IPASJ International Journal of Electronics & Communication (IIJEC

A Publisher for Research Motivatin........

Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2014

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEC/IIJEC.htm Email: editoriijec@ipasj.org ISSN 2321-5984

Parametric study on the model of linear antenna arrays for cosecant squared pattern
Priyanka Behera1, D.S.N. Das2 and A.K. Behera3
3 1&2 Centurion university, Bhubaneswar Templecity institute of technology, Bhubaneswar

This work describes the synthesis of cosecant squared pattern (CSP) from a linear array antenna which is placed along positive x-axis with a uniform spacing of 0.6 times the operating wavelength. The amplitudes of the current excitations are taken as the optimizing parameters. The soft-computing techniques are used to optimize the element excitations. The cosecant squared shaped beam pattern is synthesized with a linear array of 30 elements for the angular width of 30 0 and the reduced side lobe level (SLL) as well as the ripple level using a soft computing tool. The effectiveness of the optimization algorithm, i.e. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm has been employed to synthesize non-uniformly excited, non-uniformly spaced, linear arrays.

Keywords: cosecant squared pattern (CSP), Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), side lobe level (SLL)

1. Introduction
Many analytical techniques such as Fourier transform method, Dolph–Chebyshev and Taylor series methods are introduced [1], to synthesis the antenna arrays with the desired radiation pattern. But these analytical techniques in synthesizing shaped beam pattern are not efficient enough to provide optimum pattern. So in order to get the best result the stochastic methods [2, 3] are necessary. For a symmetrical array synthesis a Genetic Algorithm (GA) method is presented in [4] for the optimization of the weights of the array elements with element spacing of 0.6λ; where λ is the wavelength of the operating signal. The Cosecant Squared Pattern (CSP) is useful for an aircraft system as it can provides high gain near the horizon [5] where the range is higher but low gain at high-elevation angles where range is lower. As a result when it moves from the horizon to towards the higher elevation, the corresponding aircraft receiver gets almost constant power at different elevation angles although its range is changing. A cosecant squared radiation pattern can be achieved by using multiple feeders and a reflector antenna. Also antennas with cosecant squared radiation pattern are used for costal and air surveillance radars because of its efficient scanning ability in the space. A number of optimization methods such as particle swarm optimization [6], genetic algorithm [7, 8], simulate annealing [9] etc. have been applied for the synthesis of antenna array. In [10], a weighted alternating reverse projection (WARP) method is applied to synthesize a 12 element linear array with a spacing of 0.5  and a angular range of 350 which also contains the ripple level of about 0.5 dB. Although, Orchard et al. [11] introduced a method to synthesize the power pattern from linear array but the solution is not the optimum one because, the reduced ripple results in shrinkage of the shaped region and increases the complexity of the array excitation. In this paper a cosecant squared pattern (CSP) in the far field power pattern of the array is generated using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm with optimizing the non uniform excitation coefficients and static phase shifts of linear array elements. The obtained CSP has the much fewer ripples in the shaped region and also have a lower side lobe level (SLL).

A configuration of multiple antenna elements arranged along a straight line is known as linear array. A linear array having N-isotropic elements placed along x-axis. Generally suitable values of three parameters as amplitude, phase and the inter element spacing are considered to design an antenna array for the desired radiation pattern. The radiation pattern of an antenna array is the sum of the contribution of all the signals radiated by the individual array elements and can be obtained by the array factor expression as given in (1), [1]. N i( k xn s in  n ) (1)

AF 

n 1

U ne

Where, U n is the normalized excitation coefficient of the n-th element, k = 2  , the wave number;  , the angle made by the line joining the observing point and the origin with the z-axis; xn and n be the position and static phase of the n-th element respectively. Hence from (1), it is observed that the desired power pattern from a linear array can be

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IPASJ International Journal of Electronics & Communication (IIJEC)
A Publisher for Research Motivatin........

Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2014

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEC/IIJEC.htm Email: editoriijec@ipasj.org ISSN 2321-5984

synthesized with the suitable values of the normalized amplitude coefficients, U n and static phase shift n of the array elements. In this paper, the effectiveness of DE algorithm is applied to select the suitable values of U n and n for n=1,2,….N to generate the desired pattern.

In 2005, [1] the ABC algorithm is developed using the foraging behavior of real honey bees which can be used to solve the multidimensional and multimodal optimization problem. In this algorithm, two different types of artificial bees present in the colony, that are - employed and unemployed bees. In addition of these two types of bees food source also plays an important role in the foraging system. Unemployed bees are of two types scout bees and onlooker bees. Employed bees are employed at a particular food source which they are currently exploiting and they also recruit the onlooker bees; onlooker bees wait in the hive and gather the information about the food sources such as nectar amounts from the employed bees. These information sharing takes place in the dancing area by a dance known as waggle dance. Since onlooker bees watch many dances before choosing a food source so the probability of choosing a profitable food source by onlookers are very high. The job of scouts is to randomly search the new food sources near the hive. First half of the colony contains the employed bees and another half contains the onlookers. Since there is only one employed bee for each food source therefore the number of employed bees and food sources are equal. When the food source of an employed bee is fully exploited by the employed and onlooker bees, she becomes a scout. The possible solution of the optimization problem is represented by the position of a food source whereas the quality (fitness) of the solution is represented by the nectar amount of a food source. ABC initializes with a randomly distributed initial population (at G=0) of Nfood food source positions or number of solutions, where Nfood denotes size of the population. Each solution Si (i=1, 2,…, Nfood) is a D-dimensional vector where D is the number of optimization parameters. After initialization, all the employed, onlooker and scout bees begin to search for food sources within maximum number of Cmax cycles. 3.1 Employed bees’ stage For finding a new food source, an employed bee modifies the position in her memory and tests the nectar amount (fitness value) of the new source (new solution). Like real bees, the artificial bees also use the comparison process for finding a new food source; however, they do not use any information in comparison. An employed bee randomly selects a food source position and the old food source position will be replaced by the new food source position in the employed bee’s memory if the new source has better nectar amount than that of the previous one. Otherwise the position of the previous food source will retain. In other words, a greedy selection mechanism is employed as the selection operation between the old and the candidate one. The position of the new food source v i in the neighborhood of its current source

xi is found by each employed bee by using the following equation-

vij  xij   ij ( xij  x kj )
(2) where k{1,2,...,N food } and j {1,2,...., D} are randomly chosen indexes and also k must be different from i.  ij is a random number between [-1, 1] and it controls the production of a neighbor food source around xij . 3.2 Onlooker bees’ stage After the completion of the search process, all the employed bees will return to their hive and share the information of the nectar and position of the food source with the onlookers on the dance area. Each onlooker bee now selects one of the food sources with a probability related to its nectar amount obtained from the employed bees. Like employed bees, greedy selection is also applied for onlooker bees. The onlookers select the food source with the probability, Pi , given as follows(3)
Pi  fitn e s s i
N fo o d

n 1

fitn e s s n

where fitness i represents the fitness value of the ith solution which is proportional to the nectar amount of the food source in the position i and Nfood denotes the number of food sources which is equal to the number of employed bees.

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IPASJ International Journal of Electronics & Communication (IIJEC)
A Publisher for Research Motivatin........

Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2014

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEC/IIJEC.htm Email: editoriijec@ipasj.org ISSN 2321-5984

3.3 Scout bees’ stage If within the predetermined number of cycles called ‘limit’, the fitness value of a food source does not improve then it will be abandoned and replaced by a new one. The employed bee associated with that food source becomes scout. This new position is randomly generated by the scout bee as belowj j j s ij  s min  rand [0,1] ( s max  s min )



j j s min and s max are lower and upper bounds of parameter j, respectively. All of the above three steps are

repeated up to a predetermined, Cmax, number of cycles, or until a threshold value is achieved. In this work ABC parameters are chosen as follows- number of food source (Nfood) =17, number of parameters to be optimizated=60, limit=270 and maximum number of cycle (Cmax) =4560.

To demonostrat the proposed work, linear antenna array of 30 eIement is considered with equal element spacing of 0.6  . It is desired that the radiated power pattern from the array follow the cosecant square function for at least 300 angular widths and the maximum value of SLL is ≤ -18.37dB. For the desired pattern, the normalized amplitude coefficients and the static phase shifts of the array elements are taken as the optimizing parameters of the ABC algorithm. The cost function used for the optimizing algorithm is as given in (5).
2 f cos t  W1 S112  W2 S 2 2   sum


Where, 1  SLLmax  SLLd ,  2  Rmax  Rd ; SLLmax and Rmax are the maximum value of SLL and ripple measured at each iteration of the searching process whereas SLLd and Rd are their corresponding desired values. S1 and S2 are the Heaviside step function of the corresponding terms and  sum is the sum of the difference between the sampled values of the array factor and actual cosecant square values at each point within the desired angular width. The optimized pattern using ABC is shown in Fig. 1 and the corresponding optimum values of Un and n are shown in table-1. In Fig. 1, the actual cosecant square plot for the desired range is also shown. The ABC optimized CSP approximately follows the actual plot for the angular width of 300 with the range (96-126) degrees. The maximum value of the side lobe level is also reduced to ─18 .32 dB and almost a negligible ripple in the desired pattern. However as seen from table-1, the dynamic range ratio (DRR) of amplitude is quite higher (76.92). But when the elements with lowest and largest amplitude coefficients (6th and 22nd elements) are discarded the corresponding values of DRR becomes 57.59 and the resultant pattern is not affected for that. If further two elements are discarded (1st and 20th elements) are turned off then the DRR is reduced to almost half, i.e 38.74 retaining the pattern unchanged.
10 0
norm aliz ed power pattern in dB


-10 -20 -30 -40 -50











Figure 1 ABC optimized Cosecant squared pattern

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IPASJ International Journal of Electronics & Communication (IIJEC)
A Publisher for Research Motivatin........

Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2014

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEC/IIJEC.htm Email: editoriijec@ipasj.org ISSN 2321-5984

Table 1: Normalized amplitude and phase
Element no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Normalized 0.0171 0.0933 0.0388 0.0809 0.1855 0.0130 0.0860 0.0250 0.0628 0.1348 0.0233 0.2100 0.2580 0.1728 0.2908 amplitudes, (Un) Phase shift,  n (degree) Element no 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Normalized 0.1189 0.3212 0.8611 0.9193 0.9849 0.9686 1.0000 0.9334 0.7764 0.7802 0.5852 0.5433 0.3418 0.1771 0.1181 amplitude, (Un) Phase shift, 0.835 1.085 1.520 2.139 2.285 4.633 1.437 1.676 1.391 5.921 0.440 5.436 1.118 1.002 5.975  n (degree)

2.518 2.453 2.941 2.845 3.109 3.528 4.198 4.681 5.112 5.452 6.060 0.337 0.985 1.851 .8720

In this paper, the effectiveness of artificial bee colony algorithm is successfully applied for synthesizing uniformly spaced 30 elements, linear antenna arrays. The suitable element excitations and the static phase shifts are determined by the algorithm those reduce the side lobe level of the array to satisfactorily low values. The obtained pattern is also compared to the cosec square plot in the desired region. The synthesized pattern of the antenna is much more helpful at the sea bank for effective communication.

[1] Balanis, C., Antenna Theory Analysis and Design, second edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. [2] Ares-Pena, F., “Application of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing to some antenna problems,” Electromagnetic Optimization by Genetic Algorithms, Y. Rahmat-Samii and E. Michielssen (Eds.), Wiley & Sons, New York, 1999. [3] Murino, V., A. Trucco, and C. S. Regazzoni, “Synthesis of unequally spaced arrays by simulated annealing,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, Vol. 44, 119–123, 1996. [4] Yan, K. and Y. Lu, “Sidelobe reduction in array-pattern synthesis using genetic algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 45, No. 7, 1117–1122, 1997 [5] Hui, K.Y., Luk, K.M.: ‘Design of wideband base station antenna arrays for CDMA 800 and GSM 900 systems’, Microw. Opt. echnol. Lett., 2003, 39, (5), pp. 406–409. [6] Hwang, K.C.: ‘Optimization of a non-uniformly slotted rectangular waveguide antenna’, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., 2008, 50, (7), pp. 1935–1937. [7] Marcano, D., Duran, F.: ‘Synthesis of antenna arrays using genetic algorithms’, IEEE Antenna Propag. Mag., 2000, 42, (3), pp. 328–332. [8] Donelli, M., Coarsi, S., Natale, F.D., Pastorino, M., Massa, A.: ‘Linear antenna synthesis with hybrid genetic algorithm’, Prog. Electromagn. Res., 2004, 49, pp. 1–22. [9] Farhat, N.H., Bai, B.: ‘Phased-array antenna pattern synthesis by simulated annealing’, IEEE Proc., 1987, 75, (6), pp. 842–844. [10]Haddadi, A. Ghorbani, A.:‘Cosecant-squared pattern synthesis using a weighted alternating reverse projection method’ IET Microw. Antennas Propag., 2011, Vol. 5, Iss. 15, pp. 1789–1795. [11]Orchard, H.J., Elliott, R.S., Stern, G.J.: ‘Optimizing the synthesis of shaped antenna patterns’, IEEE Proc. (London) H, 1984, 132, (1), pp. 63–68.

Priyanka Behera received the B.Tech degree in Electronics and communication engineering from Maharaja Institute of Technology in 2012 and M.Tech in Communication System from CUTM in 2014

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