Diversity of Life

Bio Notes- Diversity of Life Test

11/19/2011 11:53:00 AM

Determining how species are related: Goal of modern classification: assign species to a taxa (category) such that their classification reflects morphological similarities and evolutionary history Ancestor: organism from which other groups of organisms are descended If common ancestor is shared, species are closely related Eg. Family canidae- share elongated snouts, 5 toes on front feet and four on back (includes dogs, wolves, foxes) Likely had a common ancestor (eg grey wolf- common ancestor of domestic dog)

Evidence of relationships among species Three main types: Anatomical evidence- determine common ancestor through morphological similarities Physiological- studying biochemistry of organisms, look at proteins they make (gives an idea of the genes they have). Through comparing proteins, degree of genetic similarity can be determined DNA evidence- genes are made of DNA, and with improvements in technology, scientists can properly classify organisms through DNA examination. This is the most accurate form of evidence. Eg. Fungi was thought to be more closely related to plants but DNA evidence shows it is more similar to animals

Phylogenic Tree- branching diagram used to show evolutionary relationships among species

Species Concepts Scientists can’t decide what a species is, so have species concepts. There are three main types of species concepts: 1. Morphological Species Concept: focus on body shape, size, and structural features to compare organisms. Advantage: simple, so most widely used Disadvantage: challenge to decide how much difference is too much, since all organisms vary to some degree 2. Biological Species Concept: defines species by whether two organisms can produce fertile offspring Advantage: widely used by scientists Disadvantage: can’t be applied in all cases, eg. Asexual reproduction, extinct animals 3. Phylogenic Species Concept: focuses on species’ evolutionary history

Advantage: can be applied to extinct species. Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Eukaryotic Kingdoms Order Family Genus Species Kindgom Nutrition Cell Wall Reproduction becomes more specific . and uses information from DNA analysis Disadvantage: evolutionary history not known for all species Naming and Classifying Species Use binomial nomenclature. a two part name consisting of the genus name and the species name Genus name usually noun in Latin or Greek Species name usually an adjective in Latin or Greek Developed by Carl Von Linne/ Carolus Linneas Also developed hierarchal system for classification (nested system) Each category known as a rank. called a taxon As you move down ranks.

Earth varies a lot physically and chemically. and demonstrate more resilience (ability to maintain equilibrium despite outside disturbances to ecosystem) .Protista Autotrophs and heterotrophs Cellulose in some. so VERY rich ecosystem diversity Important because of ecosystem services: benefits experienced by organisms provided by sustainable ecosystems Ecosystems with greater species diversity more likely to reliably provide important ecosystem services. some lack cell wall Cellulose Chitin No cell wall asexual and sexual Plantae Fungi Animalia Autotrophs Heterotrophs Heterotrophs Sexual Sexual Sexual Classifying Types of Biodiversity Species Diversity Variety and abundance of species in a given area Genetic Diversity Variety of heritable characteristics (genes) in a population of interbreeding individuals Genes: genetic material that controls expression and inheritance of traits Population: group of individuals of same species at specific place at specific time Gene pool: all genes of all individuals in population Genetic diversity within a species is always greater than within a population because gene pool will be larger (contain more combinations of genes) Why so important? Resistance to disease Survival against changing environmental conditions Conservation biology Ecosystem Diversity Variety of ecosystems in the biosphere Composed of biotic and abiotic factors Because of diversity among organisms and abiotic factors.

and are classified by organisms they infect. just a protein coating around the genome Viruses are 1000x smaller (10nm to 1 micrometre) Lytic Cycle: Attachment: protein on surface of virus binds to protein receptors on the surface of the host cell membrane Entry: virus injects genetic material into host cell and breaks down host cell’s DNA Replication: host cell makes more of virus’s RNA or DNA and creates protein using nutrients from within host cell Assembly: new viral particles are produced . reproduce. Anatomy: Capsid: outer protein that surrounds genetic material of a virus.Viruses A structure that contains strands of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protective protein coat. synthesize proteins. They cannot live independently of cells. it helps the cell attach to the bacterium surface Genome: complete DNA or RNA sequence Differences bacteria and viruses: between Viruses aren’t formally considered an organism. It a) protects nucleic acid from enzyme digestion. or generate energy Viruses have no organelles. as without a host cell they can’t sustain themselves. They are not formally considered an organism. and b) provides proteins to allow attachment to host cells Tail sheath: a needle-like part of virus that penetrates cell wall of bacteria like a needle to inject the viral nucleic acid into the host cell Tail fiber: like landing gear.

in clusters. in lines.mono. spheres (coccus) and spirals (spirillum) On their own. double.staphylo. It can create up to 100-200 new virus cells per cycle lethal cycle: kills host cell performed by bacteriophages. creating a new virus Proteins are digested and a new virus matures Bacteria Diversity: Rods (bacilli).bacteria killers Lysogenic Cycle: Provirus formation. only ribosomes Circular chromosome.Lysis and release: host cell bursts open and releases new viral particles. rupturing cell wall/membrane. prophage exits bacterial chromosome initiating lytic cycle * Virus’s genetic material enters host cells chromosome but is not activated until later . copying prophage and transmitting it to daughter cells Many cell divisions produce colony of infected bacteria Occasionally. It has poor proofreading so often makes mistakes RNA is reverse-transcribed again into double stranded DNA New double stranded DNA is inserted into the host chromosome by going through nuclear membrane Messenger RNA that is made by new double stranded DNA is sent out of the nucleus mRNA makes viral proteins using ribosomes in the endoplasmic reticulum 2 mRNA and viral proteins bud off cell’s surface.lies dormant Retroviruses Any virus that inserts a DNA copy of its genome into a host cell in order to replicate Life Cycle: Cell membrane and viral membrane fuse Reverse transcriptase turns one RNA strand into DNA using nucleotides.strepto.viral DNA becomes part of host cell’s chromosomes Bacterium reproduces normally.diplo Prokaryote structure: Unicellular 1/10th of eukaryotic cell in size (~ 1 micron) No membrane bound organelles. naked DNA not wrapped around proteins .

plants or fungi Ridiculously diverse. causing the rest of the body to follow Animal-like Protists. pathogenic/beneficial. flagellates. Algae (red/green/brown).Protozoans   Heterotrophs. and that eaten bacteria became a mitochondrion  Evidence:   Suggests that chloroplasts and mitochondria were once free-living organisms Their membranes both resemble those of living prokaryotes Their ribosomes looks much more like prokaryotic ribosomes than elsewhere in the eukaryotic cell   They reproduce by binary fission Each contains a circular chromosome. auto/heterotrophs. Amoebas. and many are parasitic Eg. a/sexual reproduction.Test 2Theory of Endosymbiosis  11/19/2011 11:53:00 AM Theory of how eukaryotic cells became able to make energy (chloroplasts and mitochondrion)  Pretty much the cell ‘eats’ (engulfs) a bacteria that performs cellular respiration. sessile/mobile  Move with flagellum. and many gene sequences match those of living prokaryotes. that the amoeba extends out. cilia. cellular slime mould. or water moulds Heterotrophs but rather than ingesting other organisms . so much that classifying them is a challenge because it doesn’t represent an evolutionary relationship between all members o  Paraphyletic: fit into different phylogenetic places Fully diverse: uni/multicellular. predators. Euglenoids. or pseudopods (amoeba) o Pseudopod: part of the body that is like slimy jello. Protist Kingdom   Eukaryotes who are not animals. paramecium. sporozoans Plant-like Protists   Autotrophs. photosynthesize (have chloroplasts) Eg. Diatoms. Dinoflagellates Fungi-like Protists   Plasmodial slime mould.

predominant body form: mycelium-tangled mass of branched filaments called hyphae . cyclosporine. common moulds D. Yeast.mushrooms.flowering body is like the part of the thing that we see… like a legit mushroom Classification A.transports organic products of photosynthesis Rigid stems and other support structures evolved to hold leaves up to the sun (cell wall. Chytrids. stems. eg.malaria. thrush throat infection B.produce 90% of atmospheric O2 through photosynthesis. attractive colours. eg. b/c no vascular tissue to provide support or transport Cuticle on upper surface only. Giardia.multicellular.mould penicillin.transports water and inorganic nutrients Phloem. water enters through lower pores .unicellular. sap) Non-vascular Plants Bryophtyes:   Can’t grow tall. Sac Fungi.key ecological role at base of marine food web (food for lots of animals) Fungi . aquatic. Zygospores.Develop small finger-like sacs called asci. they developed the following strategies: o o Waxy. trypanosomes Beneficial protists: phytoplankton.Parasitic protists: sporozoans. stinkhorn Plants  Had to overcome 4 main challenges to adapt to terrestrial life: o o o o  Desiccation (drying up) Transporting fluids from place to place Physical support Reproductive/dispersial strategies To overcome. What causes potato wart C. fungal component of most lichen E. puff balls. Imperfect Fungus. Club Fungi. zooplankton. waterproof cuticle with openings called stomata Vascular tissue to conduct fluids (veins and arteries of plants)   o Xylem. truffles. terrestrial. woody tissue) o Reproductive strategies where water is not needed like seeds (pollination.

made of scales on which the egg develops Angiosperms (vascular plants with needs that flower)  Produce seeds enclosed in fruit and the male and female gametophytes are reduced to a few cells living on the plant (ovum and pollen)  Flowers are used to attract insect pollinators. and better developed vascular tissue With Seeds:  Land plants that evolved were adapted due to woody tissues (lent strength to plants so they could grow tall). fruit used to attract herbivores that can disperse seeds Monocot (vascular plants with seeds that flower that have one . hornwort Vascular Plants. with seeds.  No true roots Mosses. closed pinecone Female cone: hard.most develop uncovered on scales within cones Coniferophyta. longer lasting. more complex vascular tissue (enabled water and nutrients to be carried to new heights). horsetails Ferns reproduce with a spore of water. naked seed)    Fist plants to evolve seeds Seeds aren’t enclosed in a covering.conifers o o o o Male and female gametes produced on different cones The gametes produces pollen in the male and the egg in the female The male cone: soft. A hard outer seed coat covers both the embryo and the cotyledon Gymnosperms (vascular plants.Tracheophytes  More complex. ferns. grow larger than bryophytes Without seeds:   Club mosses. more resilient leaves. short-lived. although they can survive drier conditions because they have true roots. and seeds and flowers (don’t need a film of water to reproduce)  The seed: drought resistant reproductive package that houses a dormant plant embryo (partially developed plant able to grow into a mature one) and a supply of food (cotyledon). liverwort.

tracheophytes. If flowering. bryophytes. no organs Jellyfish. horsetails. gymnosperms.allows active movement Sexual reproduction. If two. mosses.) Seeds? (if no. no haploid gametophyte Animal Phyla: Symmetry Coelom Segmentation Body Porifera none no no soft Other No tissues or organs Examples Sponges Cnidaria radial no no soft Specialized tissues. coral. angiosperms) One or two cotyledons? (if one.cotyledon)     Vascular bundles: scattered One cotyledon Flowers in multiples of three Mature leaves usually parallel Dicot (vascular plants with seeds that flower that have two cotyledons)     Vascular bundles arranged in a ring 2 cotyledons Flowers in multiples of 4 or 5 Usually net-like leaves So their classification goes: Vascular tissue? (if no. dicot. tapeworm Patyhelminthes bilateral no no soft Start of cephalization . If yes.no alternation of generations. If yes.) Animals Characteristics     Heterotrophs Multicellular. sea anemone Flatworm.well they have no name) Naked seeds or flowering? (If naked. monocot.complex bodies No cell walls.

no mixing 4 chambers. birds.Nematoda bilateral Sort of (pseudocoelmate) no soft Start of digestive system Roundworm Annelida biltaeral yes Inside and out soft Distinct head and organs Segmented worms. starfish Chordata bilateral yes yes endoskeleton backbone Humans. specialized teeth Lungs. Ectotherm External External. follow bones Mammals Hair. bony skeleton Lungs and diffusion through skin Reptiles Dry skin. snails. head. armour Aves Feathers and wings. scales. moist skin. shells Stomach. in Ectotherm Internal External in Endotherm Internal External in Endotherm Internal Internal in . slugs. diaphragm Lungs Efficient lungs and air sacs Heart 2 chambers 3 chambers but some mixing 3 chambers. leeches Clams. or hatchet footed Anthropoda bilateral yes Specialized segments exoskeleton Most successful phylum Spiders. 2 loops Ecto/endotherm Fertilization Development Ectotherm External External. scorpions Echinodermata radial yes no endoskeleton Can regenerate parts Sea urchin. with scales Gas exchange Gills to get O2 Amphibians Legs. less mixing 4 chambers. dogs Vertebrae Subgroups Fish Body Bony or cartilaginous. squid Mollusca bilateral yes no Soft.

salmon Frog. kangaroos Examples Trout. and by making predictions and seeing if it comes true Climate Change . offspring feed from nipples in pouch Short lived placenta Koala. salamander Dinosaur.amniotic egg aquatic egg amniotic egg(leathery) amniotic egg uterus or pouch Other Joined. species and ecosystem diversity that may represent a mass extinction  Common threats to species today include: o o o o o  Habitat destruction Invasive species Illegal trade Pollution Climate change Scientists study the impact of climate change by examining long-term data. Platypus Marsupials:    Pouched mammals. kangaroo. exposing small ecosystems to artificial climates. eagle Birth live young Humans. turtle. paired appendages Metamorphosis Claws for defense Specially designed to fly Hawk. shark. lizard Sub-groups of Mammals (it just never ends!) Monotremes:    Egg laying mammals Lack placenta and true nipples Eg. opossum Placental   True placenta. whales. nutrient and waste filter Shrews. humans Biodiversity Crisis  Current decline in the genetic. bats.

Plant and Animal Pollinators  Pollination relationships may lose their matched timing. insects to emerge earlier. malefemale ratios to change  Decrease appetite and growth of fish in summers but opposite in winter . there will be too many males and too few females If population is over 75% male it can’t survive Climate Change. can affect freshwater organisms Can cause growth rates of invertebrates to increase.shifts ecosystems further up the mountain as they try to stay in the right temperature. Affects raindeer and caribou by causing less growth/access to lichens. resulting in less food  Also interrupts migration matterns and reproduction patterns Climate Change and Habitat   Affects average temperature Mountains. because It may make plants or insects become active earlier than normal  An insect may emerge but the flowers may not be ready. and when they are there may be to few insects around Climate Change and Aquatic Ecosystems   Increasing the temp. and some sill go extinct  Means more competition for food Climate Change and Reproduction    Many species follow temperature-sex determination where temperature determines sex If temperature rises.