve required lift .

Corrosion/ Wear
Symptom 12 The safety valve shows strong internal corrosion .
Symptom 13 The safety valve shows strong external corrosion.
Symptom 14 The safety valve shows wear between spindle and
guide.
Symptom 15 The safety valve shows damaged sealing surface.

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


Special Applications
Symptom 16 The stainless steel bellows fails
regularly .
Symptom 17 The safety valve cannot be lifted
manually .
Symptom 18 The safety valve cannot be lifted
pneumatically (Lifting device H8)

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Formation of Hydrates result from water
contamination. When a SRV/PRV relieves, depending upon
Set Pressure, Backpressure and Temperature, the hydrates
may fall out as a liquid, even a solid.

For Conventional Oil and Gas Work
- If they fall out as a liquid, use 'self draining' body design.
- If they fall out as a solid, it could possibly clog the valve. If
ice forms on the Disc, a Soft Seat may help but not
necessarily solve the problem.
- The major concern would be clogging of the discharge area
of the valve. Heat would then be required in the form of
either Heat Tracing or Jacketing.


Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


For SAGD work

- The only issues We have had with hydrates
forming in a relief valve were in a pilot valve
where chlorides dropped out of steam as it
condensed in the dome of the main valve. This
caused issues to all of the 316SS fittings.

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Pressure Relief
The body cavity between position-seated dual-seal valves may trap
oil or product. When the body cavity is exposed to direct sunshine,
the trapped oil expands, and excessive pressure builds up inside
these cavities. Pressure mitigation is thus required.
The Project Engineer shall ensure that adequate valve-body
pressure-relief capability is provided. For most position-seated
dual-seal valve types, pressure relief is normally an integral part of
the valve seat design, and no external piping is required. When
such integral pressure relief is not provided, all above-ground,
torque-seated DB&B valves (i.e., expanding plug, compact
expanding gate, and expanding gate valves), as well as ball valves
utilizing two dual-piston effect seats, shall require external piping to
relieve body-cavity pressure. External pressure-relief auxiliary
requirements are identified.


Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101




Pressure relief is generally not required for buried
service.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
To relieve body-cavity pressure, Company preference is for
relief lines to be routed to the energized side of the valve (i.e.,
the source of the process medium that is being isolated). This
routing helps to ensure that any leakage past the seal on the
energized side of the valve is not released to the non-energized
side of the valve which requires isolation.

Comment: Failure to relieve the differential pressure may result
in excessive pressure build-up in the body cavity, which usually
puts undue stress on shaft seals and packing. When pressure
relief is not inherent in the valve design (i.e., position-seated
dual-seal valves or ball valves with a self-relieving seat), the
preferred pressure-relief configuration is to use tapped
connections in the valve body and an external pressure-relief
device installed by the manufacturer.

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101



In ball valve applications where external pressure
relief is not required (i.e., where a self-relieving seat is
specified), the valve shall be clearly tagged with an
indication of the direction of relief (upstream or
downstream).

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Drain and Bypass Connections
Draining of a valve cavity may be required to minimize product
contamination and possibly bleed pressure in the valve cavity.
The size and location of the drain connection shall be indicated.
The drain connection shall be at the lowest point of the valve in the
installed configuration and shall be externally protected.

Antistatic Provision
When not inherent in the valve design, antistatic provision shall be
required to provide electrical conductance between the
gate/ball/plug/disk and the body to prevent any electrostatic charge
build-up during fluid flow and valve operation.

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


Common causes of overpressure are:
- Discharge blocked.
- Thermal expansion or change in pressure.
- Failure of a control valve.
- External factors such as fire, excess flow.
- Improper sizing at the replacement of valve.
- Sudden increase in capacity/production.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

Maintenance Requirements
of Pressure Relief Valves

Owner is responsible to
maintain per Absa AB505
and 524 Guidelines
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Reason why the valve is being serviced
Owner servicing interval policy
Alberta AB-506 PRV mandatory requirements
Condition of inlet and discharge piping
Fouling condition of PRV prior to dismantling
Bench test prior to dismantling
Conditions of parts and internal fouling
Historical performance of PRV
Fluid Service, - change, -same
Consequence of failure, Environment, Safety, Economic.
NOTE: NEXT PRV SERVICING INTERNVAL ASSIGNED
Effective root-cause analysis and corrective and preventive action processes must
be in place to address any operational and condition problems identified.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

Routine maintenance requirements are:
- Cleaning.
- Disassembly.
- Maintenance.
- Reassembly.
- Component inspection.
- Testing for correct operation.
- Leak testing.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

Absa issues a news letter called :
The Pressure News it is free and it is a good
engineering practice to read that and subscribe to
Absa news letter for update/s.
Absa issues Bulletins and Alerts related to Pressure
Relief Devices.
Absa issues PRD interpretations of the ASME Codes.
Absa issues selected PRD code cases published by
ASME.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve, all it does is balance of internal process pressure.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Energy Lean
Management
Systems Part 2
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Energy Lean Management Part 2, Factors to establish in
determining Inspection Intervals of PRVs
- Probability of failure.
- Calculation of Risk.
- Planned inspection using Risk Matrix.
- Root Cause Failure Analysis.
- Historical background on any failure/s.
- Case Studies.
- Functional/operational reviews.








Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Energy Lean Management Systems Part 2

PRVs Inspection Intervals How do they get established?
API 510 Inspection Code
pressure relief valves shall be tested at intervals that are frequent
enough to verify that the valves perform reliably.
Intervals between pressure relieving device testing or inspection
should be determined by the performance of the devices in the
particular service concerned and maybe increased to a maximum
of 10 years
Latest version of 510 allows the use of Ris Based Inspection to set
intervals.
Inspection Programs per API 510 and Absa
Conditioned Based (probability based)
Set an Interval, inspect and adjust based on results of inspection
API RBI methodology evaluates both probability and consequence,
i.e. risk-based.

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

Energy Lean Management Systems Part 2

API PRVs Methodology was included in the 2008 Edition of
API RP 581

Methodology has been incorporated into Version 8 of the API
RBI software

Methodology has been applied at numerous clients/plant sites
with accurate results, proven and acceptable.



Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


Energy Lean Management Systems Part 2
High Quantitative: The Risk for PSVs are calculated for two failure
modes:
1. Fail to Open (FAIL)
PSV does not open on demand during an overpressure scenario
(fire, blocked discharge, CV failure, loss of cooling, power failure,
etc.)
Over pressures can be well over normal operating, for some
scenarios burst pressure ( 4 x MAWP)
Evaluate loss of containment (leaks or ruptures) from the protected
equipment at the overpressure calculated for each applicable
overpressure scenario.
Includes repair costs of equipment, personnel injury, environmental
and production losses


Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

Energy Lean Management Systems Part 2


2. Leakage Failure (LEAK)
PRVs leaks in-service
Considers cost of lost fluid inventory, repair costs,
production losses if downtime is required to repair PRV
RISK = Probability of Failurex Cost of Failure + Probability of
Loss x Cost of Lost, $/year

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

Energy Lean Management Systems Part 2
Probability of Failure
POF is probability of PVD failure to open during emergency situations
causing an overpressure situation in the protected equipment resulting in
loss of containment (failures/year)
POFOD is the probability of the PRV failing to open on demand
(failure/demand)
DR is the demand rate on the PRD or how often an overpressure situation
arises that causes a demand on the valve (demands/year)
(GFF x DF) is the probability of failure (loss of containment) from the
vessel in its current damaged mode/state.


Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

Energy Lean Management Systems Part 2
- Direct Link to Fixed Equipment (Equipment such as vessel and plan
Piping)
Links PRV to the vessel inventory group, operating and design
conditions, fluid properties and most importantly to the damage
state of the protected equipment
Recognizes the fact that damaged vessels are at higher risk to
failed PRD than undamaged vessels, current PRD module does not
consider the protected equipment damage state.
Since the damage factor of the protected equipment increases as a
function of time so does the risk associated with the PRD
protecting, it allows risk ranking of PRDs versus fixed equipment.
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101


Energy Lean Management Systems Part 2
Calculate impact area (consequence area) of release of
hazardous fluids such as :Flammable,Toxic, Non-flammable
(splash, spray, physical explosion, BLEVE)
Consequence areas are based on damage to equipment and
serious injury to personnel
Financial consequences include
Replacement cost of damage equipment
Cost of business interruption
Potential injuries
Environmental clean-up costs
Consequence areas due to the effects of pool fires, jet fires,
VCEs, BLEVEs, fireballs, flash fires and toxic releases are
calculated.

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

Energy Lean Management Systems Part 2

PRVs Risk Based Inspection Methodology Accounts
for PRVs Criticality.
Recognizes the fact that PRVs may have many
different overpressure scenarios, some PRVs
response more critical.
Enables the criticality of the PRVs service to impact
Risk, i.e. more critical services result in more risk.
Links to protected equipment, PRVs protecting
damaged equipment will get more attention .

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

Energy Lean Management Systems Part 2
The calculation of risk for a PRD failing to open upon demand is
calculated for EACH applicable demand case using the demand
rate, the probability of failure of the PRD and the calculated
overall consequence of failure for the demand case as follows:



The overall risk is then determined by adding up the
individual risks associated with the applicable demand
cases as follows:



where i represents each of the n number of applicable
overpressure demand cases


Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

Energy Lean Management Systems Part 2
Consequence of failure is not time dependent
Probability of failure increases with time

As equipment damage increases, equipment probability of loss of
containment (GFFT X DF) increases
Number of Demands on PRVs increases (DR increases)
POFOD increases as PRV condition deteriorates
Inspection interval for each PRV is determined based on a risk target
A risk target of $25,000/yr has been successfully used at many sites
Balances reduction in risk with reduced inspection costs when
compared to conditioned based inspection program (API 510)
Typically reduces risk by 65-75% while average inspection interval
increase 25%. And the risk target is ultimately a calibration
tool to manage risk.


Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101

Energy Lean Management Systems Part 2
API/Absa Risk Based Inspection methodology for Pressure
Relief Valves provides a rigorous quantification risk for process
unit relief systems.
Probability of Failure of a PRV accounts for previous inspection
history, demand rates, and installation history etc. The addition
of consequences, based on safety and financial impacts,
provides a broad overall view.
Directly linking fixed equipment and PRVs Risk Based
Inspection reduces input requirements and helps to establish
criticality and inspection requirement/s.
The methodology has been successfully implemented at
refineries, SAGD Plants, Upgraders and petrochemical
facilitates throughout North America ,typical implementation
results in Safety and risk reduction, further inspection interval
optimization.

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Absa recommends a list of related documents:
Safety Codes Act and Regulations
Pressure requirement safety regulation
Exemption order
AB506, 524
CSA B51-09 and CSA B52-05
ASME Codes such as section I, IV, VII, VIII-1,2&3
ASME B31.3, B31.1, PTC-25
ISO4126-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 & 10, ISO23251
CGA G-201/ANSI K61.1
NFPA 58 & 59
NB-23 & 18, AP 520-1, 520-2, 521, 526,527, 576,580,581
Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Our list of valuable links to other industry-related websites.
Absa Alberta Boiler and Safety Authority.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AICHE)
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
American Petroleum Institute (API)
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
American Society for Testing & Materials (ASTM)
International Pressure Equipment Integrity Association
(IPEIA)
National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE
International)
Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC)

Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Acknowledgement for providing pictures, data in preparation
of this presentation by:
Leser Valves, Pentair Valves, Dresser Valves. Farris Valves
Mercer Valves, Cross Instrumentation, Rupture-Pin
Technology Inc
Absa/API/NBBPV/ASME/PVRC/IPEIA/ANSI/NACE.
Industry peers and colleagues at Fluor Canada Ltd.
Valve Manufacturers and Repairs.
User Companies in North America(US, Canada & Mexico)
Knowledge from codes and regulations by Gobind Khiani,
P.Eng., APEGA PDE members including organizing
committee.
And All the others who made this presentation possible.


Pressure Relief/Safety Valve 101
Together we can avoid/stop any over pressure in
Plant Piping.

Questions!!!!!!!!!
Pressure Relief/Safety Valves 101

Connect with Gobind Khiani, P.Eng.,
LinkedIn:
ca.linkedin.com/in/gobindkhiani
Contact (403)850-6982
Email: gobindkhiani@gmail.com
gobind.khiani@fluor.com