All Saints Day

November 1, 2009


ALL SAINTS DAY Today's General Theme: God's grace in Christ makes us saints; we thank God for the blessings He has given us through faithful believers and consider their example for our imitation Mood of Service: Triumphant/joyful/spirited

Service Notes: [This may need to be revised.] A special day
of celebration in remembrance of martyrs was observed already in the third century Church. In the next century, the date was set as May 13, the occasion of the dedication of the Roman pantheon in 610 to St. Mary and all Martyrs. This remained the date until 835 when it was shifted to November 1, evidently for utilitarian reasons alone. (Horn, Edward T., The Christian Year, Muhlenberg Press, 1957, p. 209) In modern Lutheran usage, it is celebrated on November 1, or the Sunday after. This allows for celebration of Reformation Day on October 31 or the Sunday preceding. In Lutheran usage, of course, we do not honor or worship the saints themselves, but rather give thanks to the Lord of the Church for the blessings He has brought us through their service and example. We must also remember the Scriptural usage of the term "saint": not a perfect person holy by merit, but a person made holy by redemption in Christ, that is, any believer. This will protect us from any tendency to emphasize the virtue of any human being, and keep our faith focused on Christ alone. This applies as well when these Propers are used for the commemoration of the martyrs. It is always fitting to remember the example of those who bravely contended for the faith so we may be encouraged in our pilgrimage. However, don't overlook the multitude of "little saints" who by faithful Christian living in daily circumstances also made possible the preservation and extension of the Christian faith. This is the Church's Memorial Day. In the Introit the antiphon shows us the saints in glory, triumphant through Christ Whom they trust. The Psalm verses direct us personally to put our confidence in God Who will surely give us the victory too. We pray in the Collect that God would help us follow the example of the saints who have gone before us, so that we may both glorify Him here on earth by godly living and live in His love forever. The Gradual bridges the Old Testament Lesson and Epistle by telling us to fear the Lord (not the fear of penalty since we are forgiven, hut a respect for Him that directs us to honor, serve and trust Him above any other consideration) because He faithfully provides for His followers, even in time of trouble. The Verse bridges the 2

Epistle and Gospel selections by again referring to the glorious vocation of the saints in heaven as in the common Gospel for both series we turn to the vocation of the saints on earth. The Proper Preface for All Saints praises God Who in the saints gave us such wonderful examples of faith, love, service and perseverance that we might profitably follow them on our way to eternity and join the heavenly throng in glorifying Him. SPECIFIC NOTES FOR THE THREE YEAR SERIES B. Psalm 149 Revelation 7:(2-8)9-17 1 John 3:1-3 Matthew 5:1-12 The glory and blessings of God's saints are not evident in this world where they are often troubled and persecuted, but they are blessed nevertheless! The Psalm invites the people of God to sing a new song and praise the LORD in the assembly of the godly (saints). In the First Lesson, John's vision of the sealing of the servants of God and of the great multitude of saints who conquered in Christ and now enjoy His blessing forever, encourages us in our troubled earthly lives as well as giving us hope for those loved ones who have gone on before us. In the Epistle, John reminds us that saints—the children of God—are truly saints, only the world does not know us, and even we ourselves cannot yet see what we will be like, because only when Christ appears shall we be like Him. In the Gospel, Jesus speaks the beautiful Beatitudes describing the earthly lives of His saints, who, while undergoing problems and opposition, are nevertheless truly blessed. Liturgical Notes All Saints Day may be properly celebrated either on November 1 or the Sunday after. Its proper color is white, the color of purity, symbolizing that we are made pure through Christ's redemption. Since it is a Christian Memorial Day, some congregations have used it as a commemoration of the faithful dead in the local parish through the past year. This would be a more appropriate time for such emphasis than New Year's Eve which has been used similarly by some. When these Propers are used for commemorating days of martyrs (LW pages 116117) red is the proper color, symbolizing both the power of the Holy Spirit Who enables our faithful confession and the blood shed by those who died for Christ. When observing the martyrs' days, it is helpful to publish (or announce at the 3

reading of the Lessons) a brief summary of who this saint was and why we thank God for his or her service. Revelation 7:(2-8) 9-17 (NA27 w/Apparatus) [2 Καὶ εἶδον ἄλλον ἄγγελον ἀναβαίνοντα ἀπὸ ❐ἀνατολῆς ἡλίου ἔχοντα σφραγῖδα θεοῦ ζῶντος, καὶ ❑ἔκραξεν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ τοῖς τέσσαρσιν ἀγγέλοις οἷς ἐδόθη ❍αὐτοῖς ἀδικῆσαι τὴν γῆν καὶ τὴν θάλασσαν 3 λέγων· μὴ ἀδικήσητε τὴν γῆν ❐μήτε τὴν θάλασσαν ❑μήτε τὰ δένδρα, ❐1ἄχρι σφραγίσωμεν τοὺς δούλους τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν ἐπὶ τῶν μετώπων αὐτῶν. 4 ❏Καὶ ἤκουσα τὸν ἀριθμὸν τῶν ἐσφραγισμένων✓, ἑκατὸν ✗ τεσσεράκοντα τέσσαρες χιλιάδες, ❐ἐσφραγισμένοι ἐκ πάσης φυλῆς υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ· 5 ἐκ φυλῆς Ἰούδα δώδεκα χιλιάδες ἐσφραγισμένοι, ἐκ φυλῆς Ῥουβὴν δώδεκα χιλιάδες, ἐκ φυλῆς ❐Γὰδ δώδεκα χιλιάδες, 6 ἐκ φυλῆς Ἀσὴρ δώδεκα χιλιάδες, ἐκ φυλῆς Νεφθαλὶμ δώδεκα χιλιάδες, ἐκ φυλῆς ❐Μανασσῆ δώδεκα χιλιάδες, 7 ❏ἐκ φυλῆς Συμεὼν δώδεκα χιλιάδες✓, ἐκ φυλῆς Λευὶ δώδεκα χιλιάδες, ἐκ φυλῆς Ἰσσαχὰρ δώδεκα χιλιάδες, 8 ἐκ φυλῆς Ζαβουλὼν δώδεκα χιλιάδες, ἐκ φυλῆς Ἰωσὴφ δώδεκα χιλιάδες, ἐκ φυλῆς Βενιαμὶν δώδεκα χιλιάδες ❐ἐσφραγισμένοι.] 9 Μετὰ ταῦτα εἶδον✕, καὶ ἰδοὺ ὄχλος πολύς, ὃν✖ ἀριθμῆσαι ❍αὐτὸν οὐδεὶς ἐδύνατο, ἐκ παντὸς ἔθνους καὶ φυλῶν καὶ λαῶν καὶ γλωσσῶν ❐ἑστῶτες ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου καὶ ἐνώπιον τοῦ ἀρνίου ❑περιβεβλημένους στολὰς λευκὰς καὶ ❐1φοίνικες ἐν ταῖς χερσὶν αὐτῶν, 10 καὶ ❐κράζουσιν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ λέγοντες· ἡ σωτηρία τῷ θεῷ ἡμῶν τῷ καθημένῳ ἐπὶ τῷ θρόνῳ καὶ τῷ ἀρνίῳ✗. 11 Καὶ πάντες οἱ ἄγγελοι εἱστήκεισαν κύκλῳ τοῦ θρόνου καὶ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων καὶ τῶν τεσσάρων ζῴων καὶ ἔπεσαν ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου ✗ ἐπὶ τὰ πρόσωπα αὐτῶν καὶ προσεκύνησαν τῷ θεῷ 12 λέγοντες· 4

ἀμήν, ἡ εὐλογία καὶ ἡ δόξα ❏καὶ ἡ σοφία✓ καὶ ἡ εὐχαριστία καὶ ἡ τιμὴ καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ ἰσχὺς τῷ θεῷ ἡμῶν εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων· ❍ἀμήν. 13 Καὶ ἀπεκρίθη εἷς ❍ἐκ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων λέγων μοι· οὗτοι οἱ περιβεβλημένοι τὰς στολὰς τὰς λευκὰς τίνες εἰσὶν καὶ πόθεν ἦλθον; 14 καὶ ❐εἴρηκα αὐτῷ· κύριέ ❍μου, σὺ οἶδας. καὶ εἶπέν μοι· οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ ἐρχόμενοι ἐκ τῆς θλίψεως τῆς μεγάλης καὶ ❑ἔπλυναν τὰς στολὰς αὐτῶν καὶ ἐλεύκαναν ❍1αὐτὰς ἐν τῷ αἵματι τοῦ ἀρνίου. 15 διὰ τοῦτό εἰσιν ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ λατρεύουσιν αὐτῷ ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτὸς ἐν τῷ ναῷ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ὁ καθήμενος ἐπὶ ✕τοῦ θρόνου✖ ✔σκηνώσει ἐπʼ✙ αὐτούς. 16 οὐ πεινάσουσιν ❍ἔτι οὐδὲ διψήσουσιν ❍1ἔτι ❐οὐδὲ μὴ ✕πέσῃ ἐπʼ✖ αὐτοὺς ὁ ἥλιος οὐδὲ πᾶν καῦμα, 17 ὅτι τὸ ἀρνίον τὸ ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ θρόνου ❐ποιμανεῖ αὐτοὺς καὶ ❐ὁδηγήσει αὐτοὺς ἐπὶ ❑ζωῆς πηγὰς ὑδάτων, καὶ ἐξαλείψει ὁ θεὸς πᾶν δάκρυον ❐1ἐκ τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτῶν.1 1 John 3:1-3 (NA27 w/Apparatus) Ἴδετε ποταπὴν ἀγάπην ✕δέδωκεν ἡμῖν✖ ὁ πατήρ, ἵνα τέκνα θεοῦ κληθῶμεν, ❏καὶ ἐσμέν✓. διὰ τοῦτο ὁ κόσμος οὐ γινώσκει ❐ἡμᾶς, ὅτι οὐκ ἔγνω αὐτόν. 2 ἀγαπητοί, νῦν τέκνα θεοῦ ἐσμεν, καὶ οὔπω ἐφανερώθη τί ἐσόμεθα. οἴδαμεν ✗ ὅτι ἐὰν φανερωθῇ, ὅμοιοι αὐτῷ ἐσόμεθα, ὅτι ὀψόμεθα αὐτὸν καθώς ἐστιν. 3 καὶ πᾶς ὁ ἔχων τὴν ἐλπίδα ταύτην ἐπʼ αὐτῷ ἁγνίζει ἑαυτόν, καθὼς ἐκεῖνος ἁγνός ἐστιν.2

Nestle, E., Nestle, E., Aland, K., Aland, B., & Universität Münster. Institut für Neutestamentliche Textforschung. (1993, ©1979). Novum Testamentum Graece (27. Aufl., rev.). Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelstiftung. 2 Nestle, E., Nestle, E., Aland, K., Aland, B., & Universität Münster. Institut für Neutestamentliche Textforschung. (1993, ©1979). Novum Testamentum Graece (27. Aufl., rev.). Stuttgart: Deutsche 5

Matthew 5:1-12 (NA27 w/Apparatus) Ἰδὼν δὲ τοὺς ὄχλους ἀνέβη εἰς τὸ ὄρος, καὶ καθίσαντος αὐτοῦ προσῆλθαν ❍αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ· 2 καὶ ἀνοίξας τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς λέγων· 3 Μακάριοι οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι, ὅτι αὐτῶν ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν. 4 ❦μακάριοι οἱ πενθοῦντες✗, ὅτι αὐτοὶ παρακληθήσονται. 5 ❏μακάριοι οἱ πραεῖς, ὅτι αὐτοὶ κληρονομήσουσιν τὴν γῆν.❧✓ 6 μακάριοι οἱ πεινῶντες καὶ διψῶντες τὴν δικαιοσύνην, ὅτι αὐτοὶ χορτασθήσονται. 7 μακάριοι οἱ ἐλεήμονες, ὅτι αὐτοὶ ἐλεηθήσονται. 8 μακάριοι οἱ καθαροὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ, ὅτι αὐτοὶ τὸν θεὸν ὄψονται. 9 μακάριοι οἱ εἰρηνοποιοί, ὅτι ❍αὐτοὶ υἱοὶ θεοῦ κληθήσονται. 10 μακάριοι οἱ δεδιωγμένοι ἕνεκεν δικαιοσύνης, ὅτι αὐτῶν ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν. 11 μακάριοί ἐστε ὅταν ✗ ❦ὀνειδίσωσιν ὑμᾶς καὶ ❐διώξωσιν❧ καὶ εἴπωσιν ❦1πᾶν πονηρὸν ✘ καθʼ ὑμῶν❧ ❍[ψευδόμενοι] ἕνεκεν ❑ἐμοῦ. 12 χαίρετε καὶ ἀγαλλιᾶσθε, ὅτι ὁ μισθὸς ὑμῶν πολὺς ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς· οὕτως γὰρ ἐδίωξαν τοὺς προφήτας ❏τοὺς πρὸ ὑμῶν✓✗.3


Nestle, E., Nestle, E., Aland, K., Aland, B., & Universität Münster. Institut für Neutestamentliche Textforschung. (1993, ©1979). Novum Testamentum Graece (27. Aufl., rev.). Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelstiftung. 6

5:3 πτωχοὶ — ① pert. to being economically disadvantaged, orig. ‘begging’ (s. πένης for a differentiation betw. the two words; note the juxtaposition in Ps 39:18; 69:6 al.), dependent on others for support, but also simply poor… ③ lacking in spiritual worth, fig. ext. of 1.4 I love the GOD’S WORD translation here (even though it’s a paraphrase): “Blessed are those who recognize they are spiritually helpless.”5 πνεύματι —ⓑ as the source and seat of insight, feeling, and will, gener. as the representative part of human inner life… —The mng. of the expr. οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι Mt 5:3 is difficult to determine w. certainty…. The sense is prob. those who are poor in their inner life, because they do not have a misdirected pride in their own spiritual riches…6 (Did you understand that? I had to read it several times myself. It means these people think they are spiritually bankrupt. See the GOD’S WORD translation above.) BDF §197 classifies this as a Dative of Respect.

p o

ert. = pertaining (to) rig. = original(ly) b etw. = between a l. =alibi (elsewhere), aliter (otherwise), alii (others) e xt. = extension 4 Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (2000). A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature. "Based on Walter Bauer's Griechisch-deutsches Wörterbuch zu den Schriften des Neuen Testaments und der frühchristlichen Literatur, sixth edition, ed. Kurt Aland and Barbara Aland, with Viktor Reichmann and on previous English editions by W.F. Arndt, F.W. Gingrich, and F.W. Danker." (3rd ed.) (896). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 5 God's Word. 1996, ©1995 (electronic ed.) (Mt 5:3). Grand Rapids: World Publishing. g ener. = generally m ng. = meaning(s) e xpr. = expression p rob. = probable, probably 6 Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (833). 7

5:5 πραεῖς — pert. to not being overly impressed by a sense of one’s selfimportance, gentle, humble, considerate, meek in the older favorable sense…, unassuming.7 κληρονομήσουσιν — (Parsed below in the Readings) — ② acquire, obtain, come into possession of τὶ someth. …esp. of participation in Messianic salvation: τὴν γῆν … Mt 5:5.8 So, according to BDAG, “the earth” the meek will inherit is *not* the land of Canaan, but “the new heaven and the new earth” at the end of all time, as I understand what they mean by “participation in Messianic salvation,” which is ultimately the fulfillment of the promise to Abraham that his descendants would inherit “the land.” 5:6 δικαιοσύνην — Very interesting what BDAG has for this all-important word, which we think is found only in Paul’s Epistles, but here it is right in Matthew’s Gospel (where it occurs 7x vs. 29x in Romans). Here’s BDAG: ② quality or state of juridical correctness with focus on redemptive action, righteousness. Equitableness is esp. associated w. God…, and in our l it. freq. in connection w. exercise of executive privilege in conferring a benefit. Hence God’s δ. can be the opposite of condemnation 2 Cor 3:9 (s. below); in it God is revealed as judge Rom 3:5—in contrast to human wrath, which beclouds judgment—displaying judicial integrity 3:25 (on this pass. s. also below)…. Also of equitable privilege allotted by God 2 Pt 1:1.—In Pauline thought the intimate association of God’s interest in retaining a reputation for justice that rewards goodness and requites evil, while at the same time working out a plan of salvation for all humanity, complicates classification of his use of δικαιοσύνη. On the one hand, God’s δ. is pardoning action, and on the other a way of sharing God’s character with believers, who then exhibit righteousness in the moral sense. God achieves this objective through exercise of executive privilege in dispensing justice equitably without reference to νόμος by making salvation available to all

ert. = pertaining (to) Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (861). s ometh. = something e sp. = especially 8 Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (547). e sp. = especially l it. = literal(ly); literature (references to [scholarly] literature) f req. = frequent(ly) p ass. = passive (either of grammatical form or of passive experience); also used in reference to literary portion=passage 8

humanity (which shares a common problem of liability to wrath by being unanimously in revolt against God Ro 3:9–18, 23) through faith in God’s action in Jesus Christ. The genitival constr. δ. θεοῦ accents the uniqueness of this δ.: Ro 1:17; 3:21f, 25, 26…; 10:3, and δ. alone 5:21; 9:30 (3 times); 2 Cor 3:9…. 2 Cor 5:21 may belong here if δ. is viewed as abstract for concrete=δικαιωθέντες (but s. below). All these refer to righteousness bestowed by God cp. ἡ δωρεὰ τῆς δ. Ro 5:17, also 1 Cor 1:30…. In this area it closely approximates salvation... According to some interpreters hunger and thirst for uprightness Mt 5:6 perh. offers (but s. 3a below) a related eschatological sense….③ the quality or characteristic of upright behavior, uprightness, righteousness…ⓐ of uprightness in general: Mt 5:6 (cp. 6:33; some interpret 5:6 in an eschatological sense, s. 2 above;…).9 5:7 ἐλεήμονες — pert. to being concerned about people in their need, merciful, sympathetic, compassionate…Of people…Mt 5:7.10 ἐλεηθήσονται — (Parsed below in the Readings.) — to be greatly concerned about someone in need, have compassion/mercy/pity τινά on or for someone… Pass. find or be shown mercy…Mt 5:7.11 5:8 καθαροὶ — ③ pert. to being free from moral guilt, pure, free fr. sin….

ⓐ…οἱ καθαροὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ (Ps 23:4) Mt 5:8.12 καρδίᾳ — ① heart as seat of physical, spiritual and mental life (as freq. in Gk.

it.), fig. extension of ‘heart’ as an organ of the body…, a mng. not found in

C c

onstr. = construction erh. = perhaps c p. = compare, freq. in ref. to citation fr. ancient texts 9 Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (247). p ert. = pertaining (to) 10 Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (316). 11 Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. 315). p ert. = pertaining (to) f r. = from 12 Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (489). f req. = frequent(ly) G k. = Greek l it. = literal(ly); literature (references to [scholarly] literature) m ng. = meaning(s) 9

our lit….ⓑ as center and source of the whole inner life, w. its thinking, feeling, and volition…δ. of moral decisions, the moral life, of vices and virtues:…καθαρὸς τῇ κ. pure in heart (Ps 23:4) Mt 5:8 13 5:9 κληθήσονται — (Parsed below in Readings.) — ① to identify by name or attribute, call, call by name, name…ⓓ Very oft. the emphasis is to be placed less on the fact that names are such and such, than on the fact that the bearers of the name actually are what the name says about them. The pass. be named thus approaches closely the mng. to be, and it must be left to the sensitivity of the interpreter whether this transl. is to be attempted in any individual case…. Among such pass. are these: Ναζωραῖος κληθήσεται he is to be a Nazarene Mt 2:23. υἱοὶ θεοῦ κληθήσονται 5:9.14 5:10 δεδιωγμένοι — (Parsed below in Readings.) — ② to harass someone, e sp. because of beliefs, persecute…Pass. …Mt 5:10.15 δικαιοσύνης —③ the quality or characteristic of upright behavior, uprightness, righteousness…ⓐ of uprightness in general: Mt 5:6…; Mt 5:10.16 5:11 — ὀνειδίσωσιν — (Parsed below in the Readings.) — ① to find fault in a way that demeans the other, reproach, revile, mock, heap insults upon as a way of shaming; w. acc. of the pers. affected…of the reviling/mocking of Jesus Mk 15:32; cp. Ro 15:3 (Ps 68:10) and of Jesus’ disciples Mt 5:11.17
13 o

Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (508). ft. = often p ass. = passive (either of grammatical form or of passive experience); also used in reference to literary portion=passage m ng. = meaning(s) t ransl. = translate, translation 14 Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (502). e sp. = especially 15 Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (254). 16 Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (248). a cc. = accusative p ers. = person(s) c p. = compare, freq. in ref. to citation fr. ancient texts 17 Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (710). 10

ψευδόμενοι — Present Middle Participle, masculine nominative plural of ψεύδομαι — ① to tell a falsehood, lie abs….Mt 5:11.18 Here is Metzger on the textual difficulty of including ψευδόμενοι, and why the word is enclosed in brackets: 5.11 [ψευδόμενοι] {C} It is uncertain whether ψευδόμενοι should be included or omitted from the text. On the one hand, the absence of the word in the Western tradition (D itb, c, d, h, k


bs. = absolute Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (1096). { C} The letter {C} indicates that the Committee had difficulty in deciding which variant to place in the text.
18 D


ms. nr.*D 05saec.VbibliothecaCambridge, Univ. Libr., Nn. 2. 41cont.ea (vac. Mt 1,1-20; 6,20-9,2; 27,2-12; J 1,16-3,26; Act 8,29-10,14; 21,2-10.16-18; 22,10-20.29fin.; Jc-Jd [Mt 3,7-16; Mc 16,15-20; J 18,14-20,13 suppl.])————— ms. nr.*D 06saec.VIbibliothecaParis, Bibl. Nat., Gr. 107 ABcont.p (vac. R 1,1-6; [1,27-30; 1K 14,13-22 suppl.])


t it Old Latin


ms. nr.b 4saec.VbibliothecaVerona, Bibl. Capitolare, VI (6)cont.e (vac. Mt 1,111; 15,12-22; 23,18-27; Mc 13,11-16; 13,27–14,24; 14,56–16,20; L 19,26–21,29; J 7,44–8,12) ms. nr.c 6saec.XII/XIIIbibliothecaParis, Bibl. Nat., Lat. 254 (Colbertinus 4051)cont.e



ms. nr.d 5saec.VbibliothecaCambridge, Univ. Libr., Nn. II. 41cont.e (vac. Mt 1,1-11; 2,20–3,7; 6,8–8,27; 26,65–27,2; Mc 16,6-20; J 1,1–3,16; 18,2–20,1) ms. nr.h 12saec.VbibliothecaRoma, Bibl. Vatic., Lat. 7223, fol. 1-66cont.Mt 3,15–14,33; 18,12–28,20 1saec.IV/VbibliothecaTorino, Bibl. Naz., G. VII. 15cont.Mt 1,1–3,10; 4,1–14,17; 15,20-36; Mc 8,8–16,8; concl. brev.


ms. nr.k



yrs geo Tertullian al) can be accounted for as the result of scribal accommodation of the passage to the Lukan form of the beatitude (Lk 6.22). On the other hand, more than one scribe would have been tempted to insert the word in order to limit the wide generalization in Jesus’ teaching, and to express specifically what was felt to be implied by the very nature of the case (compare 1 Pe 4.15 f.). In order to represent the balance of transcriptional probabilities, the Committee decided to include the word in the text, but to enclose it within square brackets.19 5:12 ἀγαλλιᾶσθε — (Parsed in the Readings below) — to be exceedingly joyful, exult, be glad, overjoyed…Ac 2:26 (Ps 15:9);…χαίρειν καὶ ἀ. … Mt 5:12.20 Greek Readings Fall Quarter – Week 8 (October 26–30, 2009) All Saints’ Day Matthew 5:1–12
s s

yr Syriac. yrs Sinaitic (Lewis, The Old Syriac Gospels). Old Syriac, third/fourth century. g eo geo (Blake [Mt]; Blake [Mk]; Brière [Lk]; Blake/Brière [Jn]; Garitte [Ac]; Dzocenidze/K. Daniela [Paul]; K’. Lort’k’anidze [Cath], here as a rule only the earliest revision of A1 of both Sinaitic manuscripts from A.D. 974 and 977 were used). Georgian Rev was not available. T ertullian (d. after 220) a l alia (other witnesses) 19 Metzger, B. M., & United Bible Societies. (1994). A textual commentary on the Greek New Testament, second edition a companion volume to the United Bible Societies' Greek New Testament (4th rev. ed.) (10). London; New York: United Bible Societies. 20 Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (2000). A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature. "Based on Walter Bauer's Griechisch-deutsches Wr̲terbuch zu den Schriften des Neuen Testaments und der frhchristlichen [sic] Literatur, sixth edition, ed. Kurt Aland and Barbara Aland, with Viktor Reichmann and on previous English editions by W.F. Arndt, F.W. Gingrich, and F.W. Danker." (3rd ed.) (4). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 12

• Verse 1 o Parse ἀνέβη. 2nd Aorist Active Indicative, 3rd singular of ἀναβαίνω. Jesus reveals Himself on several mountains in different ways. Name them. The mount of this sermon, where Jesus reveals Himself as the Only Righteous One, from whom we receive His righteousness only by faith; the Mountain where Jesus fed the 5,000 men (John 6) and revealed Himself as the true Bread of Heaven and Bread of Life; the Mount of Transfiguration, where Jesus reveals His exodus as God dying; the of Olives, where on Palm Sunday Jesus reveals Himself as the humble King of Kings; the Mount of Calvary/Golgotha, where Jesus reveals Himself as Savior of the world; the Mountain in Galilee where 40 days after Easter Jesus reveals Himself as the Ascended Lord of Lords. [Guys, did I leave out any other mountain you can think of? — DTM] o Parse καθίσαντος. 1st Aorist Active Participle, masculine GENITIVE singular of καθίζω. καθίσαντος αὐτοῦ forms what sort of grammatical construction? (Voelz 2 edn., 149–150; 3 edn., 133–134) Genitive Absolute. • Verse 2 o Parse ἀνοίξας. 1st Aorist Active PARTICIPLE, masculine nominative singular of ἀνοίγω. Notice both NIV and GOD’S WORD omit this phrase. I don’t know why the NIV did it, but I can tell you that GOD’S WORD omitted it because no one says naturally, “so-and-so opened his mouth and taught them.” Natural English might say, “He opened his mouth to say something, but stopped and said nothing,” but not for this setting here. This is probably a Hebraism, which also says, “David played his harp with his hand.” (What else would he use—his feet?) So, “He began to teach them” is what we find in both the NIV and GOD’S WORD. Parse ἐδίδασκεν. Imperfect Active Indicative, 3rd singular of διδάσκω. What nuance of the imperfect tense fits best here? (Voelz 2 edn., 69–70; 3 edn., 58–60) BDF §329 states: A double view is possible with verbs of saying: the aorist serves for a simple reference to an utterance previously made (especially for a specific pronouncement of an individual); the imperfect for the delineation of the content of a speech….Ἔλεγεν is thus used to introduce longer discourses, as in Lk 6:20 before the Sermon on the Plain, following a description in the 13

imperf. (vv. 18, 19; Mt 5:2 introduces the Sermon with ἐδίδασκεν λέγων). 21 o How does Matthew use ἀνοίγω throughout his Gospel? (Mt 9:30; 13:35; 17:27; 20:33) Except for opening His mouth to speak parables (a technical miraculous saying of Jesus), all other openings are associated with miraculous events (not just healings, like opening the mouth of the fish Peter would catch and find a coin in the mouth). In opening His mouth, what does Jesus utter? (cf. esp. Mt 13:35) The revelation of God; His teaching; parables. • Verse 3 o Parse μακάριοι. Masculine nominative plural of μακάριος. Compare and contrast Matthew's use of μακάριος in the Beatitudes and the rest of Matthew. (Mt 11:6; 13:16; 16:17; 24:46) BDAG 610 has them all under “② pert. to being esp. favored, blessed, fortunate, happy, privileged, fr. a transcendent perspective, the more usual sense (the general Gr-Rom. perspective: one on whom fortune smiles),” and except for Matthew 13:16 (where eyes are blessed), BDAG further defines μακάριος as “ⓐ of humans privileged recipient of divine favor.”22 o What does Matthew indicate with the phrase ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν? (Mt 3:2; 6:33; 20:1) First, as BDAG 739.3 points out, this use of οὐρανῶν is “a Hebrew practice” of referring to God (“③ an indirect reference to God, God”23). Secondly, as BDAG 168 1.b. points out βασιλεία means: “ⓑ esp. of God’s rule the royal reign of God

v. verse(s) Blass, F., Debrunner, A., & Funk, R. W. (1961). A Greek grammar of the New Testament and other early Christian literature (170). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p ert. = pertaining (to) e sp. = especially f r. = from G r-Rom. = Greco-Roman (gener. in contrast to Israelite/Christian tradition) 22 Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (611). 23 Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (739). e sp. = especially 14

(usually rendered ‘kingdom of God’, and oft. understood as royal realm but with dilution of the primary component of reigning activity), a chiefly eschatological concept, beginning to appear in the prophets, elaborated in apocalyptic passages…and taught by Jesus. The expressions vary; β. τοῦ θεοῦ and τῶν οὐρανῶν have essentially the same mng., since Israelites used οὐρανός (-οί) as well as other circumlocutions for θεός (cp. Mt 19:23f;…); the latter term may also emphasize the heavenly origin and nature of the reign.24 So I would say that Matthew indicates that ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν means “the total influence of God in the hearts and lives of (ultimately: His) people, which begins in this life (albeit imperfectly), and reaches its full fruition in the age to come (heaven).” • Verse 4 o Parse πενθοῦντες. Present Active Participle, masculine nominative plural of πενθέω. What does this word mean? Do you find BDAG's explanation adequate? Why or why not? (BDAG 795) ① intr., to experience sadness as the result of some condition or circumstance, be sad, grieve, mourn…Also, the πενθοῦντες Mt 5:4 mourn not for their own sins, but because of the power of the wicked, who oppress the righteous.25 I find BDAG’s definition adequate and right on, especially with the reference to 1 Corinthians 5:2, where the Corinthians should be mourning over the sins committed by this man from their congregation. This is the mourning that takes place when we read in the newspaper that a young girl has a baby, throws it in the trash, and then goes back to finish her Senior Prom. This is a mourning that causes us to be outraged at what evil can be done by some people against helpless, innocent (and many times), little people! o Parse παρακληθήσονται. Future PASSIVE Indicative, 3rd plural of παρακαλέω. According to BDAG, this consists of “comfort through words, or a favorable change in situation . . .” (BDAG 765). What constitutes this change? When an evil has been rectified (as in the case of Lazarus finally being comforted in heaven—Luke 16:25), or the

ft. = often ng. = meaning(s) 24 Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (168). i ntr. = intransitive 25 Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (795). 15

comforting words that God is still with us and has not abandoned us, especially when we endure sufferings (2 Corinthians 1:6). • Verse 5 o Parse κληρονομήσουσιν. Future Active Indicative, 3rd plural of κληρονομέω. What is the OT background to the inheriting of land? (cf. Scaer, David. The Sermon on the Mount. 83–84) I don’t have Dr. Scaer’s book, but I would imagine that it involves the promise of the land of Canaan, originally given to Abra(ha)m and his descendants (e.g., Genesis 12:1; Deuteronomy 1:8). • Verse 6 o Why “for righteousness” grammatically? Righteousness is in the accusative. BDF §171(1) states “further πεινᾶν and διψᾶν with accusative τὴν δικαιοσύνην Mt 5:6…, instead of classical genitive, probably by analogy with ἐπιποθεῖν which is transitive in the NT as in classical.”26 This means that both of these verbs (πεινᾶν and διψᾶν) are transitive, taking an accusative, direct object. o Parse χορτασθήσονται. Future PASSIVE Indicative, 3rd plural of χορτάζω. In what other contexts does Matthew use this word and how do they affect our understanding of this passage? (Mt. 14:20; 15:33, 37) The miracle of the Feeding of the Five Thousand and of the Four Thousand. All these people were fed and satisfied from their food—miraculously given to them. So, those who hunger and thirst for righteousness (to know that they are OK or acceptable to God) will miraculously find themselves satisfied (no more hunger, no more thirst—all gone; we will have had enough—our fill; we’ll be satiated). o What institution of Jesus does "hungering and thirsting" foreshadow? The Institution of Holy Communion. • Verse 7 o Parse ἐλεηθήσονται. Future Passive Indicative, 3rd plural of ἐλεέω. According to Matthew's use of ἐλεέω, who is the one who gives mercy and to whom? (Mt 9:27; 15:22; 17:15; 20:30, 31) Jesus is the one who gives mercy, and it is given to the blind and demon-possessed.


T New Testament Blass, F., Debrunner, A., & Funk, R. W. (94). 16

• Verse 9 o Parse εἰρηνοποιοί. Masculine nominative plural of εἰρηνοποιός. What two words form this compound? (BDAG 288) εἰρήνη (peace) and ποιέω (I make/do). o Parse κληθήσονται. Future Passive Indicative, 3rd plural of καλέω. Where / how is Jesus referred to as the "Son of God" in Matthew and how does this affect our understanding of this passage? (Scaer, Sermon, 88–89) Jesus is called “The Son of God” after He dies, at the crucifixion, by the centurion who was keeping watch over Jesus in Matthew 27:54. “Sons of God” may ultimately only prove themselves as such in making peace at the cost of their lives! • Verse 10 Parse δεδιωγμένοι. Perfect Passive Participle, masculine nominative plural of διώκω. On what account do those persecuted gain the kingdom of heaven? Because they lived decent, upright lives (so BDAG 247.3.a.). However, Lenski argues that this is the forensic righteousness here, and in that case, they would be persecuted simply because they’re Christians (declared righteous by God’s grace). Here’s Lenski: They endured “for the sake of righteousness,” ἕνεκεν δικαιοσύνης, the same term that was used in v. 6, and it has the same forensic sense. It is God who as the great Judge pronounces his verdict upon them and thus accords them the quality of righteousness. These are true believers and as such righteous in God’s eyes. They confess their faith and live up to it in their lives and thus prove obnoxious to the world which visits persecution upon them. “For the sake of righteousness” thus means more than that they suffered innocently, although this, too, is included. They suffered because of what they were in their character and their lives, for the divine approval that rested upon them. God adjudged them righteous, the world, in flagrant opposition to God, adjudged them abominable. Because their whole character and their life, as approved of God, constituted a standing rebuke to the world, indicating God’s judicial disapproval of the character and the life of the world, the world turned against them and thus persecuted them. Having stood firm under the test of persecution in the righteousness they attained by God’s grace, their great blessedness is that “theirs is the kingdom of the heavens,” all the grace, gifts, and glory that go with the rule of the Messiah and King. See the exposition of 3:2. Whatever the world may take from them is more than made up by this heavenly possession which no one 17

can take from them. To have Christ and all that Christ bestows by his kingdom and rule is more than life, liberty, or earthly goods.27 • Verse 11 o Parse ὀνειδίσωσιν. 1st Aorist Active Subjunctive, 3rd plural of ὀνειδίζω. What use of ὅταν + subj. is being used here? (Voelz 2 edn.,198; 3 edn., 181) I still haven’t found my copy of Voelz, and I’m not finding what I think this is in BDF. So, I’ll call this a temporal clause equivalent to a present general condition = “whenever” (like “If…ever, …always.”) So, “You are [always] blessed, whenever people mock you and persecute you and say…” • Verse 12 o Parse χαίρετε and ἀγαλλιᾶσθε. Present Active IMPERATIVE, 2nd plural of χαίρω, and Present MIDDLE/PASSIVE Imperative, 2nd plural of ἀγαλλιάω. Where does this rejoicing and exulting ultimately occur? (Re 19:7) In heaven. Integrating Meaning Some have argued that the Beatitudes are primarily a description of Jesus. Make an argument for whether or not the Beatitudes are primarily about Jesus, His saints, or something in between. Then explain how your interpretation would affect your sermon.28 Ultimately all descriptions of “blessedness” are descriptions of Jesus: Our righteousness is only a reflection of Him, and this side of heaven does not yet appear as it should be (1 John 3:2a). But the words are clear: “Blessed are YOU (v. 11).” Jesus pronounces a forensic blessedness on His disciples, since v. 2 (Matthew 5:2) makes it clear that Jesus was teaching His disciples. So, it would seem to me that the sin that is uncovered in this passage is that we ultimately disbelieve—we just can’t believe (on our own)—what our ears are hearing. I see each disciple with an incredulous look on their face, questioning, “Who me? Blessed? You’ve got to be kidding!” Or digging even deeper: Each disciple is offended that his blessedness is not his own doing, but God’s doing. That’s why the first beatitude talks about being spiritually bankrupt (“poor in spirit”). When any human comes into the presence of Jesus, His majesty terrifies us and we realize how unworthy we are and that

Lenski, R. C. H. (1961). The Interpretation of St. Matthew's Gospel (195). Minneapolis, MN.: Augsburg Publishing House. 28 18

we have no business being so close to such a Perfect Saint. But the Gospel that’s in these beatitudes is precisely the good news they bring, that because of Jesus, and who He is (God and man, Savior, Friend, Brother), He is the one who declares us blessed, and because He says so, it is so. Yes, it is a forensic blessedness this side of heaven, but “when He shall appear (on the last day), we shall be like Him (1 John 3:2b). Here’s what I wrote in a sermon on this text: But that’s the whole point of our text and of our Sunday: All Saints is all about what GOD does, not you and I. And remember the first of the beatitudes? When we realize that we are spiritually helpless, that’s precisely when God considers you and me a Saint, “Blessed Are You!” In fact, if we stop to think about it, we have a hard time believing Jesus is calling us blessed because we are insulted that not one thing we think, say, or do is considered good by our God. By nature you and I want to be our own god, ever since the days of Adam and Eve, when Satan promised her that she would become like God. It’s a slap in the face of our pride to hear our God call us Blessed when we haven’t even done a thing to earn this! But that is precisely the point of our text and of our Sunday: It begins with God and it ends with God. We who have messed up, we who have been trying so hard to become god on our own, by our own efforts, we who are insulted that God doesn’t want to accept what we do in order to earn His favor—we the damned and accused of God, are called blessed because the Son of God came down from heaven and became the Son of Man for us and for our salvation. Jesus became our Substitute, our Replacement. He lived the life we could never live. He suffered and died for the sins you and I committed. And because He rose again on Easter Sunday, He can and does turn around and call us who are His enemies, His friends. He called us who stand accused of all our sins, who should be damned for all our wrong thoughts, words, and actions—He calls us Blessed. Yes, by the power of His suffering, death, and resurrection, by the power of His almighty Word, that same Word that said, “Let there be light!” and there was light—by His almighty Word, He turns to you and me today, no matter what we’ve done, no matter what we’ve said or thought, and He says to you and to me, “Blessed Are You!” We are sinners who by God’s grace, are ALL Saints! 19


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