# Linear Measurement

Linear Measurement
• Linear measurement includes the measurement of – lengths, – diameters, – heights and – thickness. thickness.

.Linear Measurement • The basic principle of linear measurement (mechanical type) is – comparison with standard dimensions on a suitably engraved instrument or device. accuracy. • Linear measuring instruments are categorized depending upon their accuracy.

. instruments.Linear Measurement • The two categories are – nonnon-precision instruments – precision instruments.

– caliper divider. and – telescopic gauge that are used to measure graduations of a rule.Linear Measurement • Non-precision instruments include – steel rule. to the line .

– height gauges and – slip gauges. gauges.Linear Measurement • Precision instruments include – micrometers. calipers. . – vernier calipers.

Linear Measurement • A wide variety of electrical measuring devices is also available.e. i. they transform the displacement into suitable measurable parameter like voltage and current. . • Electric measuring devices are mainly – transducers.

potentiometers. – linear variable differential transformers (LVDT) and – potentiometers.Linear Measurement • Some of the displacement transducers are – strain gauges. .

millimeter. . or – 1 degree.Semi-precision Measurement • Semi-precision measurement usually refers to measurement when – tolerances or levels of desired accuracy are within – 1/64 or 1/100 inch.5 millimeter. degree. – 0.

Semi-precision Measurement
• These are limited to the measurement of parts to a visible line graduation on the instrument used. • They are used where high measurement accuracy is not required.

Scales And Rules
• The terms scale and rule are often used interchangeably and often incorrectly. • A rule is a linear measuring instrument whose graduations represent real units of lengths and their subdivisions. • In contrast, a scale is graduated into imaginary units either smaller or larger than the real units they represent.

Scales And Rules
• This is done for convenience where proportional measurements are needed. • For example, an architect uses a scale that has graduations representing feet and inches. • However, the actual length of the graduations on the architect’s scale are quite different from full-size dimensions.

.Scales And Rules • The rule is by far the most common semiprecision measuring tool utilized in the machining field. • It is a flat piece of steel with graduations that divide inches (English) or millimeters (metric) into fractional parts.

or holes. slots. .Scales And Rules • The narrow rule is convenient when measuring in small openings.

• Built in “hook”helps align the end of the rule with the edge of the part being measured.Scales And Rules • A hook rule is helpful when measuring from the edge of a part. • When a workpiece has a chamfered edge. a hook rule will be advantageous over a common rule. .

Scales And Rules .

• The holder will attach to the rules at any angle. . • They can be used to measure shoulders in holes or steps in slots. making these versatile tools.Scales And Rules • The short rule set consists of a set of rules with a holder. where space is extremely limited.

Scales And Rules .

Scales And Rules • The rule depth gage consists of a slotted steel head in which a narrow rule slides. • For depth measurements the head is held securely against the surface with the rule extended into the cavity or hole to be measured .

.

• You may see the graduation either too far left or too far right of its real position . • Parallax error results when the observer making the measurement is not in line with the workpiece and the rule. .Scales And Rules • One of the problems associated with the use of rules is that of parallax error.

Scales And Rules .

• It may or may not be the true reading of the size.Scales And Rules • Parallax error occurs when the rule is read from a point other than one directly above the point of measurement. • The point of measurement is the point at which the measurement is read. depending on what location was used as the reference point on the rule. .

. • Furthermore. a thin rule is preferred to a thick rule. • In this regard.Scales And Rules • Parallax can be controlled by always observing the point of measurement from directly above. the graduations on a rule should be placed as close as possible to the surface being measured.

• It can be used to measure external or internal dimensions. • One type of caliper that is very similar to the rule is the slide caliper.Calipers • Calipers used in semi-precision measurement have two legs that make contact with part surfaces to obtain measurements. .

Calipers .

• These types of calipers are especially useful when measuring diameters.Calipers • External dimensions can also be measured with another type of caliper called an outside caliper. • An inside caliper can be used to measure internal dimensions. • Figure shows both an outside caliper and an inside caliper. .

Calipers .

Calipers .

Calipers .

Calipers • Both external and internal calipers are adjusted so their legs lightly contact part surfaces. as shown in Figure. • Some practice is needed to obtain the proper contact pressure. . • That is why these are called transferor helpertype measuring tools. • Then the measurement must be transferred to and measured with a rule.

Calipers .

Squares • The square is an important and useful tool for the machinist. . • A square is a comparative measuring instrument in that it is used to compare its degree of perpendicularity with an unknown degree of perpendicularity on the workpiece.

Squares • Squares can be used to check for perpendicularity. • Part surfaces are compared to the 90-degree corner of the square. • This is often called “checking for squareness” or “checking for square.” • This is called making a comparison or comparative measurement because no actual measurement is taken. .

• The different heads are mounted to the blade by tightening a clamping screw. • When the square head is mounted to the blade. the tool is called a combination square. • This tool can be used to make comparative measurements of 90-degree and 45-degree angles . square head. and protractor head.The Combination Set • The combination set consists of a blade. center head.

• The center of round material can be found with the use of the center head and blade. as shown in Figure. .The Combination Set • It can also be used to check heights or depths like other adjustable squares with graduated blades.

The Combination Set .

The Combination Set .

The Combination Set .

The Combination Set .

The Combination Set .

The Combination Set .

The Combination Set .

ANGULAR MEASUREMENT .

. • The arm rotates and can be locked in place by tightening the screw.Protractors • A plain protractor is used to measure angles and has two sets of one-degree graduations to allow measurement from either side of the protractor.

• Depths are measured as with an adjustable square when the rule is set at 90 degrees. .Protractors • A protractor depth gage adds a graduated rule and can be used for measuring depths as well as angles.

Protractors .

Protractors .

Protractors .

and then they are locked in place by retightening the screws. • The locking screws are loosened.Bevels • Universal and combination bevels can only be used as transfer tools to compare angles or bevels. . the blades are positioned. because they have no graduations.

Bevels .

Bevels .

Die Maker’s Square • A die maker’s square is a hybrid between a square and a protractor. . • It can be used like a standard adjustable square. but its blade can also be tilted by turning an adjusting screw to make comparative measurements of angles up to 10 degrees.

Die Maker’s Square .

• The gage is a certain size. and the size of the part is compared to the size of the gage.FIXED GAGES • Fixed gages are tools without adjustment that are used for comparative measurement of parts to a particular size. .

Radius and Fillet Gages • Radius and fillet gages are used to check outside corner and insider corner (fillet) radii. . • A set is shown in • Figure shows how radius and fillet gages can be used.

.Angle Gages • Angle gages can compare part angles to standard angles similar to the way radius and fillet gages are used.

Angle Gages .

.Screw Pitch Gage • A screw pitch gage determines the distance between threads. • Each leaf is used for a different size. • Figure shows a typical screw pitch gage and how it is used. • They are available in inch and metric versions.

Screw Pitch Gage .

– 0. millimeter. and – 1 degree.Precision Measurement • Precision measurement refers to measurement beyond – 1/64 or 1/100 of an inch. . degree.5 (1/2) millimeter.

• The vernier scale is placed adjacent to the main scale so that graduations on both scales can be observed together. • A vernier system consists of a main scale and a vernier scale. .Principle Of The Vernier • The principle of the vernier may be used to increase the discrimination of all graduated scale measuring tools used by a machinist.

Principle Of The Vernier • The spacing of the vernier scale graduations is shorter than the spacing of the main scale graduations. .

. consider a main scale divided as shown Figure. • It is desired to further subdivide each main scale division into 10 parts with the use of a vernier. • The spacing of each vernier scale division is made 1/10 of a main scale division shorter than the spacing of a main scale division.Principle Of The Vernier • For example.

1/10 is known as the least count of the vernier. • Therefore. .Principle Of The Vernier • The vernier now permits the main scale to discriminate to 1/10 of its major divisions.

Principle Of The Vernier .

.05 mm. . with every tenth millimeter mark numbered.1 mm. or . • The most commonly used type discriminates to .Principle Of The Vernier • The discrimination of metric vernier caliper models varies among the values .02 mm. • The main scale on a metric vernier caliper is divided into millimeters.02 mm.

02) of a millimeter each. • The five smaller divisions between the numbered lines represent two hundredths (. • Each numbered division on the vernier represents one-tenth (0. .Principle Of The Vernier • The vernier scale on the sliding jaw is divided into 50 equal spaces with every fifth space numbered.10) of a millimeter.

• The five smaller divisions between the numbered lines represent two hundredths (.02) of a millimeter each.10) of a millimeter. . • Each numbered division on the vernier represents one-tenth (0.Principle Of The Vernier • The vernier scale on the sliding jaw is divided into 50 equal spaces with every fifth space numbered.

The 25-part metric vernier scale .

The 25-part metric vernier scale .

The 25-part metric vernier scale .

The 50-part metric vernier scale .

The 50-part metric vernier scale

The 50-part metric vernier scale

The 50-part metric vernier scale

Vernier Caliper With Dial .

Vernier Caliper With Dial .

in the vernier scale determines the number of divisions of the main scale increments. • The vernier scale divides the smallest increment on the main scale into smaller increments. or parts. • The number of divisions. .Vernier Scale • A vernier measuring tool contains a main scale and a secondary sliding scale called the vernier scale.

• A vernier scale with 25 parts will divide the smallest main scale increment into 25 pieces. a vernier scale with 10 parts will divide the smallest main scale increment into 10 pieces. .Precision Measurement • For example.

• A vernier caliper has a solid jaw and a moveable jaw that are brought in contact with part surfaces to measure external dimensions.02 mm. but its vernier scale allows it to be used for measurements as small as 0. as shown in Figure .001" or 0.Vernier Caliper • A vernier caliper is similar to a semi-precision slide caliper.

Vernier Caliper .

Vernier Caliper Example 1 .

Vernier Caliper Example 1 .

Vernier Caliper Example 1 .

Vernier Caliper Example 1 .

Vernier Caliper Example 2 .

Vernier Caliper Example 3 .

Vernier Caliper Example 3 .

Vernier Caliper Example 4 .

Vernier Caliper Example 4 .

Micrometer .

Micrometer .

Micrometer .

Micrometer .

Micrometer .

.

.

Micrometer .

Micrometer .