Elementary Particles


NEw FtvEN: YALE t NIvn asr?r Pntss


oJ eishty thousand Aoll,rs Y&le ao\ese in the cila ol Fellaus d aas leJt to ttrc Presit:lent and Nen Ilauen, to hc hekl in trust, as a silt lrcm her chiLbm, in memary


the sear

t88s a leltdc!



lot. Lalnvi\ Pt.ti

Pr'ii..l in lE

United Statu aJ Anr.tit:u


FiBt PahlilL.l, Mat!, 1951 Printrts, /1xsrtt, M)e

LIrs. He?'a Elv Silliman. On tlis loudation Yale Collese uas req\ested anA .lirected to esldblish '1n annllal alse o! Iectves desisned ta iLlu'trak the tfesencc antl, prol)iLenc., the uis|lo'r. ar^,] goodncss al God' as naniJesled in thc naLural and narul uo d These uere to be de$isnaled s.s tlw Mts. Hepsa Dt! Siltirnan Menorial Lectutes ll uas the beL;el oJ the testatar that an! or(lerl! presentatian al tlrc lacb ol nature at historu cantributed to Lhe enl oI tlis tounLlattion nrore ellectiuela tlnn
ol their
belo\ed, and hanored mathet,


tislts tsetre'l Thi{ baa| nds tat l)r r.r,odked, it uhoL. nL ytt. in LL! Tnnr


attempt to emphdsi1e the clenents oJ doctrine or aJ crecd; antl he

lotuptltl tri.1trttsJot th. pnblit p ti),n:nh att ritbr pd"tirian ,onL the PrbliiLo!

that lrctwes on dogmatic ar palemical theolosu shouLl. be enludett Jram the scope al this launalatian, and tlwt the subjccts shaltld, be sclecle.l rather !rcn the donains oJ nalwal science and. histar!, giting $pecial praminP'rLce tn astronoma, chenishv, geolthcreJore prarided uas Jltflher d;rected that edch annual aLrsc should be w1d.e th! basis o! a talune Ia lann r)ot ol tr scties canstitut;ns a llut&rial ta Mrs. Silhnan The memarial lund came intn the pcl'


ydle Ltnil)ersila in lhe lear 19a1; and the prcscnt lnorh con:tlitutes the thirtietk Mlume published on lhis
sessian oJ the CorporaLion oJ


Wiih nunerous additions and subtractioDs thc present book contains the matorial presented by ilre author in the Sillimar l-€ctures at Yale Unir-crsity in lpril, 1950. Six l€ct:ures for tho gen€ral public snd six lcctures lor ttle physics students were given. In this rewritins ihe subject matter of tlre latier has been emphasized and amplincd. IIany of the lheoretical papers on the subject of el€mentaw pariiclc; and of Ureir intcra(tions are 1'ery dimcult reading ercept for r small, highly specializcd sroup of theoreticnl physlcists. Ttis

book is not $'ritten for thrit sroup. It attempls insiead to make accessiblc to a larg-"r mrnber ol shrdenis and, I hope, e larae frac, tion of experjmLjrtal phtsicists so c ol the most signilicant rosults of tbe 6eld ihoodes of elemeniiary particles that can be under stood, at leasii in s semi quantitaiive wry, \Lithout e{cessive mrthe matical apparal,us- A rcader $ho has lo o$'€d understood a neclanics should sood Etandard univcrsity course in quanlum ^nd not firld sedous djfrcutiics in the follo{'ing putsris. I have not been able io sivc jn the text rdeqrLaic references to tbe rerjr extensive originr,l litcrs,ture. I am afruid, also, that in se

'€ral instarccs I lnav noii ha\,c succeeded in givins du. cr€dit to Ure origin{tor of a paticuhr iden. I rpologize for the omissions. l'ortunately rn €xcellent "cu e to tlle l-iteraturc ol Elcmentary Particles Physics" has been prcparert recently by Tlomno and wl€eler (,,lnen.lr?' Sci.n,ist, s7, Apdl and Juty, 1919), ond tte reader is relerred to it lor much dctail. A list of books rnd reliew aruclcs in {'lich cxknsive additional information can be found is
appendcd here.

II. n. Beihc, lllementrry
87, 1932.

Nuclear Theory, Ncrv York, 1917.


Related Interests

. Hejtler, Qu{ntum Theory of Ra.li:rtion, Oxford Univ.


E. J. Konopinski, "Bela Dccay," R€r. Motl. Ph!'i. 15,209, t943.

r s"t'*1"*.790. 'l'he Anti. Cdlcxlation 11. lauli.t. P ad a. ' /?nr. 1949 J Tiomno and J A \lheelcr' "spcctrum of Eleclirons from l4eion Decrv.nns 1-0 23. h. lrarcetl lrhlar D.a. I{€son l'heorY. lqrS . IntrcdLclion ' l95A I Field a 12 2. 1q79 c \enL)e].4.cago. Ro.tion !t) 7.. 'l lLe BeLa Interaclion 39 Pr. Phlr' 21. 1+s. Captue aJ i-csati"?.er fo-. StaListl.fnd. Pions b! Pratons 66 22.leafl Bonn 5E 10.ss 41 4t" 38 1n.. Der. Nucleons. Pions..l. t. Nex' York. 1949i7n. .ca! aJ the MLon Four..4. S. Qu&nta or o Field as P&riicles r 1. lni€ra.tioD ol uih Mass i\e Ficlds 16 6. Pauli Ptinciple TYo. Fiekl oJ Ch setl Scalar Patticles 10 5. r 1941. QL r "m Ih ''Jtnani'r" Pi's f'' ). tLucleolt. 1948: r439' Contents 65I.t ltn NL.ans 2\ L Ather Intetuclions 26 aJ !0. Gen al TlpB aJ Interd. 1946i "Relativistic Field Thcories of Elementary Ps. Ef. Scatterins oJ Pians by Nucl. 1s' 203' \u.aLs Dq:all aJ the 1A.. ti1 . Con*Naton aJ Monentw n 8. Moal..A 18.V FOEEI''OND W. ylkaua'1hcoru aJ Ntclaat Fotces . PhtJs.al6 The ELectranagnctic 4 Field 4. Spa an.n|mT

Related Interests

""Jo'f 'ld'." Rt. Tlbotlt aI Pian Pradtctiatu 79 Nrdah Colliia$ 55 .. n at r 'r.aris 36 1t. One. t. glecttonasnctic md yLkdud Intarar:tia Canstdnts ts. aJ 19.pnent Patmelers 32 'lransitial Eatet 30 TLree. Particks Abeging th. f. Seplember *. DecaiJ aJ the Pion ds Dtrrdr 14. Mod Ph't/s 19' I' l9! Chi.rd dnti-nucl-"oN Pians ilL a0 17.-. Ylkaba ltutatdcti. \r\v Yorl.cn"e'o." Rrr.

Related Interests

$ Y rk ll19: Be'"nr Rcsear0h in tr{eson Thcorv..dl. 'l'he Itrteioction Consl.rti0les. PntlLc[ion . Decalt aJ lln l:ethal Pion in ) Tat PholoB 76 95. Go1^o

Related Interests

o .\nniliLatiaL 73 .

Deuteron wave function.25).r. Symbol for the anti proton. P q a . Seond Qumtization ui L PdLLi I'rin iple L LI.tiatu 1. ion Hari' on. This is a collcction of ihe notations most frcouen v use. Collisions oJ lrdtelnel! EiqlL Eners! Patticl$ 81 . S]'nbol lor the anti-neutron... r\is boot \ -l-cn I l.d b.{ B c D € .er di!i.rD Culrert densiiy..r t. pariicularly electroD mass. Constant of the beta interaction. Strnbol for the neutroD. PleD..1. ElemeDtary €lect c chaqe. Yukawa bteraction conStant. htcraction constant for spontaneou6 muon d€cay. llrequently used as number of stnteE.Fr i.lds 101 . ft li SFnbol for el€ctron.a |abiliti! o! the Fi. Mass of a nrcleor t/ iv p lr'equeDtly used as number of particles in stat€ s. Yolume of momentum space. I)estruction and creation operators.on field. Interaction constanij of pion decay.lTlO^'8 Cor. 19. In\atidn e fi6 6. Plane wave spinor. Also amptitude of electron field. . .renr . ror. 18. €' €j / d. Eelaliorships betueen Intera. O)antizdLian oJ thc naAi66or lrield 9L 9a ltQT.stants rca Lspd jnss the I'arious meaninss sre listed. \rector potential. Intcraction constant for forced muon de.'Fra. ft . Composite interaction constant for pion production (secs. n er.d p "n. Yelocity of light. somerjmes \r.enF h.i.- d* o . Relalive momentum (secs. Also amplitude ot neut. l-agrrngian density. Re atitisti. 2" Hrnrlrorian or . Mass of a pa:rticle.t cor. Bohr mdius. 19).L co.doN?tv?a 26.t % -n. / a nl M l/. Also anplitude of the proton lield.. Mom€ntum Symboi for ihe pmton.. 18..ith indicatioD :.'v .

. this theory is caplble of €xplaining ihe processes of crcation of photons when light is emitted and of destruction of phoions \r'hen tighi i6 absortred. and others. t Slmbol for t]]e anti nelrtrino. Lilelrime or invcrse jiransition rate.s $'ift Pauli principle 'y' o Angular lrequency. Quanta oJ'a Field as Particles 1. a Dirac rnatriccs (space componcnts and vecto. They hrvc been able to inieryrei satisfactority i. 'fhis has bccn done n'iilr { consjderable mccsure of success.20). Tn additionto the electromsgnetic ficld an elecijror positron field. undorstood ileoroticellv llre ihe clectrons and l . Also nmplitude of pion field . Cross section.(r) U I Vector of a pojnt in splce.ITIONS r s 7 1. The Nla"xwell equaiins that describe t}le macroscopic bebavior of the electromagnetic lield ha1'e bcen knos'n for a long time.Inthe prst twoorth. Feynman. Velocity. Fieki amplitlrde for particl.amb shiJt in the finc structure ol hydrogen ond tlie anomaly of the intrinsic magneiic moment of the elecuon rs due to the interaction with tihe radiaiion ficki. ordinnry and dn cd by 2tr. Symbol for s. Kinei. o I'auli spin operators. pholon. 7 Pohrization unit vector. INTIIODUCTION u I. Yo Volumes (sccs.Iass 0f muon. 0 Dirac matrix (fourih component). o Nomalizationl'olune. Energy of bombftrding nucleon in labomtory syslem. Also ampliiudc of neutino field. Total ene.'$ . The assumption is mado that for esch type of el€nrcntsry parj. r' pr a-gJ u' r.NOf. It is therefore natural to rssume ihat the6e are the basic €quations one should !.II Y. Po.). Symhol for pion.ic enersy. / e Scftlar lielil amplitude. the photons.i p }ilass of pjonp1 l.icte there exists an associatcd field of which the particles e the quanta. In paflicular. Tononaaa.25.ave length. . / Slnnhol Ior tire neut no. Energy of e pariicle including rcst mass.ion hnvc been targely rcsolved through the $'ork of Bethc. Iiisenfuncijon of a partjcle.ee y*irs ihclast r€maining djfliculties associated with the inlinitc value of thc clectmmagnetjc mass and thc so-called vacuum pohdzal. The radiation theory oI Dnac aDd tho subsequent devetoprnent of quantum clectrodynamics form thc present basis tor our understanding of ihe eleciromasnetic fleld fld iis associarcd partictes.ttempt to q ontize in constructing a quaniLrm electrodlnanics. SJ'nbol lor the muon. etc. llre also introduoed. 26\. Soh$'inser. " TFmfFr|r.haps the most central problem in theoretical physics during the last iwenty years has beel Ure sesrch for a descdption of the elencntrry parriclcs and ol iheir interaotjons. a nucleon frcld. De llrosljc $. somelimes speed. CEAPTER ONE Potential of nuclear forces. several mcson fields. Frequcntly used as index for a particlc state.hc t. Thc field theories of other elementary particl€s are patterned on ihat of the phojron. Also rrnptitude of mLLon field r. Next to the photons tlL€ partid€s ii'hich are bcst known experimenially rnd besi.sy ol rhe system.

..:t Ly l'irerrdn_ The belx ra\...r.""uLj. r._:l:lr.ligrte. r' th" th"".ietd th€ prrl p. $..i. en. ncLrtrino proper rnd anLi neLioino...p. .rL. p .r .."pv.h...- n' no!n'r"eri *iun' r'"'og''."r r..u..rns of..no \.r...QUANTA Otv t FILt.." ha..t.lpcs ot nentrino.D ls PAnTlCLnS jD positrcns.. tp. rr."i." ..nro ttli)o resjs has hrd some able dooblc bcta r)roc6sres succels .aij..F . .rion.re rrsl.. or .f.r..i...cs iivisiic cquarions ot Dirac rre irken In the field theory of €leciroxs and positroDs the retaas rhe tiel.ni"ur ""..\pmld ldr i.l... ""\rFll"........ru jp.^.. . In pa.. . r'..1qrrr.."*n..c'..ctr mo.r u...pr"m..r I I r ri. rrp". ".... ".r .1 or i t.. or . o h..r ir r-:rr...i ncut. .. disc.-F. .ol..F..snroi nlr. .ns : r.\.r ..'fho yukxv''a rlieorvhas proved a verv Yrlu able gui<l: in erpcrimenlat rcscrirch and probabty {xDtxins manv corr(jOt le...!t etectrons..rds io a firiure theorl. ..l.. -ltiotir one hds boen slqgcste.F.. | n.a.c..1r. is r^.jv.IIle proccdure ot quanlizntion rhis case rnust.:t Ly ilajrlrari in $..Lr On the ol|cr h!nd. it. Jd..4d.o ihe nuchlns ard rlicretor.-. ^l rL..urq $ni. In the alp]nra on to the b{jta iheoi.norycir ireend.D.a...F. r.ion .-. elfflrui rnrl tlrc posiirl)n...r. 'u.r prt a!. .:T".i.t op r\ sre'lt dc:'] of {ork 1]l1s bi:rn devoted to the tidd theorv ot ..r i..."".. Ihe prrson ot porve (calted h"'r'n... nF pLp' rror .1"y. Tnstc ot oDc srristictuv ])eta rtr€ory rl.".upni. .r pr.i_. it is plri...:. n. ....0pr. rtrr' ..tictr lhere ls !o ioti nouirino. m.... rFIllj .r Ji.. u1... its intrinsic mrsrctic monent is dirc(red parallel t" th.' l"'::il1.".l eq.":.t. * Hfif treooneot of tlio ioid r:hdn...px.Irru. ri.. ]nrked i.no the expliDralion oI nn."o \F . resulLs &s thc tons ol r Dirac {rqurlion {hrt gives r\ro r. Ir.t"ra"..r . Or tlrc orhcr hrnd.renciit rrumeni eitt. . . h.lotr". sh ou lor ccs.r .j1r. l)itrr iheory crccpi iD Lhir ctlsc rctxrl]I irr.. . ..4g.r-j ... €lectron-posirron field.....nrp..on. rn. pxt.n". .io j..t" I.si. .ui.t . outr x'eihll.\rFn pt j-'l.r:.red.. 01.r.ro rerr y conrincirg torm ot ttris tL{xDv lllls Lc(. .ies Llrr rxther ro erenplity semi_ qlrrnrill1iire ploc(Irres lhnt are sjmltc rnd mry be helptul in the irterpreiation of rixpe Dre ts.. :!.rery of Ure productim ot nesons in the collision ol hst nucl(xms..rrr...J rh. Lhe lttemprs to put tlis theory in a quan{itrti\ c lorm l1arc h&d 1... p o. .q . .r. 1J.""r"i..p1.s :. ..:.ip...itrematjcal 3s0|i rodu.rlc. lrp ":1.rn.'..n" . \ y..icll.r.i Li.t 1:...ly responsiLl.... .' '.. ###BOT_TEXT###quot; to .the laci rhar Ule proron has irNiead a hc n.".r '-.l I..."mpti-r oD .. 'h' ..1t .pi ' .o...".tanding. h.pJ..." r.1o\. p. .m t ... m.t"..... l0r the (lisc.p."nrcd trere mev scrve io point the s'ry tr) {| corrcct under."'or the masneiic n)(. p-i..r I s ..:"i.or. i.r. *h".. '.{. .o r t. rctrl..c.t ru. becomcs a1-ailablc :. 'lhe me-a )n ol YoLrrrl] pn't. or hF Lr "b.: . n...J . . d T".rp.n is Lrlie! d t^ be r 2. r'" ..l I .d .:u .op.r .ely ncdiocre success. /t ..rorF. . .......ed ro €xch other lit<c thc th" principle alrd have spin 1/2 !.. i"a is -.. .iF i i'.!n n.t L:...t.i..gJr djsirib|tion ol the emjri. 'l'he r)rrrpose ol this djsc ssion is noi to aiicDrpi a m!.n.of"r. ry :ll. o.hictl not rnucl irould he gained bv a morc elaboftte marticnatical trcrtD en i. r...^"" rp | .i.tirrlar.|r ihe (]nu. Al1"" n"r'r^1. rcps iDprore only . at L..ti .Jrnr I mj F. i|ix)ry brldl on tlic cur.{ '... The existcnce of rhe r.i...n cxr)i[n]iDs the serei[l li]ahu e-! of ihe beia disinregrations and in piri. o. that lpplies ro rhc phoions.t. o. for electuons and posirlons nrstead of ure Bose litnstein srat."f#l "n. J \pi..r"j -J u...lr lorfes.t .. Ilr..- p..r .qhdap "oi. .^n--1. l'his is nr)r tlc ontr narhemrrical porsibiljt]'.": or... LLDr.1e}J rFu. Tnere gre serer cases jn i.i rh...r..rres rhen nore erp(jrimenist informrtion r. LoweverJ Lc of a r1'pe sucli as to f.: lllTrl s.."nh qllantization procedure ot Jordan aml \iiener.r " ..". r.use h.. in... Olton r pond(..nent of ihc proion to bc 1 nuctcrr magncton and thrt of the-neutron ro bc 0.1 .' 1"" ..il nor!.....".rr nr. _b..t lr1 Ln4 ..::.rity atso dcscribediy a Dirac eo'.ouJJ p\j..-p Ld ..rn.r|r.ion . ot ilre very inprob :::l:l"i::.:iuo l]" "".....nlled lrere td b€ irlcrrii fiecl wiih the /-meson Dj 1 I rr r' .e ot lit e impotance in ol Powcll (bricfll. This can be.scolered In othei chcs the quditrtjrc dis(jussion prosr.. since a convnrcing ir(jatment hlt..ous nrrthemrti(jrl apparatls js used in rtcrir-ing rcsults ihal ere no bctier tl'xtr coutd be obiaincrl bv r skeiehv vill p( .."..rino hls bcen suqgosicd by l)auli as an ... " ".. "r..p.i .

ene. Erch one oI them is thought of as a rcr rclotionslip puscle 11il.ransitjons \rhercbv the nurnber n.n oscillatoL. the cx..rl is obviously djvcrscrt rt.xampte. r\ complete description of cl{xrtrodyrrrnn./'2.ies rr{i desoibcd by opelalors obeying r non commrhtil. Each mod.is giYcn by (7) OorsequertlJ lhe loial 1. lor e\:Lmplc..umbo ol osoilhlors ol lrequ€. aoouDi or zerc poini.t{eer o rtd o + d. h qurntum elccirodvn{mics the comrJrtrrcnts ol i. it is dcscribed in detnil h more speciaUzed publications. r)l thc coodirrtcs :ind the xrpoDents ol ille mc.gt i6 .i .il be consiants and there will be no ch{nge jn thc mrnber of photons.ited to ihc ?rth qrur.1 qua ?1 ". (3) fil : 0. by thc 2rh h l"d lb. photons oI cncrsy de Broglie to the roral In the langtrll]€ ol thc lhotons (2) nldjcatcs ihat rhere arc n. il is thc mosi. n.e thsi one en. lrmiliu field rnd its qrlanlum propertics arc nost clerrlv undostood.ersal ll. mrr- Fir'. thc so c.ribuiion encrgv of one vibrational mode..itlrtor. .r crn be e\cited independently of ihe oLhers 1d hus properties qrrile similrr lo those of an $. It is suiiallc to reprcscnr radjarion plienonena bui itoes noi irxtude.illcd zero poi t eDergv.Q.inD fiekt dLrc to the supqposjtion of transvcn{l wd

Related Interests

es of all Ircquencjes and on ihc other hard lihe Coutomb for0es b€tseen rilcctric charscs..\ppendix l. that rhe railirrion phcnomena car be treated separatdy lrom ihu {rl€ctroslati( phenornc . Thc cxcitatjon enerey of this slate cxduding tho rest energy is ion. anl' (nlponent of the eleotric ficlcl rt a given point of sprc. . hci mxny com No aitcmpl rvill be madc here to gil'e c romplele dcscription ol tLe quanlization pror:cr:lurc adopted.ics.c writien l. can be neglecterl c6 1l non-essentirl : ditiye constrnt to lhe energvl llis cofftart is jtnnjLelv larsc 'l')e. . 1.tisturbs thc elecLronqlnetic [e]d thc qLrantum nunhcls r" of thc radiation osci aiors r.:l ihis lundamentrl point Ne shall discuss first an ordinary lirlc{r oscillafor. Wc sav that t{ ol €nergy I'o each. for .!ves. As tong as no pefturbalion . IIl E LLECTROII'IGNlITIC IlLLD field rncy l. one of the modes can t:rl(e up an amount 0{ e crgv: Ea{rh terrD ol the sum rcpresenis ilr{j coni. The rcpre"qcntrtion of thc elechom{snetjc [c]d jn terms ot os0illators is i lmplete.Bt exampi!^ ol innniti.ounters in tield rheori€s.c Li$r' .he the toial cnergy content of the rldiation (2) ^s field aDd of ilis photons wiil be discussed c{Sc ol the electromeltnciic r firsi (ixarnple ol the quantizatio of a iekl r' - t i".1multilnicattun. Tn ordcr to undcrsrm..rin p" related I io the \'avc length I.F..it{tion amounts to.menlurn of a mlrs-* point.. 2 \rbere @" is thc anslrllrr lrequency ol thc mode and n" The additioml tctn no.ntum stlite.Li.s iF obl."" 1.he field or thc potcntials 0t a posiiion in sp.1 cutoscd irr a cavit"v tr'ith perfecl. id. In thc prcsont discussion 11e shnu be pdDrarily intcrcsted in thc behavior of the radiain. Since the early rttdnpts at seiting up thc staLjstic.o ru". ho$'e1-cr. This is re 6rsi bul noi lle vo. Orlv thc sinplesi idclrs of tho rrri tion iheory rvill lx: ourlined. ()tre can shoN. It is t e also ol oiher iypcs ol obscrlables lihe.'sorption or desiructjon of qui1]rta).lNTA Ol A FiELD '15 PInTICLLS 1'IIE 1I LECTNOM/1IiNETIC FIEI. Iri qtr{rtum mechanifs ol)scrvrblc physical qurnlil.cr b.\ field. Aciuellr-'.. hoirevcr. A pcrturbation x.l"Y rellccting srlls is capable of os(iiLhiirg accordins to { number ot dji{orent modes {'ith dilTerent clnrracicrjstic lrequen.ice rre cons crcd as oper:Ltors i{hich in senenl do not commute \ritli eAch oiher.. On the olihcr hlnd." IiTt-^ This inLes.D 6 $ritli this riirormalizrti(n 9.larsc trcoueocies. 'lhis is true. In prrtnxtltir.refore \ye shell linit oursclves to thc rninsl.n fietrt and th. for crnnple.h a momenl... is a system Nith an infinjte numbcr ol degrees of {reedon and lrom tlii.ill induce l. Thc nuntrer oI qurntc Nill be a constarrL as long as rhe oscillotor is lcft rlon€. TLis lan be cx.ora. l:nfortunately tlie electromqnetic field lics r rathff complicated stNcture sjnce ii is slre('ificd rt each pojnt hv ihij clecLri0 rnd ihe mqnctic veciors. 'fhe ele0tromagneljc fie]. :rn clectrcstatic 1ield. I"or {dditional exphnations soe . ".oi radiatioll jt hm been custom y to ialk ol ndi:iiin.aiicd by consjdejng on orlc limd the radir.

.t lo h....rp .r t.. rontributed bv tLe \.torc also be !n opel.r...t poIpr.ed or desirovedl r.ri r..1(r) is en operrior...rizrtior.g mstdx etemeniis for can ot. v n.red. a a .. 'fhe second of Lhc i\ro u" expressions (i) contains ihe tactor : L V! "oao". \lhich iirn be resl1ded $ rhe cisenfunction 0t a photon of mo_ meniun p" (iorm{lized plane wrve).ro.ecror / rhar de6n€s tle posjtion in sprce N.. ! phoion trcqocDcr lns been c..is t..errnrM I L for .cn. ihc .4" /.m!ri{.Jp.. 3br r..J.rr .."airtio.1|..or..Ir d.n. l... 2...oora .l nLears r.r pot€ntial . .."an.. i. lhe. ..:" ^r r. Ip" : h. J I "! br' . l.o"ot.. . . " creases describe ihc desrrLrcrn.^.s in wlich the quentum number?r.rcpresents the ficld oI the sth mode. Its masniiude js (6) oscilhtors. ru \rr:.nriat. n" of one of Ure radiation os0iltators increftcs are proccsses jn rvhich Dtroions of creaiion and d€struciion of photons jn the r'. o ..alior h.s. may eil. | _..f^oc"J or rt"oeitr l-d.I Drcan3 tbat . Ft.linL 1...arious modcs. o InF.rrrrlror .1 .^rn". cives tie rllrmber ol morles excepr for l.ri.4 rather ihsn of the elecrric rnd masnerjc frirds..ilion ur.." ". ". Ore findsihc ftnlowing resutr for themAtrjx of the obucrvable..:pd ro hi. T}ris is a pdticutsr case of a .oriat afr"i .n. (4 t Here p. orpo.bq..iriun D rp8c' rs'LF quT ot I p qJ!... ln lhe lhotrn largurse a chlnge l.. is eiihcr oreai.ls .o. . 4. Its masniiude is prcpor_ ..u.4-r... I r:I ue flLe mrtrix ijterncnt ol re n..j.'.ion: n "t. discussion is limited to the radiaridr thcory t]re scatar potcDtial " .h 1"r. drF.. hra.:.L T|.rtes App"n Ji\ r' o! "\tr. t (5) rth-n1r) The processes | / 'z'.i. however.cd. r.her inffease or d(rcasc the . n . In_ r..respordins z.. .r" i.ero since nn elcctro-agneitc rvrve .n of photons (absorpUu" ': )'J' dP tt' . to'n'" is '. !nd a ctrarse tr.t which the isjtor potential is obscrved is &n odinary clcssical vector. .v li" vlln-. .tr " etements and using (a).re.1".. The formula givins the numbo of osciltarjort nodes offrequency bet\veen o nnd @ + dd $'ill also be gi'en I rllvays be lssruned io be .a. rs.. .. . h.F.....v n t .t. .r .rion.rst form ol lN thelrrtor 0 X 4rpi dp js the rotunlc elemcnt of phasc sp:Lce.nrg non vanishi."or. rsu.r.1 lr_"n.I vhen .po.4(r) corrc$pondjns to rr:inSitioff in which one photon id.rFn.rl."d f ....i . oi n." a. .t . .he fsctor 2.n desrro.hyo|ir. onl I n6 Perturbations.n_ ru n. .(it of lhe quanium nunbor . .nsi. only non-vanishing mrtrjx €lenenis of rhc coordinate r rre x(n+n . ....r. . lus nlltrix eicments indrcj4 rransitjons I. or y.e...t) I mp.i.q .x I1]L IILECTROMACNETIC 1'] EI. nu'...r. I".r. .-n r... l. F.trto. tional to the coodinate of rhc racliorion oscilaror numbel s. Transitions in w-liich rhe exc ation nunbc.rdt I/ a r gr"r po.4 n r" rn." y'#ro' ..F..." ...ani"oF.J . simpler to dcscribe the fietd in rerms of rhc veci.i.ri\st r... .. o :'Ll ''11) J'r.jt..s {jonsrrnt /l : 2ri. ..r.l\/ qi . ?n.h.1r . r ul '\r "r.. . This.. io. t."..orking out I quarllitative radiation tbeory orre tn.rp'.n ?1 o \:. .t . lhF.r.onz.r r. As iong as ih. ..dtv.t i q..u-hp'ror .re ilosFb-

Related Interests

. due to the t1l'o possible pol:rrization directions.riou 'pjd:i "o.....l th.an n.'1 Note that whil€ .. t r u. . + 1.n. .4....-2Qa1t'' '/f Er"i In lhe l..rr..r wliile €. is n unit vcctor perpcndicular ro p" and poiniing in the direction ol the pol:r.r.v QOAN'I/I OF A FIELII AA I1R1:ICLL}J t. ot... \mu.l r .{.E. ofoneolihe oscillators chanses to 'on dJl-er l.a. ot r\p .l.i\ . v"ru"o.jt... o... dnidcd by the cube ot phnck. The rcturl valucs of the matrix ctemenis c&n be obtrincd fsee . . . is the moneDturr of the plroton.. z" ro lt'oioD hrs bc.riLFdb\ .D trrnsitio. l-ihe lihis coodinate..m1ro fu rrr"pF."/.

r f|on light. . J. I scdu or a pscudos.t- 3 tiond io thc QUANI'A OI . Thjs relalionship is o conscqucncc of thc D'Alenberi equaiion v..clociit' ot Tbis : h6" .) .iih ih.rnains an. The momentum p.lte ol tho eisenfunction of thc sii1le ol Lhe -!$ .tL.. (!ec Sccrior 8. .es ihc matrix elerlent for tlie lllniion of li phon. A(oordnrs to th.rcn.l eiilie.1 llt behlvior ol e on.. Omitting :lgaiD the zeropoint cnergy..ah. A sinilar lrlle is: Thc nalriri element for the oeriiorl of I prrti0le is proporlional to thc compler conjug. nom€ntum rehtionship . which difr'ers only bythe lost term lrom thc D'rllcmbert equation.

Related Interests