PNEUMATIC SHEET METAL CUTTING MACHINE

PROJECT REPORT

Submitted In the partial fulfillment of the requirements for The award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology
In

Mechanical Engineering
Submitted by

CH.BHASKARA RAMA KRISHNA (10241A0376)

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING GOKARAJU RANGARAJU INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
BACHUPALLY, KUKATPALLY, HYDERABAD – 500 090 APRIL 2014.

Department of Mechanical Engineering Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Project Report PNEUMATIC SHEET METAL CUTTER that is being submitted by CH. BHASKARA RAMA KRISHNA (10241A0376) , in partial fulfilment for the award of B Tech in Mechanical Engineering to the Department of Mechanical Engineering; Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology; affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad is a record of bonafide work carried out by her under our guidance and supervision. The results embodied in this Project Report have not been submitted to any other University or Institute for the award of any degree or diploma.

Mr. D. ESWARAIAH Asst.Professor of Mechanical Department.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It gives us immense pleasure to express our sincere thanks to Mr. D. ESWARAIAH, Assistant professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, GRIET for sparing his valuable time in guiding us to come up with this project by her constant supervision and creative criticism. We also express our sincere thanks to Prof Dr.P.A.P.N.VARMA , Head of the Department, GRIET for his kind co-operation and encouragement in developing this project. We take pleasure to convey our gratitude to Prof. J.N.MURTHI, Principal, GRIET for permitting to do the project. Finally, we express our sincere gratitude to all the members of faculty and our friends who contributed their valuable advices and helped us to complete the project successfully.

CH.BHASKARA RAMA KRISHNA (10241A0376)

ABSTRACT
This is an era of automation where it is broadly defined as replacement of manual effort by mechanical power in all degrees of automation. The operation remains an essential part of the system although with changing demands on physical input as the degree of mechanization is increase Degrees of automation are of two types, viz. Full automation. Semi automation. In semi automation a combination of manual effort and mechanical power is required whereas in full automation human participation is very negligible. The compressed air from the compressor is used as the force medium for this operation. There are pneumatic double acting cylinders, solenoid valve and flow control valve. The arm from the compressor enters to the flow control Valve. The controlled air from the flow control valve enters to the solenoid valve. The function of solenoid valves to send all of air in a correct time interval. The 5/2 solenoid valve is used. In one position air enter to the cylinder and pusses the piston, so that the cutting stroke is obtained. The next position air enters to the other side of cylinder and pushes the piston return back, so that the releasing stroke is obtained. The speed of the cutting and releasing stroke is varied by the timer control unit circuit.

INDEX
MODULE -1 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1 1 2
2 4 4

Need for Automation PNEUMATICS

MODULE -2
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Definition

Selection of Pneumatics Pneumatic Power Advantages of Pneumatics Disadvantage of Compressed Air Production of Compressed Air 2.6.1 Classification of Compressors 2.6.1.1 Types of Positive Compressors 2.6.1.1.a Reciprocating Type Compressor

5
5 6 7 7 8 9 11

2.7 2.8

Sheet Metal Sheet Metal Cutting

MODULE -3
3.1

COMPONENTS OF PNUEMATIC SYSTEM

13
13 13 15 18 18 19 19 19

Pneumatic Cylinder 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 Single Acting Cylinder Double Acting Cylinder Sizes Materials

3.2

Cylinder Mountings 3.2.1 3.2.2 CA-50 CB+PIN

1 Solenoid Valve 3.3 Valves 3.6 Hoses Connectors Air Compressors MODULE -4 4.2 Working MODULE-6 CALCULATION OF FORCE 37 .3.1 Pneumatic Transmission Of Energy 30 31 34 5.1 3.1.3.1 4.2 3.3.3.1 Working Principle 5.2 4.4 3.3 Parts of Solenoid Valve Working of Solenoid Valve 20 20 21 23 24 24 25 25 25 Flow Control Valve Pressure Control Valve 3.5 3.3.2 3.1.3.3 DESIGN AND DRAWING 28 28 28 29 General Machine Specifications Block Diagram Overall Diagram MODULE-5 WORKING OF PNEUMATIC SHEET METAL CUTTER 30 5.1.

2 Labour Cost COST ESTIMATION 40 40 40 Overhead Charges MODULE-9 MODULE-10 MODULE-11 PHOTOGRAPHY CONCLUSION FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK 41 42 43 BIBILOGRAPHY .1 8.2 Merits Demerits MERITS AND DEMERITS 39 39 39 MODULE-8 8.1 7.MODULE-7 7.

8 -3.6 -3.1 -3.4 -3.1 -9.3 -3.3 -5.2 -4.1 -5.2 -6.9 -3.10 -4.LIST OF FIGURES Fig Fig Fig Fig Fig Fig Fig Fig Fig Fig Fig Fig Fig Fig Fig Fig Fig Fig 2.2 -2.2 -3.1 -2.5 -3.7 -3.1 -Reciprocating Compressor Shear forces on metal sheet Pneumatic Cylinder Single Acting Cylinder Double Acting Cylinder Positive Stroke Negative Stroke CA-50 CB+PIN Solenoid Valve Schematic Diagram Of Solenoid Valve Air Compressor Block Diagram Overall Diagram Set Up Of Pneumatic Sheet Metal Cutter Phenomenon Of Shearing In Sheets Pneumatic Cylinder Photograph of Pneumatic sheet metal cutter .

1 1. etc. pneumatics. pneumatics form an attractive medium for low cost automation. Automation plays an important role in mass production. 1. For a developing industry the operation performed and the parts (or) components produced should have it minimum possible production cost. hydraulics.. of these sources. The main advantages of all pneumatic systems are economy and simplicity. Nowadays almost all the manufacturing process is being atomized in order to deliver the products at a faster rate. and then only industry runs profitability. INTRODUCTION The main objective of our project is to perform various machine operations using machine with the help of pneumatic sources.       To achieve mass production To reduce man power To reduce the work load To reduce the fatigue of workers To achieve good product quality Less maintenance .1 NEED FOR AUTOMATION: Automation can be achieved through computers. robotics. The manufacturing operation is being atomized for the following reasons.

2 2. Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air which must be made available in sufficient quantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of the system. “Pneumos” means “Air” and “Tics” means “Technology”. The word pneumatics is the study of air movement.1 PNEUMATICS: The word ‘pneuma’ comes from Greek and means wind. Pneumatics has for some considerable time between used for carrying out the simplest mechanical tasks now a days and has Played a more important role in the development of pneumatic technology for automation. however it wills indeed the necessary to deal with the question of compressed air supply. . LITERATURE SURVEY 2. Today pneumatics is mainly understood to means the application of air as a working medium in industry especially the driving and controlling of machines and equipment. When the pneumatic system is being adopted for the first time.

Compressor capacity is the actual quantity of air compressed and delivered and the volume expressed is that of that of the air at intake conditions namely at atmosphere pressure and normal ambient temperature. The usual written as PV =C (or) P1 V1 =P2 V2 In this equation the pressure is the absolute pressured which for free is about 14. The compressibility of the air was first investigated by Robot Boyle in 1962 and that found that the product of pressure and volumes of particular quantity of gas.3 The key part of any facility for supply of compressed air is by means using reciprocating compressor. Any gas can be used in pneumatic system but air is the mostly used system now a days. gas at a certain pressure and delivered the air at a high pressure. . A compressor is a machine that takes in air. nearly 30 inches high in an ordinary barometer.7Psi and is of courage capable of maintaining a column of mercury.

2. Pneumatic is an attractive medium for low Cost mechanization particularly for sequential (or) repetitive operations. low cost and readily available.4 2.3. SELECTION OF PNEUMATICS: Mechanization is broadly defined as the replacement of manual effort by mechanical power. Many factories and plants already have a compressed air system. 2. PNEUMATIC POWER: Pneumatic systems use pressurized gases to transmit and control power. . which is capable of providing the power (or) energy requirements and control system (although equally pneumatic control systems may be economic and can be advantageously applied to other forms of power). The main advantages of an all pneumatic system are usually Economic and simplicity the latter reducing maintenance to a low level. Pneumatic systems typically use air as the fluid medium because air is safe. It can have outstanding advantages in terms of safety.

2. Control of pneumatic systems is easier.5 2. THE ADVANTAGES OF PNEUMATICS:   Infinite availability of the source.  Pneumatic pressures are quite low due to compressor design limitations (less that 250 psi). .    Pneumatic systems are simple and economical.  Pressurized air is easily condensed.4. THE DISADVANTAGES OF PNEUMATICS:  Pneumatic systems exhibit spongy characteristics due to compressibility of air. so before entering the system must be processed first in order to meet certain requirements. the long and winding. Air used in pneumatic systems can be directly exhausted back into the surrounding environment and hence the need of special reservoirs and no-leak system designs are eliminated. Air is a substance that is easily passed or move from one place to another through a small pipe.5. such as dry. and contains a small amount of lubricant to reduce friction in the valves and actuators. have enough pressure.

The key part of any facility for supply of compressed air is by means using reciprocating compressor. however it wills indeed the necessary to deal with the question of compressed air supply.6 PRODUCTION OF COMPRESSED AIR: Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air. which must be made available. Insufficient quantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of the system.6 2. Compressor capacity is the actual quantity of air compressed and delivered and the volume expressed is that of the air. gas at a certain pressure and delivered the air at a high pressure. Clean condition of the suction air is one of the factors. A compressor is a machine that takes in air. When pneumatic system is being adopted for the first time. which decides the life of a compressor. At intake conditions namely at atmosphere pressure and normal ambient temperature. Warm and moist suction air will result increased precipitation of condense from the compressed air. .

They cannot attain pressure necessary for pneumatic control application unless built in multistage designs and are seldom encountered in pneumatic service.6. Compressor may be classified in two general types: a) Positive displacement compressor b) Turbo compressor Positive displacement compressors are most frequently employed for Compressed air plant and have proved highly successful and supply air for pneumatic control application.7 2. .1. The types of positive compressor a) Reciprocating type compressor b) Rotary type compressor Turbo compressors are employed where large of air required at low discharge pressures.1.6.1. 2.

Discharge pressure in the range of 250bars can be obtained with high pressure reciprocating compressors that of three & four stages. the air pressure may be of 6 bar machines discharge of pressure is up to 15bars. with preference going to the two stage design as soon as the discharge pressure exceeds 6 bars. Single stage and 1200 stage models are particularly suitable For applications. .a. In single stage compressor. Reciprocating compressors lap be had is sizes from the smallest capacities to deliver more than 500m3/min.1.6.8 2. because it in capable of matching the performance of single stage machine at lower costs per driving powers in the range. Reciprocating Compressor: Built for either stationary (or) portable service the reciprocating compressor is by far the most common type.1.

Copper is measured in thickness by Ounce. Commonly used steel sheet metal ranges from 30 gauge to about 8 gauge.9 2. The coils are formed by running a continuous sheet of metal through a roll slitter. and pieces thicker than 6 mm (0. Sheet metal is simply a metal formed into thin and flat pieces.25 in) are considered plate.25 in) are considered plate. The thickness of the sheet metal is called its gauge. . although extremely thin thicknesses are considered foil or leaf. the thinner the metal. i. Countless everyday objects are constructed of the material. Gauge is measured in ferrous (iron based) metals while nonferrous metals such as aluminium or copper are designated differently.7. It is one of the fundamental forms used in metal working and can be cut and bent into a variety of different shapes. Sheet metal is available in flat pieces or as a coiled strip. and pieces thicker than 6mm(0.e. It is one of the fundamental forms used in metal working and can be cut and bent into a variety of different shapes.. Thickness are considered foil or leaf. Thicknesses can vary significantly. Countless everyday objects are constructed of the material. The larger the guage number. SHEET METAL: Sheet metal is simply a metal formed into thin and flat pieces.

important sheet metals include silver.("Tin Knockers") which is derived from the hammering of panel seams when installing tin roofs. steel. Historically. Triangulation. copper. Sheet metal also has applications in car bodies. . medical tables. airplane wings. an important use of sheet metal was in plate armor worn by cavalry. tin. nickel and titanium. brass. For decorative uses. and sheet metal continues to have many decorative uses. Parallel 2. gold and platinum (platinum sheet metal is also utilized as a catalyst). Sheet metal of iron and other materials with high magnetic permeability. has applications in transformers and electric machines. Sheet metal workers are also known as "Tin Bashers". roofs for buildings (Architectural) and many other things. including in horse tack.10 There are many different metals that can be made into sheet metal. such as aluminium. also known as laminated steel cores. Radial 3. There are three primary procedures in Latout 1.

. When a great enough shearing force is applied. and are therefore sometimes referred to as shearing processes. This shearing force is applied by two tools. SHEET METAL CUTTING: Cutting processes are those in which a piece of sheet metal is separated by applying a great enough force to cause the material to fail. Whether these tools are a punch and die or upper and lower blades. the shear stress in the material will exceed the ultimate shear strength and the material will fail and separate at the cut location.8.11 2. one above and one below the sheer. the tool above the sheet delivers a quick downward blow to the sheet metal that rests over the lower tool. The most common cutting processes are performed by applying a shear force.

which facilitates the fracture of the material. the shear stress is too great and the material fractures at an angle with a small burr formed at the edge. As the tool penetrates into the sheet further. including the sharpness of the tools and the clearance between the tools. This size of this clearance is typically 2-10% of the material thickness and depends upon several factors. material.12 A small clearance is present between the edges of the upper hand tools. The height of these portions of the cut depends on several factors. Finally. the shearing results in a vertical burnished zone of material. and sheet thickness. The effects of shearing on the material change as the cut progresses and are visible on the edge of the sheared material. such as the specific shearing process. the clearance between the tools allows the sheet to plastically deform and “rollover” the edge. . When the punch or blade impacts the sheet.

3.13 3. COMPONENTS OF PNEUMATIC SYSTEM: 3.1.1. pneumatic power is converted into mechanical Output power. .1. by reducing the pressure of the air to that of the atmosphere. PNEUMATIC CYLINDER: An air cylinder is an operative device in which the state input energy of compressed air i.e. single acting cylinder: Single acting cylinder is only capable of performing an operating medium in only one direction.

14 Single acting cylinders equipped with one inlet for the operating air pressure. Single cylinders Develop power in one direction only and the stroke is known as positive. If we stop the supply of air then the spring inside the cylinder causes the piston to instroke to its starting position and the piston is said to be negative. Therefore no heavy control equipment should be attached to them. which requires to be moved on the piston return stroke single action cylinder requires only about half the air volume consumed by a double acting for one operating cycle. can be production in several fundamentally different designs. As this happens. the air inside the cylinder is pushed back out. .

one for out stroke and one for instroke. They are used for giving double power. It needs two air supplies. Double acting cylinder use the force of air to move in both extend and retract strokes.15 3.2. .1. Double acting Cylinders: A double-acting cylinder has no spring inside to return it to its original position. They have two ports to allow air in. the piston pushes inwards and it allows on the other side to suck air inside which gives double power with two suctions and two power strokes. Stroke length for this kind of cylinders is not limited. one to outstroke the piston and the other to instroke the piston. however the piston rod is more vulnerable to buckling and bending. While moving in.

We supply the compressed air to the other side of the piston. As the air pushes the piston back to its original position. To instroke a double-acting cylinder we need to reverse this action. This causes the piston to instroke and it is said to be negative. . When the piston has fully outstroked it is said to be positive. any air on the other side is again forced out. any air on the other side of the piston is forced out. As this happens. This causes the double-acting cylinder to outstroke.16 To outstroke a double-acting cylinder we need compressed air to push against the piston inside the cylinder.

The normal escape of air is out off by a cushioning piston before the end of the stroke is required. This can only be done at the end positions of the piston stroke. In all intermediate position a separate externally mounted cushioning derive most be provided with the damping feature. The air freely enters the cylinder and the piston strokes in the other direction at full Force and velocity.17 A double acting cylinder is employed in control systems with the full pneumatic cushioning and it is essential when the cylinder itself is required to retard heavy messes. As a result the sit in the cushioning chamber is again compressed since it cannot escape but slowly according to the setting made on reverses. .

In general. Some pneumatic cylinders reach 1000 mm in diameter.3.18 3. Sizes: Air cylinders are available in a variety of sizes and can typically range from a small 2.1. The pneumatic cylinders designed for clean room applications often use lubricant-free Pyrex Glass pistons sliding inside graphite sleeves. and are used in place of hydraulic cylinders for special circumstances where leaking hydraulic oil could impose an extreme hazard.4. Materials: The pneumatic cylinders designed for educational use typically have transparent outer sleeves (often plexi glass). . so students can see the piston moving inside.1. the material used for a pneumatic cylinder is ST-52 (Steam less Tube). to 400 mm diameter air cylinders which would impart enough force to lift a car. which might be used for picking up a small transistor or other electronic component. 3.5 mm air cylinder.

CB+PIN: This device with a pin is used to fix cylinder mounting CA-50 and support of the machine.2.19 3.2.2. there exist different kinds of mounts for attaching pneumatic cylinders. CYLINDER MOUNTINGS: Depending on the location of the application and machinability. CA-50: It is a device used for fixing cylinder according to the requirement.2.1. 3. CA-50 is fixed to the cylinder head. . 3.

These are also used to operate a mechanical operation which in turn operates the valve mechanism. Solenoid Valve: The directional valve is one of the important parts of a pneumatic system.3. A solenoid is an electrical device that converts electrical energy into straight line motion and force.1. The name of the parts of the solenoid should be learned so that they can be recognized when called upon to make repairs. This valve was selected for speedy operation and to reduce the manual effort and also for the modification of the machine into automatic machine by means of using a solenoid valve. Solenoid is one is which the plunger is pulled when the solenoid is energized.to do service work or to install them. . Commonly known as DCV. The directional valve does this by changing the position of its internal movable parts.20 3.3. this valve is used to control the direction of air flow in the pneumatic system. VALVES: 3.

The layers of wire are separated by insulating layer. Parts of a Solenoid Valve:  Coil: The solenoid coil is made of copper wire.575 Volts AC. 24 Volts DC. . moisture.they are designed for such Frequencies as 50Hz to 60Hz. The entire solenoid coil is covered with a varnish that is not affected by solvents. Coils are rated in various voltages such as 115 volts AC.3.230volts AC.1.115 Volts DC &230Volts DC.460volts Ac.12Volts DC.21 5/4 Solenoid Valve is a device with 5 port 4 way… 3.6Volts DC. cutting oil or often fluids.1.

and are made of materials such as metal or impregnated less Fiber cloth.  Solenoid plunger The solenoid plunger is the mover mechanism of the solenoid. At the top of the plunger a pin hole is placed for making a connection to some device. They are usually bolted or welded to the frame. it is magnetized when the current passes through the coil. so that there will be no movement of the lamination with respect to one another. Solenoid operated valves are usually provided with cover either the solenoid or the entire valve. In many applications it is necessary to use explosion proof solenoids. The magnetized coils attract the metal plunger to move. The frame has provisions for attaching the mounting. Since it is made of laminated sheets. the plunger. The plunger is made of steel laminations which are riveted together under high pressure. The frame has provisions for receivers. The wear strips are mounted to the solenoid frame. . The solenoid plunger is moved by a magnetic force in one direction and is usually returned by spring action. This protects the solenoid from dirt and other foreign matter.22  Frame: The solenoid frame serves several purposes. and protects the actuator.

23 3. Working of Solenoid Valve: The solenoid valve has 5 openings.2.  Position-1 When the spool is actuated towards outer direction port ‘P’ gets Connected to ‘B’ and ‘S’ remains closed while ‘A’gets connected to ‘R’. These ensure easy exhausting of 5/4Valve.the spool of the 5/4 valve slide inside the main bore according to spool position: the ports get connected and disconnected. .1.3. The working principle is as follows.

The flow control can be achieved by varying the area of flow through which the air in passing. more quantity of air will be sent to actuator as a result its speed will increase.5. the speed of the actuator is reduced.4. flow control valve is used to control the speed of actuator. 3. FLOW CONTROL VALVE: In any fluid power circuit. When area is increased.24  Position-2 When the spool is pushed in the inner direction port ‘P’ and ‘A’ Gets connected to each other and ‘B’ to ‘S’ while port ‘R’ remains closed. 3. Pressure reducing valve. If the quantity of air entering into the actuator is reduced. PRESSURE CONTROL VALVE: The main function of the pressure control valve is to limit (or) Control the pressure required in a pneumatic circuit. . Depending upon the method of controlling they are classified as   Pressure relief valve.

This is known as polytypic compression. Compressed air was expelled by primitive man to give glowing embers sufficient oxygen to allow them to flare up into a fire.7.6. Air compressors are utilized to raise the pressure of a volume of air. HOSES: Hoses used in this pneumatic system are made up of polyurethane. AIR COMPRESSOR: Compressor is the air producing machine. 3.8. Air compressors are available in many configurations and will operate over a very wide range of flow rates and pressures. CONNECTORS: In our system there are two type of connectors used. 3. During the compression process. These hose can with stand at a maximum pressure level of 10 x 105N/m2. Hose connectors normally comprise an adopt hose nipple and cap nut.25 3. These types of connectors are made up of brass (or) aluminum (or) hardened pneumatic steel. They collect the airs from the atmosphere are in the running of machine are engine. the temperature increases as the pressure increases. One is the Hose connector and the other is the reducer. .

. Compressors are staged thereby reducing the temperature rise and improving the compression efficiency. Volumetric efficiency also increases with multi-stage compression since the pressure ratio over the first stage will be decreased. This cooling process is called inter cooling.26 The amount of compression power also increases as the temperature increases. The temperature of the air leaving each stage is cooled prior to entering the next stage.

. Selection and purchase of the compressor and necessary purification equipment can be easily done on the Compressed air site. And it work in the process of rotating the fan and the piston movement with the help of current supply. The air exiting the compressor is saturated with moisture and will have compressor lubricants (lubricated compressors only). Air purification equipment.27 Selection of the air compressor is only the first step in designing an efficient and reliable compressed air system. Our application engineers are ready to answer all of your questions and to assist you in placing your order. filters. breathing air purifiers. pneumatic tools. air dryers. monitoring equipment. Other chemicals that may have been drawn into the compressor intake may also be present. instruments and equipment. used alone or in combination will remove these contaminants. This contamination is harmful to many processes.

2. DESIGN AND DRAWING: 4. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATION:  PNEUMATIC CYLINDER: Stroke length = 125mm Diameter = 50 mm Pressure = 10bar  SHEET CUTTER: Length of cutter = 6 inch 4. BLOCK DIAGRAM: .28 4.1.

OVERALL DIAGRAM: .3.29 4.

often called as squaring shear or power shear. but angled cuts can be made as well. Most commonly. WORKING OF PNEMATIC SHEET METAL CUTTER: 5.30 5. that can be operated manually or by hydraulic. For this reason.25 inches. shearing is used to cut a sheet parallel to an existing edge which is held square. shearing is primarily used to cut sheet stock into smaller sizes in preparation for other processes. pneumatic or electric power.005 – 0.1. The “shearing” by if self refers to a specific cutting process that produces straight line cuts to separate a piece of sheet metal. The shearing is performed on a shear machine. Shearing has the following capabilities Sheet thickness: 0. .1 inches. WORKING PRINCIPLE: Pneumatic sheet metal cutter uses shearing forces to cut the material according to the requirement. Tolerance: 0.

which is in turn connected to a prime mover (electric motor. the air inside the tank expands until the pressure inside the tank equals the atmospheric pressure. internal combustion engine). For example. This device is positive displacement compressor.1. A positive displacement compressor basically consists of a movable member inside housing. a tank is charged to 100 PSIA with compressed air. At inlet and outlet ports. is to perform work. To perform any applicable amount of work then. Air expansion takes the form of airflow. The accomplishment of work requires the application of kinetic energy to a resisting object resulting in the object moving through a distance. The compressor has a piston for a movable member. Working energy (kinetic energy and pressure) results in a pneumatic system when the compressed air is allowed to expand. a device is needed which can supply an air tank with a sufficient amount of air at a desired pressure. valves allow air to enter and exit the chamber. When the valve at the tank outlet is opened. In a pneumatic system. energy is stored in a potential state under the form of compressed air. PNEUMATIC TRANSMISSION OF ENERGY: The reason for using pneumatics.1.31 5. The piston is connected to a crankshaft. or any other type of energy transmission on a machine. .

With the piston at the bottom of its stroke. This action causes the trapped air in the piston bore to expand. inlet valve closes. the discharge valve opens.  Control of Pneumatic Energy: Working energy transmitted pneumatically must be directed and under complete control at all times. useful work will not be done and machinery or machine operators might be harmed. One of the advantages of transmitting energy pneumatically is that energy can be controlled relatively easily by using valves.32  How a Positive Displacement Compressor Works: As the crank shaft pulls the piston down. The piston starts its upward movement to reduce the air volume which consequently increases its pressure and temperature. . When pressure differential becomes high enough. When pressure differential between the compressor chamber and discharge line is high enough. the inlet valve opens. allowing atmospheric air to flow in. an increasing volume is formed within the housing. allowing air to pass into an air receiver tank for storage. If not under control. reducing its pressure.

33  Control of Pressure: Pressure in a pneumatic system must be controlled at two points after the compressor and after the air receiver tank. energy delivered by a compressor is not generally used immediately. .  Control of Pressure after a Compressor: In a pneumatic system. Control of pressure after an air receiver tank is necessary so that an actuator receives a steady pressure source without wasting energy. Intermittent compressor operation in this manner is a power saving benefit for the system. a compressor is designed into a system so that it operates intermittently. the compressor cuts in and recharges the tank. then it is shut down. In most instances. A compressor usually delivers compressed air to a receiver tank until high pressure is reached. A common way of sensing tank pressure and controlling actuation and de-actuation of relatively small (2-15 HP) compressors is with a pressure switch. When air pressure in the tank decreases. Control of pressure is required after the compressor as a safety for the system. but is stored as potential energy in air receiver tank in the form of compressed air.

.edge blades. With the help of polyurethane tube connections are made in the following way. stops or guides to secure the sheet. a gauging device to precisely position the sheet. upper and lower straight .2. A support rod is connected to the shearing machine to fix the pneumatic cylinder with the help of cylinder mountings.34 5. The two way directional valve is fixed to the supporting rod. Working: The pneumatic shearing machine includes a table and a cutting machine with support arms to hold the sheet. The two way directional valve is connected to compressor with a flow control valve to control the flow of compressed air into the directional valve.

approximately 5 – 10% of the sheet thickness. Also the upper blade is usually angled so that the cut progresses from one end to the other. thus reducing the required force. Cylinder piston rod is connected with upper blade of the shearing machine with the help of square block which creates up and down motion to the upper blade. The lower blade remains stationary while the upper blade is forced downward. we can cut the sheet into pieces. As lower blade is stationary. When the compressor is switched ON. The sheet metal is placed upper blade and the lower blade. valves allow air to enter and exit the chamber.35 A connection is given from compressor to the two way directional valve. At inlet and outlet ports. Another one from one port of directional valve to one end of the cylinder and from another end of the cylinder to the second port of the directional valve. by the movement of upper blade. Exhaust ports of the directional control valve except inlet of the valves are closed with dummies. the compressed air is flow to inlet of the pneumatic cylinder. With the help of two way directional valve air can be diverted so that piston can reciprocates as it is a double acting cylinder. . The upper blade is slightly offset from the lower blade.

5. When the pneumatic hand operated lever is moved backward. The upper blade which are then forced against the sheet.e. phenomenon of shearing in sheets . the piston starts moving in the forward direction..36 When the pneumatic hand operated lever is moved forward.e.. normal position) and then the compressor is switched OFF. cutting the material.2. the upper blade will move upwards). Fig. adjust the pneumatic hand lever to the mid position (i. the upper blade will come to the original position (i. After the material is cut.

F = force exerted (N) p = gauge pressure (N/m2.37 6. CALCULATION OF FORCE: The force exerted by pneumatic cylinder on out stroke can be expressed as F=pA = p π d12/4 The force exerted by pneumatic cylinder on in stroke can be expressed as F = p π (d12 .d22) / 4 Where. Pa) A = full bore area (m2) d1 = full bore piston diameter (m) d2 = piston rod diameter (m) .

166*3.0052 /4 = 481N. .Pa d1 = 50 mm d2 = 10 mm Force exerted by the cylinder on out stroke i. Force exerted by the cylinder on in stroke is F = p π (d12 .e for cutting stroke is F = p π d12/4 = 245.166 K.14*0.14*(0.0052-0.d22) / 4 = 245.38  For cutting a sheet metal of 2mm thickness: Pressure = 245.0012)/4 = 462N.166*3.

Demerits:    Leakage of air affects the working unit. . Needs separate air compressor. MERITS AND DEMERITS: 7.1. time.2.39 7. It produces much noise. MERITS:         Reduces the effort of labour. Low cost Easy to handle Free of energy source Skilled Labour is not required Less Maintenance High accuracy Compact 7.

OVERHEAD CHARGES: The overhead charges are arrived by “manufacturing cost” Manufacturing Cost S.00 COMPONENTS Sheet Cutter Pneumatic Cylinder Sheet Metal Angle Frame Pneumatic Valve + Hose Nipple Connector Total Material Cost = 5000 + 2500 = Rs 7500 Total cost for this project = Rs.00 1000. COST ESTIMATION 8.1.00 800. gas cutting cost 8. power hacksaw.00 1500.7500 .2. welding.00 5000. grinding.40 8. LABOUR COST: Lathe.NO 1 2 3 4 5 = Material Cost + Labour Cost COST IN RUPEES 1700. drilling.

41 9. 9. PHOTOGRAPHY Fig. Photograph of Pneumatic sheet metal cutter .1.

Our project pneumatic sheet metal cutter is used to cut sheet metals exacts without any deviation caused by the human errors. We are good at what we have done and had fun doing it. Thicker sheets can be cut with ease using this machine. this machine can be easily installed in any industry at low cost.42 10. CONCLUSION: This project has met to its objective of cutting metal sheets accurately with less effort. We designed a pneumatic sheet metal cutter which costs less than that available in the market. As every industry maintains a compressor in the plant. .

43 11.FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK By increasing the strength of the cutting blade and by increasing the pressure in the cylinder a thicker sheet metal can also be cut. Linear cut can be transformed into radial cut by giving circular motion to the sheet to be cut. .

engineeringtoolbox.nasa.org/files/pneumatic/PneumaticsForNewbies.google.html http://en.pdf http://books.BIBILOGRAPHY      “HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEM” written by Srinivasan.wikipedia.com/pneumatic-cylinder-forced_1273.co. http://ranier.toolingu.in/books?id=k6KLBs2L2AMC&pg=PA12&lpg=PA12&dq=w orking+principle+of+pneumatic+system+for+bending&source=bl&ots=LqguMJXS _-&sig=pbRhttps://www.org/wiki/Pneumatics http://www.pdf.H.gov/Team116/2003/lessons/lesson7-pneumatics.com/class-570125-intro-to-pneumaticcomponents.hq. warrning    http://team358.html . Pneumatic handbook -R.