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Page 1 of 6

Groups

A group G is a set of elements G = {I, a, b, c, ....} and an operation (denoted ◦) between the elements in the group. A group has the following properties (Note that w, x, and y in what follow could be any element from the set G): • closure: The result of one element operating on another is itself an element of the group. • identity element: There is a special element, called I , in the group such that the result of an operation involving I and another element from the group is the same element, I ◦ w = w. • inverses: For any element of the group, there is another element of the group x such that w ◦ x = I . The element x is called the inverse of w, denoted w−1 = x. • associativity: The result of several consecutive operations is the same regardless of the grouping, provided the consecutive order of operations is maintained. w ◦ x ◦ y = w ◦ (x ◦ y ) = (w ◦ x) ◦ y . Groups, studied in the ﬁeld of abstract algebra, apply to many things in mathematics, from common arithmetic, to the theory underlying quantum mechanics. To prove you have a group, you have to verify that all the above conditions hold for every possible combination of w, x, and y . Symmetry groups have elements (the a, b, c, etc.) which are the rigid motions which preserve a pattern, and are called the symmetry group of the pattern. If you change the pattern, you change the group. The operation ◦ for the symmetry group is carried out by applying one rigid motion and then the next (sometimes called the “followed by” operator). The operator is read from right to left, so we read a ◦ c and c followed by a.

**The Symmetry Group of an Equilateral Triangle
**

An equilateral triangle has all sides equal length. Rigid motions can be applied to the triangle and the triangle will end up with its original appearance (this would be a symmetry). However, the corners of the original triangle have actually moved. I will label the vertices of the triangle, so we can follow the eﬀects of any rigid motions we apply to the triangle. The rigid motions that leave the triangle unchanged are the following:

b. a. These are the rigid motions which leave the pattern (equilateral triangle) unchanged. which we can denote as G = {I. Notice that we could have described a as a clockwise rotation of 240 degrees (or 2/3 turn). c.Survey of Math: Chapter 19: Symmetry and Patterns: Groups Page 2 of 6 These six rigid motions form the symmetry group of the equilateral triangle. d. . e}. Any rigid motion not in the symmetry group would change the pattern.

Here is the eﬀect of performing these two rotations in succession: Notice that a ◦ c = e. So we have shown a ◦ c = e: ◦ I a b c d e I a b c e d e Exercise: Show c ◦ e = b. we would have to ﬁll in all the entries of the following table. and the second motion comes from the top row. using things like I ◦ a = a. So we can ﬁll in more of our table. To verify this is a group mathematically we would have to check every possible combination.: ◦ I a b c d e I I a b c d e a a b b c c e d d e e b . The ﬁrst motion performed comes from left hand column. etc. but we won’t do that here! • closure a ◦ c means we reﬂect across a vertical line. To prove that closure exists for our set. and then rotate 120 degrees counter-clockwise around the center of the triangle.Survey of Math: Chapter 19: Symmetry and Patterns: Groups Page 3 of 6 Let’s check some of the group properties. then the rigid motion on the left. and show that the entries of the table were all elements of the group. Notice we do the rigid motion on the right ﬁrst. the stay put element. ◦ I a b c d e I a b c e d e b • identity element This is just I .

with no repeats. Cayley Table for a Group The table we have constructed is called a multiplication table or more generally a Cayley Table. and the identity element will leave the left hand column unchanged (you can use this to ﬁgure out what the identity is for a given Cayley table). We could have read this oﬀ the table if we had ﬁlled it in completely earlier. you can check associativity using the results of the multiplication table. but you should be able to see from our earlier work that this is all about working out things like a ◦ a = b. c ◦ c = I . Exercise: Let’s ﬁnd the inverse of a. so let’s do that. ie. ◦ I a b c d e I I a b c d e a a b I d e c b b I a e c d c c e d I b a d d c e a I b e e d c b a I • associativity If you have ﬁlled in all the elements of the table above. Notice that we have shown a−1 = b. d ◦ d = I . Let’s verify it for one case. I am not showing the detail here. . but since we didn’t we have another entry in the table: ◦ I a b c d e I I a b c d e a a b b I c c e I d d I e e b I At this point we see the beneﬁt of ﬁlling in the table. You can have Cayley tables for sets and operations which do not form groups. the Cayley table will have the following properties: • each column contains all the elements of G. • the identity element I leaves the top row unchanged. a ◦ c ◦ e: (a ◦ c) ◦ e = e ◦ e = I a ◦ (c ◦ e) = a ◦ b = I We have veriﬁed associativity for this particular case. If the set G and operation ◦ form a group. since a ◦ b = I .Survey of Math: Chapter 19: Symmetry and Patterns: Groups Page 4 of 6 • inverses Exercise: Show the reﬂection all have themselves as inverses. and e ◦ e = I . • the same is true for rows.

5. since 2 32 = 6 + or 32 = 5 × 6 + 2. 1. in arithmetic multiplication.Survey of Math: Chapter 19: Symmetry and Patterns: Groups Page 5 of 6 Other Cayley Tables Rotations Only If you consider just the rotations of the triangle (so only a and b) and the identity element. 8 8 15 = 5 or 15 = 5 × 3 + 0. The only thing that changes is the set and the the operator. . . we have G = {. 0. 2} and the symmetric rotations of an equilateral triangle are exactly the same mathematical concepts! Multiplication of integers What we have just seen with Cayley tables is conceptually the same as the multiplication tables you have seen in the past. The Cayley tables for each have exactly the same structure. where a and n are positive integers. − 2. ◦ I a b I I a b a a b I b b I a Modulo Addition The expression a mod n means the remainder when a is divided by n. For example. −1. 3 Now. Compare this to the Cayley table for rotations of the triangle. since 15 mod 3 = 0. (a + b) mod 3 0 1 2 0 0 1 2 1 1 2 0 2 2 0 1 From this table. if we use the set of integers {0. We will take a from the ﬁrst column and b from the ﬁrst row (this doesn’t matter too much. and ◦ = ×. Addition modulo 3 on the set {0. we can see the identity element is 0. 5 5 14 6 = 1 + or 14 = 1 × 8 + 6.}. . 2. Examples: 32 mod 5 = 2. as long as you are consistent when you create your table). since 14 mod 8 = 6. 3. 1. then you also get a group. 4. 1. 2} we can work out the Cayley table for a ◦ b = (a + b) mod 3. Here is a portion of the inﬁnite Cayley table: . . . with the set all the integers and the operation arithmetic product.

The identity operator is 1. the integers under addition does from a group. (−2 + 5) + 7 = −2 + (5 + 7). However. the inverse of 2 is -2. . Each element has an inverse. Addition of integers However. The identity operator is 0. this does not form a group. Here is a portion of the Cayley table: + -2 -1 0 1 2 3 -2 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 -1 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 0 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 1 -1 0 1 2 3 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 This satisﬁes the closure requirement. one does not). since some inverse elements are missing. since 2 + (−2) = 0.Survey of Math: Chapter 19: Symmetry and Patterns: Groups Page 6 of 6 × -2 -1 0 1 2 3 -2 4 1 0 -2 -4 -6 -1 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 2 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 3 -6 -3 0 3 6 9 This satisﬁes the closure requirement. For example. So the integers under addition do form a group. What this tells us is that there is something fundamentally diﬀerent between the underlying structure of integers under multiplication and addition (one forms a group. there is no way to multiply 3 by an integer and get 1 Associativity is also satisﬁed. For example. For example. Associativity is also satisﬁed.

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