Important Questions MBA-II SEM Organisational Behaviour

1. What is organizational behaviour? is!uss various !hallenges an opportunities available in this "iel ? Organizational Behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within the organizations and its effective use for the purpose of such knowledge towards improving its performance. Similar to the evolution of man and its environment there has been a substantial change in the approach for better productivity within an organization through the brainstorming efforts applied by a good manager. Understanding organizational behavior within a corporation and particularly the factors influencing the organizational behavior of a single entity has become the key to the success of any manager. There is no one single approach to organizational behavior which is best for all organizations instead, companies must evolve the system which works best for them with the help of effective planning and technological support which changes over time as their environment and the individuals within that environment change. !hallenges and opportunities for OB ". The creation of a global village #. $orkforce diversity %. &mproving 'uality and productivity (. &mproving )eople skills *. +anagement control to empowerment ,. Stability and fle-ibility .. &mproving ethical behavior. There are a lot of challenges and opportunities today for managers to use Organizational behavior concepts. The critical issues for which Organization behavior offers solutions are/ #he !reation o" a global village The world has truly become global village. 0s multinational companies develop operations world1wide, as workers chase 2ob opportunities across national borders, managers have to become capable of working with people from different cultures. Wor$"or!e iversit% $ork force diversity addresses differences among people within given countries. &t means that Organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, race and ethnicity. $hen diversity is not managed properly, there is potential for higher turnover, more difficult communication and more interpersonal conflicts. So workforce diversity has important implications for management practice. Improving &ualit% an pro u!tivit% Toward &mproving 'uality and productivity, managers are implementing programs such as T3+ 4Total 3uality +anagement5 and 6eengineering programs that re'uire e-tensive employee involvement. The Organizational behavior offers important insights into helping managers work through those programs. &mproving people skills Organizational behavior represents relevant concepts and theories that can help a manager to predict and e-plain the behavior of people at work. &n addition, it also provides insights into specific people skills that can be used on the 2ob. Organizational Behavior also helps at improving a manager7s interpersonal skills. Management !ontrol to empo'erment &n the "89:s, managers were encouraged to get their employees to participate in work related decisions. But now managers are going considerably further by allowing employees full control of their work. &n so doing, managers have to learn how to give up control and employees have to learn how to take responsibility for their work and make appropriate decisions. Improving ethi!al behavior Today7s manager needs to create an ethically healthy climate for his or her employees where they can do their work productively and confront a minimal degree of ambiguity regarding what constitutes right and wrong behavior

(. )is!uss ho' O.B. is an inter is!iplinar% sub*e!t? Behavioural Science or Organisational Behaviour is not an elemental sub2ect, rather than it is like a compound sub2ect, with integrated weaving of various disciplines. &n modern terminology, Organisational Behaviour is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of human behaviour in organisations. The study of behaviour can be viewed in terms of various main disciplines. 0ll disciplines have made an important contribution to the field of Organisational Behaviour. These disciplines are/ +s%!holog%, )sychology is broadly speaking concerned with the study of human behaviour, with traits of the individual and membership of small social groups. The main focus of attention is on the individual as a whole person. Organisational Behaviour learns a great deal in issues like personality, perception, emotions, attitude, learning, values, motivation, and 2ob satisfaction etc. from the field of psychology. So!iolog%, Sociologists are more concerned with the study of social behaviour, relationships among social groups and societies, and the maintenance of order. The main focus of attention is on the social system. Organisational Behaviour has developed by taking many issues from sociology. Some of them are/ group dynamics, communication, leadership, organisational structures, formal and informal organisations, organisational change and development etc. So!ial +s%!holog%, Social )sychology e-amines interpersonal behaviour. The social psychologists are concerned with intergroup collaboration, group decision making, effect of change on individual, individual;s responsiveness to change, and integration of individual needs with group activities. Anthropolog%, 0nthropologists are more concerned with the science of mankind and the study of human behaviour as a whole. &ssues like, individual culture, organisational culture, organisational environment, comparative values, comparative attitudes, cross1cultural analysis, are common to the fields of anthropology and OB. 0s far as OB is concerned, one of the main issues demanding attention is the cultural system, the beliefs, customs, ideas and values within a group or society, and the comparison of behaviour among different cultures. )eople learn to depend on their culture to give them security and stability, and they can suffer adverse reactions to unfamiliar environments. +oliti!al S!ien!e, )olitical Science as a sub2ect has many ingredients, which directly affect human behaviour in organisations since politics dominates every organisation to some e-tent. +any themes of interest directly related to OB are, power and politics, networking, political manipulation, conflict resolution, coalition, and self1interest enhancement. E!onomi!s, <conomic environment influences organisational climate. OB has learned a great deal from such economic factors as labour market dynamics, cost1benefit analysis, marginal utility analysis, human resource planning, forecasting, and decision making. Engineering, &ndustrial <ngineering area has contributed a great deal in the area of man1machine relationship through time and motion study, work measurement, work flow analysis, 2ob design, and compensation management. <ach of these areas has some impact on OB. Me i!ines, +edicines is one of the newest fields which is now being related to the field of OB. &ssues like work related stress, tension and depression are common to both/ the area of medicine, and OB. Semanti!s, Semantics helps in the study of communications within the organisation. +isunderstood communication and lack of communication lead to many behaviour related problems in the organisation. 0ccordingly, ade'uate and effective communication is very important for organisational effectiveness. -. E.plain in ivi ual perspe!tive/ group perspe!tive/ an organisational perspe!tive o" OB. 0ccording to modern thoughts on OB, it is necessary to understand the interrelationships between human behaviour and other variables, which together comprise the total organisation. These variables provide parameters within which a number of interrelated dimensions can be identified 1 the individual, the group, the organisation, and the environment1 which collectively influence behaviour in work organisations. &n the ne-t four sections, we shall deal in these four issues. I0)I1I)2A3 +E4S+E5#I1E OB deals with individual behaviours in organisations, apart from dealing with group behaviours and behaviours in organisations. 0n organisation is as good as its people. =or organisations to grow continuously, there is need for keeping its individuals growing through following measures/ > 5ontinuous 3earning, There are many ways through which an individual learns. ?earning is any permanent change in behaviour, or behaviour potential, resulting from e-perience. &n order to be effective organisations need to promote that behaviour, which are functional and need to discourage that behaviour, which are detrimental to effective organisation.

politics is dysfunctional. it is your perception. ears through audition. so that others act in accordance with the wishes of the individual. knowledge. Aow. 74O2+ +E4S+E5#I1E &n an organisation. which gives meaning to various combinations of information those you gather. )ersonality is an individual. organise. or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. !ommunication deals with transference and understanding of meaning. how groups develop. or issues1 in fact. Croup e-plains the situation where two or more individuals are interacting and interdependent. and feelings. when groups become more effective. > 5ommuni!ation. 0 sound culture leads to conducive organisational climate. > Maintaining Stress-"ree In ivi uals an Environment. and also desirable for organisation. =or long term effectiveness organisations need to investigate into. an individual does not e-ist alone. mouth or tongue through taste. > +o'er an +oliti!s. &t depicts a system of shared meaning. so that full potential of an individual can be utilized. $ith growing competition and survival. =or team building effective leadership styles are re'uired. ob2ects. &ndividual tends to e-ercise power to influence behaviour of others. #eam Buil ing an 3ea ership. and skin through touch5 are continuously gathering information from your surroundings. @our five senses 4eyes through sight. thoughts. )olitical behaviour deals with use of informal networking to make an attempt to influence others. &t deals with issues like. nose through smell. stress is the managerial discomfort of modern era. constraint. what are the undercurrents of group dynamics. and how group decisions are taken. political behaviour is functional. )erception is the process through which we select.. @ou shall en2oy learning more about power and politics through Unit ".> 5reating 4ight +er!eption. Balues are at the base of attitudes and behaviour. > 6aving +ersonalit% an Emotions 5ompatible at Wor$ +la!e. personality can be also developed. who have come together to achieve particular ob2ectives. &t is said that only thing that is permanent is change. &n earlier decades there used to be longer duration of stability with off and on shorter duration of change in the organisations. Aow the mantra itself has changed. $e are passing through an age. )ositive attitudes are important ingredient of effective relationship. <motions are reactions consisting of sub2ective cognitive states. Organisations make effort through formal structure as well as through informal interaction to establish sound communication system within and outside organisation. and interpret input from our sensory receptors. how groups are formed. ?eadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. where there is longer duration of change interventions in organisations with off and on shorter duration of stability. 0n Understanding about emotions help for self1development of individuals. in order to make the team more productive and more effective. groups. Some amount of pushes and pulls are inevitable where more than two persons e-ist. Unit ": shall help you to know the causes and remedies of stress. and e-pressive behaviours.s uni'ue and relatively stable patterns of behaviour. and memory. when influence is used for achieving overall goals in larger interest. > Buil ing +ositive Attitu es an 1alues.s members. 0n organisation makes continuous effort to create synergy in the group or team. of virtually any aspect of the social or physical world. There is need in organisations to create a right combination of person and 2ob. Such issues influence an organisation in broader ways. $hen others are influenced for narrow gains. as well as need to take measures for improving organisational climate and culture. and e-cellence becoming tougher. 0ttitudes are lasting evaluations of people. Organisational culture e-plains a common perception held by the organisation. O47A0ISA#IO0A3 +E4S+E5#I1E Organisational perspective of OB deals with larger issues of the organisations. > Organisational 5hange. This is an age of change. . hence it is important to learn values in OB. Organisational perspective of OB deal with following issues/ > Organisational 5ulture an 5limate. 0ccording to the re'uirements of the work. Balues are the basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end1state of e-istence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or adverse mode of conduct or end1state of e-istence. !ognition is the mental activities associated with thought. Team building leads to high interaction among team members to increase trust and openness. physiological reactions. Some of the important measures those OB suggests at group level interventions are/ > 7roup 8ormation an Stru!ture. These two are highly sought after issues of OB. )lurality of people is the essential ingredient of an organisation. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity.

Such interventions may be applied at individual level. affects subse'uently behavior. Thus. and action. cognitive approach dominates the units of analysis such as perception. &t is based on the e-pectancy. The person and the environmental situation do not function as independent units but. which stems from the outside environment at one time or the other to provide the meaningful entity we e-perienceH. problem solving. E. !ognitive maps are concepts that can be used as pictures or visual aids to comprehend a person7s understanding of a particular. +odern behaviorism. behavioral. advocates that behavior in response to a stimulus is contingent on environmental conse'uences. !ognition is a psychological process of recollecting information and past e-periences. reciprocally interact to determine behavior. The role of cognition is found to be significant in decision1making. and intention. :. and selective. !ognitive approach is also widely applied in the field of OB and is mostly used in the analysis of perception. there have been controversies regarding the contributions of cognitive and behaviorist frameworks to the behavioral sciences.s thinking. but the e-periences generated by previous behavior also partly determine what a person becomes and can do. and information processing. !ognition can be simply defined as the act of knowing an item of information. . They e-amined the impact of stimulus and felt that learning occurred when the S16 connection was made. problem solving and information processing. &n cognitive framework. Through Unit "8. whereas the cognitive portion recognizes the influential contribution of thought processes to human motivation. =actors that are in the situation are called Ge-ternal attention factorsH and those within the individual are called Ginternal set factorsH. motivation and goal setting. 0 persons cognition or understanding changes according to the e-perience of conse'uences of past behavior. demand. built on humanistic1democratic values. $atson stressed the importance of studying observable behaviors instead of the elusive mind. which. organizational participants are at the same time both products and producers of their personality. but also includes cognitive processes of self regulation.plain 5ognitive/ behavioursti! an so!ial !ognitive "rame'or$ o" OB Cognitive Framework !ognitive approach emphasizes the positive and freewill aspects of human behavior and uses concepts such as e-pectancy. in turn. attitudes. The cognitive approach emphasizes more on people compared to other approaches. elements of the thoughts 4rather than thinking5 of an individual. They advocated that behavior could be best understood in terms of stimulus and response 4S165. personality and attitudes. group level as well as organisational level. and behaviors. that marks its beginning with B. 9. personality and attitude. group or organization. Organisational Development e-plains collection of planned1change interventions. Folasa defines perception as the Gselection and organization of material. perception.> Organisational )evelopment . respective environments.s contingent environmental conse'uences. behavioral decision making and goal setting. Sta2kovic and ?uthans have translated this S!T into the theoretical framework for organizational behavior. The social part acknowledges the social origins of much of human thought and action 4what individual learns from society5. What is per!eption? )is!uss "a!tors in"luen!ing per!eption. &n social cognitive theoretical framework. &n the sub2ect of organizational behavior. Social Cognitive Framework Social learning theory takes the position that behavior can best be e-plained in terms of a continuous reciprocal interaction among cognitive. Behavioristic Framework )ioneer behaviorists &van )avlov and Eon B. motivation. it is important to note that behaviortistic approach is based on observable behavior and environmental variables 4which are also observable5. Bandura developed social learning theory into the more comprehensive social cognitive theory 4S!T5. &t means that cognitive variables and environmental variables are relevant. Skinner. cognitions precede behavior and constitute input into the person. !ognition gained considerable significance after the rapid progress made in the field of psychology. demand and incentive concepts. !ognition generally precedes behavior and serves as an input for a person7s thoughts. and environmental determinants. in con2unction with behavior itself.=. perception. that seek to improve organisational effectiveness and employee well being. Social cognitive theory recognizes the importance of behaviorism. Over the years. you would gain insight about managing the process of organisational development.

&d represents a storehouse of all instincts. =inally.E. There are differences between values J attitudes.The modern organization value specialization. and desires that unconsciously direct and determines our behaviour. Because of this advertisers involve signs. demanding and destructive of others. 0ovelt% an "amiliarit%-Aew thing in familiar place or familiar thing in new place tends to attract attention. There are similarities between values J attitudes. Balues focus on the 2udgment of what ought to be. involving an individual. ?ikely soldier will throw himself on ground when he hears sudden burst of car tyre. situations or persons. Transcend specific ob2ects. 0re most central to the core of a person. ?ike a newly born baby id has no perception of reality. 0ccording to =reud id is totally oriented towards increasing pleasure and avoiding pain. insistent and rash. an internalized criterion or standard of evaluation a person possesses. The &d J <go &t is the original and the most basic system of human personality.s 2udgment of what is right. Motion-&t implies that individual attracts to changing ob2ects in their vision that to static ob2ects. Both are powerful instruments influencing cognitive process and behaviour of people. used interchangeable.#E40A3 A##E0#IO0 8A5#O4S Intensit%-&t implies that more intense the stimulus audio or visual. never satisfied. This 2udgment can represent the specific manifestation of a determining tendency below the surface of the behaviour. But id is the foundation upon which all other parts of personality are erected. 5ontrast-$hich stand out against the background or which. 3earning-?earning plays a crucial role in primitive organization. =inally. Balues are tinged with moral flavour. Eob rotation is an e-ample of this principle. Write Short 0otes on 0ttitudes J Balues Balue is defined as a Gconcept of the desirable. are not the people e-pect will receive attention. Balue. &t can play the single biggest role in developing perpetual set. represents a single belief that transcendentally guides actions and 2udgments across ob2ects and situations. other and are.H Such concepts and standards are relatively few and determine our guide an individual. values and attitudes influence each. Motivation an Interest-+otivation increases individual sensitivity to the satisfaction of his needs in view of his past e-perience with them. and it strives . the more is the likelihood it will be perceived. &t is primitive. which include moving ob2ects in their campaigns. good or desirable. 0ttitudes essentially represent predisposition to respond.. Both are learned and ac'uired from the same source K e-periences with people and ob2ects. Balues J attitudes are relatively permanent and resistant to change. immortal. . 0t the base of the =reudian theory lies the id that is primitive. &d is largely childish. containing in its dark depths all wishes. 0re fewer in number than attitudes. more often than not. Thus values1 )rovide standards of competence and morality. 0ttitudes represent several beliefs focused on a specific ob2ect or situation. 0ny change in accustomed atmosphere attracts the attention. 0re relatively permanent J resistant to change. &d is the reservoir of the Gpsychic energyH which =reud calls G?ibidoH. a value stands in relation to some social or cultural standards or norms while attitudes are mostly personal e-periences. 0lthough the increase in attention may not be directly proportional to the increase in size. Organizational role or the spe!ialization. instinctual and governed by the principles of greed and pleasure. I0#E40A3 SE# 8A5#O4S 6abit-0 Iindu will bow and do Aamaskar when he sees a temple on his way. 0 great tall man attracts attention at the same time small size man also attracts attention.s evaluations of the many ob2ects encountered in everyday life. on the other hand. !onse'uently the specialty of a person that casts hum in a particular organizational role predisposes him to select certain stimuli and to disregard others. irrational. Size-0ny odd size attracts attention. 4epetition-6epeated e-ternal stimulus attracts more attention than the one that occurs at one time alone.

>. #rait theories &t views personality from the standpoint of understanding traits. in fact. G$hat an individual only appears to be not what he really isH. and would not satisfy the real need. &d. Some people tolerate severely stressful situations.action5 of tension release is reflected in the behaviour of individuals such as blinking of eyes.s attitudes fit into a pattern. if a person is hungry the id deals with situation by creating a mental image of desirable J good food that is palatable. )ersonality factors are e-tremely important in organizational settings. attitudes are important because they affect 2ob behaviour. But this kind of tension release is temporary J mental.. &d basically represents an individual. 6o' the attitu es are "orme ? )is!uss the various theories o" attitu e "ormation. 0llport emphasizes on uni'ueness of personality. outgoing. 0ttitudes are not the same as values because values are convictions about what is important. !attell and Sheldon. feelings. &n organizations. This may then lead to a negative attitude toward management when an employee is asked to stay late and help on a special pro2ect. a reality oriented individual who is much more doer than thinker. managers. 0ttitudes put people into a frame of mind for liking or disliking things and moving toward or away from them. 0ttitudes are very difficult to change. These two types show e-treme situations. Sheldon e-tending physical structuring that consists of endomorphs. They are basically ob2ective.s natural urges J feelings. The former attempts to discharge a tension by forming a mental image of desirable means of releasing the tension. mesomorphs and ectomorphs. influential determinant of behavior within the environmental framework. <mployees may believe. dominance etc. for e-ample. <go is rational J logical. and changing one attitude may re'uire making many difficult ad2ustments Attitu es are e"ine as a mental pre isposition to a!t that is e. en2oying solitude. . and in essence . 0nswer / )ersonality means.s relatively consistent evaluations. The methods for dealing with tension id are primary process J refleactions. raising eyebrows. etc. =ew people are completely introvert or e-trovert. +esomorphic and <ctomorphic 5arl =ung<s E. gregarious and sociable. Some theories o" personalit% Shel on<s +h%siognom% #heor% Sheldon presented a link between anatomic and psychological traits and characteristics of an individual with his behavior. that supervisors. One notable characteristic of id is that it cannot tolerate uncomfortable levels of tension within it and seeks to release the tension as soon as it develops. retiring. but the two are interrelated. )ersonality characteristics tend to produce different emotional reactions to stress. and time1and1motion engineers are all conspiring to make employees work harder for the same or less money. =or instance. Ie identifies three body types/ <morphic. 0s an individual learns to separate the unreality from reality in childhood. These theories included 0llport. is capable of resolving the tension in reality. and tendencies toward an ob2ect or an idea. creating. The later method 4refle. 0 person. the ego develops. Sel" #heor% !arl 6ogers has developed this theory that places emphasis on the individual as an initiating. !attell developed factor concepts such as tender1mindedness. auditors. &ntroverts are 'uite. 0n attitu e describes a person. $rong kind of personality proves disastrous and causes undesirable tensions and worries in organizations. somatic an-iety.presse b% evaluating a parti!ular entit% 'ith some egree o" "avor or is"avor.trovert-Introvert #heor% <-troverts are optimistic. tensions and an-ieties. But the mi-ture of these two determines the kind of overall personality on an individual. What o %ou un erstan b% +ersonalit%? )is!uss in a nutshell some theories o" personalit%.for immediate satisfaction of desires. The ego is reality1 oriented part of thinking it is largely practical and works in an e-ecutive capacity. rubbing the cheeks etc.

• The a""e!tive !omponent consists of the emotional feelings stimulated by the ob2ect of the attitude. %. Originally studied by )avlov. $e e-amine attitude formation by dividing into three areas/ how attitudes are learned. where there is a shift from having no attitude towards a given ob2ect to having some attitude toward it. 0ttitudes are generally formed through/ > 6epeated e-posure to novel social ob2ects. the process re'uires an unconditioned stimulus 4U!S5 that produces an involuntary 4refle-ive5 response 4U!65. if you have a high need for cognition.e. 0ttitudes typically have three components. either very dramatically on one occasion. Iow attitudes are learned/  The shift from having no attitude toward a given ob2ect to having an attitude is learned.e. +ersonalit% 8a!tors $e know that the personality of each individual is different and it plays a very crucial role in formation of attitude. and this is reinforced by one. 5lassi!al !on itioning is another simple form of learning.  &ndividuals may form an attitude before or after interaction to an ob2ect. behaviors tend to be stopped when they are punished 4i. Thus. > Operant conditioning and > <-posure to live and symbolic models. followed by a positive e-perience5. &t involves involuntary responses and is ac'uired through the pairing of two stimuli. Two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused and before long the person responds in the same way to both events. The reinforcement can be as subtle as a smile or as obvious as a raise in salary. or acts out an attitude toward some group. • The behavioral !omponent consists of predispositions to act in certain ways toward an attitude ob2ect. Operant conditioning is especially involved with the behavioral component of attitudes.. Sour!es o" In"luen!e on Attitu e 8ormation The formation of consumer attitudes is strongly influenced by personal e-perience. we mean a situation. friends. individuals own cognition 4knowledge or belief5. if one e-presses. The learning may come from information e-posure. religious doctrine. &t is based on the G?aw of <ffectH and involves voluntary responses. Say for e-ample. %. The AS was a bell. or e-perience. &n )avlov. the attitude is strengthened and is likely to be e-pressed again. followed by an unpleasant e-perience5. Operant 5on itioning is a simple form of learning. &f a neutral stimulus 4AS5 is paired. Sources of influence on attitude formation/ personal e-perience. you crave for information and en2oy thinking. the neutral stimulus will lead to the same response elicited by the unconditioned stimulus. friends and family. Behaviors 4including verbal behaviors and maybe even thoughts5 tend to be repeated if they are reinforced 4i. the influence of family and friends. etc. > !lassical conditioning.&n Social )sychology attitudes are defined as positive or negative evaluations of ob2ects of thought. !onversely. )ersonality factors/ such as highLlow need for cognition 4information seeking5.e. )ire!t Instru!tion involves being told what attitudes to have by parents. #. ". schools. 0t first the bell elicited no response . the sources of influence on attitude formation. i.s research the U!S was meat powder which led to an U!6 of salivation. #. • The !ognitive !omponent is made up of the thoughts and beliefs people hold about the ob2ect of the attitude. This shift from no attitude to an attitude or the formation of attitude is a result of learning..s peers. community organizations. and the impact of personality on attitude formation. 0t this point the stimulus is no longer neutral and so is referred to as a conditioned stimulus 4!S5 and the response has now become a learned response and so is referred to as a conditioned response 4!65. or repeatedly for several ac'uisition trials. and social status consciousness 3earning o" Attitu es By formation of attitude.. Then you are likely to form a positive attitude in response +s%!hologi!al "a!tors involve in Attitu e 8ormation an Attitu e 5hange ".

a particular attitude. it would not be possible for you to change those characteristics as you grew into an adult. or to stop using mari2uana.s personality is genetic. . What are the ma*or "a!tors 'hi!h shape the personalit% o" an in ivi ual? $hen we talk of personality we don. and the )rotestant work ethic constantly drilled into them through books. &n a similar fashion. today we recognize a third factorMthe situation.s personality is now generally considered to be made up of both hereditary and environmental factors. Thus. feelings or behaviors are inconsistent or contradictory. but eventually the bell alone caused the dog to salivate. biological. and friends. =or e-ample.H $hen psychologists talk of personality.. But personality characteristics are not completely dictated by heredity. energy level. 6ather than looking at parts of the person. muscle composition and refle-es. pleasant or unpleasant e-periences with members of a particular group could lead to positive or negative attitudes toward that group. or is a finalist for G+iss !ongeniality. +ersonalit% )eterminants 0n early argument in personality research centred on whether an individual. and social groups and other influences that we e-perience. !lassical conditioning is especially involved with the emotional. &f genetics resulted in your being tense and irritable as a child. The product is the original AS which through pairing comes to elicit a positive conditioned response. will behave in this manner or e-press this attitude. friends. Cordon 0llport produced the most fre'uently used definition of personality more than . independence. This process can be conscious.s interaction with his or her environment. competition. The dissonance they e-perience is thus likely to motivate them to either change their attitude toward mari2uana. and against. the school system. and the priority of family over work and career. this serves as vicarious reinforcement and makes it more likely that we. but often occurs without conscious awareness. 0dvertisers create positive attitudes towards their products by presenting attractive models in their ads. an adult. )e"ine personalit%. A. physiological. is an automatic positive response. &f they are getting reinforced for certain behaviors or the e-pression of certain attitudes. there is no simple answer. &n this case the model is the U!S and our reaction to him. or the result of the individual. as a result. family. The environment we are e-posed to plays a substantial role in shaping our personalities. you should think of personalit% as the stable patterns of behaviour and consistent internal states that determine how an individual reacts to and interacts with others.s whole psychological system. )ersonality appears to be a result of both influences. !lassical conditioning can also occur vicariously through observation of others. facial attractiveness. personality looks at the whole person. cooperation. )hysical stature. !ognitive dissonance creates an unpleasant state of tension that motivates people to reduce their dissonance by changing their cognitions. . The heredity approach argues that the ultimate e-planation of an individual. !learly.: years ago. $e observe others. moderated by situational conditions. or affective.from the dog. &n addition.t mean that a person has charm. =or instance. 6ere it% Heredity refers to those factors that were determined at conception. gender. success. for e-ample. &t is most often described in terms of measurable traits that a person e-hibits. they would be fi-ed at birth and no amount of e-perience could alter them. 5ognitive )issonan!e e-ists when related cognitions. or behaviors. and inherent psychological makeup. 4ational Anal%sis involves the careful weighing of evidence for. component of attitudes. a person who starts out with a negative attitude toward mari2uana will e-perience cognitive dissonance if they start smoking mari2uana and find themselves en2oying the e-perience. =or e-ample. So!ial ?Observational@ 3earning is based on modeling. and biological rhythms are characteristics that are generally considered to be either completely or largely influenced by your parents. feeling.H =or our purposes. *. a positive attitude toward life. (. or her. tend to be ambitious and aggressive compared with individuals raised in cultures that have emphasized getting along with others. they mean a dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a person. Aorth 0mericans have had the themes of industriousness. Ie said personality is Gthe dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his uni'ue ad2ustments to his environment. &f personality characteristics were completely dictated by heredity. Environmental 8a!tors 0mong the factors that e-ert pressures on our personality formation are the culture in which we are raised our early conditioning the norms among our family. Aorth 0mericans. a smiling face. temperament. too. a person may carefully listen to the presidential debates and read opinions of political e-perts in order to decide which candidate to vote for in an election.s personality was predetermined at birth.

&n Operant !onditioning particular response occurs as a conse'uence of many stimulus situations. The concept was originated by B. The e-periment envisaged dog as a sub2ect. ?earning changes attitude of individuals to a large e-tent. Operant 5on itioning is concerned primarily with learning as a conse'uence of behaviour 461S5. )avlov concluded that the dog has become classically conditioned to salivate 4response5 to the sound of the bell 4stimulus5. does change in different situations. The study was undoubtedly single most famous study ever conducted in behavioural sciences. which would raise its e-pectation to move forward to the ob2ective 4food5. Ie used white rat in his psychological e-periment of !ognitive theory. &ndividual would work hard465 because he knows that he would be able to get praise. &f we want to predict and e-plain behaviour. Ie noticed a great deal of salivation 4unconditional response5.s personality. The theory consists of relationship between environmental 4cognitive5 cues and e-pectations. )avlov was to accompany the offering of meat to the dog along with ringing up of bell. This time the dog salivated to the ringing up of bell alone. 4?uthans "88*5" &van )avlov a psychologist who won Aobel prize introduced classical conditioning theory. Ie found that the rat could run through critical path with particular intention of getting food 4goalLob2ective5. we must understand how people learn. #heories o" 3earning 5lassi!al 5on itioning K behaviourist theory C5lassi!al !on itioning !an be e"ine as a pro!ess in 'hi!h a "ormerl% neutral stimulus 'hen paire 'ith an un!on itional stimulus/ be!omes a !on itione stimulus that illi!it a !on itione response . or even promotion 4S5. 0fter doing this several times. the demands of different situations call forth different aspects of an individual.&f we carefully consider the arguments favoring either heredity or environment as the main determinant of personality. What o %ou mean b% 3earning? )is!uss the theories o" 3earning? ?earning brings relatively permanent change in human behaviour that occurs as a result of e-perience. he presented meat 4unconditional stimulus5 to the dog. &t is voluntary in nature. the dog had no salivation. 0ll complebehaviour is a learned behaviour. . but an individual. although generally stable and consistent.=.t be e-plained by !lassical !onditioning concept. &t is continuous process. &n stage t'o he only rang up the bell 4neutral stimulus5. &n his concept a GresponseH is first evaluated out of many stimulus. Thus the rat turned to ac'uire food. Ieredity sets the parameters. Behaviour is learned and is not a matter of reflects. 0n individual reacts to any situation or responds to instructions in particular fashion. Behaviour is a function of conse'uences. based on relationship of 5ues an 4e'ar or e-pectations. &n stage one. which occurs all the time. $e cannot see learning but we can see changed behaviour as a conse'uence of learning.behaviour couldn. look at personality patterns in isolation. Skinner. )avlov carried out this e-periment in three se'uential stages. influences the effects of heredity and environment on personality. ?earning involves change in behaviour. &n the e-periment. &n stage three. Stimulus typically serves as a cue for a particular response. &t will be seen that the learning can take place amongst animals based on stimulus K response 4S65 connections. the probability of specific forms of behaviour increases. Operant !onditioning has greater impact on learning as compared to !lassical !onditioning.s personality. &t was a ma2or break through and had a lasting impact on understanding of learning.s full potential will be determined by how well he or she ad2usts to the demands and re'uirements of the environment. Operant 5on itioning Operant conditioning deals with 6esponseMStimulus 461S5 connection. that fashion or style is caused due to learning. Situational 5on itions 0 third factor. Tolman established certain !hoi!e points where e-pectations were established. Ie states that most human behaviour operates based on the environment. 0n individual. 461S connections5. 5ognitive #heor% K <dward Tolman was recognized as pioneer of !ognitive Theory. )avlov rang up only bell 4without offering of meat to the dog5. which is environmental in nature. This theory was later applied on human resources where incentives were related to higher performance. 6e1inforcement increases the probability of occurrence. The rat learned cognitive !ues at various choice points. +ore specifically. we are forced to conclude that both are important. &f we create learning conse'uences. or outer limits. Ie felt that more comple. therefore. $e should not. =or e-ample an individual will take a long trek 46esponse5 to library because he knows he would be able to get a desired book 4Stimulus5. the situation. 1B.

So!ial 3earning K behavioural approach Social learning approach is a behavioural approach. se-. They influence individuals and therefore. are satisfied today but what about tomorrow. Ie must have reasonable safety at that time. There remains an unsatisfied corner of every need in spite of which the person seeks fulfillment of the higher need. 0nswer / )hysiological Aeeds/ The fulfillment of physiological needs such as thirst. 0 self1 actualized person has a cause. 11. )=. Social learning is practiced in organizations by observing various cultural. clothing. &n industrial organizations leader must display a role model so that subordinates copy the style of functioning. a person will strive for meaningful relationships. &t is achieved while interacting with individuals. Unlike other needs these needs have tendency of recurrence. . One may postpone the fulfillment of these needs and adapt his need satisfying to suit the culture and the situation. which is task oriented and is not taken in by the personal criticism or praise. Some relationship assures that one is part of society. 0 group is 'any number of people who share goals. $hen social needs become dominant. groups are an integral part of any organization. Ie concentrated on the feedback. person . and takes precedence over all others needs. and copy cinema actorsLactresses in various styles. an ideology to fight for the goal set for him. and social practices.to . )ension plans. !hildren copy the behaviour of their parents. etc. Two or more people interacting to achieve a common ob2ective is also called a group. have an impact on organization behavior. Organizations are defined as group o" people/ who come together. gratuity. Unlike physiological needs it looks into future. Therefore. E )is!uss. What is the meaning o" 7roup? E. 0n appropriate behaviour can be predicted that would contribute towards achieving higher individual satisfaction level and organizational goals. 1(. Self1actualization needs/ These needs means Gwhat a man can be should beH. hunger. They work in a stru!ture "ashion an utilize resour!es to reach predetermined goals and targets. This phenomenon is distinctly visible in defence services where cadets opt for a particular regiment based on the performance of their instructors 4role model5. &ndividuals learn a great deal from watching attractive models and they copy their behaviour and display the same. etc go basically to ensure security for the man in his old age. !riticism/ &n a normal human being all the needs are not always satisfied entirely. adults.person'. and are few enough so that each individual may communicate with all the others. Safety Aeeds/ Once physiological needs are met these needs become important. &n social learning people observe/ alter and even !onstru!t a particular environment to fit in the social behavioural pattern. The influence of model is central to the theory of Social ?earning. Social and belongingness needs/ +an is a social being and has a need to belong and be accepted by various groups. The approach basically deals with learning process based on direct observation and the e.plain its t%pes. etc. This needs manifests itself in three forms 4"5 the need for status 4#5 the need for power and 4%5 the need for recognition. C6uman nee s that spar$ o"" on a!tivit% !an be arrange in hierar!h% o" prepoten!% an probabilit% o" o!!urren!eD. often communicate with one another over a period of time. 0s need for food. to a!hieve some !ommon ob*e!tives.perien!e. Till the man is earning he can satisfy his physiological needs but what will happen when he gets old.

and sentiments of the members for the purpose of meeting their social needs. 0lthough there is no single. personal relations are characterised by dependence. and similar concerns. They are established by an organization to facilitate the achievement of the organizational goals. of the following characteristics/ N a definable membership N group consciousness N a sense of shared purpose N interdependence N interaction and N ability to act in a unitary manner. They set about gathering impressions and data about the similarities and differences among them and forming preferences for future sub1grouping. if not all. Croup members rely on safe. &ts members communicate freely among themselves. 0 popular definition defines the group in psychological terms as/ An% number o" people 'ho ?1@ intera!t 'ith one anotherF ?(@ are ps%!hologi!all% a'are o" one anotherF an ?-@ per!eive themselves to be a group. . &ts members have learned to receive help from one another and to give help to one another.There are many possible ways of defining what is meant by a group. #as$ group. In"ormal groups. 0n effective group is one which has the following characteristics/ &ts members know why the group e-ists they have shared goals. To grow from this stage to the ne-t. how to approach it. 0nother useful way of defining a work group is a collection of people who share most. &ts members support agreed upon guidelines or procedures for making decisions. 6ules of behaviour seem to be to keep things simple and to avoid controversy. each member must relin'uish the comfort of non1threatening topics and risk the possibility of conflict. Croups can further be classified as under/ 8ormal groups. &ts members have learned to deal with conflict within the group. E. esteem and belonging needs. interactions. The ma2or task functions also concern orientation. The essential feature of a group is that its members regard themselves as belonging to the group. +embers attempt to become orientated to the tasks as well as to one another. Croup members have a desire for acceptance by the group and a need to know that the group is safe. 1-. &t is created by the management to accomplish certain organizational goals. &t is one that develops out of the day 1 to 1 day activities. !lassification according to evaluation of primary goals/ 8rien ship group. &t evolves informally to meet its members7 personal security. most people will readily understand what constitutes a group. 53ASSI8I5A#IO0 G #H+ES O8 74O2+S +ost individuals belong to various types of groups. stage of a group. &ts members have learned to diagnose individual and group processes and improve their own and the group7s functioning. E""e!tive group. patterned behaviour and look to the group leader for guidance and direction. which can be classified in many ways.plain i""erent stages o" group evelopment S#A7ES O8 74O2+ )E1E3O+ME0# 8O4MI07 &n the O=orming. Serious topics and feelings are avoided. Discussion centres around defining the scope of the task. accepted definition.

the group should be most productive. leading toward optimal solutions and optimum group development. &n this stage. The ma2or task function of stage three is the data flow between group members/ They share feelings and ideas. group morale is high. attitudes. there will be an increased desire for structural clarification and commitment. Stage four is marked by interdependence in personal relations and problem solving in the realm of task functions. their capacity. solicit and give feedback to one another and e-plore actions related to the task. +embers are both highly task oriented and highly people oriented. contributions. &n order to progress to the ne-t stage. $hen members begin to know and identify with one another. &t is during this stage of development 4assuming the group gets this far5 that people begin to e-perience a sense of group belonging and a feeling of relief as a result of resolving interpersonal conflicts. They feel good about being part of an effective group. ideas. There is unity/ group identity is complete. +E48O4MI07 The )erforming stage is not reached by all groups. range. and the need for group approval is past. 0 planned conclusion usually includes recognition for participation and achievement and an opportunity for members to say personal goodbyes. +embers are willing to change their preconceived ideas or opinions on the basis of facts presented by other members and they actively ask 'uestions of one another. &f this stage of data flow and cohesion is attained by the group members. &ndividuals have to bend and mold their feelings. !reativity is high. conflict inevitably results in their personal relations. 0O4MI07 &n Tuckman. involves the termination of task behaviours and disengagement from relationships. stage is characterised by competition and conflict in personal relations and the task functions of the team. The task function becomes genuine problem solving. Croup members are engaged in active acknowledgment of all members. ?eadership is shared and cli'ues dissolve. and depth of personal relations e-pand to true interdependence. people can work independently. Because of fear of e-posure or fear of failure. Their roles and authorities dynamically ad2ust to the changing needs of the group and individuals. 0s the group members attempt to get organised to perform the task. mentality to a problem1solving mentality. There is support for e-perimentation in solving problems and an emphasis on achievement. 3uestions will arise about who is going to be responsible for what what the rules are what the reward system is and criteria for evaluation. they do e-ist. 0lthough conflicts may or may not surface as group issues. the level of trust in their personal relations contributes to the development of group cohesion. The most important trait in helping groups to move on to the ne-t stage seems to be the ability to listen. A)=O240I07 Tuckman.S#O4MI07 The OStorming. in subgroups. The ma2or drawback of the OAorming. or as a total unit with e'ual facility. &ndividual members have become self1assuring. &f group members are able to evolve to stage four.s final stage O0d2ourning. stage is that members may begin to fear the inevitable future breakup of the group they may resist change of any sort. and beliefs to suit the group organisation. By now. their interactions are characterised by openness and sharing of information on both a personal and task level. group members must move from a Otesting and proving. community building and maintenance and solving of group issues. and group loyalty is intense. The overall goal is productivity through problem solving and work. .s Aorming stage interpersonal relations are characterised by cohesion.

and delegates. but the team measures performance directly through their collective work product. decides. their size. it is possible that the group can generate a greater number of alternatives that are of higher 'uality than the individual. • The group discusses. &n organizations many decisions of conse'uence are made after some form of group decision1making process is undertaken. Iowever. Croup decision1making should be distinguished from the concepts of teams. structure. and select from among the alternatives a solution or solutions. Croup decision1making. The individuals in a group may be demographically similar or 'uite diverse. The termination of the group is a regressive movement from giving up control to giving up inclusion in the group. or formally designated and charged with a specific goal. and does real work. teamwork. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF GRO ! DECISION "A#ING A)1A0#A7ES.plain i""erent te!hni&ues o" group e!ision ma$ing. groups are not the only form of collective work arrangement. &f a greater number of higher 'uality alternatives are generated. Croup decision1making may also lead to a greater collective understanding of the eventual course of action chosen.no Stage &nterpersonal !haracteristics Task !haracteristics " # =orming Storming &ndividuals become familiar with each other Tension between group members and leader $hat the task is and how to doit 6esistance arises to task and +ethod Task co1operation prevalent Orientation / product % ( * Aorming )erforming 0d2ourning Iarmony develops. Decision1making groups may be relatively informal in nature. all affect their functioning to some degree. The most effective interventions in this stage are those that facilitate task termination and the disengagement process. which is likely to contribute to a greater acceptance of the course of . then it is likely that the group will eventually reach a superior problem solution than the individual. a minor crisis. but the team discusses. demographic makeup. This may promote a sense of PownershipP of the decision. The nature and composition of groups. and self managed teams. decides. emotional dependency Task is complete roles are completed reduced 19. The e-ternal contingencies faced by groups 4time pressure and conflicting goals5 impact the development and effectiveness of decision1making groups as well. • The group measures effectiveness indirectly. since it is possible that many affected by the decision implementation actually had input into the decision.!oncluding a group can create some apprehension 1 in effect. 0lthough the words teams and groups are often used interchangeably. takes advantage of the diverse strengths and e-pertise of its members. The number of people involved in group decision1making varies greatly. The basis for the distinction seems to be that teams act more collectively and achieve greater synergy of effort. Croup decision making is a type of participatory process in which multiple individuals acting collectively. norms are established 6elationships are stabilized and performance !ontact decreases. ideally. consider and evaluate alternative courses of action. but often ranges from two to seven. Sr. scholars increasingly differentiate between the two. The process used to arrive at decisions may be unstructured or structured. and purpose. What o %ou mean b% 7roup e!ision ma$ing? E. analyze problems or situations. By tapping the uni'ue 'ualities of group members. Fatzenback and Smith spell out specific differences between decision making groups and teams/ • The group has a definite leader. but the team has shared leadership roles • +embers of a group have individual accountability the team has both individual and collective accountability.

Both of these techni'ues are designed to try and make sure that the group considers all possible ramifications of its decision. Usually. The group members usually record their ideas privately. the group engages in a discussion of the listed alternatives. devil7s advocacy. each group member is asked to independently provide ideas. reality testing. so sometimes it is difficult to utilize them in situations where decisions must be made very 'uickly. The Delphi techni'ue is a group decision1making process that can be used by decision1making groups when the individual members are in different physical locations. The Pgeneration of alternativesP stage is clearly differentiated from the Palternative evaluationP stage. and moral 2udgment resulting from in1 group pressure. <mpirical research conducted on group decision making offers some evidence that the nominal group techni'ue succeeds in generating a greater number of decision alternatives that are of relatively high 'uality. )ISA)1A0#A7ES. One of the most often cited problems is groupthink. <ach is designed to improve the decision1making process in some way. it involves dividing the group into opposing sides. andLor alternative solutions to the decision problem in successive stages. re'uires that one member of the group highlight the potential problems with a proposed decision. The group leader or facilitator then solicits ideas from all members of the group. Once the ideas of the group members have been e-hausted. Brainstorming involves group members verbally suggesting ideas or alternative courses of action. 0s with brainstorming. The situation at hand is described in as much detail as necessary so that group members have a complete understanding of the issue or problem. +embers could conceivably offer their ideas anonymously. such as an online posting board or discussion room. Some of the more common group decision1making methods are brainstorming. defined the phenomenon as the Pdeterioration of mental efficiency.action selected and greater commitment on the part of the affected individuals to make the course of action successful. Dissenting views of the ma2ority opinion are suppressed and alternative courses of action are not fully e-plored. the group leader or facilitator will record the ideas presented on a flip chart or marker board. but does not offer much in the way of process for the evaluation of alternatives or the selection of a proposed course of action. One of the difficulties with brainstorming is that despite the prohibition against 2udging ideas until all group members have had their say. which allows group members to propose alternatives by means of e1mail or another electronic means. in his "8. )IA3E#I5A3 I0Q2I4H. which debate the advantages and disadvantages of proposed solutions or decisions. some decision1making groups have utilized electronic brainstorming. in turn. the group members then begin the process of evaluating the utility of the different suggestions presented. &n the Delphi techni'ue. which should increase the likelihood that individuals will offer uni'ue and creative ideas without fear of the harsh 2udgment of others. each group member is asked. which ends in some form of ranking or rating in order of preference. The techni'ue was developed at the 6and !orporation. Once all proposals are listed publicly. The nominal group techni'ue is a structured decision making process in which group members are re'uired to compose a comprehensive list of their ideas or proposed alternatives in writing. at this stage of the process verbal e-changes are limited to re'uests for clarificationMno evaluation or criticism of listed ideas is permitted. input. These inputs may be provided in a variety of . GRO ! DECISION "A#ING "ET$ODS There are many methods or procedures that can be used by groups. )E3+6I #E560IQ2E. Croups are generally slower to arrive at decisions than individuals. Usually. There are many potential disadvantages to group decision1making. to provide one item from their list until all ideas or alternatives have been publicly recorded on a flip chart or marker board. Dialetical in'uiry is a group decision1making techni'ue that focuses on ensuring full consideration of alternatives. dialetical in'uiry. &n recent years. 0OMI0A3 74O2+ #E560IQ2E. The individuals in the Delphi PgroupP are usually selected because of the specific knowledge or e-pertise of the problem they possess. as group members are not allowed to evaluate suggestions until all ideas have been presented. B4AI0S#O4MI07. the prohibition against criticizing proposals as they are presented is designed to overcome individuals7 reluctance to share their ideas. Once finished. some individuals are hesitant to propose ideas because they fear the 2udgment or ridicule of other group members.P Croupthink occurs when individuals in a group feel pressure to conform to what seems to be the dominant view in the group. nominal group techni'ue.# book Victims of Groupthink. Brainstorming is a useful means by which to generate alternatives. 0 similar group decision1making method. The Pbrainstorming sessionP is usually relatively unstructured. &rving Eanis. <ssentially. and the delphi techni'ue.

ways. referent power. or online in a discussion room or electronic bulletin board. leadership influence will be dependent upon the type of power that the leader can e-ercise over the followers. the group eventually arrives at a consensus decision on the best course of action. that is. and e-pert power. the greater is hisLher power in accessing to resources. withholding pay rises. granting of privileges.s perception that the leader has the ability to punish or to bring about undesirable outcomes for those who do not comply with directives for e-ample. decision making and information powers5 normally go by the hierarchy of the organization. making decisions and having access to important information. but may still e-ercise power over the subordinates because the manager commands their respect or esteem. promotion. =ive main sources of power upon which the influence of the leader is based have been identified by French and aven as reward power. <-pert power is based on credibility and clear evidence of knowledge or e-pertise for e-ample. and not on the nature of the personal relationship with others. legitimate power. This is in effect the opposite of reward power.s relationship to 0 when 0 possesses something that B re'uires 4esour!es K 0 has some resources Importan!e K 6esources controlled by 0 are perceived to be important by B S!ar!it% K 6esources possessed by 0 have to be perceived as scarce by B 0onsubstitutabilit% K The more that a resource has no viable substitutes. The issue of the reality of power in the organization is important to be closely studied because it affects the effectiveness of the organization. N 4e"erent po'er is based on the subordinate.s perception of the leader as someone who is competent and who has some special knowledge or e-pertise in a given area. recognition. The differences are in the degree and intention whether someone is having a high or low need for power. power because it is based on the role of the leader in the organisation.. well1defined areas or specialisms. promotion or privileges allocation of undesirable duties or responsibilities withdrawal of friendship or support formal reprimands or possibly dismissal. One reality of power in the organization is that people are having the need for it.s 'ualities 4ie e-pert and referent5. pay. Difference between power and 0uthoriy . the e-pert knowledge of Ofunctional. N 5oer!ive po'er is based on fear and the subordinate. )ower is the ability that a person may use to get others to do what heLshe wants to be done. power of a person can be derived from interpersonal. specialists such as the personnel manager. The e-ercise of power is a social process which helps to e-plain how different people can influence the behaviourL actions of others. reward and coercive5 and by the person. The e-pert power is usually limited to narrow. =or e-ample. fa-.s perception that the leader has the ability and resources to obtain rewards for those who comply with directives for e-ample. reputation or what is called Ocharisma. The leader e-ercises influence because of perceived attractiveness. 1I. &n the organization.s structure. other group members ask 'uestions and alternatives are ranked or rated in some fashion. The nature of power is control over other people.. interpersonal power is vested in a person as prescribed by the organization 4ie legitimate. a particular manager may not be in a position to reward or punish certain subordinates. $hile structural and situational powers 4ie resource. personal characteristics. structural and situational bases. ?egitimate power is based on authority.s identification with the leader. +o'er is the !apa!it% that one has to in"luen!e the behaviour o" a person so that the person a!ts in a!!or an!e 'ith hisGher 'ishes. Sour!es o" +o'er $ithin an organisation. allocation and arrangement of work. N E.s perception that the leader has a right to e-ercise influence because of the leader.)i""erentiate bet'een +o'er an Authorit%.* $e shall consider these in terms of the manager 4as a leader5 and subordinate relationship. Basically. praise. N 3egitimate po'er is based on the subordinate. for e-ample that of managers and supervisors within the hierarchical structure of an organisation. such as e1mail.s role or position in the organisation. What o %ou un erstan b% +OWE4? E. management accountant or systems analyst. the more power that control over that resource provides. the higher the position of a person as structured by the organization. 0fter each stage in the process. increased responsibilities.plain i""erent sour!es o" +o'er. 1:. N 4e'ar po'er is based on the subordinate. )epen en!% K B.pert po'er is based on the subordinate. and whether the need for power is directed towards personal or organizational purposes. 0fter an indefinite number of rounds. ?egitimate power is therefore Oposition. coercive power.

Sources of authority can come from a position 4such as duties and responsibilities5 delegated to a position holder in a bureaucratic structure. What is Motivation? E.. the following characteristics of motivation can be identified ". The willingness to e-ert high level of effort to reach organizational goals.)ower and authority are separate but related concepts.+otivation is a comple. praise.+otivation is a psychological concept.+otivation may be financial or non1financial. %. control. 0 company president can order a product design change.forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organization. 0 manager in an organization has authority if that person has the right to direct the activities of others and e-pect them to respond with appropriate actions to attain organizational purposes. responsibility. etc. There is no universal theory or approach to motivation. more intangible means. *. =inancial incentives include pay. allowance. and continues him in the course of action of action already initiatedH 0ature o" Motivation. 0 person behaves in such a way that he can satisfy his goals or needs. . or influence by which a person influences the actions of others.process. #. conditioned by the efforts ability to satisfy some individual need. #he +ro!ess o" Motivation The basic inputs of a simple motivational model are/ • Aeeds or e-pectations • Behaviour or action • Coals or incentives • Some form of feedback that would modify the inner state of an individual or his behaviour. 0 person with knowledge is oftentimes able to use that knowledge to directly or indirectly influence the actions of others.plain its nature an pro!ess. On the basis of the above description.+otivation is total. Iuman needs are infinite. +oreover. Therefore. +otivation is something that moves the person to action. Ie should not e-pect overnight results. individuals differ in what motivates them. 0 person cannot be motivated in parts. participation in decision1making. 0 soon as one need is satisfied new ones arise. . Aon1financial incentives consist of recognition.. Aeeds are feelings influence the behaviour and activities of the individual. The authority of knowledge is often independent of levels or positions. bonus and prere'uisites.+otivation is a continuous process. 6obert Dubin defines +otivation as Gthe comple. 1J. (. The form of motivation depends upon the type of needs. 0 prime source of power is the possession of knowledge.+otivation causes goal1directed behaviour. &t is based on human needs which generate within an individual. either by direct authority or by some other. )ower is the possession of authority. Ie cannot be motivated by fulfilling some of his needs partly. &t is not a time bound programme or a touch1and1go affair. not piece1meal. and authority is one of the primary sources of power. 0n employee is an indivisible unite and he needs are interrelated. for instance. or a police officer has the authority to arrest an offender of the law. challenging 2ob. )ower can reinforce authority. a manager has to analyse and understand variety of needs and has to use variety of rewards to satisfy them.

A simple mo el o" motivation is sho'n in 8igure 1-1. prestige. #. ". safety needs emerge and become dominant. insurance against risk etc.Social Aeeds/ +an is a social animal. social. independence. either within the individuals or from the environment providing feedback concerning the impact of behaviour. 8igure 1-1.Self <steem or <go Aeeds/ These are concerned with awareness of self importance and recognition from others. safety. power. this model suggests that individuals possess a multitude of needs.Safety or Security Aeeds/ Once )hysiological needs are satisfied to be reasonable level. +ro!ess o" Motivation Basically.plain i""erent theories o" motivation in etail #heories o" Motivation.s fellow beings. desires or e-pectations in varying intensity. wants association. provision for old age. to become everything that on is capable of becomingH. food. clothing. friendship. Such feedback may enable one to modify the present behaviour or pursue the present course of action. achievement. &t includes the needs of air. )eople want bodily safety. esteem. <steem needs consist of such things as self K confidence. the ne-t need becomes dominant. E. water. and self1actualization K and as each need is substantially satisfied. (. rest. The initiation of such actions then sets up a series of reactions. se-. 1>. belonging. these are the most primary or basic needs and must be satisfied before all other needs. Ie therefore. These are the need to seek affiliation and affection of one. praise and status. These needs imply the need for self1preservation and economic independence. &t involves self fulfillment or achieving what one considers to be his mission in life.)hysiological/ These needs relate to the survival and maintenance of human life. The emergence of such a need generally creates some sort of imbalance within the individuals which in turn gives rise to certain actions which the individual may believe would restore the e'uilibrium. . love and affection. shelter. 2ob security. self K respect. Maslo'<s 0ee 6ierar!h% #heor%/ There is a hierarchy of five needs K physiological. )eople form informal groups to seek meaningful associations companionship. *..Self K 0ctualization Aeeds/ This implies Gthe desire to become more and more of what one is. %. Therefore. etc.

theory and O@. salary and other types of employee benefits.s are/ Q The Eob itself Q 6ecognition Q 0chievement Q 6esponsibility Q Crowth and advancement. supervisors and subordinates. These are called OIygiene =actors.B. Ao worker is ready to accept any responsibility. Ierzberg concluded that there are some 2ob conditions which operate primarily to dissatisfy employees while other 2ob conditions operate primarily to build strong motivation and high 2ob satisfaction. Some of these +otivational =actor.0. 0ssumptions of theory $orkers have an aversion to work inherently.Theory R/ The theory is based on Opapa knows best. $orkers may do the 2ob half1heartedly. These are related with the 2ob content. @1theory emphasis the importance of workers in the accomplishment of enterprise ob2ectives.+otivational =actor/ These factors help to build strong motivation and high 2ob satisfaction. and likes to ". On the basis of their study. possibility of growth and responsibility. Their absence or decrease will affect the level of 2ob satisfaction. 0 manager has authority or power to take decisions. They are also known as satisfiers. So.H They are called OR. 0voids working work &nterpersonal relations with peers Eob !onte-t <-trinsic in Aature +aintenance +aslow. GThe Iuman side of <nterprise. Q &nterpersonal relation with peers. =ear of punishment can motivate the workers into action. These e-ecutives were asked to recall specific incidents in their e-perience which made them feel either e-ceptionally good or e-ceptionally bad about their 2obs. #. #. advancement. Ierzberg. The 2ob security may be in the form of tenure or it could be supported by a strong union. Ierzberg. because they support the mental health of employees. ".. !. &n other words. These factors are achievement.s +otivation1Iygiene Theory/ =rederick Ierzberg and his associates conducted research wherein they interviewed #: engineers and accountants from nine different companies in )ittsburg area of U. !ordial relation will prevent frustration and dissatisfaction.Theory @/ @1theory is 2ust opposite to R1theory.Iygiene =actor/ These factors provide no motivation to employees but the absence of these factors serves as dissatisfies. work itself. Some of the Iygiene =actors are. The worker may know the hazards of non1performance of a work. Q $ages. $orkers may find a way to postpone the work completion in laziness.s Two =actor Theory Eob Dissatisfaction Iygiene =actors +onitory in Aature Seeks +oney. theory. R1theory is considered as traditional theory and @1theory is considered as modern theory. +any of these factors are traditionally perceived by management as motivators but these are really more potent as dissatisfies. The workers should follow whatever decisions are taken by the manager.s Two ?ower end Aeeds )ossibilities of Crowth Eob !ontent &ntrinsic in Aature +otivational +aslow.S. +cCregor.s Theory R and Theory @/ )rof. Q !ompany policies and administrative rules that govern the working environment. a manager has thorough knowledge and e-cludes workers from decisionmaking process. 0ssumptions of theory . Douglas +cCregor has introduced two theories in his famous book.s Three Iigher end Aeeds Aeutral Eob Satisfaction +otivational =actors Aon K +onitory in Aature Seeks 6esponsibilities. Q $orking conditions and 2ob security. Ie called these factors hygiene factors and motivating factors respectively.

Based on the empirical evidences. Aeed Iierarchy <6C Theory Crowth 6elatedness <-istence ". Both ma2or and minor decisions are taken through consensus in the truly democratic and dynamic management. Once the worker understands the purpose of 2ob. 6elatedness needs cover +aslow. &f right motivation scheme is prepared by the management. Thus +otivation 4force5 T U Balence R <-pectancy . 0lso. family relationship prevails between the employer and employees.s need hierarchy and Ierzberg. 0ccording to Broom.Broom. D. Theory S describes how Eapanese management practices can be adopted to the environment of other countries especially in the United States. This theory is based on comparative study of Eapanese and 0merican management practices. <-istence Aeeds/ <-istence needs include all needs related to physiological and safety aspects of an individual. Theory S can be treated as a model for motivation.s <-pectancy Theory/ Broom. e-istence needs group physiological and safety needs of +aslow into one category as these have similar impact on the behaviour of the individual. Theory S/ )rof.s model is built around the concepts of value. 6elatedness Aeeds/ 6elatedness needs include all those needs that involve relationship with other people whom the individual cares. <.s e-pectancy theory has its roots in the cognitive concepts in the choice behaviour utility concepts of classical economic theory. felling of personal growth. and growth needs. security.The average human being has the tendency to work. This theory believes in the philosophy of management. $illiam C. the worker is ready to accept e-tra responsibility. These include +aslow.s concept of force is basically e'uivalent to motivation and may be shown to be the algebraic sum of products of valences multiplied by e-pectations. relatedness needs. 0lderfer believes that there is a value in categorizing needs and that there is a basic distinction between lower K order needs and higher K order needs. %. 0lderfer has categorized the various needs into three categories/ e-istence needs.s self K actualization need as wellas that part of the esteem need which is internal to the individual like feeling of being uni'ue.s two K factor theory of motivation. esteem. Thus.s <6C Theory/ 0lderfer has provided an e-tension of the +aslow. and force its basic assumption is that the choice made by a person among alternative courses of action is lawfully related to psychological events occurring contemporaneously with the behaviour. =. The e-isting worker has competence to work and can take right decision. Based on these observations. 0 2ob is as natural 2ust like a play. $orker can put in his best efforts for the accomplishment of enterprise ob2ectives early. etc. he may e-tend his co1operation for 2ob completion. self1motivation. and achievement needs are not clear. Besides.s social needs and that part of esteem needs which is derived from the relationship with other people. Broom. ?ike the previous theories. $orker has self1direction. particularly the former. 0lderfer. the lines of demarcation between social. Crowth needs/ Crowth needs involve the individual making creative efforts to achieve full potential in the e-isting environment. #. and social needs. Broom. people will be motivated to do things to achieve some goals to the e-tent that they e-pect that certain action on their part will help them to achieve the goal. self1discipline and selfcontrol. he has found that there seems to be some overlapping between physiological.Ouchi has developed theory S. e-pectancy.

Iowever.relationship that e-ists between 2ob attitudes and 2ob performance. &f actual rewards meet or e-ceed perceived e'uitable rewards.s personality characteristics. Their model encounters some of the simplistic traditional assumptions made about the positive relationship between satisfaction and performance. the intrinsic rewards are much more likely to produce attitudes about satisfaction that are related to performance. performance is determined by the amount f effort and the ability and role perception of the individual. his performance may be ineffective in spite of his putting in great efforts. E.characteristics of 2ob such as nature of challenge it offers. and ability #.Satisfaction/ Satisfaction is derived from the e-tent to which actual rewards fall short. )orter1?awler have derived a substantially more complete model of motivation and have applied it in their study primarily of managers. and e-pected utility. The superior performance 4first K level outcome5 is being instrumental in obtaining promotion 4second K level outcome5. &n applying motivation theories. he will be dissatisfied.s preference to a particular outcome. that is. !onclusion/ Barious theories of +otivation. 1A. &ntrinsic factors are directly related to the contents of a 2ob while e-trinsic factors are related . These two factors K value of reward and perception of effort K reward probability K determine the amount of effort that the employee will put in. values.)erformance/ <ffort leads to performance but both these may not be e'ual rather. %. both intrinsic and e-trinsic aspects of the 2ob must be considered. %. Thus. and the use of skills in performing the 2ob. Iunt and Iill have e-emplified it by promotion motive. )erceived reward probability refers to the individual. in applying motivation theories at workplace.6ewards/ )erformance is seen as leading to intrinsic rewards and e-trinsic rewards. the probability that a particular action will lead to the out come. #. discussed above. have various applications in management practices. <-pectancy differs from instrumentality in that it relates efforts to first K level outcomes whereas instrumentality relates first K and second K level outcomes to each other.<ffort/ <ffort refers to the amount of energy e-erted by an employee on a given task. if an individual has little ability andLor inaccurate role perception. (. meet or e-ceed the individual. need patterns. attitude. Balue of reward 0bility and traits )erceived e'uitable rewards &ntrinsic rewards Satis faction <ffort )erformance accomplishment )erceived effort K reward )robability 6ole perception <-trinsic rewards )orter K ?awler +otivation +odel ".plain +orter-3a'ler Mo el o" Motivation.&nstrumentality/ 0nother ma2or input into the valence is the instrumentality of the first K level outcome in obtaining a derived second K level outcome. #. <-pectancy is different from instrumentality input into valence. the autonomy in performing the 2ob.s perceived level of e'uitable rewards. the individual will feel satisfied if these are less than e'uitable rewards . Other terms e'uivalent to valence used in various theories of motivation are incentive.Balence/ 0ccording to Broom.individual. They propose a multivariate model to e-plain the comple. valence means the strength of an individual. Thus. managers should take into consideration how an individual reacts to his work which is a function of fit among ".<-pectancy/ 0nother factor in determining the motivation is e-pectancy.".s perception of the probability that differential rewards depend upon differential amounts of effort.

emotion. whole group. #H+ES O8 5O083I5# The levels of group conflict are as follows/ • !ersonal con%lict& 0re the conflicts that arise among employees. • In%ra)organi*ational con%lict& 0re the conflict arising between levels of an organization. and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others. What is Organizational Behaviour? Organizational Behavior 4OB5 is the study and application of knowledge about how people. 0 tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others. !onscientiousness K 4efficientLorganized vs. and variety of e-perience. and aim for achievement planned rather than spontaneous behavior. (1. 0ppreciation for art. easy1goingLcareless5. the social system does not have boundariesV it e-changes goods. . "ani%est con%lict& &s a situation when both the group try to frustrate each other. The behavior of one member can have an impact. (B. surgency. informal organization. &t does this by taking a system approach. individuals because of their competitive roles. vision and goals. organizational ob2ectives. Iorizontal conflict arises among the employees at same level. 0lso. Bertical conflict arises between higher and lower level of management. and whole social system. Felt conflict" &s a situation when members involved in the conflict feel tense or an-ious. (:. and the social environment. depression.set of human relationships interacting in many ways. (9. two groups competing for scarce resources. consistent L cautious5. coldLunkind5. What are so!ial s%stems? 0 social system is a comple. whole organization.plain i""erent t%pes o" !on"li!t? Ans'er. act dutifully. !erceive. on the behavior of others. it interprets people1 organization relationships in terms of the whole person. con%lict& &s a situation when both the groups realize that there e-ists conflict between them. motivation theories help in designing reward system. either directly or indirectly. 0 tendency to e-perience unpleasant emotions easily. =ollowing is the se'uence in which a conflict can arise/ +atent con%lict& &s a situation when the conditions for conflict arise. Con%lict o'tcome& &s a situation or conse'uence arising after the conflict is eliminated ((. What are the elements o" Organizational Behaviour? The organization. <nergy. E. etc. and work design. with the environment around it. values.s base rests on management.to the conte-t or environment in which the 2ob is performed. positive emotions. solitaryLreserved5. That is. individuals. E. adventure. or vulnerability. which are of two types. <motionalityK 4sensitiveLnervous vs. 0nswer1 Openness to e-perience K 4inventiveLcurious vs. empowering employees. 0greeableness K 4friendlyLcompassionate vs.plain "ive personalit% traits as per BI7 8I1E "a!tor o" personalit%. This in turn drives the organizational culture which is composed of the formal organization. such as anger. unusual ideas. =or e-ample. <-traversion K 4outgoingLenergetic vs. 0 tendency to show selfdiscipline. curiosity. What is the purpose o" the stu % o" Organizational Behaviour? &ts purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human ob2ectives. Thus.s philosophy. and groups act in organizations. secureLconfident5. ideas. $ithin an organization. • Gro'( con%lict& !re the conflicts arising within two or more groups due to difference in their attitudes and behavior. the social system includes all the people in it and their relationships to each other and to the outside world. culture. (-. improving 'uality of work life. and social ob2ectives. an-iety.

-1. -B. -I.plain istin!tiveness/ !onsensus/ an !onsisten!%? )istin!tiveness/ shows different behaviors in different situations 5onsensus/ 6esponse is the same as others to same situation 5onsisten!%/ 6esponse in the same way over time -J. productivity. (J. an organization that is able to sense changes in signals from its environment 4both internal and e-ternal5 and adapt accordingly (>. What is Organizational )evelopment? Organization Development 4OD5 is the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels. What is t%pe-B personalit%? Aever suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless such e-posure is demanded by the situation play for fun and rela-ation. Internals/ &ndividuals who believe that they control what happens to them.. 5ognitive issonan!e/ 0ny incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behaviour and attitudes. 5ons!ientiousness/ 0 personality dimension that describes someone who is responsible..e. What is "un amental attribution error? The tendency to underestimate the influence of e-ternal factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making 2udgments about the behaviour of others.(I. &ts ob2ectives is a higher 'uality of work1life. inter1group.troversion an !ons!ientiousness? E. What is po'er istan!e an !ognitive issonan!e? +o'er istan!e/ 0 national culture attribute describing the e-tent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed e'ually. persistent. gregarious. E. and organized. What is Organizational learning? 3earning is a characteristic of an adaptive organization. What is lo!us o" !ontrol? The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate. measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they ac'uire. What is t%pe-A personalit%? 0re always moving. etc. and assertive.ternals/ &ndividuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.troversion/ 0 personality dimension describing someone who is sociable. adaptability. such as group.plain =ob rotation/ *ob enlargement/ an *ob enri!hment? =ob rotation/ The periodic shifting of a worker from one task to another. organization. walking. -A. dependable. ->. rather than to e-hibit their superiority at any cost can rela. and eating rapidly feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place strive to think or do two or more things at once cannot cope with leisure time are obsessed with numbers. E. 7ive the "ormula "or Organizational learning? 0ction ?earning can be viewed as a formula/ W? T ) X 3Y/ ?earning 4?5 occurs through a combination of programmed knowledge 4)5 and the ability to ask insightful 'uestions 435. What is per!eption? 0 process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. )e"ine e. -(. and effectiveness. to bring about planned change. they attempt to determine whether it is internally or e-ternally caused.without guilt -9. (A. =ob enlargement/ The horizontal e-pansion of 2obs =ob enri!hment/ The vertical e-pansion of 2obs . E. i. What is 6alo e""e!t? Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic. What is attribution theor%? $hen individuals observe behavior. --. -:.

ingratiation. rational. taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members +ro u!tion oriente lea er/ One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the 2ob. What is po'er an 'hat are po'er ta!ti!s? 0 capacity that 0 has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with 0. 9I. personal appeals. coalitions. #%pes o" !on"li!t. )eople 2oin groups for following reasons Security Status Self1esteem 0ffiliation )ower Coal achievement 9:.s decision and the individual decision that members within the group would make can be either toward conservatism or greater risk. )i""erentiate emplo%ee-oriente lea er an pro u!tion-oriente lea er? Emplo%ee oriente lea er/ <mphasizing interpersonal relations. What are the various emplo%ee rea!tions to organizational politi!s? Decreased 2ob satisfaction &ncreased an-iety and stress &ncreased turnover 6educed performance 9A. inspirational appeals.9B. and generating and implementing change. 99. or hostility. frustration. seeking new ideas.s formal role in the organization. 6o' to motivate emplo%ees in the organizations? 6ecognize individual differences Use goals and feedback 0llow employees to participate in decisions that affect them ?ink rewards to performance !heck the system for e'uity 91. pressure. consultation. Who is a evelopment oriente lea er? One who values e-perimentation. Behavioral theor%/ ?eadership traits can be taught. )istinguish bet'een per!eive !on"li!t an "elt !on"li!t? )erceived conflict/ 0wareness by one or more parties of the e-istence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. What is groupthin$ K groupshi"t ? Wh% people *oin groups? Croupthink is a phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action. 9-. Croupshift is a change in decision risk between the group. 9>. or attempt to influence. )ower tactics are ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions. 9(.s wishes. Different types of influence tactics are/ ?egitimacy. the distribution of advantages or disadvantages within the organization. )i""erentiate trait theor% an behavioral theor%? #rait theor%/ ?eaders are born. not made. something that the first party cares about. =elt conflict/ <motional involvement in a conflict creating an-iety. Task conflict/ !onflict over content and goals of work 6elationship conflict/ !onflict based on interpersonal relationships )rocess conflict/ !onflict over how work gets done :B. e-change. or is about to negatively affect. What is politi!al behaviour? 0ctivities that are not re'uired as part of one. tenseness. 6o' is !on"li!t e"ine ? What are the t%pes o" !on"li!t? !onflict is the process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected. 9J. . but that influence. What is lea ership? ?eadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. )istinguish legitimate an illegitimate politi!al behaviour? ?egitimate political behaviour/ Aormal everyday politics &llegitimate political behaviour/ <-treme political behaviour that violates the implied rules of the game.

What is !on"li!t management? The use of resolution and stimulation techni'ues to achieve the desired level of conflict is called conflict management. 6o' to manage stress? &ndividual approaches/ rela-ation.:1.s advocate :-.s role and responsibilities Team process analysis . 1arious team buil ing a!tivities? Coal and priority setting Developing interpersonal relations 6ole analysis to each member. What is team buil ing? What are the various team buil ing a!tivities? Iigh interaction among team members to increase trust and openness. constraint 4or demand5 related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. e-panding social support network. etc :I. +otential sour!es o" stress <nvironmental factors Organizational factors &ndividual factors &ndividual differences :9. etc <mployee counselling Organizational approaches/ realistic goal setting. What are the !onse&uen!es o" stress? )hysiological symptoms )sychological symptoms Behavioral symptoms ::. increased employee involvement. )e"ine 'or$ stress? What are the potential sour!es o" stress 0 dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity. :(. What are the various !on"li!t management te!hni&ues? )roblem solving Superordinate goals <-pansion of resources 0voidance Smoothing !ompromise 0uthoritative command 0ltering the human variable 0ltering the structural variable !ommunication Bringing in outsiders 6estructuring the organization 0ppointing a devil.