úoHd;aul fcHd;sIh

^úoHd;aul fcHd;sI ,sms ix.%yh&

tï' tï' frdayK jika;

A1

úoHd;aul fcHd;sIh( úoHd;aul fcHd;sI ,sms ix.%yh
m%:u uqøKh
ISBN 978-955-51227-0-2
© tï' tï' frdayK jika;" 2008
Y%S ,xld cd;sl mqia;ld,h - m%ldYk.; iqÑlrK o;a;

jika;" tï' tï' frdayK
úoHd;aul fcHd;sIh( úoHd;aul fcHd;sI ,sms
ix.%yh$ tï' tï' frdayK jika;'W;=re l=vdje,a,( l;D" 2008'ms';
ISBN 978-955-51227-0-2
i 133.5 äú 22
ii .%ka: kduh
1 fcHda;s¾úoHdj" iudcúoHdj" ixialD;sl wOHhk

wCIr ixfhdackh iy msgljrh
tï' tï' frdayK jika;
uqøKh
hd;=ld¾ñl WmfoaYk fiajh
wxl 25" W;=re l=vdje,a,"
kdl=¿.uqj'
l;_D m%ldYkhls
2

fuf,djg ìysl<
mS' ta' ,shkf.a
wïudg;a
rx lsß lg .E
j¾Id yekakeÈf.a mqxÑfkdakd
wd;a;ïudg;a
isg.kakg w; ÿka
tï' tï' fâúâ
;d;a;dg;a
Èú .ukg w;aje,la jQ
È,aldg;a
Ôú;h rij;a l<
kfjdaoHd iy oiqks
ÈhKshkag;a
wdofrka

3

4

wiafk lSu '''
fcHda;s¾úoHd Ydia;%Sh ix.%hl
wjYH;djh ;Èka u oekS hk jljdkqjl
fujka lD;shla u.ska tlS ysoei msrùug
l;=jrhd f.k we;s W;aidyh m%YxikShh'
tï' tï' frdayK jika; uy;df.a ukd ixialrK
yelshdjka ms<sn|j iy Tyqf.a fcHda;S¾úoHd Ydia;%Sh
oeKqfuys yi, Ndjh —,xld fcHda;sI ix.%yfha˜ oS iy
zznqoaêZZ udisl fcHda;s¾úoH ix.%yfha § wm fudkjg ÿáuq'
Tyq úiska úúO ud;Dld Tiafia ,dxflah fcHda;s¾úoHd úIh
uQ,sl Ydia;%Sh l;sldjg tla lrk ,o m¾fhaIkd;aul ,sms
tl;=jla fuf,i lD;shla f,iska fodrg jeãu ms<sn|j
udf.a Wkqiqï iqNdYsxik msßKñ
Y%S ,xld oDIH yd m%idx.sl l,d
úYajúoHd,hSh k¾;k mSGfha
my;rg k¾;k wOHhkdxYdêm;s
uydpdhH_ ,hk,a fnka;rf.a

5

6

ia;=;sh
uilg jrla fyda fojrla f.or ish¿u fokd yd tlaj
jg ù biaf;damqfõ ys|f.k mjqf,a whf.a mqiafld,fha
,shd we;s flakaor igyka tlsfkl f.k iqmÍCIdfjka
n,d i;shlg fyda follg miq f.or tk mshdKkaf.a
flakaor m,dM, l:khg ijka fhduq lr isàug l=vd
l, isgu mqreÿ ù isá ldhH_hla úh'
tfia neÆ mqiafld, flakaor igyka w;=frka b;du
w,xldr whßka ksujd ;nQ tlu flakaorh udf.a
flakaorh ùu ms<sn|j ud yg ;snqfka wysxil tfy;a
f,dl= wdvïnrhls'
fï w;r rfÜ we;s jQ úúO w¾nqoldÍ ;;ajhka yuqfõ
1989 jk úg fnka;r .fÕka tf;r ù f.kao.ï
fmdf<djg mh .ikakg isÿùu Ôú;fha tla iqúfYaIS
yerjqï ikaêhla jYfhka fmkajdÈh yelsh'
fï w;r wyïfnka tla Èkl uqK .eiqk fíkao¿fõ
fidar; kñka jQ h;sjrhdK flfkl=f.a úuiqï weig
,la ùug ,enqk wjia:dj fï È.= .uk weröug ,o
uyÕ= msájy,la úh'
iriaj;S fydardjla fhÿk tla WoEikl Wka jykafia
l,la ;siafia uy;a jr jEhfuka wdrCId lrf.k wd
iriaj;S f;,a ì÷jla fnda fld,hl keÜgl .,ajd
th W.=f¾ .e,aùfuka wk;=rej —,s;a fydaäh˜ iqr;g §
lgmdvï lrùug ie<eiaùfuka wk;=rej o, flakaøhla
7

isxy, yeg mefha l%uhg ilia .kakd wdldrh ms<sn|
.Ks;uh iQ;% úëka /ila Bg miq Èk lsysmhla ;siafia
mqreÿ lrjk ,§'
miqj Wkajykafia i;= jQ fmd;a m;a /ila udfj; fhduq
lrñka —'''yaï''' oeka Th we;s' fï uf.a ysKs fm;a;g
hkak ´k yeá wjYH fj,djg wjYH foa ksis wdldrhg
wjYH muK ,efíú' t;lka Tfydu lrf.k hkak' '''˜
hkqfjka mjid ud yg iuq ÿkafkah'
ta kj werUqu l%ufhka o¿ ,d ;rul jDCIhlaj jeã
tk wjia:dfõ § úYaj úoHd, m%fõYh ,nd fld<U úYaj
úoHd,hg f;aÍ tys wOHhk lghq;= lrf.k tñka ;snQ
wjia:dfõ § 1997 jif¾ tjlg whsiSà h kñka ye¢ka jQ
mß.K f;dr;=re ;dCIK tallh u.ska ixúOdkh lrk
,o tla m%o¾Ykhla keröug fhduqùu udf.a Èúfha ;j;a
tla yerjqula úh' yd yd mqrd lshd mß.Klhla w;ska
w,a,kakg bv ,o m<uq wjia:dj th úh' mß.Kl ms<sn|
WKla udfj; yg .ekSug th n,mdk ,oehs lsjfyd;a
th ksjerÈh'
kuq;a —fldïmshqgrh˜ lshd isxyf,ka fldïnqjla
j;a fkd;snqK hq.hla jQ tu ld,fha ud yg w; ÿka
iqukfialr kï jQ iyDohdK flfkl=kaf.a ksjerÈ u.
fmkaùu hgf;a —fvdia˜ fufyhqï moaO;sfhka werô tu
.uk iudka;r .uklaj lrf.k hdug bv ,Èñ'
wk;=rej udf.a 23 jk ckau Èkh od u újD; lrk
,o fld<U úYaj úoHd,hSh Ydia;%mSGfha YsIH mß.Kl
tallfhys m<uqjk isiqjd jYfhka ,shdmÈxÑ ù ;ksju
8

mß.Klhla ,Õ jdä ù lghq;= lsÍug iu;a ùu udf.a
m%:u f.!rj Wmdêh ,enqug o f,dl= msájy,la úh'
tys § uqK.eiqk wis; ngqjka;=vdj" iy lkaoidñ m%§ma
l=udr hk fo fidfydhqrka yd tjlg tu tallh Ndrj
isá wdpdhH_ isßu,a wfír;ak weÿre;=uka Èú .ufka
wu;l l< fkdyels pß; jQy'
fufia wd .ufka § mqj;am;a yd Ydia;%Sh f,aLkh ms<sn|
fodr.=¿ újr lr § udOH wdpdr O¾u ms<sn| oekqj;a
lrñka ud yg w; ÿka —ri m%ldYk˜ iud.fï —iïm;˜
fcHda;s¾úoHd mqj;amf;a l¾;D uKav, m%OdkS jYfhka
lghq;= lrk lreKdr;ak ã' ms,sma ue;s÷ka fuys § isysm;a
lghq;= h' Tyqf.a mQ¾K odhl;ajh hgf;a t<s olskq ,enQ
—,xld fcHda;sI ix.%yh˜ kñka jQ jdr ix.%yh u.ska oek
w÷k .;a l=ud fj,a,d,f.a fidfydhqrd o fuys § .=re
ne;sfhka isysle|úh hq;=h'
Èúuf.a fkdjeà fl<ska isg .ekSug jD;a;Suh w;aje,
w,a,d ÿka fld<U úYaj úoHd,fha foaYmd,kúoHd wxYfha
uydpdhHjrhd jYfhka o Y%S ,xld iudc úoHd{hskaf.a
ix.ufha l%shdldÍ wOHCIl yd uQ,HdêldÍ jYfhka
lghq;= lrk chfoaj Whkaf.dv .=re mshdKkao fuys §
wksjd¾hfhka isys le|úh hq;=h'
fï w;r fldÜfÜ rdcOdkshg wh;a udÈkakdf.dv Y%S
iqruHdrdu mqrdK úydria:dkfha úydrdêm;s wdpdhH_
fodvïf.d,af,a m[a[dkkao iajdñka jykafia o
Tref.dvj;a; uÔâ fmfofia Y%S iïnqoaOdf,dal
O¾udh;kfha úydrdêm;s mQcH ueKslalvjr [dKúu,
iajdñka jykafia o kuialdr mQ¾jlj isysm;a lrñ'
9

Y%S ,xld oDIH yd m%idx.sl l,d úYajúoHd,hSh Wml=,m;s
uydpdhH_ chfiak fldÜgf.dv ue;s÷ka o k¾;k mSGfha
my;rg k¾;k wOHhkdxYdêm;s uydpdhH_ ,hk,a
fnka;rf.a ue;s÷ka o" Wvrg k¾;k wOHhkdxYfha
ysgmq wxYdêm;s uydpdhH_ Okmd, ´úgf.or ue;s÷ka
iy fcHaIaG lÓldpdhH_ ,xld;s,l ue;sksh o ;d,jdoH
wxYfha wxYdêm;s ioaOd W;am,lkaof.a ue;s÷ka o iy
Wvrg k¾;k wOHhkdxYfha wdOqksl lÓldpdhH_
Ydia;%m;s lS¾;s ;=udr mshkkao rEmisxy fidfydhqrd o
fuys,d fkdjla ia;=;s mQ¾jlj isys le|úh hq;=h'
kï i|yka fkdjkakg fhÿkq ;j;a fndfyda iyDo le<la
fï t<soelaug msgqmiska ;srfhka tmsg ys| l< Wmldr yd
mdGl Tng o —KENDARA SINHALEN flakaor isxy,ka˜
fjí wvúhg f.dvje§ ud Èßu;a l< iyDo mdGl Tng
o lD;{;dj m< lrñ'
tï' tï' frdayK jika;
hd;=ld¾ñl WmfoaYk fiajh
wxl 25"l=vdje,a, W;=r"
kdl=¿.uqj"
Y%S ,xldj'
wasantha2010@gmail.com
009441-2255556$009471-4161082$009472-3430028
http://kendaralk.blogspot.com

10

mgqk
• iudc úoHd;aul fcHda;sIh
• brKu keu;s uDÿldx.h ,shk
mß.Kl NdIdj fodai;rhs
• Widúfha Widúfha wik kvq fia ,shefjk"
lshefjk fi;alú
• .%y wm, yd n,s Ydka;sl¾u
• úis fmdfrdkaoïj, úoHd;aul me;slv
• ffNrj fodaIh yd ffNrj mQcdj úÿ weiska
• kele;a i;a úiai yd ne¢ ú/lshdj" wOHdmkh

11

iudc úoHd;aul fcHda;sIh

T.iafÜ fldïÜ" uelaia fõn¾" tñ,a vqlayhsï iy ld¾,a
udlaia úiska iudc .; lrk ,o iudchSh úIh Odrdjla
f,i wm y÷kd.kakd iudcúoHd úIh Odrdj ngysr
f,dalfha wd.ñl nqoaê mqkreofhka miq ìys jQ ld¾ñl
úma,jh;a iu. ngysr iudcfha tjlg meK ke.=k úIu
iudc rgdjka yd úIu iudc M,hkag ms<s;=re fiùfï §
biau;= jQ úIh Odrdjla f,i wmg fmkajdÈh yelsh'
fcHda;S¾úoHdj iyi% j¾Idêl b;sydihla we;s ft;sidysl
úIhOdrdjla jYfhka y÷kd.; yels úIh Odrdjls' fuu
úIh Odrdj iudc.; lsÍfï mqfrda.dó;ajh f.k lghq;=
lrk ,oafoa b;d ¥rd;S;fha úiQ mrdYr" W;a;r" .¾>"
l,HdKj¾u" ffcñks" ñysr" ufyakaømdo" Ôjkd:dpdhH_
yd .fKaIdpdhH_ NÜfgda;Am," mD:qhiia wd§ wd;aóh
úuqla;s {dk .fõYkfha kshq;= jQjka /ila úisks'
fudjqkaf.a mrud¾:h o ngysr iudcúoHd úIh Odrdj
iudc .; lrk ,o m`äjrekaf.a mrud¾:hg fnfyúka
iudk;djla fmkakqï lrkq ,nhs' kuq;a ñirh"
Bðma;=j" wrdìh" Ökh" neìf,dakshdj" uOHu weußldfõ
udhkajre" hjk foaYh" nhsieka;shka wêrdcHh wd§ N+f.
da,Sh l,dmhl fyda kuqÿ ìys jQ fcHda;S¾úoHd úIh Odrdj
ckkhg odhl jQ m`äjrekaf.a fcHda;S¾úoHd kshuhka
12

yd m¾fhaIKhkays iudcúoHd úIh m:h blaujd we;s
;;ajhla oel.; yelsh'
nDy;a mrdYr fydard Ydia;%h" fydardidrh" W;a;r
ld,duD;h" .¾> fydardj" l,HdKj¾u idrdj,S" ffcñks
iQ;%" ffoj{ldufèkqj" jDyaycd;l fyj;a jrdyñysrh"
fydardNrKh" Ôjkd:dpdhH_ Ndj l=;=y,h" .fKaIdpdhH_
cd;ld,xldrh" Ndj m%ldYh NÜfgda;Am, àldj" m%Yak
ud¾.h wd§ fcHda;S¾úoHd uQ,.%ka: mßYS,kh lsÍfï §
fmkS hk m%n, fjkialï iys; lreKq /ila we;'
ld¾,a udlaiaf.a iudch yd .egqu" fcyd¾â f,kaialsf.a
iudch yd ;dCIKh" uelaia fjn¾f.a iudchSh ;¾ldmKh
yd tñ,a vq¾layhsïf.a iudch yd l%shdjdoh jeks iudc
úoHd;aul ú.%yhka ;=< mqoa.,hd iudch iu. fhfok
wka;¾ l%shdj,sfha iajNdjh meyeÈ,s lsÍug W;aydi ord
we;s nj fmkS hhs'
tys oel.; yels m%Odk fjki kï iudcúoHdj úiska
m¾fhaIKhkag Ndckh lrk ,o mqoa.,hd yd iudch hk
lreKq iudch ;=< mj;sk wdldrh wkqj ú.%y lr.ksñka
th wjfndaO lr .ekSug .kakd ,o W;aidyhla nj fmkS
hEuhs'
kuq;a fcHda;S¾úoHdj úiska th isÿ lsÍfï § iuia:
úYajhu ie,ls,a,g .ksñka mqoa.,hd yd iudch wjfndaO
lsÍug W;aidy .kS' fuu W;aidyh ;=< mDÓú flakaøSh"
mqoa., flakaøSh oDIaÀhla iys;j úYajfha l%shdldÍ;ajh
ie<ls,a,g .ksñka úYaf,aIKh lrhs'

13

tfia mDÓú flakaøSh" mqoa., flakaøSh oDIaÀhlska úYaj
l%shdldÍ;ajh ie,ls,a,g .ksñka mqoa.,hd yd iudch
wjfndaO lsÍug h;ak oeÍu iudcúoHd;aulj ú.%y l<
fkdyelsh' tys,d iudcúoHdj úiska f.dKqlrkq ,nk
m%Odk ;¾lh jYfhka f.kyermdk m%Ok fya;=j f,i
fmkajd fokafka" úYaj l%shdldÍ;ajh mqoa.,hdg yd
iudchg lrkq ,nk n,mEu ;drldúoHdfõ fidhd.ekSï
wkqj" weig fmfkk wdf,dal lsrK .uka .kakd fõ.h"
úYaj jia;+kaf.a ÿria;r Ndjhka wkqj mDÓúhg ,Õdùug
.;jk ld,h mqoa., mrudhqIh blaujk neúks˜ hkqfjks'
fuys,d fmkajdÈh hq;= lreKla we;' úYaj jia;+ka" úYaj
jia;+kaf.a iajdNdúl wdf,dal lsrK yd úYaj jia;+kaf.a
wdf,dalhka mDÓúhg ,Õdùug wdf,dal j¾I á%,shk
.Kkla .; jqj;a" tys,d l%shd;aul j¾;udkh jYfhka
olsk fudfyd; ;=< mqoa.,hdf.a Wm; ;SrKh lrñka
mDÓú flakaøShj N+f.da,Sh wCIdxY foaYdxY wkqj wod<
fõ,dfõ úYaj jia;+kaf.a msysàu is;shï .; lrñka
fõ,dm;alvh ke;fyd;a mqoa., flakaø igyk ilikq
,nk nj oel.; yelsh' fkdtfia kï .%yhska we;=¿
úYaj jia;+ka mqoa.,hdg yd iudchg we;s lrk n,mEula
ms<sn|j fyda úYaj jia;+ka úiska mqoa.,hd yd iudch
md,kh lrk njla fcHda;S¾ úoHdfjka fkd lshfjhs'
kuq;a fcHda;S¾úoHdj ms<sn|j mQ¾K lreKq .fõYkhlska"
úYaf,aYkhlska yd wjfndaOhlska f;drj we;=uqka fuh
jrojd lrkq ,nk ú.%yhla jYfhka fmkajdÈh yelsh'
fuu mqoa., flakaø igyk ke;skï Tyq fyda weh
Wmkafõf,a wod< ia:dkhg wkqj kef.kysr CIs;sc
f¾Ldj wxYl 00 jYfhka f.k mDÒúh flakaøfldg
14

ndysr wjldYh wxYl 3600 jYfhka f.k is;shï .;
lrk ,o úYaj jia;+kaf.a msysàu wkqj tu ndysr wjldYh
iudk fldgia fod<ilg fnod flakøfhys Ndj fod<i
ks¾Kh fldg we;'
tys m<uq Ndjh ;=<ska iudch ;=< fjfik mqoa.,hdf.a
fm!reIh" mqoa., udkisl l%shdldÍ;ajh" YdÍßl ieleiau"
wï," fyda¾fudak wd§ YdÍßl ridhksl l%shdldÍ;ajh
o flakaø igyfkys fojk Ndjh ;=<ska mqoa., oDIaÀh"
mqoa., iudchSh wd¾Ól YlH;d o flakaø igyfkys
f;jk Ndjh ;=<ska iyc yelshd" mjqf,a idudðlhskaf.a
wka;¾ in|;d" mjqf,a idudðlhskaf.a mej;=ï rgd
o flakaø igyfkys isõjk Ndjh ;=<ska ud;D uQ,sl
udkisl p¾hdrgdjka" uj" uõ fifkyi" uõf.a YÍr
fi!LHh" ud;D úySk;d" ud;D-odrl in|;d o flakaø
igyfkys miajk Ndjh ;=<ska mqoa., wOHdmkh" mqoa.,
iudcdkqfhdackh" ¥ore in|;d" oreM, yd idm,H;djh
o flakaø igyfkys ihjk Ndjh ;=<ska mqoa., YdÍßl
fi!LHh" iudchSh ì|jeàï" fidr i;=re Wmøj" iudchSh
ndOl o flakaø igyfkys i;ajk Ndjh ;=<ska mjq,"
újdyh" ,sx.sl;ajh" ia;%S mqreI iudcNdùh l%shdldÍ;ajh"
mqoa., iudc jHdNspdr" mqoa., iudc úIudpdr" mqoa.,
iudc ÿrdpdr" Èlalido" fojk újdyh o flakaø
igyfkys wgjk Ndjh ;=<ska mqoa., urKh" urKfha
iajNdjh" ishÈú kid.ekSï" wfkdaóh;djka o flakaø
igyfkys kjjeks Ndjh ;=<ska mqoa., wd.ñl Ôú;h"
wdpdrúoHd;aul iudc w.hka" ixialD;sl w.hka" mQ¾j
ckau jdikd .=Kh o flakaø igyfkys oijk Ndjh ;=<ska
ms;DuQ,sl udkisl p¾hdrgdjka" mshd" mshmi {d;s;ajh
;=<ska ,nk Wreuhka" /lshdj" wd¾Ól Ofkdmdhkh
15

o flakaø igyfkys tfldf<diajk Ndjh ;=<ska mqoa.,
wdodhï ud¾." fojk újdyhlska ,nk jia;=j o flakaø
igyfkys fodf<diajk Ndjh ;=<ska mqoa., úhoï" mqoa.,
ldhsl udkisl ksoyi wd§ lreKq /ila ú.%y lr.kq
,nhs'
b;du;a ir<j fláfhka mejiSfï § mqoa., Ôú;h yd
noaO w¾:" O¾u" ldu" fudaCI hk i;r lreKqu mqoa.,
flakaø igyk weiqre lr.ksñka fcHda;S¾úoHdj úiska
ú.%y lsÍug Ndckh lrkq ,nhs'
fï w;r fcHda;S¾úoHdj yd iïnkaO ù we;s wfkl=;a
iudchSh úIh Odrdjka ljf¾o hkak y÷kd.ekSu l<
hq;= fjhs' tu úIhhka my; ±lafjk whqßka fm< .id
±laúh yelsh'
u ;drld úoHdj Astronomy
ñksia weiska o ¥f¾CI" f¾äfhda ;rx. yd mß.Kl
weiqfrka wdldY jia;+kaf.a l%shdldÍ;ajh ms<sn|j
fidhdne,Su isÿ lrkq ,nk úohdjla jYfhka fmkajd
Èh yelsh'
u .Ks; úoHdj Mathematics
ùc .Ks;h" cHdñ;sh" ;%sfldaKñ;sh wdoS .Kkh lsÍï
isÿ lrkq ,nk úIh m:hls'
u m%lafCIamK úoHdj Projection
mj;sk o;a; weiqfrka bÈßh i|yd úh yels oE ms<sn|j
mqfrdal:k ks¾udKh lrkq ,nk úIh m:hls'

16

u mß.Kl úoHdj Computer Science
bf,lafg%dksla Wmdx. úfYaIfhka g%dkaisiag¾ we;=<;a
fldg idok ,o ix.Dys; mßm: ^Integrated Circuit - IC)
Ndú;d lrñka ilik ,o o;a; ieliqï WmlrKhla
f,i mß.Klh l%shd;aul jk w;r tys l%shdldÍ;ajh yd
Ndú;dj ms<sn| l%ufõohka o we;=<;a úIh m:hls'
u WmfoaYkh Counseling
udkisl wd;;Ska yd úCIsma;Ndjhka fukau udkisl frda.
ldrl ;;ajhka yuqfõ mqoa.,hdg ish ffoksl Ôú;fha
iy wfkl=la ldhH_hkays § Tyqg wjYH lrk Wmfoia
,nd§fï l%ufõohka ms<sn| úIh m:hls'
u wdpdr úoHdj Ethics
mqoa., wka;¾l%shdjka" iudc l%shdjka" ixialD;sh yd iudc
wdh;k iu. wfkHdakH m%;sl%shd lsÍfï § wkq.ukh
l< hq;= m%ñ;Ska ms<sn| ks¾Kdhl meKùfï l%ufõohka
ms<sn| úIh m:hls'
u wdhq¾fõo ffjμlrKh Ayurvedic Medicine
YdÍßl yd udkisl fi!LHh meje;au Wfoid wkq.ukh
l< hq;= ffjoHlrK l%ufõohka w;=frka fmrÈ. rgj,a
^úfYaIfhka bkaÈhdj" ;dhs,ka;h iy ,xldj jeks
rgj,a& úiska wkq.ukh lrk ffjoHlrK l%ufõohka
we;=<;a úIh m:hls'
u ufkda úoHdj Psychology
is.auka f*%dhsâ kï jQ o¾YkfõÈhd úiska ìyslrk ,o
mqoa., udkisl jHdëka yuqfõ Bg m%;sldr lsÍfï § wjYH
mqoa., uki yd udkisl l%shdj,sh
17

u wêufkda úoHdj Para-Psychology
wê-fN!;sl mqoa., ufkdaNdjhka ms<sn| úYaf,aIKhka
we;=<;a úIh m:hls'
u wNspdr Ritual
wê-iajdNdúl h:d¾:hka ;=<ska ñksidg we;sjk .eg<
iy.; ;;ajhka i|yd wkq.ukh lrk ms<sfj;a
iuqodhhlska iukaú; úIh m:hls'
u YíO úoHdj Audio-logy
wê-iajdNdúl h:d¾:hka yd ñksid w;r mj;sk .eg¿
ksrdlrKh i|yd úYaj l%shdldÍ;ajfhys wx.hla jYfhka
mj;sk YíOh Wmfhda. lr ñksidg iykhla ,nd§fï
wruqKska hq;=j ìysfldg f.k we;s úIh Odrdjls'
u mQcd úëka Worship Patterns
wê-iajdNdúl h:d¾:hka yd ñksid w;r mj;sk .eg¿
ksrdlrKh i|yd úYaj l%shdldÍ;ajh h<s ia:dmkh lsÍfï
wruqKska ñksid úiska wkq.ukh lrk l%shd moaO;Ska
we;=<;a úIh m:hls'
u uka;%" ;ka;%" Yaf,dal" hdÈks" ieye<s" lú
úúO jQ YíO rgd weiqre lr .ksñka mqoa., Ôú;h yd
noaO m%Odk l%shd wgla isÿ lr.ekSu i|yd ks¾udKh lr
we;s úIh Odrdjls'
u mxp ;+¾h kdo Ndú;h
ñksia ukfia yd YÍrfha we;s jk iqL" ÿlaL yd uOHia:
úkaokhka i|yd fN!;sl mßirfha we;s Wmdx. mylska
18

ilid .kakd ,o YíO l%shd we;=<;a úIh m:hls'
u uQ¾;slrKh Sculpture
ñksidf.a úkaokSh ufkdaNdjhka u; ñksia Èúfha úúO
jQ mrud¾: idOkfhys ,d Ndú; lsÍug f.dv k.k ,o
wkqrElrKhka iys; úIh m:hls'
u leghï Carvings/ Ñ;% yd j¾K ixfhdackh
Paintings and Colourings/ ieris,s Decoration
ñksidf.a úkaokSh ufkdaNdjhka u; ñksia Èúfha úúO jQ
mrud¾: idOkfhys ,d Ndú; lsÍug m%;sks¾udKd;aul
ilH;djkaf.ka f.dv k.k ,o wkqrElrKhka iys;
;j o úIh m: lsysmhls'
u k¾;kh Dancing
ñksidf.a úkaokSh ufkdaNdjhka u; ñksia Èúfha úúO jQ
mrud¾: idOkfhys ,d Ndú; lsÍug m%;sks¾udKd;aul
ilH;djkaf.ka f.dv k.k ,o mqoa., YÍr.; ßoauh
weiqre lr .ksñka ñksidf.a úkaokSh ufkdaNdjhka u;
ñksia Èúfha úúO jQ mrud¾: idOkfhys ,d Ndú; lsÍug
m%;sks¾udKd;aul ilH;djkaf.ka f.dv k.k ,o ;j
o tla úIh m:hls'
u wdf,dallrKh Lightings
ñksidf.a úkaokSh ufkdaNdjhka u; ñksia Èúfha úúO jQ
mrud¾: idOkfhys ,d Ndú; lsÍug m%;sks¾udKd;aul
ilH;djkaf.ka f.dv k.k ,o úúO l%shdjka i|yd
wdf,dalh weiqre lr .ksñka ñksidf.a úkaokSh
ufkdaNdjhka u; ñksia Èúfha úúO jQ mrud¾: idOkfhys
,d Ndú; lsÍug f.dv k.k ,o ;j o tla úIh m:hls'
19

we;fula fuu úIhSh úYaf,aIKh i|yd úfrdaOd;aul
wdl,amhla ±laúh yelsh' Bg fya;=j" fuys ±lafjk
we;eï úIhhkaf.a uQ,sl isoaOdka;" ks¾jpk yd úêl%u
Ndú;hka wkkH jQ ,CIK fmkajk neúks'
tu úIhhka fuys,d iïnkaO;djla we;ehs iDcqj
ms<s.; fkdyels kuq;a hï .eUqre úYaf,aYkhl § Bg
iïnkaO;djla we;s nj fmkajdÈh yelsh'
hï úIhhla ìysùfï § kj fidhd.ekSula u; mokïj
th ìysfjhs' fkd tfia kï hï ixialD;shla fyda hï
ikao¾Nhla ;=< kj úIhhla ìys ùu fjhs' fï ;;ajh
iEu iudchSSh úIhhlg fukau iEu úoHdjlgu fmdÿ
O¾u;djls'
kuq;a fuu fmdÿ O¾u;dj u; msysgd ikao¾Nh f;areï
.ekSug hdfï § .fõYlhdg tu úIhhg wod< jmißh
f;areï .ekSu w;HjYH lreKla f,i fmkajdÈh yelsh'

20

hï jia;=jla foi wm n,k wdldrh by; rEm igyka
;=<ska fmkajd we;' fuu WodydrKd;aul rEm igyk ;=<
by< isg my< ne,Su;a" my< isg by< ne,Su;a fmkajd
we;' fuu rEmigyka foflysu wei msysá ia:dkh iy
tu wefiys oDIAÀh fhduqjk ÈYdj iy fldaKh fmkajd
we;' fï wkqj m<uq rEmfha § úIhh jia;=fõ id¾jh
olsk w;r fojk rEmfha § úIhh jia;=fõ me;slvla
muKla oel.ekSug ,la jk nj wmg fmkk lreKls'
by;ska oela jQ fmdÿ O¾u;dj m<uq rEmhg wdfoaY l<
fkdyels w;r fojk rEmhg uekúka .e<fmkakls' fï
wkqj my; oelafjk mßÈ tu kHdh úIh noaO l< yelsh'
u
m<uq ia:rh - f.or isg f.oßka msg; ne,Su
u fojk ia:rh - msg;g f.dia f.or foi ne,Su
u f;jk ia:rh - .fï isg k.rh foi ne,Su
u isõjk ia:rh - k.rhg f.dia .u foi ne,Su
u miajk ia:rh - rgl isg úfoaYhka foi ne,Su
u ihjk ia:rh - úfoaYhlg f.dia rg foi ne,Su
u i;ajk ia:rh - mDÓúfha isg úYajh foi ne,Su
u wgjk ia:rh - úYajhg f.dia mDÓúh foi ne,Su
u kjjk ia:rh - uu úiska wkqka oelSu ^wdrEV mdo&
u oijk ia:rh - wkqka udj olsk whqßka uu wkqka
oelSu ^wdrEV mdo&
u tfldf<diajk ia:rh - wkqka udj olsk whqßka uu
úiska ud oelSu ^wdrEV mdo&

fuys olajk ,o ia:r tfldf<dfiys l%shd;aul jk
úIhhka /ila wmg oel.; yelsh' mqoa.,hd yd uki hk
fojeoEreï jia;+ka uQ,sl;ajfhka ixialD;sl f,dalhla
f.dvk.d we;s whqre;a" tfiau tu ixialD;sl f,dalh
21

u; úIhh Odrdjka f.dvk.d we;s whqre;a wmg fï
wkqj fmkajdÈh yelsh'
fufia f.dvk.k ,o o¾Ykh we;=¿ iudchSh úIhh
Odrdjka fuka u úoHdkql+, mokula we;s iEu úIhh
Odrdjla u iy úoHdkql+, mokula ke;ehs i,lk
úIhhka ish,a,u fuu rduqj ;=< wka;¾.; fldg we;'
fuu rduqj ;=< fcHda;sIh úIhh ljr wdldrhlska
f.dvke.S we;s o hkak fuka u th l%shd;aul jk wdldrh
ms<sn| j úu¾IKd;aul whqßka úuid ne,Su fuu ,smsfha
m%Odk wruqK jYfhka fmkajdÈh yelsh'
by; olajk ,o ia:r igykg wkqj tys i;ajk ia:rfhka
by<g .sh úIhhla f,i m%:ufhkau fcHda;sIh úIhh
fmkajdÈh yelsh' tys l%shdldÍ;ajh mDÓúfha isg úYajh
foi ne,Sulska wdrïN fjhs'
wx.=;a;r ksldfha p;=lal ksmd;fha f,dal iQ;%fha fmkajd
§ we;s wdldrhg buiañx fhaj nHduu;a;fla lf,anf¾
f,dalx p f,dal iuqohx p f,dal ksfrdaOx p f,dal
ksfrdaO.dñKS mámox p m[a[fmañ˜ hk f,dalh" f,dal
iïNjh" f,dal ksfrdaOh iy f,dal ksfrdOh i|yd jk
m%;smod ud¾.h hk i;r lreKq fuu nUhla muK jk
YÍrh ;=< u wka;¾.; jk nj nqÿrÿka fmkajd § we;'
tu uQ,sl m%ldYh neyer fkdfldg mqoa.,hdf.a mis÷rka
;=<ska .%yKh lrkq ,nk úIh jia;+ka yd tlS úIh
jia;+ka ms<sn|j mqoa.,hdf.a ukfiys f.dv kef.k
ixialD;sl w;aoelSï ;=<ska mqoa.,hd by; olajk ,o
22

ia:r f.dvk.d .kakd nj wmg fmkajdÈh yelsh'
fufia f.dvk.d .kakd ia:r tlsfkl úYaf,aIKh
lsÍfuka iudchla f.dv kef.k whqre;a" tfia f.dv
kef.k iudch ;=< mqoa., yd iudc wka;¾l%shdjka
f.dvkef.k whqre;a" tu wka;¾ l%shdjka mdol fldg
wd¾Ólh foaYmd,kh iy wfkl=;a fN!;sl úIh
moaO;Ska f.dv k.d .kakd whqre;a iy iïnkaO;d;aul
oDIaÀhlska ne,Sfï § wjfndaO l< yelsh'
fï wdldrhg uQ,slj úIhh Odrdjka f.dvkef.k w;r
tlS f.dvkef.k úIhh Odrdjka ixj¾Okh lsÍfï §
úúO ikaêia:dk miqlr bÈßh n,d .uka lrk nj o
wmg oel.; yels iajdNdúl isoaêhls'
fuu úIh ixj¾Ok l%shdj,sfha § oel.; yels ,CIKhla
jkafka W;aidy lsÍï iy jer§ï˜ ;=<ska úIh ixj¾Okh
lsÍuhs' th ufkdúoHdkql+, ú.%hka ;=< fmkajd § we;s
udkj ixcdkkd;aul l%shdj,sfha iajNdjh u; isÿjkakla
nj wmg fmkajdÈh yelsh' kuq;a we;eï úIhh Odrdjka
tys m%;súreoaO ÈYdfõ isg meK kef.k nj lsisÿ
mqoa.,hl= úYajdi fkdlrk fohla jYfhka lsj yelsh'
kuq;a i;Hh olskjqka ta úYajdi lr;s' i;Hh oelSug
wdrdOkd lrñka udkj ixcdkkd;aul l%shdj,sfha
m%;súreoaO ÈYdfõ isg meK keÕ=k fcHda;S¾úoHd úIhh
Odrdj ms<sn| úu¾IKd;aul oDIAÀhla we;slr.kakd
f,i b,a,ñka fuu ,smsh ;jÿrg;a bÈßm;a lrñ'
wjqreÿ 1805la jhie;s Ndr; fhda.shd uydj;d¾ nndÔ
hkqfjka 2009 ud¾;= 16 jeks Èk ßúßis m;%fha m< wfidal
23

ud,suf.a weußldfõ isg ,shk ,o ,smshg wkqj" hful=g
Ndjkdj Wmfhda. lrf.k mqoa.,fhl=f.a udkisl
ixj¾Ok l%shdj,sfha by< ia:rhlg ,Õdúh yels nj
Tn lshjkakg we;ehs is;uq' t;=<ska mqoa.,hdf.a whqIh"
iaurKh muKla fkdj Ôj ffY,hkaf.a fN!;sl;ajh
mjd md,kh lsÍfï m%n, yelshdjla olajd Ñ;a; Yla;sh
l=¿ .ekaúh yels nj fmkajd fohs'
fuu ;;ajh nqÿka jykafia o uCðu ksldhg wh;a uyd
mßksíndK iQ;%fha § ;yjqre lrñka wk| ysñhkag mjid
we;af;a i;r iDoaêmdohka jk
u pkao ^i;r w.;shg [pkaoh" oafõYh" Nh"
fudayh] fkdhdu&"
u Ñ;a; ^rd. oafõY fudydÈfhka oukh lrk ,o
is;&"
u úßh ^Wmka wl=i,a ueãug;a" kQmka wl=i,a
fkdbmeoùug;a" kQmka l=i,a bmeoùug;a" Wmka
l=i,a jeä ÈhqKq lsÍug;a .kakd W;aidyh&"
u úuxid ^oi wjHdlD;dÈfhka f;dr ld,du
iQ;%fha § mjik ,o wdldr jQ úu¾Ykhlska hq;=
úo¾Ykhg fhduq lrk ,o is;&
wdÈh ukdj jvk ,oafol=g wdhq l,amhla fyda Bg jeä
m%udKhla hful= úiska wjYH kï Ôj;a úh yels njhs'
kuq;a udr ÈjHmq;%dfõYj isá wk| ysñhkag ta mejiQfõ
l=ula oehs jgyd .ekSug isysl,amkdj fkdjQfhka nqÿka
jykafiag wdhq l,amhla Ôj;a ùug wdrdOkd fkdlrk
,o neúka miqj ÈjH mq;% udrhdf.a msßKsjka mEug lrk
,o wdrdOkh nqÿka jykafia úiska ms<s.kakd ,§'
24

fuu kso¾Ykh ;=<ska meyeÈ<s jk h:d¾:h ;=< fmkakqï
flfrkafka hï oelSula wkqj fufyjkq ,nk is;lska
l< yels úiañ; l%shdjls' kuq;a fuwdldru jQ úIh
oekqulska hq;= ùu fyj;a iajhxN=({dkfhka wjfndaO
lrk ,o f,dal h:d¾:hg wkqj ukdj ixj¾Okh
lrk ,o is;lska kj úIh oekqula fN!;sl f,dalhg
odkh lsÍu ixlS¾K hhs wmg yeÕS .sh o b;du;a ir,
l%shdj,shla nj ta foi ukdj úu¾Ykfha § meyeÈ<s fjhs'
Bg lÈu WodyrKh isoaOd¾: f.!;uhkah'
fulS ish¿ lreKq wkqj udkj ixcdkkd;aul l%shdj,sfha
m%;súreoaO ÈYdfõ isg meK keÕ=k fcHda;S¾úoHd úIhh
Odrdj ljr kï i:rhl mj;skafka o hkak úu¾Ikhg
Ndckh l< hq;a;ls' fcHda;S¾úoHd úIhh Odrdj ljr kï
i:rhl mj;skafka o hkak úu¾Ikhg Ndckh lsÍu
i|yd wkq.ukh lrk iyiïnkaê; úIh mrdihksla
hq;= tu úIh Odrdj wm iudc úoHd;aul fcHda;sIh
kñka ks¾jpkh l< yelsh'

25

26

brKu keu;s uDÿldx.h ,shk
mß.Kl NdIdj fodai;rhs

mß.Klhla hkq bf,lafg%dkslj l%shd;aul lrkq
,nk hka;%hla jYfhka y÷kajdÈh yelsh' fuu hka;%h
m%Odk jYfhka fCIa;% ;=kl l%shd;aul fjhs' tkï"
oDVdx." uDÿldx. iy iÔù ueÈy;alrejl= jYfhka th
yiqrejkakd fmkajdÈh yelsh'
oDVdx. - mß.Klfha w;ska we,a,sh yels Wmdx. Hardware

uDÿldx. - mß.Klfha l%shdldÍ;ajh Software

iÔù ueÈy;alre - th yeisrùu Live-ware
fuu m%Odk fCIa;% ;=fkys m<uq fCIa;%h jvd;a mokï
ldhH_Ndrhla bgq lrkq ,nhs' th wdodk ^Input&" ieliqï
^Processor& yd m%;sodk ^Output& jYfhka fldgia ;=klska
hq;= fjhs' fuys § wdodk tallh o;a; mß.Klh fj;
,dn§fï ke;fyd;a m%fõY lrùfï ldhH_fhys kshq;=
27

fjhs' ieliqï tallh tu o;a; úfYaIs; ;¾lK Wmdhhka
weiqre lr.ksñka iÔù ueÈy;alre úiska ,ndfok
úOdkhka wkqj l%shd;aul fjhs' m%;sodk tallh u.ska
tfia ilid .kq ,nk o;a; mokï f;dr;=re jYfhka
ksIamdÈ;hka f,iska t<solajhs'
mß.Klfha fuu wdodk tallh úúO o;a; mß.Klh
fj; m%fõY lrhs' Y%jH o;a; ke;skï ñksidf.a
Y%jfKakaøsh u.ska .%yKh l< yels o;a;" oDIH o;a;
fkdfyd;a ñksia weiska .%yKh lrk fõohs;h iy
ñksia ukig f.dapr jk iakdhq wdõ. fyda¾fudakuh
úoHq;a Odrd ix{d jYfhka mj;sk iEu o;a;hla u wdodk
tallh u.ska mß.Klhg fhduql< yelsh' we;eï úg
ukfia fyda¾fudakuh úoHq;a Odrd ix{djka fla;kh
l< yels o@ hk meKh Tng we;súh yelsh'
weußldfõ f*vr,a nqoaê wxYh u.ska w;awvx.=jg .kq
,nk hï iellrefjl= m%Yak lsÍu i|yd Ndú; lrk
m%Yak lsÍï l=áh we;=<;ska msg; fkdfmfkk ùÿrej,ska
wdjrKh lr we;s tlls' tys msg;ska fiajfhys kshq;=
úYd, lKavdhula fjhs' tla mqoa.,fhl= muKla m%Yak
lsÍï isÿ lrk w;r ;j;a msßila mß.Khla wdOdrfhka
wfOdarla; leurd Wmfhda. lr .ksñka Tyqf.a fyda
wehf.a fud,fha ridhksl m%;sl%shdjka ie,ls,a,g
.ksñka ta wkqj m%lafCIams; o;a; úYaf,aYkh lsÍfuka
Tyq fyda weh mjik oE i;H f;dr;=re o ke;skï wi;H
f;dr;=re o hkak ks¾Kh lrkq ,nhs'

28

http://kendaralk.blogspot.com/2010/11/blogpost_20.html ys we;s flá ùäfhda la,smh keröfuka
Tng th ikd: lr .; yelsh'
fuu flá ùäfhda la,smh Tng ukfia fyda¾fudakuh
úoHq;a Odrd ix{djka fla;kh l< yels nj f;areï
.ekSug lÈu ksoiqkls' by; olajd we;s PdhdrEm tu
ùäfhda la,smfhka .kakd ,o tajdh'
m%Odk jYfhka mß.Klfha bf,lafg%dksl Wmdx.
l%shd;aul lrùug wjYH úoHq;a Odrd ix{d jYfhka
m%Odk wjia:d follska hq;=j l%shd;aul fjhs' tajd we;
iy ke; hk wjia:d foflys mj;shs' fuh" úoHq;a Odrd
ix{dj mej;Su iy ì|jeàu olajd,hs' mß.Klfha CIqø
bf,lafg%dksl Wmdx.hkag f;areï .; yels tlu NdIdj
fuu uQ,sl wjia:d fol muKla nj ie,lsh hq;=h'

29

kuq;a fuu wjia:d fol Wmfhda. lr .ksñka úúO
;¾lK Wmdhhka u;ska Tn iÔùj mß.Kl ;srh u;
olsk iEu w;=re uqyqK;la u ksueù we;s nj Wola isyshg
.; hq;=h'
mß.Kl ;srh u; uefjk mslai,hla ksuefjk ;s;la
mjd úoHq;a Odrd ix{djkays we;s m%Odk wjia:d fol
wkqj l%shd;aul jk nj meyeÈ<s l< yelsh'
mß.Kl NdIdjla hkq mß.Klhg wdodk o;a; m%fõY
lrùfï § hka;% NdIdj jk 0 iy 1 ke;skï úoHq;a Odrd
ix{dj ì|jeàu iy mej;Su hk fla;hka fol njg
mßj¾;kh lsÍfï l%shdj,sh ^Encode -fla;kh& fukau
hka;% NdIduh fhÿul w¾:h idudkH jHdjydßl
NdIdkqhqla;j wre;a .ekaùu ^Decode -úfla;kh& i|yd
yelshdj we;s uQf,damdhsl ixcdkk" bf.kqï yd ;¾lk
isoaOdka; moaO;shla jYfhka fmkajdÈh yelsh'
mß.Kl uDÿldx. jYfhka o fuu mß.Kl NdIdjka
l%shd;aul fjhs' úfYaIs; ldhH_hka bgqlr.ekSu i|yd
fjkuu ks¾udKh lrk ,o fhojqï uDÿld. kñka
jHjydr lrkq ,nk uDÿldx. fldgila o mß.Kl
wdY%s;j l%shd;aul fjhs'
iuia: hka;%h moaO;shla jYfhka wfkHdakH ine¢hdjlska
hq;=j l%shd;aul lrùu i|yd wjYH yeisÍfï ms<sfj,
ks¾Kh lrk ,nk moaO;s uDÿldx. kñka jHjydr lrk
uDÿldx. fldgila o mß.Kl wdY%s;j l%shd;aul fjhs'
mqoa., brKu keue;s mrs.Kl uDÿldx.h

30

fuu l%shdj,shg k;== jk mrs.Klh iy tys l%shd;aul
uDÿldx. ks¾udKh ù we;s wdldrh by;ska ukdj
wjfndaO lr.kakg we;ehs wm is;uq'
uDÿldx.hla fla;kh lsÍfï ke;fyd;a hï úOdkhla
iemhsh hq;= wdldrh flfia úh hq;= o hkak mß.Klhg
y÷kajd §fï l%shdj,sh flfia isÿjkafka o lshd úuid
n,uq'
m<uqfjkau hï isÿùula wjYH fõ' tu isÿùug wod<
lreK l=ula o hkak meyeÈ,s lr .ekSu m%:ufhkau isÿ
l< hq;= fjhs' ñksid hk i;ajhd wod< lreK f,iska
bÈßm;a l< yelsh' úúO od¾Yksl yd wd.ñl u;jdohkag
wkqrEmj ñksid hkq w;s ixlS¾K m%mxphla jYfhka
fmkajdÈh yelsh' fuu w;s ixlS¾K m%mxph l%shd;aul
jk wdldrh ie<ls,a,g .ekSfï § th iajdNdúl udkisl
l%shdj,Ska iuqodhla ;=<ska fufyhjk fN!;sl YÍrhlska
iukaú; jk nj oel .; yelsh'

31

fN!;sl jYfhka ñksid bkaøsh moaO;shl tl;=jla
jYfhka .; yelsh' th úYaf,aIKh lsÍfï § muKla
fjka fjka jYfhka mj;shs' tfia fkdue;s wjia:djkays
§ Tyq fyda weh mqoa.,fhla jYfhka y÷kd.; yels
fN!;sl YÍrhlska fmkS isáhs'
fN!;sl YÍrfha l%shdldÍ;ajh udkisl l%shdldÍ;ajh
u; isÿfjhs' udkisl l%shdldÍ;ajfhka fN!;sl YÍrh
w;a ñÿk úfgl § ke;fyd;a fN!;slfhka udkisl;ajh
úikaê ùula isÿjk úgl § fN!;sl YÍrh l%shd úrys;
fjhs'
fï ms<sn|j isÿ lrk ,o .eUqre úYaf,aYkhka ;=<ska
mqoa.,hdf.a fN!;slh yd udkisl;ajh hk tajd
tlaj mj;sk wjia:djkays § tu foflysu wfkHdakH
ine¢hdjlska f;drj mqoa., fN!;slhg fukau
udkisl;ajhg o n,mdk wdldrfha Yla;Ska l%shd;aul
jk nj ta ms<sn|j lrk ,o m¾fhaIK ;=<ska meyeÈ<s
lr f.k we;'
fuu ;;ajh wd.ñl meyeÈ,s lsÍul § foúhka jykafia
kï jQ mqoa.,fhl=f.a ndysr ueÈy;aùula jYfhka
w¾:ksrEmKh lr we;s nj oel.; yelsh' fn!oaO
ú.%yhg wkqj mqoa.,fhl= fyda i;ajfhl= jYfhka .;
yels fohla ke;s nj lshefõ' kuq;a iïu;h ;=< ñksid"
mqoa.,hd iy i;ajhd hk jHjydrh l%shd;aul nj nj
nqoaO foaYkdj ;=<ska lreKq meyeÈ<s lr .; yelsh'
fn!oaO ú.%yhg wkqj ñksid" mqoa.,hd iy i;ajhdg
isÿjk fuu ndysr ueÈy;alrKh jYfhka wjia:d 5 la
32

Wmfhdackh jk nj fmkajd § we;' th kshdu O¾u
jYfhka l%shd;aul jk nj meyeÈ<s lr we;'

îc - jDCI,;dÈfhys meje;au

iD;= - ld,.=Ksl ;;ajhkaf.a n,mEu

Ñ;a; - ñksia uki

lïu - ñksia ukfia l%shdldÍ;ajh

Oïu - we;sùu" mej;Su" ke;sùu" f,dal md,k
O¾u;djka" f,dalfha iy tys mj;sk pl%Sh iajNdjh ;=<
ks¾Kdhl
fuu f,dal O¾u;djka wjia:d 8l l%shd;aul fjhs'
,dN" w,dN" hi" whi" kskaod" m%ixid" iem" ÿla jYfhka
l%shd;aul fjhs' fuys,d iD;= yd îc wjia:d folg
wu;rj ;jo wjia:d ;=kla l%shd;aul fjhs' tkï" Ñ;a;"
lïu iy Oïu hk wjia:d ;=khs'
fuhska o Ñ;a; iy lïu hk wjia:d fol jvd;a .eUqßka
meyeÈ<s lsÍulg ,la lr we;' fï ;;ajh Lqoaol ksldfha
ldKav 15ka tlla jk Oïu mofha Ñ;a; j.a.h ;=<ska
oel.; yelsh' óg by; wm úiska ,shk ,o zzfcHd;sIh
yd l¾ufha ffojh ms<sn| u;jdo" p¾hd iy wdfõ.
hkaf.a .;s ixl,kh ^ffoj iskafv%duh& ;=< isrùu˜
^http://kendaralk. blogspot.com/ 2009/06/ blogpost_6742.html& hk ,smsh kej; lshjd n,k f,i
isysm;a lrñ'
mqoa., Ôú;h keue;s iskud mgfha mqoa.,hdf.a iy
udkisl l%shdj,sfha m%;sM,hla jYfhka l¾uh iy l¾u
M,h hk wjia:d foflys jxpl O¾u;djfhka hq;=j
33

u;=jk l¾u M,h keue;s m%Odk pß;fha wdêm;Hhg"
.%yKhg mqoa.,hd f.dÿrejk wdldrh uekúka fmkajd
§ we;af;uq'
fuu ,smsfha § wm mqoa., Ôú;h keue;s iskud mgfha
m%Odk pß;h jk ffojh ke;fyd;a brKu hkak
mß.Kl uDÿldx.hla jYfhka l%shd;aul jk wdldrh
fmkajd §ug woyia lr we;s nj fuu ,smsfha ud;Dldfjka
meyeÈ<s lr we;'
tfiau tu uDÿldx.h ks¾udKh lrk ke;fyd;a th
rpkd lrk mß.Kl NdIdj f;areï lr §ug W;aidy
.ksuq'
mqoa.,hd i;ajhd hk m%mxph flfrys n,mdk ffojh
ke;fyd;a brKu hkak fjk;a lsisjla fkdj" mqoa.,hd
úiska u lrk ,o fÉ;kd;aul l%shdjkaf.a m%;sM,h
jYfhka fmkakajd Èh yelsh'
mqoa., we.hqï" Ñka;k rgd" is;=ï me;=ï" wej;=ï mej;=ï"
Nj.dó p¾hd iy mqoa., Ôú;h yd noaO iEu lreKla
u tys,d fcHda;sIh u.ska meyeÈ<s lr .; yels fiau
wjfndaO lr .; yelsh'
fuys § mß.Kl uDÿldx.hla f,iska mqoa.,hdg n,mdk
brKu l%shd;aul jk wjia:djl § tu uDÿldx.fha
iajNdjh ljr wdldrfha tlla o hkak úuid ne,sh
hq;=h' mqoa.,hdf.ka mqoa.,hdg th fjia fjhs' tys mqoa.,
wkkH;djhla oel.; yelsh' tfia kï fuu brKu
hkak újD; uDÿld.hla f,iska fmkajd Èh yelsh'
34

brKu kue;s fuu újD; uDÿld.h (Open Source
Software) mqoa.,hdf.ka mqoa.,hdg fjkia jk w;r tfia
we;s jk fjkiaùu ljr idOl u; isÿjkafka o hkak
úuish hq;= B<Õ lreKhs' mqoa., we.hqï" Ñka;k rgd"
is;=ï me;=ï" wej;=ï mej;=ï mqoa.,hdf.ka mqoa.,hdg
fjkia fjhs'
th Nj.dó p¾hdjla f,iska mqoa.,hdg l%shd;aul ùfï
§ Nj wka;r ld,h ke;fyd;a Njdka;rh keue;s
;sñrfhka w÷frka jeiS mej;Su fya;=fjka" j¾;udk
mqoa.,hdg ish mQ¾j l¾u m:fha úmdl Odrdfõ .,d tau
oel .; fkdyelsh'
fuh we;af;kau mß.Kl NdIdjlska ,shk ,o mß.Kl
uDÿldx.hlah' hï uDÿldx.hla mß.Kl NdIdjla weiqre
lr ,sùfï § wkq.ukh lrk mshjr lsysmhla fjhs' tu
mshjr w;r mj;sk tla mshjrla kï úOdk ieliqu
ixfla;kh fldg oelaùu (Compilation)hs' túg tu
ixfla;k l%shdj,sh u.ska úOdk ieliqu ;ksj l%shd;aul
úh yels tlla (Self-excecutable) njg mßj¾:kh lrhs'
tfiau tu uDÿldx.h f.dKqjla jYfhka mj;sk wjia:dfõ
§ meyeÈ<sju th BtlaiaB f.dKqjla njg yrjd,hs' tu
f.dKqj iDcq újD; lr ne,Sul § úOdk ieliqu o;a;
hka;% NdIjg b;d ióm NdIdjlska ,shd we;s fla;dxl
/ila muKla oel.; yelsh' th f;areï .; fkdyels
.%yhskag we;s wmf.a iïnkaOh fuka fmkajdÈh yelsh'
Nj.dó p¾hdjla f,iska mqoa.,hdg l%shd;aul fuu
35

mqoa., we.hqï" Ñka;k rgd" is;=ï me;=ï" wej;=ï mej;=ï
wdÈfhys mQ¾j l¾u m:fha úmdl Odrdj úfla;k
l%shdjlg ,la fldg mQ¾j l¾u m:fha iajNdjh oel .;
yelsh' ta i|yd kj uDÿldx.hla jYfhka fmkajd Èh
yels fcHda;sIh bÈßm;a lr ,sh yelsh'
tfiau fuu kj uDÿldx.h mß.Kl NdIdjla jYfhka
o y÷kajd Èh yelsh' ta flfia o h;a" uDÿldx. m%Odk
fldgia folls' ix.Dys; lÜg, jYfhka iy NdIdjka
jYfhka tajd oel.; yelsh'
fï wldrhg ixfla;kh ù we;s úOdk ieliqu foi
ne,Sfï § Njdka;rh keue;s ;sñrfhka w÷frka jeiS
mj;sk mqoa., mQ¾j l¾u m:fha úmdl Odrdfõ .,d
tau oel .ekSug kï ixfla;kh ù we;s úOdk ieliqu
úfla;k l%shdj,shlg ,la l< hq;=h' ta i|yd YlH;djh
we;s NdIdj fcHda;sIhhs'
mqoa., mQ¾j l¾u m:fha úmdl Odrdfõ .,d tau úfla;k
l%shdj,shla u.ska mÍCIdjg ,la l< hq;af;a wehs o@ hk
m%Yakh jeo.;a tlls' máÉp iuqmamkak wd¾h i;Hh ;=<
oel.; yels oajd oi fya;= m%;Hhka wúoHdj keu;s fuu
pl%fha iajNdjh fkdoel ys¢u jgd pl%hl wdldrfhka
l%shd;aul fjhs'
—wúÊcd mÉphd ixLdrd" ixLdr mÉphd ú[a[dKx"
''';kayd mÉphd Wmdodkx" Wmdok mÉphd Nfjda" Nj
mÉphd cd;s" cd;s mÉphd crd urK fidal mßfoaj ÿlaL
fodaukiaiqmdhdid ixNjka;s''' ˜ ^uÊCêu ksldh" Wmß
mKaKdilh" Oïuplalmj;a;k iQ;%h&
36

fuu ;;ajh f;areï .; hq;af;a wehs o@ hk m%Yakh
ke;fyd;a úfla;k l%shdj,shla u.ska mqoa., mQ¾j l¾u
m:fha úmdl Odrdfõ .,d tau mÍCId l< hq;af;a wehso
hk m%Yakhg ksjerÈu ms<s;=r jYfhka fuu ;;ajh
fmkajdÈh yelsh'
yqÿ Ôjk m,dM, l:khlg muKla fcHd;sIh iSud lr
;eîu wm wkqu; fkdlruq' fuhg fya;=j kï" mqoa.,
l¾u m:fha úmdl Odrdfõ .,d tau mÍCId l< hq;af;a
brKu ,sheù we;s wdldrh n,d.ekSu i|yd fkdfõ'
tfiakï brKu keue;s mß.Kl uDÿldx.fhka wm
isÿlsÍug wfmaCIs; m%Odk b,lal .; m%;sM,h l=ula úh
hq;= o@
ngysr úoHd{hska ld, hka;%hla iE§ug W;aydi .;af;a
tu.ska w;S;hg f.dia w;S;fha wmg lr.; fkdyels
jQ foa iy wmg jerÿk ;eka ilid .ekSfï m%Odk
wfmaCIdfjks' kuq;a wmg ld, hka;% wjeis ke;' wm
i;=j fuu mqoa., brKu keue;s mß.Kl uDÿldx.h
,shk ,o mß.Kl NdIdj ;sfí'
tu.ska fcHda;sIh keue;s mß.Kl NdIdj weiqre fldg
mqoa., l¾u m:fha úmdl Odrdfõ .,d tau mÍCIdjg
,lalr fuu újD; uDÿldx.fha mj;sk fodIyrKh l<
yelsh'
brKu keue;s mrs.Kl uDÿldx.fha
fodaIyrK l%ufõoh

37

mrs.Kl wdY%s;j l%shd;aul lrkq ,nk uDÿldx.hkaf.a
mj;sk fodaIyrK l%shdj,shla we;' idudkHfhka
uDÿldx.hl mej;sh yels fodaI j¾.hka ljf¾oehs
m%:ufhka y÷kd.; hq;=h'

úOdk fla;k fodI - Syntax Errors
jeros o;a; we;=,a lsrSu - Invalid Data Input
l%shd;aul ùfï § we;sjk fodaI - Executable
Errors

uDÿldx. wdY%s;j mj;sk fodaY ksYapfha oS idudkHfhka
isÿ lrk l%shdj,sh kï tys wjika m%;sM,h u; ke;skï
Output tflys osiajk frda. ixl+,;djhka wkqj th
ksYaph lrkq ,eîuhs'
tys oS we;sjk frda. ,CIK uQ,slj ;=ka wdldrhla .kS'
tu ;=ka wdldr frda. ,CIK wkqj ksYaph l< yels
fodaIhka o ;=ka wdldrhla .kshs'
by; fmkajd ÿka úOdk fla;k fodI - Syntax Errors
hkq uDÿld.xh ks¾udKh lsrSfï oS we;s jk wkjfndaOh
u; iy moaO;s úOdk - System Commands ms<sn|
wjfndaOhlska f;drj uDÿld.h ks¾udKh lsrSfuka
we;sjk fodaI jYfhka fmkajdÈh yelsh'
mqoa.,fhl= ish ffojh ke;skï brKu ms<sn|j ie,lSfï
oS j;auka osúfhys wkd.;h i|yd n,mdk Tyq fyda weh
úiska fmr Njhkays isÿ lrk ,o l%shdjka ys m%;sM,h"
l%shdjkag wkqrEmj úldYh fjhs' ta wkqj wkqkag fukau
;ukag o hym;a m%;sM, we;s lrk l¾u iy wkqkag
38

fukau ;ukag o whym;a m%;sM, we;s lrk l¾u hkqfjka
l%shdjka fowdldrhlg j¾. l< yelsh'
fuu fowdldrfha l%shdjka wkqj tajdfha m%;sM,h o
fowdldr fjhs' fuu fowdldr m%;sM, we;s lsÍu i|yd
mqoa.,hd úiska fÉ;kd;aulj isÿ lrk l%shdjka wkqj
mqoa., Ôú;h keu;s moaO;sfha ixl+,;djka yg.kS' fuu
ixl+,;djka yd >Gkd;aul ixisoaëka mqoa., fÉk;dj
wkqj l%shd;aul fjhs'
kuq;a fuu fÉ;kd;aul l%shdjka foi ne,Sfï § tajdfha
úOdkuh fÉ;kd;aul Ndjh w;a;ínHdndOdh ^;uqkag
wys; msKsi mj;sk& yd mrínHdndOdh ^wkqkag wys;
msKsi mj;sk& hk ;;ajhka u; isÿlrk l%shdj,Ska u;ska
we;sjk tajd f,i y÷kd.; yelsh'
l< hq;a; yd fkdl< hq;a; hk oE u;ska we;sjk
ixl+,;djka jeros o;a; we;=,a lsrSfï - Invalid Data
Input fodaI jYfhka y÷kd .; yelsh' fuu ;;ajhka
u; we;sjk ixl+,;djka fndfyd úg wmg je,elaùug
we;s bv wyqrd,hs' fïjd fn!oaO ú.%hg wkqj fmkajd
§ we;af;a wdkka;ßh l¾u jYfhks' fuu wdkka;ßh
l¾u hym;a yd whym;a hk fowdldrfhkau mj;sk
w;r ta ta l%shdjkaf.a mj;sk ;;ajhka wkqj tajdg wod<
ixl+,;djka mqoa., Ôú;fhys fmkakqï lrhs'
l%shd;aul ùfï § we;sjk fodaI - Executable Errors
fndfyda úg we;sjkafka mdßißl idOl u;h' fuh
mdßißl mokï fodaY - Platform Errors jYfhka o wmg
y\qkd.; yelsh' fuu mdßißl mokï fodaY - Platform
39

Errors fndfyda úg mqoa.,hd Ôj;ajk mdßißl jgdmsgdj
u; ;SrKh jk tajdh'
fmdÿfõ .;a l, fulS fodaIhka yrKh lsÍfï l%shdj,sh
;=< m%uqL;dj .kafka fï i|yd ke;skï fuu fodaIhka
;yjqre lr .ekSug Ndú; lrk l%ufõoh l=ula o hkak
u;h'
fuys§ mqoa., ffojh keu;s uDÿldx.h ixfla;kh ù
we;s tlla jk neúka úfla;k l%shdjla i|yd Ndú; l<
hq;= ixfla;k l%shdj,shg wod< ke;skï th ks¾udKh
lrk ,o úOdkhkaf.a úp,Hhka - Variables ks¾Kh l<
hq;= fjhs'
fuu úp,Hhka Variables ks¾Kh lsÍfï § th úp,Hhla
nj oelaùu" úp,Hhg wod< fhÿu l=ula o hkak meyeÈ<s
lsÍu iy úp,Hh ks¾Kh lr ke;skï ks¾jpkh lr
oelaùu hk m%Odk mshjr ;=k wkqj isÿ l< hq;= fjhs'
we;af;kau mqoa., ffojh hk uDÿldx.h úfla;k
- Encryption l%shdj,shlg fhduq lsÍfï § tys mj;sk
ixfla;k - Composed iajNdjh f;areï .; hq;= lreKls'
fuu ixfla;k l%shdj,sfha § ixfla;kfha iajNdjh ljr
idOl wkqj isÿ ù we;af;a o hkak m%:ufhka úu¾Ykh
l< hq;= fjhs'
Njdka;rh kue;s ixfla;kh mqoa., ffojh hk
uDÿldx.fha mj;sk iajNdjhls' tneúka tys mj;skafka
w÷rls' iajNdjfhkau mß.Kl NdIdjla iajNdjh
fufiah' mß.Klhg wdodk o;a; m%fõY lrùfï § hka;%
40

NdIdj jk 0 iy 1 ke;skï úoHq;a Odrd ix{dj ì|jeàu
iy mej;Su hk fla;hka fol njg mßj¾;kh lsÍfï
l%shdj,sh ^Encode -fla;kh& fukau hka;% NdIduh
fhÿul w¾:h idudkH jHdjydßl NdIdkqhqla;j wre;a
.ekaùu ^Decode -úfla;kh& i|yd yelshdj we;s
uQf,damdhsl ixcdkk" bf.kqï yd ;¾lk isoaOdka;
moaO;shla jYfhka th fmkajdÈh yels nj wm l<ska
oelaùuq'
úoHq;a Odrd ix{dj ì|jeàug m%;súreoaO ÈYdfõ l%shd;aul
jkafka úoHq;a Odrd ix{dj mej;Suhs' Njdka;rh kue;s
ixfla;kfha mj;sk w÷rg m%;súreoaO ÈYdfõ mj;skafka
wdf,dalhhs' w÷f¾ iajNdjh úYaf,aIkh l< yelafla
wdf,dalh u; mokïjh' ta w÷r mj;skafka wdf,dalh
u; mokïj ke;skï Bg idfmaCIj neúks'
tfia kï fuu Njdka;rh kue;s ixfla;kfhka hq;=
mqoa., ffojh hk uDÿldx.fha úfla;k YlH;dj
wdf,dalh mokï lr .;a tlla úh hq;=h' we;af;kau
fcHda;S¾úoHdj ke;skï fcHda;sIh hkak wdf,dalh
mokï lr.;a úIh Odrdjls'
wdf,dal m%Njhka iy m%;sìïN jia;+kaf.ka iukaú;
fcHda;sIh m%Odk;ajh § we;af;a iajdNdúl wdf,dal
m%Njhla jk iQ¾hhdgh' tfiau m%;sìïN jia;=jla fia
ie,lk pkaøhd fojeks ;ek ;nd we;' mqoa.,hdg
n,mdk ffojh ke;skï brKu úuid nef,k
l%shdj,sfha flakaøia:dkh mqoa.,hd jk neúka Tyq jgd
ke;skï Tyq bmÿk Èkh" fõ,dj yd ia:dkh hk idOl
;=k flakaølr úYaj wdf,dal jia;+kaf.a msysàu is;shï
41

.; lrkq ,nhs' th Tn ljqre;a okakd y÷kk mqoa.,
flakaø igykhs'
fuu mqoa., flakaø igyk u.ska tu mqoa.,hd WmÈk
Èkh" fõ,dj yd ia:dkh j¾;udkh fia i,ld Tyq fyda
weh úiska isÿlrk ,o fÉ;kd;aul l%shdj,sfha Nj.dó
p¾hdjka f,iska mqoa.,hdg l%shd;aul mqoa., we.hqï"
Ñka;k rgd" is;=ï me;=ï" wej;=ï mej;=ï wdÈfhys mQ¾j
l¾u m:fha m%jdyl úmdl Odrdj ms<sn| úp,Hhka
f.dvk.kq ,nhs' fuu úp,Hhkaf.a ks¾Kdhl ;SrKh
lr we;s iajNdjhka criterion iïu; lr we;af;a
hf:dala; úfla;k l%shdj,sh i|yd wjYH lrk moku
u; msysgdf.kh'
fuu úp,Hhkaf.a ks¾Kdhl ;SrKh lr we;s iïu;
úIh Odrdjkays wka;¾.; úIhSl {dkh yd iïnkaO ù
we;s wfkl=;a iudchSh úIhhka ljf¾o hkak y÷kd.
ekSu l< hq;= fjhs' tu úIhhka by; m<uq ,smsfhka
meyeos<s lrkq ,enqfjuq'
mqoa., ffojh ke;skï brKu kue;s uDÿldx.fha
úp,Hhkaf.a ks¾Kdhl ;SrKh lr we;s iïu; úIh
Odrdjkays wka;¾.; úIhSl {dkh yd iïnkaO ù we;s
wfkl=;a iudchSh úIhhka pl%dldr fyda b,smaidldr
.ukam:hl fhfok úYaj jia;+kaf.a iajNdjhka"
iajrEmhka" p,s;hka yd p¾hdjka wkqj iyiïnkaê;j
f.dKqlrkq ,nk ;¾lK WmkHdi .;lr tlS WmkHdi
Tmamq lr oelaùu i|yd f.dvk.k ,o úYaf,aIK l%ufõo
weiqre lr .ksñkA mqoa., ffojh ke;skï brKu kue;s
uDÿldx.fha m%;sOdkh ljr wdldrhla .kafka o hkak
42

;SrKh l< yelsh'
tfiau mqoa., ffojh ke;skï brKu kue;s uDÿldx.
fha m%;sOdkfha iajNdjh y÷kd.ekSu ;=<ska tys mj;sk
fodaI bj;a lr .ekSu i|yd wkq.ukh l< yels
WmfhdacH;d;aul p¾hdjka ljf¾o hkak ksYaph lr
.; yelsh'
fodaI bj;a lr .ekSu i|yd wkq.ukh l< yels
WmfhdacH;d;aul p¾hdjka fndfyda úg mqoa., Ôú;h
yd noaOj isÿ l< hq;= tajd fjhs' tkï mqoa.,hdf.a is;sú,s
mdol lr isÿ lrk fÉ;kd;aul l%shdjka uki" w¾:dkaú;
YíO l%shdj ke;skï jpkh iy ndysr YdÍßl l%shdjkaf.a
tlñ;slNdjfhka hq;= p¾hd rgdjka" is;=ï me;=ï" wdfõ.
hka yd ixcdkk mqoa., we.hqïys Okd;aul" m%udKd;aul
yd .=Kd;aul fjkia lï isÿ lsÍu ;=<ska mqoa., ffojh
ke;skï brKu kue;s uDÿldx.fha m%;sOdkhkays mj;sk
fodaI bj;a lr.; yelsh'
we;eï úfgl fuu ,smsfhka meyeÈ,s lr we;s ixl,am
yd we;eï jpkj, mj;sk w¾:fhys we;s .eUqre nj
hful=g ,smsfhka mejfikafka l=ula o hkak f;areï
.ekSug ndOdjla úh yels nj ,smsh ilid wjidkfha
th kej; lshjd ne,Sfuka miqj wmg wjfndaO úh' kuq;a
ud;Dldjg wod<j mejish hq;= lreKqj, h:d¾:h meyeÈ,s
lsÍug Ndú; ixl,am yd ;dCIKsl jpkj,ska f;drj
mejiSfuka tys w¾:h kshudldrfhka fkdlshfjk
neúka th ;j;a ir< lsÍug woyia fkdlf<uq' kuq;a
hful=g f;areï .ekSug yels Wmßu ir, jyrla Ndú;
lsÍug Wmßu W;aidyhla .kakd ,o nj o mejish hq;=h'
43

,smsh lshjk Tng hï .eg¿ iy.; ixl,am yd jpk
yuqjqjfyd;a Bg wod<j m%;spdrhla wm fj; fhduq
lsÍfuka tajd meyeÈ<s lr Èh yels nj o m%ldY lr isáñ'

44

.%y wm, yd n,s Ydka;sl¾u

úYajúoHd, uÜgñka W.kajk we;eï úIh Odrdjka foi
ne,Sfï § fmkS hk lreKq lsysmhla we;' bka m<uq
lreK kï" mokï úIh neyerl ;nd wkq úIhhla m%Odk
Odrdjla jYfhka f.k lrkq ,nk b.ekaùuhs' kuq;a
Bg o idOdrK fya;= oelaúh yelsh' ta kï" wkq úIh
Odrdj ;j;a m%Odk úh Odrdjl wkq úIhhla jYfhka
mej;Suhs' fi!kao¾hh l,d úYaj úoHd,fha l%shd;aul
n,s Ydka;sl¾uh keu;s úIh WodyrKhla jYfhka .;
fyd;a th Wvrg" my;rg yd inr.uq hk k¾;k úIh
Odrdfõ Ydka;sl¾u fldgig wh;a úIhhla jYfhka
l%shd;aul ùu ksid th fjkuu úIh Odrdjla jYfhka
tys l%shd;aul fjhs'
kuq;a fuys mj;sk uQ, i;a;dj foi ne,Sfï § fmkS
hk lreKla we;' iajNdj úoHdj ke;fyd;a iajNdj
O¾ufhys mj;sk mqoa., l¾u Yla;sh u; Bg wkqrEm
45

jk úmdlhka mqoa.,hdg n,mdk ld, jljdkq úYajfha
mj;sk .%y jia;+kaf.a kduhka wkqj y÷kd.ekSug
fcHd;sI úIhfhka msájy,la ,efnhs' tajd kj .%yhska
hkqfjka fmkajd we;s w;r tu kj .%yhska fufiah'
1. rú
2. pkaø
3. l=c
4. nqO
5. .=re
6. Y=l%
7. Yks
8. rdyq
9. fla;= hkqfjka olajd we;'
kuq;a mqoa., l¾u Yla;sh u; Bg wkqrEm jk úmdlhka
mqoa.,hdg n,mdk ld, jljdkq ueK .ekSfï § mqoa.,hdg
fuu kj .%yhska n,mdkq ,nk wdldrh úúOh' tys §
úxfYda;a;Í uy oYd wkqrEm jk wdldrhg lrk ,nk
j¾.Slrhla oel.; yelsh' fuu úxfYda;a;Í uy oYd
j¾.SlrKfha § kj .%yhskaf.a wkqms<sfj, uola fjkia
whqßka olajd we;'
1. rú j¾I 06
2. pkaø j¾I 10
3. l=c j¾I 07
46

4. rdyq j¾I 18
5. .=re j¾I 16
6. Yks j¾I 19
7. nqO j¾I 17
8. fla;= j¾I 07
9. Y=l% j¾I 20
tl;=j j¾I 120
mqoa.,hdf.a mru wdhqI j¾I 120la jk whqßka ilia fldg
we;s fuu j¾.SlrKfhys § ta ta .%yhskaf.a oYd ld,hkays
uq, ueo w. hk ld,j, § ta ta .%yhskaf.a Wmam;a;s
flakaøfha ;ekam;a jQ rdjHd§ kj .%yhskaf.a n, ÿn,;d
wkqj fuu ;%sld,hkays wm, we;s fj;a' fufia we;sjk
wm, ÿre lr .ekSu i|yd merKs iDIs l%ufõohkag wkqj
ilia lrk ,o n,s Ydka;sl¾u /ila f.kyer olajd
we;'
mqoa., l¾u Yla;sh u; Bg wkqrEm jk úmdlhka
mqoa.,hdg n,mdk ld, jljdkq ueK .ekSfï § mqoa.,hdg
fuu kj .%yhska n,mdkq ,nk wdldrh wkqj fuu n,s
Ydka;sl¾u fudkjdoehs f;drd.ekSu ukd m%d.=KHfhka
hq;= n,s weÿrd iu;a fjhs'
mqrd;kfhys n,s weÿrka fcHd;sIh" fjolu" uka;%
Ydka;%h" ldjHlrKh" Ydka;sl¾u yd Ydka;sl¾uhka isÿ
lsÍfï § wkq.ukh lrk k¾;kh wd§ yi, Ys,am /
ila oek isá úh;a msßila jYfhka lghq;= lrk ,§'
wo wjdikdjlg fuka wOHdmk wud;HdxYh úiska
lrf.k hkq ,nk úIh úfYaISlrK ms<sfj;a fya;=fjka
47

fuu úIhhka tlsfklg fjkia yd tlsfklg lsisÿ
in|;djkaf.ka f;dr yqol,d úIh Odrdjka njg
m;a ù we;' kuq;a Wiia wOHdmk wdh;khla jYfhka
Ydia;%Sh úIh m¾fhaIKd.drhla jk úYajúoHd,h ;=<
fuu ;;ajh ilid.ekSug fjr ork njla fmkSu Ydia;%
Wkak;sldó Ydia;%{hskaf.a meiiqug ,lajk lreKla
yeáhg fmkajdÈh yelsh'
by; fmkajdÿka wdldrfhka mqoa., l¾u Yla;sfha
wkqrEm úmdl yd tajd n,mdk ld,jljdkq wkqj ieliS
we;s .%y n, ÿn,;d u; we;sjk wm, ÿre lr .ekSu
i|yd merKs iDIs l%ufõohkag wkqj ilia lrk ,o
n,s Ydka;sl¾u fufia fmkajdÈh yelsh' kuq;a —Ydka;s
m%§m˜ kï jQ lD;sfhys óg uola fjkia wdldrhg n,s
kshuh olajd ;sfí'
1. rú j¾I 06
wm, we;s lrk wukqIHhska ;%sN=jk hCIhd" ´x
ld,s hCIKS
• uq,a fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd isßfld;a
n,sh
• ueo fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd j¾Idêm;s
n,sh
• w. fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd wNh
l<HdK n,sh
2. pkaø j¾I 10
wm, we;s lrk wukqIHhska jc% hCIhd" ffNrj
48

ld,s hCIhd
• uq,a fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd ld,uD;Hq
n,sh
• ueo fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd Ydka;s
ux., n,sh
• w. fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd Y=N ux.,
n,sh
3. l=c j¾I 07
wm, we;s lrk wukqIHhska N+; hCIhd" fidakoka;
hCIKS
• uq,a fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd N+u kd.
n,sh
• ueo fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd uyfidma
ux., n,sh
• w. fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd fïI
rl=iq n,sh
4. rdyq j¾I 18
wm, we;s lrk wukqIHhska wiqr hCIhd" wiqr
ld,s hCIKS
• uq,a fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd wiqr.sß
rdCI n,sh
• ueo fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd kd.
rdCI n,sh
• w. fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd iqg rl=iq
49

n,sh
5. .=re j¾I 16
wm, we;s lrk wukqIHhska wNsudk hCIhd"
kS,lKaÁ hCIKS
• uq,a fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd j¾Idêm;s
n,sh
• ueo fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd wNh
l<HdK n,sh
• w. fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd úIaKq
rEm n,sh
6. Yks j¾I 19
wm, we;s lrk wukqIHhska wjr hCIhd" wjr.
sß hCIKS
• uq,a fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd oY fl%daO
n,sh n,sh
• ueo fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd ks<Õ
rdCI n,sh
• w. fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd f.!ä
rdCI n,sh
7. nqO j¾I 17
wm, we;s lrk wukqIHhska nU hCIhd" .sKslKaÁ
hCIKS
• uq,a fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd j¾Idêm;s
n,sh
50

• ueo fldgfia we;sjk
m[aphka;% n,sh

wm,

i|yd

• w. fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd foaj
l<HdK n,sh
8. fla;= j¾I 07
wm, we;s lrk wukqIHhska Nød hCIhd" Nøld,s
hCIKS
• uq,a fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd n%yaurEm
n,sh
• ueo fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd mCIqjka
rdCI n,sh
• w. fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd ks<Õ
rdCI n,sh
9. Y=l% j¾I 20
wm, we;s lrk wukqIHhska u,af,daor hCIhd"
ufyaYajr hCIKS
• uq,a fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd foaj
ux., n,sh
• ueo fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd Y=N
ux., n,sh
• w. fldgfia we;sjk wm, i|yd w;a;
l<HdK n,sh
fuu n,s Ydka;sl¾u meje;aùfï § wkq.ukh l< hq;=
;j;a oE /ila fjhs' tkï" ta ta n,s Ydka;sl¾uj, § msysg
51

me;sh hq;= foújre ljryq o hkak" .%y odk" iakdkhg
T!IO" mQcd l< hq;= u,a" me<¢h hq;= mdIdK" me<¢h hq;=
f,day" me<¢h hq;= hka;% yd mQcdlghq;= jDCIhka wdÈhhs'

52

Widúfha Widúfha wik kvq fia
,shefjk" lshefjk fi;alú '''

Widúhlg jeiailg j;a f.dv fjkak tmd hhs wfma
merKs lshukla we;s nj Tn wid we;sjdg ielhla
ke;' tfiau bvï kvqj;a Èlalido kvqj;a ksula oelsh
fkdyels kvq .Kfhys,d i,lk kvq jYfhka kS;s
fCIa;%fhys isák wh muKla fkdj idudkH ckhd mjd
jvd;a fyd¢ka okakd lreKla jYfhka fmkajdÈh yelsh'
fuu ,smsh Widú kvq mámdáh ms<sn| lreKq f.kyer
mdk ,smshla o@ hk meKh fuu ,smsh lshjk Tng
we;súh yelsh' th idOdrKh' kuq;a th tfia fkdfõ' Bg
fya;=j" ñksidg we;sjk .%y wm, ÿre lr .ekSu i|yd
lshjk fi;alúh ms<sn| iudc kS;s úoHd;aul ú.%yhla
bÈßm;a lsÍu fuu ,smsfhys mrud¾:h jk neúks'
idudkHfhka Widú kvq mámdáfha § wkq.ukh lrk
hï l%ufõohla fjhs' tkï" hï isoaêhla úh hq;=h'
tfia jk isÿùu wrnhd widOdrKhg ,la jkafkl= tla
md¾Yjhl fjhs' tfiau isoaêhg wod< wfkla md¾Yjhka
53

ljqrekaoehs y÷kd.ekSu m%:ufhkau l< hq;= fjhs' tu
md¾Yjhka fufia fmkajdÈh yelsh
• widOdrKhg ,lajkakd flfrys we;s jQ
widOdrKh isÿ lrk ,oehs pQÈ; ú;a;sfha md¾Yjh
• kS;sh yd iduh /lSfï md¾Yjh
• kS;sh yd iduh /lSfï md¾Yjhg wkq.;j isák
f;dr;=re /ialsÍfï yd T;a;= úuiSfï md¾Yjh
• isoaêhg wod< lreKq f.dKq lsÍu isÿ lrk
kS;sfõ§ md¾Yjh
• f.dKqlrk ,o lreKq bÈßm;a l< hq;= Widú
md¾Yjh
• Widú md¾Yjfha § f.dKqlrk ,o lreKq úksYaph
i|yd bÈßm;a lrk f;da,al md¾Yjh
• isoaêh iïnkaOfhka lrkq ,nk úNd.h mj;ajk
cQß iNdj we;=¿ úksYaph md¾Yjh
• wod< isoaêh iïnkaOfhka weiska ÿgq fyda fjk;a
,sÅ; yd w,sÅ; idCIs imhk md¾Yjhka
• ú;a;s md¾Yjh wod< isÿùug jQÈ; jrfoa iajNdjh
wkqj oKavKhg ,la l< hq;= kï o`vqjï ,nd§fï
fyda nkaOkd.dr .; lsÍfï fyda fiajfha kshq;=
md¾Yjh
fuu md¾Yjhka ish,a, Widúh jgd f.dKq ù ta ;=< /
f|ñka wod< isÿùu ms<sn| kvqj úuiSug ,la flfrhs'
fuys § m%:ufhka f;da,al md¾Yjh fj; kS;sfõ§ md¾Yjh
u.ska f.dKq lr bÈßm;a lrk ,o isÿùu úksYaph
md¾Yjh fj; fhduq lrhs' tfiau úksYaph md¾Yjh
54

t;eka isg wod< isÿùug iïnkaO ish¿ idCIs úuiSug
,la lrkq ,nhs' idCIs úuiSfï § isoaêhg wod< ish¿ idCIs
md¾Yjhka Widúhg f.kajd idCIs úu¾Ykhg ,la lsÍu
idudkH Widú mámdáhhs' fufia ish¿ idCIs úuiSfuka
wkq;=rej idCIs u;ska jro Tmamq jQfha kï" widOdrKhg
,la jQ md¾Yjh fj; jkaÈ ,nd §ug o ú;a;sfha md¾Yjh
jro ms<s.eksu fyda fkd.ekSu wkqj iy jrfoa iajNdjh
wkqj ,ndÈh hq;= o`vqju úksYaph md¾Yjh úiska ;SrKh
lrkq ,efí' ta wkqj o`vqjï ,nd§fï fyda nkaOkd.dr
.; lsÍfï fyda fiajfha kshq;= md¾Yjh u.ska wod< jQÈ;
jerÈldr md¾Yjh fj; o`vqjï muqKqjkq ,efí'
fuu Widú kvq mámdáh foi úuis,su;aj ne,Sfï §
mqoa.,hdg we;sjk .%y wm, ÿre lr .ekSu i|yd ,shjkq
,nk yd lshjkq ,nk fi;alú o tu fi;alú lshúh
hq;= wdldrh o fi;alú lSfï § wdrdOkd l< hq;= foaj;d
md¾Yjhka ljf¾ o hk lreKq ms<sn|j o jvd;a .eUqre
wjfndaOhla ,nd.; yels jk w;ru wjfndaOfhka hq;=j
th wkq.ukh lsÍfuka wod< .%y wm, ÿrelr fi;
Ydka;sh <Õdlr .; yels jk nj mejish hq;=h'
fï wkqj mqoa.,hdg we;sjk .%y wm,h hkak l=ula o
lshd m%:ufhka úuid ne,sh hq;=h' mqoa.,hdg mqoa.,hd
úiskau isÿlrkq ,nk l¾ufha iajNdjh wkqj ,efnk
úmdlh l%shd;aul lsÍu i|yd WmldÍ úYaj mdßißl idOl
jYfhka .%y wm,h fmkajd Èh yelsh' mqoa.,hd úiskau
isÿlrkq ,nk l¾ufha iajNdjh wkqj ,efnk úmdlh
l%shd;aul lsÍu i|yd WmldÍ jk úYaj mdßißl idOl
.%yfoaj;djqka f,iska foaj;ajhg muqKqjd we;s nj fuys
§ m%:ufhkau fmkajdÈh hq;=h' fï wkqj .%y foaj;djqka
ksfhdackh lrk mqoa., l¾ufha úmdl Yla;sh fj;
wuka;%Kh lsÍfï iQ;%hla ke;skï l%ufõohla pkaoia
Ydia;%fhys olajd we;' ta ksjerÈ .K msysgqjd f.dvk.k
55

fi;alúhhs' ke;skï ,smsfha m%Odk f;audfõ olajk ,o
kS;suh lreKq ie<ls,a,g .ksñka f.dvk.k ,o kvq
f.dKqjhs'
fuu kvq f.dKqj ke;skï fi;alúh f;da,al ;ek úiska
úksYaph md¾Yjh fj; fhduq l< hq;= fjhs' fi;alúhg
wod<j úksYaph md¾Yjh yd f;da,al md¾Yjh ljqrekaoehs
úuid ne,sh hq;=h' f;d,al md¾Yjh jYfhka fi;alúfha
§ bÈßm;a jkafka fi;alúh lshjk ;eke;a;dh'
kS;sh ms<sn| wjfndaOh we;s yd kS;sh Wf.k we;s hï
mqoa.,fhl=g ;ksju ;ukaf.a kvqjla Widúfha úksYaph
i|yd bÈßm;a fldg ta i|yd l:dlsÍug kS;sfhka wjir
we;sjdla fukau fi;alúh o ksjerÈ wCIr WÉPdrKh
lsÍfï yd jpk fn§ hk ;ekays ksjerÈ mo fn§ula
iys;j .dhkd l< yels wfhl=g ;udf.a wm,hg ,shejqk
fi;alúh ;udgu .dhkd lr.; yelsh' kuq;a wfkla
md¾Yjfha isákafka kS;sh fyd¢ka o;a kS;sh bf.k.;a
kS;sfõ§ka neúka ;ksju fi;alú .dhkh fyda ;ksju
Widúfha kvqjla bÈßm;a lr hqla;sh ,nd.ekSug l:d
lsÍu oe,smsysfhka lsß lkjd jeks ;;ajhla nj isys
;nd .; hq;=h' tfia fkdue;s jQ wjia:djkays § wm,hg
,shejqk fi;alúh .dhkfha § we;s jQ fodia fya;=fjka
thska jialúhl m%;sM, w;aú£ug isÿ ù we;s wjia:djka
fndfyduhla wm w;aoel we;s nj fmkajd Èh yelsh'
kuq;a fï w;r ;ksju Widúfha ;uqkaf.a kvqj bÈßm;a
lr hqla;sh ,nd.;a wh jeks fi;alú ;ksju .dhkd
lsÍfuka hym;a m%;sM, ,nd.;a;jqka w;f<diaila o
wmf.a w;aoelSï keu;s bÈydi fmdf;a ,sheù we;s nj o
i|yka l< hq;= h'
fufia ,shefjk fi;alúh ;ksju ksjerÈ wCIr
WÉPdrKh lsÍfï yd jpk fn§ hk ;ekays ksjerÈ mo
fn§ula iys;j .dhkd l< yels wfhl=g ;udf.a wm,hg
56

,shejqk fi;alúh ;udgu .dhkd lr.; yels jkafka
kuqÿ .ï iNd Widúhlg fyda ufyia;%d;a Widúhlg
fyda uydêlrKhlg fyda fkdmsúi kvqjla mdf¾ fyda
fndlal=jla Wv jdä ù fyda uxikaêhl kej;S fyda l:d
l< fkdyelsjdla fuka Bg wod< ia:dkhla fj; fhduq
úh hq;= ùu wksjd¾hh lghq;a;la jk nj isys ;nd .;
hq;=h'
;uqkg iaffjÍj ;ksju fi;alúh lshùu i|yd yelshdj
;snQj o .ï iNd Widúhla fyda ufyia;%d;a Widúhla
fyda uydêlrKhla /ia lsÍug ;uqkg n,;, we;af;a
;uqka ta i|yd wod< mámdáh wkq.ukh lrñka kvqf.
dKqj ilid kS;sh yd iduh rlsk md¾Yjhka u.ska wod<
Widúh fj; kvq f.dKqj fhduqlrùfuka muKs'
ke;skï kS;sh yd iduh rlsk md¾Yjh fj; ;ukg
jQ widOdrKh bÈßm;a lr Bg wod< meñKs,a, Tjqkg
m%:ufhka fhduq l< hq;= fjhs' túg Tjqka tu ldrKhg
wod< j kvqjla f.dKqlr Widúhg bÈßm;a lrhs' ke;skï
;uqka Widúhg kvq f.dKqjla fhduq lsÍug n,;, we;s
kS;S{jrfhla ud¾.fhka ;u widOdrKhg wod< isoaêh
kvq f.dKqjla jYfhka bÈßm;a l< hq;=h' túg Widúh
ish¿ md¾Yjhka le|jd isoaêhg wod< widOdrKhg ,la
jQ whg ksis idOdrK úYaphla ;¾ldKql+, idCIs u;ska
,ndfohs'
fuu isÿùu mqoa.,hdg n,mdk .%y wm, i|yd ,shefjk
lshefjk fi;alúhg wod< jkafka ljr kï wdldrhlg
o hkak úuid ne,sh hq;=h'
Widúh /ialsÍfï n,;, hkq ish¿ foaj;d fldÜGdY
yd wukqIH fldÜGdY /ia lsÍug wjYH iaf;da;%" hdÈks"
lkak,õ wdÈh oekisàu jYfhka fmkajdÈh yelsh'
tfiau kS;sh fyd¢ka W.;a kS;S{jrfhl= fj; fhduq
57

ù ;ukag isÿ jQ widOdrKh meyeÈ<s l< hq;=jdla fuka
;ukaf.a .%y wm,hg wod< fi;alúh rpkd lsÍug
m%:ufhka ;uqkg n,mdk ,o .%y wm,h l=ula o hkak
ksYaph lr .ekSug oCI ffoj{jrfhl=f.a msysg ,nd.;
hq;= fjhs'
túg fyf;u wod< mqoa.,hdg n,mdk ,o .%y wm,h
l=ula o hkak;a" Tyqg fyda wehg ysñ jQ flakaø igyk
ke;skï úYaj .%y is;shu mÍCId fldg Bg wod<j .K
msysgqjd fi;alúh rpkd l< hq;af;a ljr kï foú
flfkl=kaf.a msysg wheÈñka oehs fidhd.ksñka tu
foaj;djqka flfrys Nla;sjka;j fi;alúh rpkd lrhs'
tfiau kvq f.dKqj Widúhg Ndr §u i|yd Widúhg
hd hq;= neúka foajd,hlg fyda fndêhla fj; fhduq
ù .%y foaj;djqkag" iïuq;s foaj;djqkag iy fjk;a
wukqIH fldÜGdYhlg w`v.eish hq;= kï ta whg o
t;ekg /iajk f,i wdrdOkd l< hq;=h' fï i|yd
tlS fldÜGdYhka fj; wduka;%Kh lsÍug iaf;da;%"
hdÈks" lkak,õ wdÈh Ndú; lsÍug isÿ fjhs' ta i|yd
tlS iaf;da;% hdÈks" lkak,õ l< yels foaj.e;sjrfhl=
fidhd .ekSu w;HdjYH lreKla fjhs'
Widúfha § kS;S{jrhdf.a .dia;=j f.jkakdla fukau
wod< iEu md¾Yjhka fj;u mqo msoú,s ,nd Èh hq;= fjhs'
fï i|yd leú<s" m<;=re" u,a" nq,;a" foi÷ka" iqj|ÿï
iy myka wdf,dalh ,nd§u wksjd¾hh fjhs' wukqIH
fldÜGdYhka fj;a kï mq¿gq" Èhf.dv uia wdÈh o
we;eï úg ;eìh hq;=fjhs' tajdfha wvqmdvqjla jQfha kï
;uqka n,dfmdfrd;a;= jkakd jQ hqla;sh bgqlrjd.ekSug
hï hï m%udohka we;s jkafka kvqjla B<Õ kvq jdrhg
l,a;eîfuka Èla.efikakdla fuksh'
kvqjla úksYaph lrk wjia:dfõ § úksiqrejrhdg
58

wduka;%Kh lsÍug kS;S{jrekag jvd f;da,al ;ekg
n,;, we;sjdla fuka tlS iaf;da;% hdÈks" lkak,õ l<
yels foaj.e;sjrfhl=" lmq uyf;l= fyda úydria:dkhl
kï oCI pkaoia Ydia;%fhys fl< meñKs h;sjrhdKka
flfkl= ta i|yd jvd;au iqÿiq fjhs'
Tjqka <jd ;uqkaf.a wm<hg ,shefjk fi;alúh lshjd.
ekSu fuys oelafjk ms<sfj, wkq.ukh lrñka lrkafka
kï b;d blauka id¾:l w;aÿgq m%;HCI m%;sM, ,nd .; yels
jkafkah' jir .Kkdjla ;siafia rdc.sßh" udÈkakdf.dv
.%dufha iqjyila okka fjkqfjka wm úiska rpkd fldg
.dhkd lrk ,o wmuK fi;alúj,ska id¾:l m%;sM,
w;aÿgq nj iqruHdrdu mqrdK úydria:dkfha úydrdêm;s
mqcHmdo fodvïf.d,af,a m[a[dkkao iajdóka jykafia
idCIs orK nj wm%udK ne;sfhka fidïkia yÈka isysm;a
lrñ'

59

60

úis fmdfrdkaoïj, úµd;aul me;slv
újdyh jQ l,S ukqIH Ôú;fha ikaêia:dkuh w;ska b;d
jeo.;a ;ekla ysñlr.kakd ikaêia:dkhlehs lsjfyd;a
ta ksjerÈh' ñksia Ôú;fha <ore wjia:dfõ isg urK
u[aplh olajd jQ .ufka § újdyh keu;s ia:dkh
ñksfil=f.a Ôú;fha § Tyqg yuqjk iqúfYaIS ia:dkla
jkafka flfia o hkak úuid ne,Su jeo.;ah'
újdyfha § ia;%shl yd mqreIfhl= ldhsl jYfhka tla ùu
i|yd iudchSh we.hqulg wkqj f.dv ke.=kq iïu;
rduqjla ;=< r|jkq ,nhs' tu rduqj ;=< j¾.hd m%;s ksIamdokh lsÍfï ldhH_h m%Odk fjhs' tys § ia;%sh Bg iqÿiqlï
imqrd ;sîu wjYH fjhs' m%:u wd¾;jh miqfldg ;sîu Bg
iqÿiqlu f,i i,lkq ,nhs'
fmros. ixilD;sh ;=< újdyhg ysñlr § we;af;a jeo.;a
ia:dkhls' wmrÈ. jqj o fuys t;rï fjkila ±lsh fkdyelsh' ukao ta ;=< ìysjk mjq, keu;s tallhg wmrÈ.
ixialD;sfha o b;d jákd ia:dkhla ysñlr § we;'
úfYaIfhka fmrÈ. ixialD;sfha flakaorh kñka y÷kajk
hful= WmÈk fõ,dfõ wod< ia:dkhg ±l.; yels úYaj
.%y is;shug o jvd;a uq,a;ekla § we;' <ufhl= Wmokd
fõf,a mgka Tyqf.a urK u[aplh olajd fuu flakaor
61

igyk iq/lsj ;nd.ksñka úúO jQ wjia:djkays § th
m%fhdackhg .ekSu fmrÈ. ixialD;sfha ±l.; yels
,CIKhls'
fuu ,smf
s hka Tfí wjOdkh fhduq lsÍug W;aidy .kafka
ia;%S mqreI fofofkl=f.a flakaor igyka Wmfhda. lr
.ksñka újdyfha § mÍCIdjg ,la lrk fmdfrdkaoï
.e,mSu úµd;aul weilska ne,Su Wfoidh' tys § o úis
fmdfrdkaoïj,g ysñ lr § we;af;a m%Odk ;ekls' tneúka
úis fmdfrdkaoïj,ska mÍCIdjg ,la lrk ±fhys úµd;aul
me;slv l=ula o hkak fuu ,smsfhka úu¾Ykh flf¾'
• kele;a fmdfrdkaou
• jDCI fmdfrdkaou
• .K fmdfrdkaou
• wdhqI fmdfrdkaou
• ufyakaø fmdfrdkaou
• mCIs fmdfrdkaou
• ia;%S §¾> fmdfrdkaou
• N+; fmdfrdkaou
• fhdaks fmdfrdkaou
• f.da;% fmdfrdkaou
• rdYs fmdfrdkaou
• j¾K fmdfrdkaou
• rdYHdêm;s fmdfrdkaou
• ,sx. Fmdfrdkaou
• jYH fmdfrdkaou
• kdä fmdfrdkaou
• rÊcq fmdfrdkaou
• Èk fmdfrdkaou
• fõO fmdfrdkaou
62

• .%y fmdfrdkaou
fuf,i mÍCIdjg Ndckh flfrk fmdfrdkaoïh'
ia;%S mqreI fofokd w;r wfkHdakH iqyo;djh yd újdyh
ksid mrudhqI úkaokfhka f;drj tla wfhl=f.a úfhdaj
jkafka±hs úuiSu fuu fmdfrdkaoï mÍCIdfõ § úuiSug
,laflf¾' fmdfrdkaoï .e,mSfï § 80]la úYaj .%yis;h
s fï
±lafjk pkaøhdf.a msysàu" oDIaÀh" n,dn," wjia:d
úu¾Ykh ;=<ska isÿ flfrhs' b;sß 20] wfkl=;a fcHda;sI
úµd;aul lreKq ie,ls,a,g .ksñka mÍCId lrkq ,nhs'
fuys ,d pkaøhdf.a msysàu ie,ls,a,g f.k mÍCIdjg ,la
lsÍfï úµd;aul me;slv m%:ufhka újr lr .; hq;=h'
idudkHfhka pkaøhd Èk 28lska mDÓúh jgd tla .ukla
iïmQ¾K lrhs' ia;%sh o fï w;r Èk 28lg jrla isg
wd¾;j yrKh isÿ lrhs' pkaøhd ish .ufka § mDÓúhg
,efnk o¾Ykh wkqj Èk 30la fyj;a ;sÓ 30la hkqfjka
j¾. fldg we;' th mqr yd wj hkqfjka fowdldrhla
.kS' mQ¾K pkaø o¾Ykfha isg iïmQ¾Kfhka pkaø o¾Ykh
fkd,efnk wudjl Èkh uq,a fldg tu j¾.SlrKh isÿ
fldg we;' mqr wgjl isg wj wgjl f;la ld,h we;ful=
mqr mCIh f,iska i,lk w;r wj wgjl isg mqr wgjl
olajd ;sÒka wj mCIh f,i ilkq ,nhs' ia;%shf.a o ire
ld,hla fukau oreM, yg fkd.kakd ld, iSudjla ±l.;
yelsh'
újdyfha jeo.;au ldhH_h orejka ìyslsÍu f,iska mejiSfï § we;ful= Bg tlÕ fkdùug bv we;' wfkl=;a
ish¿ ldhH_hkays meje;au r|d mj;skafka fuu ore M,
wkqj hhs lsjfyd;a Bg tlÕ jkq we;' tneúka ore M,
63

iïnkaOfhka iudch f.dvke.+ iqcd; ore Wm;l iy
wjcd;l ore Wm;l l;sldj fuu újdyh keu;s isÿùu
jgd f.dv ke.S we;'
pkaøhd .%y uKav,fha ia;%S ldrl .%yhd f,i i,lkq
,nhs' pkaøhdf.a msysàu iQhH_hdg ÿria: ùu iy ióm
ùu wkqj ;sÒka .Kkh lrkq ,nhs' pkaøhd iïu; rdYs
fod<fia isák wxYl l,d úl,d .Kk wkqj kele;a
.Kkh lrkq ,nhs' iïu; rdYs fod<ig ysñ jQ úfYaIs;
.;s ,CIK fjhs' tajd rdYs .=Kd.=K ms<sn| úYaf,aIKh
lsÍfuka o; yelsh' tla rdYshla wxYl 30l m%udKhl
me;sÍ we;' rdYs fod<i iy fodf<dia .%yhka my; olajd
we;'
v
v
v

fïI v jDIN v ñ:qk v lgl
isxy v lkHd v ;=,d v jDYaÑl
Okq v ulr v l=ïN v ók

rdYshla wxYl 03 l,d 20 ne.ska jk fldgia 09lg fnod
we;' tajd kjdxYl f,i y÷kajhs' fuu kjdxYlj,g
m%Odk .%yhska kj fokdf.a wêm;S;ajh fjka fldg we;'
kjdxYl fldgia y;rl tl;=jla tla kel;la f,i
jHjydrhg f.k we;' tla tla kel;l wêm;s .%yfhla
fjhs' tkï tla rdYshl wxYl 13 l,d 20l whs;sh tla
.%yfhl=g ysñlr § we;' m%Odk .%yhska 09 fokd w;f¾
fuu wêm;S;ajh fn§ f.dia we;' úYaj ljfha wxYl
360 ;=< wxYl 13 l,d 20 ne.ska kele;a 27la olajd we;'
kele;a i;aúiai újdy iSyï
q i|yd mÍCId flfrk ckaud§
;;ajhka iy tys wêm;s .%yhska fufiah'

64

fmdfrdkaoï mÍCIdfõ § m%:ufhkau i,ld nef,kqfha
fu wd§ jQ kele;a fmdfrdkaouhs' kele;a fmdfrdkaou
u.ska uQ,slj ckau" iïm;a" úm;a" fCIau" m%;Hdß" idOl"
jO" ffu;%S" mr ffu;%S hk wdldrhg ljr kï iajNdjhl kel;la iylreg fyda iyldßhg ysñjkafka
oehs úuiSuhs' fï fcHda;sIdkql+, msßlaiSuhs' kele;a ysñ
.%yhdf.a .;s ,CIK wkqj kelf;a iajNdjh ;SrKh
flfrhs ' hï mq r eIfhl= g ys ñ jk kel;g fhda ð ;
ia;%shf.a kel; iy tu ia;%shf.a kelf;a isg fhdað;
mqreIhdf.a kel; olajd .Kkh lsÍfï § ysñjk ;;ajh
l=ulao lshd úuiSu lrkq ,nhs' l,amoDu ixialD; uyd
úYajfldaIfha 4 jk ldKavfha 632 jk msgqfjys o c.ka
fudaykfhys o oelafjk mßÈ kele;a mdo ms<sn|j o fu
mßoafokau úuid ne,sh hq;= nj olajd we;'
ckau" iïm;a" úm;a" fCIau" m%;Hdß" idOl" jO" ffu;%S"
mr ffu;%S hkqfjka kï lr we;s ;;ajhkaf.a ksfhdack
,CIK ú.%y lr.; hq;f
= jhs' zckauZ hkq hul yg .ekSuhs'
fuu zyg .ekSuZ hkak u;=msg w¾:h f,i oelaùu fuys
§ WÑ;h'
we;af;kau fuf,i j¾.SlrKh fldg we;af;a ixfla;
kdulrKhls' fuu ixfla; kdulrKh ;=< iu .;s ,CIK
yg.ekSu flfrys zckauZ kele;a n,mdkq ,nhs' DNA
mrSCIdjlska fuu ;;ajh ;yjqre lr.; yels fjhs'
iudk .;s fmkajk DNA wkq we;s úg § mßÑ; ,CIK
iïfmaIKhla we;s ùu idudkH ;;ajhla nj úµdkql+,
u;hhs' mßÑ; ,CIK iïfmaIKh hkq mrïmrd.; hï
wdndO ;;ajhla fyda mrïmrd.; jHdêuh ;;ajhla miq
mrïmrdjkag Wreufhka ,eîuhs' fuu ;;ajhka hgf;a
65

wx.úl, orrejka Wm§ug fyda fjk;a mrïmrdkqhd;
we;eï frda.ldrl ;;ajhka we;s orejka bm§ug bllv
we;s nj fuys§ fmkajdÈh yelsh'
újdyhl § ia;%shf.a;a mqreIhdf.a;a iudk DNA wkq
msysgk úg § mrïmrdkq.; hï hï wdndO we;s orejka
we;s ùu flfrys th n,mdkq ,nhs' f,a {d;Ska w;r
újdyh ngysr ffjµ úµdfõ o wkqu; fldg ke;af;a
fufyhsks' DNA mÍCIdjla ms<sn| fyd|u kso¾Ykh miq.
sh jif¾ isÿ jQ iqkdñ jHikh iu. wm w;aú|skq ,enqfjuq' Baby 81 keu;s orejdf.a uõmshka f;drd.ekSfï §
isÿ lrk ,o DNA mrSCIdj c¾uka cd;sl n¾fgda,a fn%IaÜf.a
yqKqjgh kdglfha jQ yqKqjgfha mÍCIdj kùlrKh
lsÍula f,i fmkajdÈh yelsh' kuq;a úµd;aulj uõmshka
f;dard.ekSu i|yd DNA mrSCIdj fl;rï WmldÍ jQfha o
hkak bka meyeos<s jQ fohls'
uõmshka yg orefjl= iïm;ls' újdyhl m%;sM,hla f,i
orefjl= yg .;af;a jqj o fkd.;af;a jqj o fuu kele;a
fmdfrdkaou ;=<ska isÿ lrkq ,nk DNA mÍCIdj fmkakqï
lrkafka orefjl= yg .kafka kï tu orejd fouõmshkayg
iïm;a Wodlrk yelshdjkaj,ska iukaú; jkakd jQ orefjl=
jk yd fkdjk njh' f,a mÍCIdjlska f;drj fuu ;;ajh
úuish yels jvd myiq l%uhla fuu kele;a fmdfrdkaou
;=< wka;¾.;h' we;af;kau kele;a fmdfrdkaou hkq DNA
mrSCIdjla hhs lSu jvd;a ksjerÈh' tfiau úm;a" fCIau"
m%;Hdß" idOl" jO" ffu;%S" mr ffu;%S hk wx.hka o
fumßoafokau ú.%y lr.; yels kuq;a ,smh
s §¾>ùu j,lkq
jia fuf;lska ta kj;d .K fmdfrdkaou fj; wmf.a
wjOdkh fhduq lrkafkuq'
66

.K fmdfrdkaofï § i,ld nef,k lreKq ljf¾ o hkak
m%:ufhka wjOdkh fhduq l< hq;= fjhs' pkaøhd isá rdYs
wxYl m%udKh wkqj ;SrKh jk kelf;ys úfYI ,CIKhla
fuys§ mÍCIdjg Ndckh fjhs' pkaøhd is;g wêm;s fjhs'
úYaj ljfha kel;lg ysñ wxYl 13 l,d 20 ;=< úfYAIs;
jkakd jQ ,CIKhla fuys § i,ld nef,a' tkï" pkaøhd tlS
kele;aj,g meñKSfï § ckañhdf.a is; m%Odkj l%h
s d;aul
jk uYa;sIalfhys ke;skï fud,fhys we;sjk ridhksl
fydafudakhl wvq jeäùula mÍCIdjg Ndckh flf¾'
tlS .K ukqIH" foaj iy rdCI hkqfjka ;=ka wdldrhls'
rdc ud¾;Kav kï uQ, .%ka:h ±lafjk wdldrhg fuu
fmdfrdkaou w;HdjYH fmdfrdkaoï w;r tlla fia
úia;r fldg we;' fuys,d w;HjYH fmdfrdkaoï m<uq
.Khg we;=<;a lsÍug ;rï jeo.;a jQ lreK úuiSug
,la l< hq;=fjhs' ,xld fcHda;sI ix.%yhzys ldKavfha
fojk l,dmfhys ^2005 uehs& zzfcHda;sIH yd mqoa.,
fm!reI j¾OkhZZ keu;s wm úiska bÈßm;a lrk ,o
,smsfhys udkj wjYH;d imqrd.ekSfï § mqoa., isf;ys
we;sjk fm%arKhka flfrys n,mdk mqoa., wdYhkaf.a
m%fNaolrKfhys is.auka f*dhsâ bÈßm;a l< o¾Ykh
mqoa., Ôú;h ;=< l%shd;aulùfï § iudc Ôú;hg n,mdk
;j;a tla me;slvla újr lr.; yels wjia:djla f,i
fuu .K fmdfrdkaou fmkajd Èh yelsh'
weä%k,Ska ^Adrenalin& iy Biag¾cka ^Estrogen& hkq
mqoa.,fhl=f.a ia;%S mqreI ffcj úúO;ajh we;s lsÍfuys
iy j¾Okh lsÍfuys fN!;slj n,mdk fydafudak folls'
fuu fydafudak ksIamdokh lsÍfuys § ñksia fud,fha
Bg idfmaCIj yg.kakd fjk;a fydafudak rdYshla fjhs'
67

tys m%udK;ajfhys fjkialï wkqj mqoa.,hdf.a urKdYh mokï fldg.;a wdl%uKYS,S;ajh fyda urKfhys,d
we;sjk reÑl;ajh;a" Ôú;dYh mokï fldg.;a wdorh
fyda ldudIdfjys,d we;sjk reÑl;ajh;a ;SrKh flfrhs' fuu reÑl;ajfha m%udKh wkqj mqoa., ukfia
we;sjk Ndjhka ;=kla l%shd;aul jkq nj by; ,smsfhys ±laùuq' tajd ^bâ Id) iajdNdúl ksi¾. wdYdjka"
^Bf.da Ego) iajdNdúl ksi¾. wdYdjka hgm;a lrk
h:d¾:jd§ Ndú;dj iy ^iqm¾ Bf.da Super Ego) iudch
;=<k
s a ,nk fmdÿ wdpdr O¾u moaO;Ska f,i fmkajd § we;'
fuu Ndjhka fcHda;sIh ;=< úYaf,aIKh fldg olajk
,oafoa mqoa.,hd WmÈkd wjia:dfjys úYaj ljfha fmrÈ.
CIs;sc f¾Ldj wxYl 0 ^ìkaÿj& f,i .Kkh lsÍfï §
tys yuqjk kele; weiqrefldg úia;r flfrk z.KZ
kï m%fNaoh ;=<sks'
rdCI - iajdNdúl ksi¾. wdYdjka ^bâ Id) ukqIH
- iajdNdúl ksi¾. wdYdjka hgm;a lrk h:d¾:jd§
Ndú;dj ^Bf.da Ego) foaj - iudch ;=<ska ,nk fmdÿ
wdpdr O¾u moaO;Ska ^iqm¾ Bf.da Super Ego)

fuys iduH;dj wmg .K fmdfrdkaou úYaf,aIKh lsÍfuka ±l.; yelsfjhs'
1' fofokdu tlu .Kfha kï Y=Nhs' isf;ys i;=g
we;slrjhs' we;s fõ'
2' ia;%sh ukqIH - mqreI foaj kï Y=Nhs' W;=ïh'
3' ia;%sh foaj - mqreI ukqIH .K kï uOHuhs'
4' foaj - rdCI .K fofla kï fkdiSfya wY=Nhs'
5' ukqIH - rdCI .K fofla kï udrl ;rï w.=Khs'
68

6' ia;%sh rdCI iy mqreIhd ukqIH .Kfha kï b;d
blauKska urKh fyda Ok ydksh we;s fõ'
7' ia;%sh ukqIH iy mqreIhd rCI .Kfha kï b;du
wY+Nhs' kuq;a rdc ud¾;Kavh fmkajd fokafka
fï ;;ajh iem ,efnk njh'
iajdNdúl ksi¾. wdYdjka ^bâ Id) iu ;;ajfha miqjk
fofofkl=f.a tla ùu isf;ys i;=g we;slrùug fya;=jk
;;ajhla nj wmg fmkajdÈh yelsh' tfiau iajdNdúl
ksi¾. wdYdjka hgm;a lrk h:d¾:jd§ Ndú;dj ^Bf.
da Ego) w.hk yd l%shd;aul lrk ia;%shl iudch ;=<ska
,nk fmdÿ wdpdr O¾u moaO;Ska ^iqm¾ Bf.da Super Ego)
w.hk yd l%shd;aul lrk mqreIfhl= iu. tlaùu W;=ï
lreKls' iudc ixj¾Okfhys,d th Wmldr fjhs'
iudch ;=<ska ,nk fmdÿ wdpdr O¾u moaO;Ska ^iqm¾ Bf.da
Super Ego) w.hk yd l%shd;aul lrk ia;%shl iajdNdúl
ksi¾. wdYdjka hgm;a lrk h:d¾:jd§ Ndú;dj ^Bf.da
Ego) w.hk yd l%shd;aul lrk mqreIfhl= iu. tlaùu
uOHu ùug lreKq ljf¾o lshd ne,sh hq;=h' fuúg
ia;%sh ;u ksi¾. wdYdjka ms<sn| fojk wjia:dj miqfldg f;jk wjia:dfjys miqjk neúka ia;%S mqreI fiajk
ldhH_fha § WodiSk .;s fmkaùug mq¿jka neúka tfia olajd
we;s nj fmkajd Èh yelsh' Bg fya;= úµd;aulj úuiSfï
§ meyeÈ,s jkafka fydafudak l%shdldÍ;ajfha ÿ¾j,;djla
óg n,mdk njhs'
ksi¾. wdYdjka ^bâ Id) w.hk yd l%shd;aul lrk mqreIfhl= fyda ia;%shl fõ kï Tyq fyda weh wê ldudId we;s
wfhl= f,i y÷kd.; yelsh' Tyq fyda weh fj;ska jrog
69

ne£ug fyda fm<öug we;s bv m%ia:d nyq, nj wm l<
m¾fhaIK ;=<ska meyeÈ,s ù we;' fndfyda wmpdr lghq;=
w;jr lsÍï wdÈhg iïnkaO jQ mqoa.,hka rdCI .Kh ysñj
Wm; ,nd ;snQ mqoa.,hkah' tmuKla o fkdj ;u újdyl
ìß| mjd ¥IKh lsÍfï woyiska we;eï úfgl fudjqka
l%shdfldg ;snqKs'
ufyakaø fmdfrdkaofuZys § i,ld nef,k lreKq fudkjdo@
zzp;=F:_x ;;a p;=F:_x jd fm!k( mqfkHk jd mqk(
ia;%S;drldµd( mqxi( ufyakaø( Y=NfuOf;ZZ fydardNrK
167 Yaf,dal
zzia;%shf.a kelf;a mgka .ekakdu mqreIhdf.a kel;
4" 7" 10" 13" 16" 19" 22" 25 fjks kele;aj,ska tlla ù
kï udfyakaø fmdfrdkaou fõZZ ia;%shf.a kelf;a mgka
mqreIhdf.a kel; olajd .eKSfï § y;frka y;rg wh;a
jkafka ufyakaø fmdfrdkaou nj mQ¾ jdpdÍkaf.a u;hhs'
± ka wms kele;a fmdfrdkaofuys § mÍCId lrk ,o ckaud§
lreKq kjh fj; kej; wjOdkh fhduq lruq' wxl 01
j.=fõ ±lafjk ,d meyefhka w÷re lr we;s kele;aj,g
wkqj ;%sckau" ;%sfCIAu" ;%sjO .Kfhys ,d fuu ufyakaø
fmdfrdkaou wh;a jk nj fmfka'
tfiau ufyakaø fmdfrdkaofuys M, olajk fndfyda ,s;a
fmkajd fokafka zW;=ï mq;% iïm;aZ fyda zore iem yd
§¾ >dhqI ú£ug fya;=hsZ hkqfjks' fuys § 4" 13" 22 hk
kele;a ;%sfCIAu kele;a jk neúka ta W;=ï nj meyeÈ<s
lreKls' ;%sckau yd ;%sjO kele;aj,g wh;ajk 7" 10"
70

16" 19" 25 hk kele;a ljr kï fya;=jla ksid ufyakaø
fmdfrdkaofuys § wkq± k jodrd we;a± hs hï ielhla
we;ful=g we;súh yelsh'
10 yd 19 hk kele;a ;%sckau kele;aj,g wh;a fõ' fuu
,smsfha m<uq fldgiska ± la jQ ziu .;s ,CIK yg.ekSu
flfrys tkï zmßÑ; ,CIK iïfm%aIKhZ flfrys zckauZ
kele;a n,mdkq ,nkZ ;;ajhla ±l.; yelsh'
zwmam l< foa mq;d fkdfldf<d;a fkdÜáf. mq;dZ hk
idudkH jHjydrfha mj;sk lgjpk fhÿfuys iïNjh
ol=Kq .srejdm;a;=fõ bx.%Sis tacka;jrfhl=f.a m%ldYhlg
iïnkaO nj ol=Kq .srejd m;a;=fjys we;eï fjr<nv fmfoiaj, ckm%jdohla j wo o we;eï jeäysáhka mjikq ud
wid we;' tkï iqÿ tcka;jrhd mjid we;af;a mshd l<
foh mq;d fkdl<fyd;a Tyq zfkdÜ Wf.a mq;dZ hkakh'
zfkdÜ Wf.a mq;dZ hkak zfkdÜáf. mq;d f,i miqj
jHjydrhg meñK we;s nj Tjqka mjihs'
by; ckjyrg Tn is; fhduqlrkq ,enqfõ ufyakaø
fmdfrdkaofuys 10 yd 19 hk ;%sckau kele;aj,g wkqj
mßÑ; ,CIK iïfm%aIKhlska mshd yd iudk .;s we;s mq;%
odrld§ka ms<sis|.ekSfuys ,d hg lS kele;a fya;= N+; jk
nj fmkS hhs' fï wkqj W;=ï mq;% iïm;a ,eîu flfrys
mj;akd idM,H;dj ueKSu i|yd ufyakaø fmdfrdkaou
b;d jeo.;a fjhs'
ufyakaø fmdfrdkaofï b;sß ;%s jO" yd ;%s fCIau kele;a
iSySu wkqj ore iem yd §¾>dhqI ú£u flfrys ta n,mdkq
,nk nj mejish yelsh' zore iemZ hk jok wdldr
71

lsysmhlg w¾ : ± laúh yelsh' orejka ,eîu ksid
uõmshka njg m;aùfuka jk iïm;a;sh tlls' wfkl kï
orejkaf.ka fouõmshka ,nk iemhs' fï folu iïmQ¾ K
ùu flfrys jvd;a n,mdkq ,nkafka hf:dala; mqreIhdf.a
yd ia;%shf.a kele; ysñ .%yhskaf.a ksi¾ . .;s ,CIK
yd wfkHdakH ñ;%dñ;%;djka wkqjh'
fuu fmdfrdkaoï .e,mSu isÿ lsÍfï § isÿ l< hq;= ;jo
úfYaIs; lreKla jkafka fjka fjka jYfhka ia;%shf.a
o mqreIhdf.a o flakaø igyka mÍCId fldg ne,Suhs'
tneúka fuu ,smsh lshjk mdGl Tfnka b,a,d isákafka
úis fmdfrdkaoï úµd;aulj bÈßm;a lsÍfuka Bg jy,a ù
wfkl=;a idOl flfrys wjOdkh fhduq fkdfldg ;Skaÿ
;SrK .ekSfuka je,lS lghq;= lrk f,ihs'
fmdfrdkaoï úiai muKla n,d újdy iSyqula isÿ lrk
úg § mqoa.,noaO idOl ;=<ska isÿúh yels hï n,mEula
fkdfmkS hd yelsh' tfia úg § tu fmdfrdkaoï mÍCId
lrk ,o fcHda;I
s {hdg fyda uq¿ uy;a fcHda;I
s Hgu kskoa d
lsÍug fyda fodaIdfrdamK t,a, lsÍug we;s bvlv jeäh'
ngysr ldh Ñls;ail ufkda úµdjg wkqj ore m%iQ;sfha §
jeä fõokdjla Wiq,kq ,nk uj iajdNdúl ore Wm;lska
fuf,dj t<sh olsk orejl ìys lrk ujg jvd udkisl
jYfhka orejd flfrys wdorh fifkyi ± laùug W;aiql
jk nj fmkajd oS we;' tfiau tu orejka o fouõmshka
flfrys ± ä wdorhla olajhs' tn÷ orejka uõg yd mshdg
jOhla f,i idudkH meje;au ;=< iuch úiska olshs'
kuq;a orejdf.a fm!reI j¾ Okh flfrys yd wNsfhda.
ch.ekSu flfrys orejdf.a mj;sk l=i,;d j¾ Okhg
72

fyj;a wNsfm%arKuh ;;ajhka we;sùu flfrys W;al
ufyakaø fmdfrdkaofuys mÍCId flfrk fuu ;;ajh
Woõjk nj wmf.a mÍCIK ;=<ska fy<s ù we;s nj wmg
fmkajd Èh yelsh'
újdyfha§ jeo.;a jkakd jQ lreKq w;r b;du;au jeo.;a
lreKla iïnkaOfhka ia;%S oS¾ > fmdfrdkaou lreKq
idlÉPd lrkq ,nhs' fld<U fõ,a,ùÈfha .%ka:m%ldY
hka;%d,fha fÊ' ã' m%kdkaÿ uy;d úiska m%ldYhg m;alrk
,o Ylj¾I 1839 fyj;a l%sia;= j¾I 1917 mÙpd[a.
,sf;ys ±lafjk wkaoug" zia;%shf.a kel; mgka .ekakdu
mqreIhdf.a kel; 13lska tyd ù kï ia;%S §¾> iSyqu fõ'
th Y=Nhs' 13lska wvq ù kï wY=NhsZ ' ' ' hkqfjka ia;%S §¾
> fmdfrdkaou úia;r lr we;' tfiau frdydka isisr
l=udrhka ish ,xld mÙpd[a. .%yiaMqg ,sf;ys fuu
fmdfrdkaou meyeÈ,s lr we;af;a ia;%shf.a kelf;a mgka
.eKf.k hk úg 1 isg 9 olajd jQ kel;lg mqreIhdf.a
kel; wiqfõ kï wY=N nj olajd we;' 10 isg 13 olajd
uOHia: nj olajd we;' ;jo 14 isg 27 olaj kele;a jvd;a
Y=N nj olajd we;'
ia;%S §¾ > fmdfrdkaofuys § mÍCIdjg ,laflrkafka
l=ulao lshd úuiSu jvd;a jeo.;ah'
ngysr fcda;sI{hska wxl 13 jvd;au wY=N wxlhla fia
i,lkqfha uka± hs úuid ne,Su fuys§ jeo.;a fjhs' fï
13 keu;s ixLHdj l=ula o@
wvqu ;rfï ldur ish oyia .Kklska iukaú; jkakd jQ
fydag,aj, jqj o 13 wxlh iys; ldurhla ke;' fndfyda
73

úg fydag,a ldur jvd;a Ndú; flfrkqfha újdy lghq;=
iïnkaOfhka uOqiuh .; lsÍugh' fjk;a lghq;=
iïnkaOfhka o fuu 13 wxlh wY=N wxlhla fia Tjqyq
i,ld lghgq;= lr;s' mDÓú f.da,h jgd wxYl 3600la
we;s nj Tng wm l<ska mjid we;s nj u;l we;ehs is;uq'
fuu fmrÈ. fcHda;sY{hska o 13 wxlfhys wY=N ;;ajh
± l ;snQ nj meyeÈ,s lr fmkajd Èh yelsh'
fuf;la m, jQ ,sms u.ska kele;a" .K" ufyakaø" ia;%S §¾>
hk fmdfrdkaoï ms<sn| úµd;aul f;dr;=re Tng m%ldY
lf<uq' rdYs iy rdYHdêm;s fmdfrdkaoï ms<sn| úia;r
u;= ,smshlska f.k taug woyia lrñka fuu ,smsfhka
n,dfmdfrd;a;= jkafka fhdaks iy ,sx. hk fmdfrdkaoï
ms<sn| úµd;aul f;dr;=re Tn fj; f.k tughs'
zfhdaksZ iy z,sx.Z hk jHjydrh Tfí u;lhg kef.k
iefkka tljru ia;%shlf.a iy mqreIfhl=f.a ,sx.sl
moaO;sh yd ine¢ ,sx.sl wjhj flf¾ Tfí is; we§ hdu
ksrdhdifhkau isÿjkakls'
tfiau Tfí is;g fun÷ m%Yakhla o we;s fõ' tlu
mqoa.,fhl=g fuu ia;%S ksñ;a; yd mqreI ksñ;a; msysáh
yelso@ hkak tu m%Yakhhs' kuq;a ukqIHhdf.a isref¾
wekaä%k,Ska (Adrenaline) iy Biag¾cka (Estergen) hk
fydafudak l%shd;aul jk nj wm mejiqjd Tng u;l
we;ehs is;uq' tu fydafudak fol mqreI YÍr ,CIK yd
ia;%S YÍr ,CIK j¾Okh lsÍu flfrys iy ,sx.sl ;Dma;sh
we;s lrùu flfrys n,mdkj' tfiau fuu fydafudak
folu iEu mqoa.,fhl=f.au isrer ;=< l%shd;aul fjkj'
74

fhdaks fmdfrdkaou iy ,sx. fmdfrdkaou fydafudak
l%shdldÍ;ajh flfrys ljr wdldrhlska n,mdkafkao
hkak úuid n,uq' ,sx.sl wjhj j¾Okh iu. mqo.
a ,hdf.a
isref¾ fukau ukfia o ,sx.sl ;Dma;sh ú£u iïnkaOfhka
fm%arKhla ke;skï wdYdjla we;sfjkj' is.auka f*%dhsâ
jeks ufkda úµd{hska fmkajdfok wkaoug <ore wjêfha
mgkau udkjhd ;=< ,sx.sl ;Dma;sh ú£u iïnkaOfhka
fuu wdYdjka we;sjkj' l=vd <orefjl= ujf.a ;kfhka
lsß Wrdfndk wjia:dfõ mgkau Tyq fyda weh ;=< tu
wdYdj fyj;a wjYH;djh j¾Okh jk nj Tjqka mjikj'
udkj wjYH;d mQrKh iïnkaOfhka fY%aIG meyeÈ<s
lsÍula isÿl< tan%yï udiaf,da mjik mßÈ udkqIsl
wjYH;d mQrKfha Oqrdj,shla ±l.; yelsh' tu Oqrdj,sh
my; ±lafjk whqßka fyf;u úia;r lf<ah'
5
4
3
2
1

fuu Oqrdj,sfha m<uq wxlh ysñ ù we;af;a mqoa., ldhsl
wjYH;d Biological Needs mQrKhghs' fuu mqoa., ldhsl
wjYH;d hkq mqoa.,fhl=f.a YÍrfha meje;au fjkqfjka
wjYH lrk wdydr" kskao jeks oEh'
tla w;ls k a fuys uQ , s l ia : r fol ñks i df.a m% d .a
ft;sydisl hq. ksfhdackh lsrSula f,i fmkajdosh yelsh'
75

m%d.a ft;sydisl hq.fha iudc ;=< ldhsl wjYH;d ms<sn|
ixl,amh;a" wdrCIdj ms<n
s | ixl,amh;a hk wjYH;d fol
flfrys muKla iSud jQ ;;ajhla oel.; yelsj ;snQ nj
fmkajdosh yelsh'
v msrsisÿ jd;h" v c,h" v wdydr" v jia;%"
v T!IO" v ksjdi" hk uQ,sl hk uQ,sl wjYH;d
iïmQ¾K lsrf
S uys,d m%d.a ft;sydisl iudc.; ñksid fhduq
úh'
v bvlv ^cSj;a ùug iy wdydr imhd.ekSug&"
v ,sx.sl ;Dma;sh"
v kSfrda.SNdjh"
v YrSr l%shdldrS;ajfha ksis meje;au ;yjqrelrKhg
wjYH jHdhdï wdosh"
v úfõlh hk wjYH;d flfrys fojkqj fhduqjk
ñksid tlS wjYH;d iïmQ¾K;ajhg m;alr.ekSu i|yd
Ys I a g iïu; l% s h dud¾.j,g t<eöu;a iu. ñks i d
YsIagdpdr.; jQjd hhs iudch úiska fmkajdfokq ,nhs'
wxl 01 rEm igyfka ±la jQ m<uq ia:rfha mqoa., ldhsl
wjYH;d .Khg by; i|yka lrk ,o ish¿u wx. we;=<;a
jk nj udiaf,da fmkajd § we;' Tyqg wkqj mqoa.,hdf.a
ukfia we;sjk wjYH;d w;r ,sx.sl ;Dma;sh uq,a;ekla
.kS'
fuu ,sx.sl ;Dma;sh ú£u i|yd wfkHdakH tlaùula wjYH
lrk w;r tys,d úreoaO ,sx.slhka fofofkl= uq,aúh
hq;=h' ,sx.sl ;Dma;sh ,nd.ekSu i|yd we;eï mqoa.,hska
iu,sx.slhkaf.ka yd th ;ksju ú| .ekSug fm<ö we;s
76

;;ajhka o wo iudch ;=< ±l.; yels lreKls' kuq;a
újdyh yd mjq, keu;s iudc ixia:d úreoaO ,sx.slhska
fofofkl=f.a tl;=jlska ieÿï,;a tallhla f,i iudc
iïu; ù we;' we;eï ngysr rgj, iu,sx.sl újdy
lghq;= iy mjq,a ixia:d ±l.; yels w;r tajdfha ;;ajh
ms<sn| úu¾Ykhla fkdlrk w;r iudc iïu; wdpdr
O¾u we;=<;a wx. flf¾ muKla fuys§ wjOdkh fhduq
lrkq ,efí'
fuu iudc iïu; tallh ;=< wkq.; ùug iQodkï jkakd
jQ ia;%S mqreI fofokdg ,sx.sl ;Dma;sh ú|.ekSu i|yd
wdYdjka we;sùu iajdNdúl ;;ajhls' wdYdjka ;Dma;su;a
lr.ekSu Tjqfkdjqkaf.a udkisl uÜgï wkqj úúOh'
tfia is ÿ jka k d jQ udkis l l% s h dj,s f ha iy YdÍßl
fm%arKfha fyj;a ta i|yd mqoa.,hd fhduq lsÍfï m%jK;dj
ueKSu i|yd Ôj úµd;aulj fydafudak mÍCIdjla isÿ l<
yelsh' kuq;a tn÷ fydafudak mÍCIdjla isÿ fkdfldg
wmg fhdaks fmdfrdkaou ;=<ska fofokdf.a ,sx.sl ;Dma;sh
ueK.; yelsh'
fhdaks fmdfrdkaou ms<sn|j ufyakaømdohka fmkajd
fokafka fufiah'
zNdhH_d mqreIfhdaf.Iq újdyx kp ldrfh;a
fhdaks ffjfrzms ud;:d pdZkH;d Y=NudÈfY;a'''Z fydardNrK 172 Yaf,dal
tfiau fld<U fõ,a,ùÈfha .%ka:m%ldY hka;%d,fha fÊ'
ã' m%kdkaÿ uy;d úiska m%ldYhg m;alrk ,o Ylj¾I
1839 fyj;a l%sia;= j¾I 1917 mÙpd[a. ,sf;ys ±lafjk
77

wkaoug fhdaks fmdfrdkaou fufiah'
zzfhdaks fmdfrdkaou - we;a fhdakshg isxy ^fyda ñksia fyda
ls÷re& fhdaksh o" wYaj fhdakshg f.dka" óf.dka fhdaksh
o - f.dka" ó f.dka" t¿" uqj" n¨ hk fhdksj,g jHd>%
fhdaksh o - j÷re fhdakshg t¿" n¨ fhdaks fol o - uqIsl
fhdakshg n<,a im_ fhdaks fol o - im_ fhdakshg uq.á t¿
fhdaks fol o - n<,a fhdakshg n¨" jHd>% fhdaks fol o
i;=re fj;a" fkdiSfyhs' uqj fhdakshg .j fhdaksh o - t¿
fhdakshg wYaj fhdaksh o - n¨ fhdakshg ñksia fhdaksh o
ñ;% fõ' Y=N fõ' fï yer wka úÈhlg fhdaks isáfha kï
iu fj;a - uOHuhs - ish¿ fhdaksj,gu j÷re fhdaksh
ñ;%jkafka hehs iuyre lsh;s'ZZ
fuu meyeÈ<s lsÍï wkqj fjka fjka jYfhka olajd we;s
ia;%S fhdaks mqreI fhdaksj,§ ia;%S fhdaks ia;%shg;a mqreI
fhdaks mqreIhdg;a ysñ jQ ;;ajhl § jvd;a .e<mSï iys;
nj y÷kd.; yelsh' tfiau wfkHdakH ffjÍ i;ajhka
f,i kï fldg we;s fhdaks iys; ;;ajhl § .e<mSï
rys; wiqN ;;ajhla Wodjk nj meyeÈ<s l< yelsh'
j÷re fhdaksh ish¿ fhdaksj,gu .e<fmk nj olajd we;s
;;ajh ms<sn| úuiSfï § meyeÈ<sjk lreKla we;' tkï"
udkjhdf.a iïNjh yd mßKduh j÷rdf.ka mej;Su hk
lreK flfrys fuys iïnkaOhla we;ehs hkak wmg is;sh
yels lreKls' Ôj úµd;aul m¾fhaIK ;=<ska fï ;;ajh
;yjqre lrf.k we;s nj ngysr ldhÉfþo ffjµ úµd
m¾fhaIK jd¾;d foi ne,Sfï § fmkS hk lreKls'
,sx. fmdfrdkaou ms<sn|j úuiSfï § meyeÈ<sjk lreKq /
ils' ldhsl jYfhka mqreI YÍr ,CIK yd ia;S% YÍr ,CIK
78

we;s lsÍfuys,d n,mdkq ,nk fydafudak l%shdldÍ;ajh wm
óg by; idlÉPd lf<uq' kuq;a ,sx. fmdfrdkaou iDcqju
ia;%S ,sx." mqreI ,sx. iy kmqxil ,sx. hkqfjka ,sx.;%hla
ms<sn|j lreKq idlÉPd lrhs'
Wmka kel; wkqj ks¾Kh flfrk fuu ,sx. fNaoh ms<n
s |
fkd±kqj;a Ndjh u; Tjqka kmqxil .Khg we;=<;a hhs
;ukaf.a flakaø igyfkys oelafjk nj we;ï ldka;djka
ud iu. fkdfhla wjia:dj, mjid we;' we;eï msßñka
o fuf,i fndfyda wjia:dj, mjid we;' we;eï úfgl
ldka;djka mqreI ,sx. .Khg o msßñka ia;%S ,sx. .Khg
o we;=<;a jk nj Tn ±l weid we;sjdg iel ke;'
fuf,i ±lafjk ,sx. fmdfrdkaou hï mqoa.,fhl=f.a
ia;%S mqreI Ndjh ;SrKh lsÍula fkdlrk nj iaÓrj mejish hq;= fjhs' Wmka kel; wkqj fmdfrdkaoï mÍCIdj
i|yd wjYH flfrk ,sx.h ;SrKh lrk nj mejish hq;=
fjhs' ufyakaømdohkaf.a fydardNrKfhys 168 Yaf,dalfhys
hful= Wmka kel; wkqj fmdfrdkaoï mÍCIdj i|yd
wjYH flfrk ia;%S" mqreI iy kmqxil ,sx. ks¾Kh
meyeÈ<sj olajd we;' tfia kï fuu ,sx. fmdfrdkaofuka
mÍCId flfrkafka l=uk ;;ajhla o hkak úuid ne,sh
hq;=h'
ldhsl jYfhka hful=f.a ,sx.h l=ula o hkak ;yjqre
lr .ekSu jeo.;a lreKls' kuq;a fndfyda wjia:dj, ia;%S
.;s ,CIK we;s msßñ wmg ±l.; yels w;ru mqreI .;s
,CIK we;s ia;%Ska o wmg ±l.; yelsfjhs'
fn!oaO úkh msglfhys meúÈ lsÍug fkdiqÿiq mqoa.,hka
79

62 fofokd w;=frys zWNf;da NHxckslZ kñka y÷kajk
mqoa.,fhl= o fjhs' tfia zWNf;da NHxckslZ kñka y÷kajd
we;af;a msßñfhl=;a fkdjk ia;h
s% l;a fkdjk mqo.
a ,hkah'
fudjqka meúÈ fkdl< hq;= mqoa.,hka f,i fmkajd §
we;af;a fujeks mqoa.,hka ksjKg fkdhd hq;= ksid fkdjk nj tys meyeÈ<s lr we;' iiqfka Ñr meje;au i,ld
tfia kS;shla mKjk ,o nj úkh msglfhys jeäÿrg;a
úia;r lr we;'
tla;rd mqj;a m;l msßñfhl= lrkd ish¿u jevlghq;=
lrk .eyeKshl ms<sn|j mqj;la fuys§ u;lhg kef.
hs' tfiau ldka;d lgy`v ms<sn|j lreKq úuiSfï §
ldka;djkag msßñkaf.a fuka r¿ lgy`v we;s wjia:d
ms<sn|j we;eï úfgl wikakg olskakg ,efnhs'
wm rfgys kdhl;ajhg m;a ia;%Ska fofofkl=gu fujeks
;;ajhka ;snQ nj Tn iefjdu okakd lreKls' tfiau
we;eï msßñka o ldka;djkaf.a fuka uDÿ isyska iajrhla
we;s wjia:d fndfyda úg ±l.; yelsh'
fn!oaO msgl idys;Hfhys úkh msglfhys ±lafjk tla;rd
mqj;la Tng mjiñ' tla ry;ka jykafia kula b;du rEm
iïmkak jQ w;r Wka jykafiaf.a isrer ldka;djlf.a
fuka ishque,s ug is¿gq iulska yd wÕmiÕlska iukaú;
úh' Wka jykafia ms`vqisÕd jäk wjia:djl tla ud,s.hl
isá fj<| kdhlfhl= Wka jykafia ±l Wka jykafiaf.a
isrer flf¾ ms<sn| is;la we;s lr uqka jykafia udf.a
NdhH_dj jkafka kï flfrï w.fka ±hs is;h
S ' tiekska tlS
ry;ka jykafiaf.a ry;aNdjh fyda mqKH uysuh fkd±k
we;s l< is;sú,a, fya;=fjka tu fj<| kdhlhdf.a ,sx.
80

úlD;shla we;s ù Tyqg ia;%S ksñ;a; my< jQ nj ±lafjhs'
isÿ jQ ;;ajh ms<sn|j l< yels fohla fkdjQfhka fj<|
kdhlhd ldka;djl fuka fjiaj,df.k ud,s.fhka
neyer ù tla mi,a okõjl ÿmam;a orejka ke;s uõmshka
fofofkl= hgf;a orefjl= f,i yefokakg úh'
tfia miqjk wjia:dfõ § tu uõmshka wehg újdyhla lr
§ug is;d ldr ne| ÿks' tu újdyfhka wehg orejka fofofkl= ,enqk w;r tla orefjl= nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.a
iiqfkys meúÈ ù úoiqka jvd ry;a M,hg m;a úh'
tfia ry;a Ndjhg m;a ysñ ku ;ukaf.a uEKshkaf.a
;;ajh ;u kqjKska ±l miq Èfkl ksjig jevu fldg
ujg O¾uh foaYkd lf<ka tu nK wid uEKshka fidjdka
M,hg m;aúh' tfiau uEKshka fidajdka M,hg m;ajkjd;a
iu.u kej;;a uEKshka yg mqreI ksñ;a; my< jQfhka
miqj nqÿrÿka ±l meúÈ Èúhg m;a úh'
nqÿrÿkaf.ka nK wid lugyka f.k úoiqka jvd fyf;u
ry;a M,hg m;a jQ miq Èfkl ;ukaf.a miq.sh w;S; isÿùï
ms<sn| wj¾cd fldg ix>hd yuqfõ mjid we;'
fuu ;;ajh ms<sn| we;ful=g m%,dmhla úh yels hhs
woyila we;súh yelsh' kuq;a wo o we;eï wjia:djkays §
fujeks ,sx. udreùï fyda ,sx. úlD;sùï isÿjk nj uE;l
mqj;a m;l m< jQ mqj;lska fy<súh' úfoaY rgl msßñfhl==
fydafudak j¾Okh lsÍfuka ldka;d YÍr ,CIK we;s lr
miqj ie;alulska ldka;d wjhj noaO lrjdf.k újdy
Èúhg we;=<;aj orejka je¥ nj tu mqj;ska fy<súh'
81

furg kdhlfhl= jHjia:d ixfYdaOkhlska miqj tu
jHjia : dfjka l< fkdyels tlu foh ldka ; djl
msßñfhl= lsÍu;a yd msßñfhl= ldka;djl lsÍu;a nj
mjid ;snqKs' by; mqj;ska ffjµ úµdfõ ÈhqKqfjka isÿ
l< wreu mqÿu isÿùu Bg b÷rd fjkia m%;sM, f.k ÿka
nj tu mqj; mqj;am;aj, m< jQ Èkj, we;uqka mjikq
wikakg ,eìKs'
,sx. fmdfrdkaou ms<n
s |j ufyakøa mdohka fmkajd fokafka
fufiah'
zi;%sKdumquNJkDKx i;%SNï Nfj;a l,yfYdalox
WNfhd( mqreIkCI;%x ks;Hx l,y udzjfy;a'''Z fydardNrK
169 Yaf,dal
tys w¾:h fmka j dfok ufya k a ø mdohka ia ; % s h mq r eI
kel;l o mqreIhd ia;%S kel;l o jQ l,ays w`vonr fYdal
we;s lsÍï jk w;r fofokdu mqreI kCI;%hl jk l,ays
ks;r w`vonr fYdal we;s lsÍï f.k fok njhs'
Zi;%sKdï i;%Sl,SjkCI;%ï mqxid mquNï kmqxilx
újdfy Y=Nox f{hñz;s ú{dh fhdcfh;a'''Z fydardNrK
170 Yaf,dal
ia;%shg ia;%S kel;la o mqreIhdg mqreI kel;la fyda
kiqxil kel;la fyda ysñjk l,ays
újdyh Y=N tllau jk nj jeäÿrg;a fyf;u fmkajdfohs'
fuys úµd;a u l meyeÈ<s ls Í u ms < s n |j úuiS f ï §
wkdjrKh jk ;;ajh foi ±ka n,uq' ,sx.slj fofofkl=
tla ùfï rgdj ms<n
s |j úuiSfï § mqreIfhl= fuka ,sx.slj
82

tlaùu;a" ia;%shl fuka ,sx.slj tlaùu;a yd kmqxilfhl=
fuka ,sx.slj tlaùu;a ñka mÍCIdjg Ndckh lrk nj
fmkajd Èh yelsh'
wm úis k a is ÿ lrk ,o m¾fha I K ;= < s k a fy<s jQ
lreKq ls y s m hla fjhs ' mÍCIdjg Ndckh lrk ,o
oyilg wêl fmdfrdkaoïj,ska ishhg 30]l fuu ,sx.
fmdfrdkaofuys § ia;%S mqreI fofokdf.a kel;g ysñ
jQ ,sx. yd Ôj úµd;aul ,sx.sl;ajfhys m%;súreoaO ,sx.
ysñ j ;snqKs' Tjqkaf.a ,sx.sl phH_sjka ms<sn|j jir
lsysmhlg miqj b;du;a fm!oa.,slj isÿ lrk ,o iïuqL
mÍCIK ;=<ska fy<s jQfha mrSCIs; mQ¾j ksYaÑ; mQ¾jdpdÍ
u;hka ikd: ù we;s njh' tfiau 45]la jQ fmdfrdkaoï
w;=frka 30]la ukd .e,mSï iys; jQ w;r Wla; 45] b;sß
15] imhk ,o Wmka fõ,dj iïnkaO o;a;hkaf.a mej;s
idjµ;d fya;f
= jka neyer lsÍug isÿúh' b;sß 25] b;du;a
wiqN ;;ajfha miqjQ w;r Tjqkaf.a újdy iïnkaO;d
úfYaIfhka ,sx.sl Ôú; foord f.dia ;snqKs'
fuu ish¿ lreKq ;=<k
s a meyeÈ<sjk fohla we;' tkï" ,sx.
fmdfrdkaou ;=<ska mÍCIdjg Ndckh flfrkqfha hful=
,s x .s l j tla ù fï rgdj ke;fyd;a ,s x .s l phH_ d fõ
iajrEmhhs'
rdYs fmdfrdkaou ms<sn| idlÉPd lsÍfï § m%:ufhka rdYsh
hkq l=ula oehs y÷kd.; hq;=h' my; igyka n,kak' tys
wm fjfik mDÓúh we;=¿ fi!r.%y uKav,fha wfkl=;a
.%yhska fmkakqï lr we;'

83

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v
v
v
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v
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rú ^iQhH_d&
nqO
isl=re
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.=re
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Yks
hqf¾kia
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maÆfgda
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ì%geksld úYajfldaIfhka (Britannica Encyclopedia Deluxe Edition 2005 CD ROM) Wmqgd.kakd ,o my; .%y
rEm igykg wu;rj wm fi!r.%y uKav,fha .%yhskag
mßndysrj kele;a ;re uKav, yd rdYs ;re uKav, msysgd
we;s nj Tng l<ska wmf.a ,sms weiqfrka fmkajd ÿkakd
u;l we;ehs is;uq' Tnf.a ±Kqu w¿;a lr,Su i|yd kej;
wdj¾ckhla lr n,uq'
wm fjfik fi!r.%y uKav,fha l=c .=re .%yhskag
ueÈj we;s .%dyl (METEOROIDS ASTEROIDS) hkqfjka
y÷kajk jia;+ka iuQyh foi n,kak' ta
;=< úfYaIs;j
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y÷kd.kq ,enQ .%dyl /il msysàï mDÓúfha ±l.; yels
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i;aj rEm iu. ikaikaokh lsÍula fcHda;sIfha § isÿ
lr we;' fuh mqoa., Ôú;fha§ lrkq ,nk fyd|" krl
xxxxxxx
84

iy uOHia: jYfhka isÿlrkq ,nk l%shdjkaf.a m%;sM,
ks¾Kfha ld, jljdkq fukau iajNdj ,CIK iy .=K
w.=K oelaùu i|yd mQ¾jdpdÍka úiska rdYs uKav, xxxxx
jYfhka xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
hglS úfYaIs;j y÷kd.kq ,enQ .%dyl /il msysàï
fmkajd § we;'
<orefjl= Wmka od Wmka fjf,a Wmka ia:dkfha § mDÓúh
jgd wxYl 3600 iudk fldgia fod<ilg fnÿ l,
fodf<dia Ndjhka wms ks¾Kh lrkafkuq' tlla wxYl 300
ne.ska f.k .Kskd flakaorfha Ndj fodf<di ;=< rdYsSka
ksfhdackh jk wdldrh wkqj fcHda;sIh Tfí ,.akh
;SrKh lrhs' Tn ,.akh f,i y÷kd.kafka Tn Wmka
oskfha" Wmka fõf,a" Wmka ia:dkhg kef.kysr CIs;sc
f¾Ldfõ fmfkk my; ±lafjk rdYSkaf.ka tlls'
v
v
v

fïI v jDIN v ñ:qk v lgl
isxy v lkHd v ;=,d v jDYaÑl
Okq v ulr v l=ïN v ók

fmdfrdka o ï mÍCIdfõ§ rdYs fmdfrdka o u jYfhka
úu¾Ykhg ,la flfrkqfha fuu rdYSkaf.a iajNdjhka"
tajdfha ksi¾. .;s ,l=Kq yd msysàïj, .e,mSïh' fuys§
rdYSkaf.a iajNdjhka we;=¿ wfkl=;a .e,mSï ms<sn| úuiSfuys§ wjOdkh ,la l< hq;= lreKq /ila fjhs' tajd
tlsfkl fm<.eiSu m<uqfjka l< hq;= fjhs'
rdYs kdu
v fïI
v jDIN
v ñ:qk
85

v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v

lgl
isxy
lkHd
;=,d
jDYaÑl
Okq
ulr
l=ïN
ók

rdYs m%fNao
v ,.ak rdYs ^fm!reIh&
v pkaø rdYs ^yoj;&
v iQhH_ rdYs ^wd;au úYajdih&
v isl=re rdYs ^wdorh&
v fN!u ^l=c& rdYs ^lduh&
rdYs iajNdj$rdYs m%udK
rdYs Wodjka
v YS¾fIdaoh
v mDIafGdaoh ^msgqmiska Wodjk&
v WNfhdaoh ^ysiska iy mqgmiska hk folska Wodjk
ók muKs&
rdYs Wodjka wkqj rdYs n,
v fïI
YS¾fIdaoh ksYd n,
v jDIN
YS¾fIdaoh ksYd n,
v ñ:qk
YS¾fIdaoh ksYd n,
v lgl
YS¾fIdaoh ksYd n,
v isxy
mDIafGdaoh Èjd n,
v lkHd
mDIafGdaoh Èjd n,
86

v
v
v
v
v
v

;=,d
jDYaÑl
Okq
ulr
l=ïN
ók

mDIafGdaoh
mDIafGdaoh
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YS¾fIdaoh
mDIafGdaoh
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Èjd n,
Èjd n,
ksYd n,
ksYd n,
Èjd n,
ksYd$Èjd WNh n,

rdYs nei hdï ^ta ta rdYs .;ùug wod< ld,h&

NÜfgda;aM, àldjg wkqj ^isxy, 60 mefha l%uhg&
v
v
v
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v

fïI
20
jDIN
24
ñ:qk
28
lgl
32
isxy
26
lkHd
;=,d
20
jDYaÑl
24
Okq
28
ulr
32
l=ïN
26
ók
40

­6
­6
­6
­6
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­6
­6
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} mE 03 ú 20
} mE 04 ú 00
} mE 04 ú 40
} mE 05 ú 20
} mE 06 ú 00
40 ­6 } mE 06 ú 40
} mE 03 ú 20
} mE 04 ú 00
} mE 04 ú 40
} mE 05 ú 20
} mE 06 ú 00
} mE 06 ú 40

rdYs i,l=Kq
v
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t¿
f.dka
ia;%S mqreI ñksia rE
ll=¿
87

v
v
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v
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v
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v

isxy
ia;%S lkHdj
;rdÈh w;ska .;a .eyeKsh
f.daKqiq
w¾O wYaj ñksia rE
uk(l,ams; ulr rej
l,hla w;ska .;a .eyeKsh
ia;%S mqreI u;aiH rE

rdYs i,l=Kq wkqj
v oaúmo ^kr& rdYs
v p;=Iamo rdYs
v c, rdYs
v lSg rdYs
rdYs j¾K ^jrdy ñysrh" rdYs fNao m<uq mßÉfþoh" 20
Yaf,dalh" rdYs j¾K&
v fïI f,a mdg ^;o r;=&
v jDIN iqÿ mdg ^ish¿ j¾K tla jQ mdg&
v ñ:qk .srd mdg ^fld< mdg&
v lgl mf<d,a mdg ^uola l¿ r;=&
v isxy
uola iqÿ
v lkHd úis;=re mdg ^iEu mdglau úúO uÜgñka
we;&
v ;=,d
l¿ ^lsisÿ j¾Khla ke;sl, tu j¾K fõ&
v jDYaÑl rkajka mdg
v Okq
ly mdg ^ù oyhshd mdg&
v ulr lUqre mdg ^iqÿ meyehg yqre r;= mdg&
v l=ïN nUrejk mdg ^uq.áhdf.a .=re meyeh&
v ók u;aiH mdg ^ud¿kaf.a we;s ߧ iy ks,a ñY%
88

jQ mdg&
rdYs ksi¾. .;s ,l=Kq
ksi¾. .;s ,l=Kq ^idrdj,shg iy w.aks mqrdKhg wkqj&
ia;%S rdYs ^uDÿ iajNdj we;sjqka&
v jDIN v lgl v lkHd
v jDYaÑl v ulr v ók
mqreI rdYs ^f;acia iys;jqka&
v fïI v ñ:qk v isxy
v ;=,d
v Okq
v l=ïN
l%Er rdYs ^l%Er .;s we;sjqka&
v fïI v ñ:qk v isxy
v ;=,d v Okq v l=ïN
fi!uH rdYs ^fi!uH .;s we;sjqka&
v jDIN v lgl v lkHd
v jDYaÑl v ulr v ók
pr rdYs ^pxp, iajNdj we;a;ka&
v fïI v lgl v ;=,d

v

ulr

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v jDIN v isxy
v jDYaÑl v

l=ïN

WNh rdYs ^WNh iajNdj we;a;ka&
v ñ:qk v lkHd v Okq

ók

89

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by; whqßka rdYs iajNdjhka úúO m%fNao hgf;a olajd
we;' fuu úúO jQ m%fNao iïnkaOfhka wm úiska jir
.Kkdjla uq¿,af,a isÿlrk ,o m¾fhaIK wkqj fmkS .sh
lreKla jQfha fuu m%fNaolrKh Wmka Èkh" Wmka fõ,dj
yd ia:dkh ksjerÈj igyka lr.;a flakaø hq., 1"000lska
98'75]lau ksjerÈ ñksia phH_d .;s ,CIK fmkakqï lr
;snQ njhs' tfiau my; oelafjk j.=j wm úiska isÿlrk
,o rdYs m%fNao ms<sn| m¾fhaIKfha m%;sM,hs'
m¾fhaIKhg Ndckh lrk ,o flakaø hq., ixLHdj 1"000
m¾fhaIKhg Ndckh lrk ,o flakaø w;=frka
rdYs fmdfrdkaou ms<sn| ixLHdf,aLk
rdYsh
iqN uOHia:
wiqN wkq tl;=j

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,.ak rdYs ^fm!reIh&
45]
pkaø rdYs ^yoj;&
30]
iQhH_ rdYs ^wd;au úYajdih& 25]
isl=re rdYs ^wdorh&
35]
fN!u ^l=c& rdYs ^lduh&
55]
tl;=j
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25]
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35]
20]
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40]
100]
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fmdfrdkaoï mÍCIdfõ§ wm úuid n,k m[apdÙ. ,s;l
±lafjk Wmfoiaj,g wu;rj by; ±la jQ rdYs iajNdj
.e,mSï fofokdf.a ljr uÜgul mj;S±hs úuiSu b;du;a
wjYH lreKla nj fmkajd Èh hq;=h' fuu ,smsfha §
idudkH m[apdÙ. ,s;l ±lafjk Wmfoia kej; bÈßm;a
fkdlsÍug woyia lrk ,oafoa ,smsh §¾>ùu je,elaùu
i|ydh' mqoa., fm!reIh ^,.ak rdYsh&" mqoa., yoj;
^pkaø rdYsh&" mqoa., wd;au úYajdih ^iQhH_ rdYsh&" mqoa.,
wdorh ^isl=re rdYs& iy mqoa., lduh ^fN!u ^l=c& rdYs&
hk wx.hkaf.a fofokd w;r .e,mSu w;HdjYHfhkau
90

udkisl uÜgï .e,mSula nj wm ±kqj;a úh hq;= neúks'
rdYHdêm;s fmdfrdkaofï úµd;aul me;slv fuu
,smsfhka lreKq bosrsm;a flf¾' rdYHdêm;s fmdfrdkaou
ms<sn| lreKq meyeÈ,s lr .ekSu i|yd my; wxl 01 rEm
igyk foi m<uqj wjOdkh fhduq lrkak'

oeka Tn rdc iNdjla isf;a ujd.kak' tys rcq foaúh iu.
isxydikdrEVj ys¢hs' rcqf.a isxydikhg fome;af;a hqjrc
fom, fjhs' rdc l=udßldjka fom, wk;=rej fjhs' hqO
fiakdm;s hqj, wk;=rej ys¢hs' mqfrdays; n%dyauKhka
fom,la fiakdm;s hqj,g miqj ys¢hs' wjidkfha hdpl
fom,la fjhs'
újdy fmda r e pdß;% j , § ukud, uy;d;a " ukud,
uy;añh;a fmdarefõ l=uk ÈYdfjka ys¢kafka±hs u;lhg
kÕd .ka k ' ±ka rcq is x ydikdrEV fldg ^rú is x y
rdYsfha ;nd& rc foaúh fmdarejg kxjkak ^pkaøhd isxy
/ig jïmi /ig lglhg le|jkak&' by; rdc iNdfõ
wkq ms<sfj<g isxy lgl fo/ig fomiska wdik fol
^ñ:qk lkHd& hqj rc nqOg mKjkak' iNdfõ rdc l=udßh
jk isl=reg wdik folla Bg fomiska ^jDIN ;=,d&
91

mKjkak' fikam;s l=cg B<Õ wdik fol ^fïI jDYaÑl&
ms ß Kuka k ' mq f rda y s ; n% d ya u Khd i|yd ^foa j dkx p
iDIskdx p .=rex ld[apk ikaksNx } foúhkag yd iDISkag
.=rejrhd jkakd jQ .=re& wdik folla wk;=rej ^Okq ók&
mKjkak' wjidk wdik fol ^ulr l=ïN& hdplhdg
^YffkYajr } Yks .%yhdg& msßKukak'
by; rEm igyk yd wk;=re ±la jQ l;dka;rh u;lfha
;nd.ekSfuka Tng rdYSkaf.a wêm;s .%yhska ljqreka±hs
fidhd.; yelsh' fuu rdc iNdfjka msgux flrek
.%yhska fofofkla fjhs' ta rdyq iy fla;= hk .%yhskah'
Phd .%yhska jYfhka muKla y÷kd.; yels neúka Tjqkg
ks;H ysñldr;ajhla we;s .Dyhla ^rdYshla& msßkeñh
fkdyelsh' Bg fya;=j thhs' ;jo óg fmr wm bosrsm;a
l< rEm igyk wkqj wm y÷kd.kq ,enQ .%yhska w;=frka
rdYs ysñldr;ajhla fkdue;s .%yhska lsysmfofkl= fjhs'



Oqufla;= fyj;a j,a.d ;re
hqf¾kia
fkmapQka
maÆfgda

mshfiak r;=ú;dk Y+Íka ,xld fcHda;sI ix.%yfha 2 jk
ldKavfha 05 jk l,dmfha ^2006 Tlaf;dan¾& -maÆfgda
kï jQ .%yhd˜ kñka m< lrk ,o ,smsfha § oela jQ nDy;a
fydardfõ isõjk mßÉfþofha jk OQu" mßfõY yd bkaøpdm
^l=c l¾uqL& hk .%yhska ;sfofkl= ms<sn| i|yka lrk
w;r Tjqka i|yd o ksYaÑ; rdYs ysñldr;ajhla we;s njla
wm úiska fuf;la lshejQ lsisÿ fcHda;sI .%ka:hl oel
ke;s w;r r;=úkd; Y+Íka o ta njla i|yka fldg ke;'
92

;jo ,xld fcHda;sI ix.%yfha 2 jk ldKavfha 05 jk
l,dmfha ^2006 Tlaf;dan¾& fylag¾ moauisß uy;d fmkajd
§ we;s -2010 § whkdxY iqkafõo@˜ hk ,smsfha oelafjk
whkdxY uq,alr isÿlrk ,o m¾fhaYK /ila yqol,d
uÜgñka mj;sk nj fmkajd Èh hq;= fjhs' kuq;a bx.%Sis
udOHfhka m<jk jdr iÕrd" lD;Ska yd wka;¾cd,h ;=<
yerek úg whkdxY ms<sn| isxy, udOHfhka isÿlrkq
,nk m¾fhaIK fyda úia;r iys; ,sms b;d ÿ¾,N
;;ajhl mj;S' Astrovision India kï wdh;khla úiska
Astrovision kñka m%ldY lrk ,o fcHda;sI uDÿldx.
hl zudkaÈZ kñka kj.%yhskag wu;rj oijk .%yfhl=
i|yka lr we;' wo fj<|fmdf,a we;s fndfyda fcHda;sI
uDÿldx. w;=frka jvd;a ksjerÈ isxy, m,dM, l:khla
isÿlrkq ,nk fuu uDÿldx.h wdhkdxY fNaoh wkqj
î' ù' rduka B. V. Raman, l%sIAKuQ¾;s Krishnamurthi,
,ysß Lahiri, Ñ;%mCI Chithrapaksha iy ngysr Western
^whkdxY iu. .Kskd idhk flakaø& hk wdldr i;r
wkqj ks¾udKh lr we;s w;r tys oelafjk fuu udkaÈ
kï .%yhd ms<sn| i|yk idrdj,sh weiqfrka bÈßm;a
flfrkakla nj fmkajd § we;' kuqka tu .%yhdg o lsisÿ
rdYs ysñldr;ajhla mjrd ke;'
wm úiska lrk ,o fj<|fmd, uDÿldx. ms<sn| m¾fhaIK
wkqj uDÿldx.hlska flakaøhla iE§ug úkd flakaøhl
m,dM, mejiSug Bg we;s yelshdj b;du;a wju m%;sY;hla
.kakd njhs' Bg m%Odk fya;=j f,i oelaúh yelafla
mß.Klhg ;ju;a is;Sfï Yla;sh fkdue;sluhs' kuq;a
hï fohla ms<sn| is;kjdg jvd blauKska ulfha ;ekam;a
lr we;s fohla u;lhg k.d .ekSug mß.Klh wo
93

jk úg iu;aj we;s kuq;a w¿f;ka is;Sug Bg ;ju;a
yelshdj ke;'

rdYHdêm;s fmdfrdkaou ms<sn| ie,lSfï § by; uDÿldx.
ms<sn| f;dr;=re oelaùu ksIaM, fola f,i we;ful=g
fmkS hd yel' fuys ta ms<sn| úia;r olajkakg fhÿfka
kj.%y uKav,hg wu;r .%yhska ms<sn| f;dr;=re
oelaùfï wruqfKks'
wmf.a rdYs fmdfrdkaou ms<sn\ jQ ,smsfha ±la jQ rdYs
m%fNao wkqj ljr kï rdYshla ,.ak" pkaø" iQhH_" isl=re
yd l=c rdYs jkafka ±hs m%:ufhkau fidhd.; hq;= fjhs'
WodyrKhla jYfhka my; oelafjk mqreI flakaø igyk
n,kak' fuu flakaø ysñhd ñ:qk ,.akfhka Wm; ,nd
we;' ta wkqj Tyqf.a ,.ak rdYsh ñ:qk jk w;r tys
wêm;shd nqOhs' ó<Õg ne,sh hq;af;a pkaø rdYsh l=ula
o lshdh' pkaøhd ,.akfha ;ekam;a j we;s neúka Tyqf.a
pkaø rdYsh ñ:qk iy wêm;shd nqOhs' rú lkHd rdYsfha
neúka iQhH_ rdYsh jkafka lkHdjhs' tys wêm;s nqOhs'
isl=re isxy rdYs .;j isákd fyhska isl=re rdYs fyj;a
Y=l% rdYsh jkafka isxyhhs' tys wêm;s rú h' l=c ñ:qk
rdYsfha neúka fN!u rdYsh fyj;a l=c rdYsh jkafka o
ñ:qkhhs' wêm;s nqOu fjhs'

94

oeka kej; rdYs fmdfrdkaou ms<sn| jQ ,smsh u;lhg
k.d .ksuq' ta iu.u fuu flakaø igykg wkqj tu
rdYs yd rdYs wêm;shka ljqreka±hs igyka lr n,uq'




rdYs m%fNao
,.ak rdYs ^fm!reIh& ñ:qk rdYsh
pkaø rdYs ^yoj;&
ñ:qk rdYsh
iQhH_ rdYs ^wd;au úYajdih& lkHd rdYsh
isl=re rdYs ^wdorh&
isxy rdYsh

 fN!u ^l=c& rdYs ^lduh& ñ:qk rdYsh

nqO wêm;s
nqO wêm;s
nqO wêm;s
rú wêm;s
nqO wêm;s

fuu flakaøysñhdf.a fm!reIh" yoj;" wd;au úYajdih yd lduh ksfhdackh lrkafka nqO .%yhdh'
wdorh muKla isl=re ksfhdackh lrhs' fuu WodyrK
mqreI flakaø igyk fukau rdYHdêm;s fmdfrdkaou
mÍCIdfõ § ia;%shf.a flakaøfhys o fulS mia wdldr
rdYHdêm;shka ljqreka±hs ksYaph lr .; hq;=fjhs'
rdYHdêm;s fmdfrdkaofuys § ia;%S mqreI fofokdf.a
flakaøhkaf.a .e,mSu ljr wdldroehs msßlaiSug m%:u
ie,lsh hq;= lreKq /ila fjhs' tajd fufia oelaúh
yelsh'
 rdYHdêm;s .%y kdu
 rú 
pkaø 
 isl=re 
l=c 
 Yks

95

nqO
.=re

 rdYHdêm;s .%y iajNdj
 rdYHdêm;s .%yhskaf. N+; wêm;s

rú -
f;afcda ^.sKaor&

pkaø -
wdfmda ^c,hg&

nqO -
mGú ^fmd,jg ;o fohg&

isl=re -
wdfmda ^c,hg&

l=c -
f;afcda ^.sKaor&

.=re -
wdldY ^Y+kH;ajh&

Yks -
jdfhda ^me;sÍu&
 rdYHdêm;s .%yhskaf. Od;= wêm;s

rú -
weg

pkaø -
f,a

nqO -
fiu

isl=re -
Y=l%

l=c -
ñÿ¿

.=re -
fïO

Yks -
iakdhq
 rdYHdêm;s .%yhskaf. ;=kafoia wêm;s

jd; -
i÷ isl=re nqO Yks

ms; -
rú l=c nqO

fiu -
i÷ isl=re nqO .=re
 rdYHdêm;s .%yhskaf. uQ, øjH wêm;s;d

rú -
;U

pkaø -
ueKsla

nqO -
ms;a;,

isl=re -
uq;=
96



l=c -
.=re -
Yks -

r;%x
ߧ
hlv

 rdYHdêm;s .%y ksi¾. .;s

iqN .%yhska

mdm .%yhska
 rdYHdêm;s .%y ,sx. fNaoh

ia;%S .%yhska

mqreI .%yhska

kmqxil .%yhska
 rdYHdêm;s .%yhd wfkla .%yhka yd
olajk ñ;%dñ;%;d
 ñ;%







pkaø
nqO
isl=re
l=c
.=re
Yks

-
-
-
-
-
-
-

l=c pkaø .=re
rú nqO
rú isl=re
nqO Yks
rú pkaø .=re
rú pkaø l=c
nqO isl=re

i;=re
 rú - isl=re Yks iu. i;=rehs
 pkaø - lsisÿ .%yfhla iu. i;=re ke;
 nqO - pkaø iu. i;=rehs
97

 isl=re  l=c  .=re  Yks 

iu
 rú -
 pkaø -
 nqO -
 isl=re -
 l=c -
 .=re -
 Yks -

rú pkaø iu. i;=rehs
nqO iu. i;=rehs
nqO isl=re iu. i;=rehs
rú pkaø l=c iu. i;=rehs

nqO rdyq iu. iuhs
isl=re l=c .=re Yks iu. iuhs
l=c .=re Yks iu. iuhs
l=c .=re iu. iuhs
isl=re Yks iu. iuhs
Yks iu. iuhs
.=re iu. iuhs

rdYHdêm;s .%yhska ta ta rdYSkays § olajk n, ÿn,;d
fndfyda ÿrg fcHda;sI{hska úiska b;d ir,j ,.ak yd
pkaø rdYs muKla rdYHdêm;s fmdfrdkaofuys § i,ld
n,k kuqÿ fuu mia wdldr rdYs yd rdYHdêm;shka ms<sn|
úu¾Ykh l< hq;= fjhs' fuys mj;sk úµd;aul me;slv
wm úiska isÿlrk ,o m¾fhaIK ;=<ska wkdjrKh lr
we;'
m¾fhaIKhg Ndckh lrk ,o flakaø hq., ixLHdj

1"000

m¾fhaIKhg Ndckh lrk ,o flakaø w;=frka
rdYHdêm;s fmdfrdkaou ms<sn| ixLHdf,aLk

rdYsh

iqN uOHia:

wiqN wkq tl;=j

 ,.ak rdYHdêm;s ^fm!reIh&

35]

35] 30]

100]

 pkaø rdYHdêm;s ^yoj;&

25]

35] 40]

100]

 iQhH_ rdYHdêm;s ^wd;au úYajdih& 25]

45] 30]

100]

 isl=re rdYHdêm;s ^wdorh&

40] 25]

100]

35]
98

 fN!u ^l=c& rdYHdêm;s ^lduh&
 tl;=j

25]

40] 35]

100]

145$500 195$500 1 60$500 500

 rdYHdêm;s fmdfrdkaofï
i
uia: .e,mSu

29]

39] 32]

145$500 195$500 160$500

100]
500

fuu ish¿ lreKq ms<sn|j úu¾Ykd;aulj ne,Sfï §
fmkS hk lreKla jkafka rdYHdêm;s fmdfrdkaofï §
ufkdaúoHd;aul ú.%yla ia;%S mreI mqoa.,hska fofofkl=
w;r isÿlrkq ,nk njhs' tu ú.%yh ms<sn| .eUqre
oelaula we;sj ia;%S mqreI fmdfrdkaoï .e<mSu isÿl< hq;=
nj fmkajdÈh hq;=h'

99

100

ffNrj fodaIh yd ffNrj mQcdj úÿ weiska

mDÓúh me;,s ;eáhla fkdjk nj weßiafgdag,a ^Aristotal&
yd fgd,ñ ^Ptolemy& úiska f,djg wkdjrKh lrk
,§' miqld,Skj fldm¾kslia ^Copernicus& iy .e,S,sfhda
^Galileo& hk wh mDÓúh ia:djr f.da,Sh yd flakaøSh
ia:djr jia;=jla f,i fmkajdfok ,§' ksõgka ^Newton&
iy whskaiaghska ^Einstein& úiska tu woyi m%Yak lsÍug
,la lrk ,o kuq;a ksYÑ
a ; woyila bÈßm;a lsÍug W;ail
q
fkdjQy' y^¾&n,a ^Hubble& ¥f¾CIh ksmoùu;a" mß.Klh
ksmoùu;a iu. iy 1988 j¾Ih jk úg ,nd.;a kQ;k
101

úµd;aul ÈhqKqj;a fya;=fjka mDÓúh ;ud jgd NuKh
fjñka iQhH_hd flakaø lr b,smaiSh .uka u.la Tiafia
mßNuKh jk f.da,dldr jia;=jla nj kùk úµdkql+,
ksYaÑ; ks.ukhlg iuia: f,dalhd meñK ;sfí' fuu
ks.uKhg meñKSfï § mDÓúfha f.da,dldr nj" wdk;Sh
N%uKh" b,smaiSh mßN%uKh" N+flakaøSh O%ej l%shdldÍ;ajh"
.=re;ajh yd pqïnl n, f¾Ld ks¾Kh hk lreKq ms<sn|
iú{dKsl oDIAÀhla ñksid we;s lr.;af;ah'
iajNdúl úYaj l%h
s dldÍ;ajhg mßndysrj ñksia l%h
s dldrlï
biau;= ùu werUqfka udkjhd .skoa r fidhd.ekSu;a iu.h'
t;eka isg frdlÜgqjl ke. i| u;g md ;nk wjia:dj
olajd ñksidf.a l%shdldrlï ms<sn| iudf,dapkhla lsÍu
fuys§ w;HjYh lreKla fkdfõ'
fn!oaOd.ñl meyeÈ<s lsÍïj,g wkqj wdNiair n%yau
f,dalfha isg mDÓúh lrd meñKs Ôùka ri fmd<j wkqNj
l< wjia:dfõ Tjqka ;=< we;s jQ rihg f,d,a nj fya;f
= jka
;DIaKdj my< jQ nj uÊCêu ksldfha plalj;a;s iSykdo
iQ;%fhka nqÿrÿka fmkajd§ we;' t;eka isg fmd<j yd ;j
;j;a ne£ï we;s lr.ksñka i;ajhd N+ñfha iajdñ;ajh
;yjqre lsÍu i|yd iSud udhsï ks¾Kh lrkq ,eìK' fuu
iSud udhsï ks¾Kh lsÍu fya;=fjka yd wdrCIdj yd jdih
i|yd .Dyhka ks¾udKh lsÍu wdrïN úh'
l%sia;shdks nhsn,fha oelafjk mDÓú Wmam;a;s yd ueùï
l:dj,g wkqj wdoï iy taj hk mDÓúfha m<uq udkjhska
fofokd Tjqkg lEug ;ykï lrkq ,enQ .fia f.ä lE
wjia:dfõ isg ukqIH j¾.hd ;=< ;DIaKdj yd lDDr;ajh
we;s jQ nj tys lshefõ' ta lrK fldg f,dalh úkdY lsÍu
i|yd foúhka jykafia úiska uyd c, .e,Sula we;s lrk
102

,oS' wk;=re fkdajd keue;af;l= úiska idok ,o kejg
ke..;a Tyq m%uqL i;ajhska c, .e,afuka fíÍ .;af;ah'
tfia uyd c, .e,afuka fíÍ.;a fkdjd iy Tyqf.a mq;=ka
;sfokd we;=¿ i;ajhska kej; ;DIAKdj yd lDDr;ajh lrd
we§ .sfhah' fï fya;f
= jka foaúhka jykafia úiska ujk ,o
fmd<fjys foúhka úiska u ñksid we;=¿ i;ajhd mÍCId
lsÍfï yd Tjqkg o`vqjï §fï wruqKska úúO jQ m%;sl%shdjka
we;s lrjk ,o nj lshefõ'
fï wd§ jQ wd.ñl oDIaÁkaf.ka neyerj by; lreKq
i,ld ne,Sfï § kej; tu isÿùu fufia úia;r l<
yelsh' mDÓúfha hg lS f.da,dldr nj" N+flakaøSh O%ej
l% s h dldÍ;a j h fyj;a mDÓúfha fla k a ø dmidÍ .= K h
fya;=fjka wekagdála jD;h yd wdlaála jD;h" oCIsK
O%ejh yd W;a;r O%ejh jYfhka l%shd;aul ùu" wdk;Sh
N%uKh fyj;a uola we, ù ^wxYl 23 1$2la& tys W;a;r
O%ejh yd oCIsK O%ejh wCIh jYfhka l%shd;aul fjñka
;ud jgd lerlSu" b,smaiSh mßN%uKh fyj;a ;ud jgd
lerflñka u iQhH_d flakaø lr .ksñka fi!r.%y uKav,h
isidrd b,smaiSh .uka u.l hdu" .=re;ajh fyj;a mDÓúh
u; we;s jia;+ka iy Ôùka úYajhg we§ hd fkd§ r|jd
;nd .ekSfï Yla;sh yd pqïnl n, f¾Ld ks¾Kh fyj;a
.=re;ajh ksid fmd<j u; we;s jk pqïnl fCIa;%h
hk lreKqj, mj;sk iajdNdúl;ajhg tfrysj ñksia
l%shdldrlïj, n,mEu t,a,jk wjia:djkays § th ;=<u
ke;fyd;a iajdNdúl;ajh úiska iuia: cSù moaO;shgu
tfrysj úIu n, mka;Ska l%shd;aul lsÍu werfUhs'
fufia we;sjk úIu n, mka;Ska u¾Okh lsÍug úêl%u
fiùfuys,d ñksid ksr;úh' we;eï msßia fN!;sl;ajh
;=<ska o ;j;a msßila ñksia uki ÈhqKq lsÍu ;=<ska o Bg
103

ms<shï fiùfuys ksr; úh'
wê udkqISh hd;=ld¾ñl wNspdr úëka (Para-Psychological Rituals) ms<sn| úµdkql+, úu¾Ikhl fh§fï
wjYH;dj fyj;a jevodhS nj fuys§ wmg biau;= lr ±laúh
yelsh' úµdkql+, úu¾Ikhl fh§fuys wjYH;djhg yd
M,odhS;djhg fya;=j jkafka b;d ir, iajdNdúl;ajh yd
noaO jQ m%;m
s odjla" l%h
s d mámdáhla wê udkqIh
S hd;=ld¾ñl
wNspdr úëka ;=< wka;¾.; ù ;sfnk neúks' b;d ir<
WodyrKhla fï i|yd Tng fmkajdÈh yelsh'
wkqrdOmqrfha uydúydr mqrdúµd leKSï N+ñfha msysá
leisls<shla ^uQ;%d lsÍu i|yd Ndú; flfrk ia:dkhla&
yd tys ks¾udKd;aul jHqyh ms<sn| ieleiaula f.k
n,uq' wxl 01 rEm igyfkys ±lafjk tu ks¾udKh u.ska
iajNdúl;ajhg fl;rï .re lr we;ao hkak úuid ne,Su
w.fkah'

m%isoaO k.rhl uyck leisls<shla wi<ska .uka lrk
úg § wmg th y\q k d.; yels h ' fya ; = j uQ ; % d j,s k a
yuk ÿ¾.kaOhhs' tn÷ mú;% fkdlr we;s leisls<shla
ksÍCIKhg Ndckh lsÍfuka tys ì;a;s yd fmd<j Èrdhk
104

wdldrh ±l.; yelsh'
wkqrdOmqr uydúydr mqrdúµd leKSï N+ñfha leisls<sh;a"
uyck leisls<sh;a foflys fi!LHdrCIs; Ndjh mfil
;nd bka mßirhg jk ydksh úuiSfï § fmkS hkafka
uydúydr leisls,sh b;du;a fi!LHdrCIs; fukau mßir
ys;ldó wkaoñka ks¾udkh lr we;s njhs'
fuu WodyrK folska tkï wkqrdOmqr mqrdúµd leKSï
N+ñfhka fidhd.;a leisls<sh yd j;auka uyck leisls<sh
u.ska j¾;udkfha iy w;S;fha jeisls<s yd leisls<s
ks¾udKfha§ wkq.ukh flÍ we;s mdßißl idOl ms<sn|
;elSu wmg jgyd .; yelsh' w;S; yd j¾;udk leisls<s
ks¾udKd;aul l%h
s dj,sfha § ñksid iajdNdúl;ajhg .relsÍu flf;rï meyer yer we;s o hkak fuhska jgyd .;
yelsh'
nysrj fodaIh yd nysrj mQcdj ms<sn| úÿ weiska ne,Su
ms<sn|j lreKq mjik w;r wkqrdOmqr mqrdúoHd leKSï
N+ñfha leisls<sh;a yd j;auka uyck leisls<sh;a .ek
f;dr;=re ±laùug woyia lf<a lreKq folla fya;=fjks'
bka m<uqjekak" w;S; yd j¾;udk uQ,sl ñksia wjYH;d
i|yd bÈflfrk f.dvke.s,s ;ekSfï § ñksid we;=¿
iuia: mdßißl yd Ôú moaO;sh fkdi<ld yer we;s
nj fmkajd §u h' fojk lreK jkafka" tfia ñksid
we;=¿ iuia: mdßißl yd Ôú moaO;sh fkdi<ld yeÍu
fya;=fjka wksgq M, we;sjk nj fmkajd §uh'
fï wkqj fmkShk jeo.;a lreKla jkafka wê udkqISh
hd;=ld¾ñl wNspdr úëka (Para-Psychological Rituals)
iajdNdúl;ajh yd noaO jQ m%;smodjla" l%shd mámdáhla
105

wkq.ukh lrk neúka mdßißl iunr;dj /lSfuys,d
th uy;a fia odhl fõ'
ñksia l%shdldrlï fya;=fjka mDÓúfha l%shd;aul jkakd jQ
pqïnl fCIa;%fhys we;sjk úIu n, mka;Ska úYaf,aIKh
lsÍu flfrys wjOdkh fhduq l< hq;=h' hï N+ñ Nd.hla
me<bKs jeglska fyda m%dldrhlska fyda fjka lSÍu ksid
we;sjk úIu n, mka;Ska iukh lsÍu i|yd wê udkqISh
hd;=ld¾ñl wNspdr úëka (Para-Psychological Rituals)
;=< oel .ekSug we;s tla m%;sl¾uhla f,i ffNrj mQcdj
fmkajdÈh yelsh'
mDÓúfha pqïNl W;=re ÈYdj yd iïu; W;=re ÈYdj w;r
meyeÈ<s fjkila we;s nj wm oksuq' O%ej uq,alr mDÓúfha
wdk;sh wkqj yd N%uKh ùu;a iQhH_hdf.a .=re;ajh
fya;=fjka iQhH_hd jgd b,smaiSh .uka u.l mDÓúh .uka
lsÍfï § we;sjk ,mamdùï wdosh tu fjki we;sùu flfrys n,mdk nj fmkajdÈh yelsh'
hg lS wdldrfha iSud udhsï ks¾Kh lsÍï" me<bKs jeg
bÈlsÍï" m%dldr ne£ï wdÈh fya;=fjka mDÓúfha pqïNl
n,f¾Ld fjkia ù u ks i d l% s h d;a u l jka k d jQ úIu
n, mka;Ska fmd<fõ N+ .¾Nh ;=<ska muKla fkdj
oi ÈYdfjkau we;sjkafka mDÓúh úYaj wjldYh ;=<
mj;sk jia;=jla neúks' fufia oi ÈYdj uq,alr we;sjk
úIu pqïNl n, mka;Ska ffNrj fodaI jYfhka wmg
y÷kd.; yelsh' kuq;a fcHda;sI úµd;aulj yd uka;%
úµd;aulj fuu fodaI i|yd wêm;S;ajh ork úfYaIs;
mqoa., fldÜGdYhla jk nj i|yka fjhs' tlS mqoa.,
fldÜGdYhka oi os.a md, ffNrjhka f,i fcHda;sIfha
§ yd uka;% úµdfõ§ fmkajd fohs'
106

fmd<fõ we;sjk N+ lïmk" kdhhEï" .xj;=r" iqkdñ
r< ke.Sï" iq<s l=Kdgq ;;ajhka fï iEu isÿùula u
ñksia l%shdlrlïj, m%;sM, f,i fyj;a m%;sl%shd jYfhka iajdNdúl;ajh ;=<ska we;sjk ;;ajhka nj ms<s.
ekSug ngysr mYapd;a kQ;kjd§ iy we;eï lafjdkagïjd§
.=rel=<hkaf.a irK .shjqka ue<s njla olajhs' we;eï
úfgl Tjqyq ;u oeKqu i|yd ,eî we;s iy;sl yd iudc
nqyquka keu;s msgfmd;a; fuu woyia ms<s.ekSug hdfï
§ m¿ÿ fõ hehs ìfhka wê udkqISh hd;=ld¾ñl wNspdr
úëka m%;sfCIam lrk nj weÕùug W;aidy .kS' nqÿ
jokl we;s fY%aIaG;ajh fuys § fmkajd Èh hq;=h' zznyqx
fp irKx hF;s mnn;dks jkdks p wdru reCL fp;Hdks
ukqiaid Nh ;cCê;d ^ñksid Nh ix;%dihg m;ajk
wjia:djka ys § m¾j;" jk .yK" wdrduhka" jDCIhka
yd ffp;Hia:dkhka msysg m;kZ nj [fyj;a udkisl
ì|jeàïj, § wê udkqISh wNspdr úëka wkq.ukh lsÍug
fhduqjk nj] ñka lshefõ&ZZ tjeks wjia:dj, § hg lS
we;eï o msßia wê udkqISh hd;=ld¾ñl wNspdr úëka fydr
ryfiau wkq.ukhg fm<fUk uq;a ta nj hï wjia:djl
m%isoaêhg m;a jkafka hehs yeÕS hk ´kEu úfgl § Bg
b;d ;Èka myr .eiSug Tjqyq fm<fU;s' fuu ;;ajh
,dxlSh iudch ;=< o meyeÈ<sj ±l.; yels lreKls'
oi os.a md, ffNrjhka Wfoid isÿlrkq ,nk lkak,õ
lsÍï" Tjqkaf.a úl%uhka j¾Kkd lsÍï" msoú<s lem lsÍï"
msoú<s yd nkaOkh lsÍï wjidkfha ffNrj f.dgq iu.ska
;=ïukai,lska" Èh niakd ;eklska fyda md¿ msáhlska
;nd ta foij;a fkdn<d meñK oi ÈYd wdrCId fldg
ksOkajia;= ;ekam;a lr ffNrj mQcdj isÿ lrhs'

107

wm úiska zzfcHda;sIh yd èjks Yla;shZZ ms<sn| fcHda;sI
ix.%yfha m< l< ,smsfha oS fmkajd ÿka mßÈ èjks Yla;sh
wfkl=;a Wmpdr l<uKd iu. Ndú; fldg hg lS úIu
pqïNl n, mka;Ska u¾Okh lsÍug iu;a m%;sn,hla
ksmoùu isÿ lrkq ,nhs' fuys§ m%ia:dr .; lrk ,o èjks
rgd jeäjdr .Kkla .dhkh lsÍu u.ska mqoa., Ñ;a;
Yla;sh yd noaO lr ^isoaê lr.;a uka;%" ;ka;%" wIagl yd
hdÈks Ndú;fhka& fuu m%;sn,h ksmojkq ,efí'
fufia ksmojkq ,nk m%;sn,h oi ÈYdfjka l%shd;aul
jkakd jQ úIu n, mka;Ska fj; fhduqlr pqïNl kshdu
O¾u Ndú; fldg tu úIu n, mka;Ska iu. nkaOkh
lsÍula isÿ flfrhs' tfia nkaOkh lrkafka tys,d Ndú;
flfrk ;gqj ke;fyd;a mQcdikh iu.hs' wk;=rej tu
mQcdikh ;=ïukai,lska" Èh niakd ;eklska fyda md¿
msÜgkshlska ;eîu isÿ lrkafka oi ÈYdfjka l%shd;aul
jk úIu n, mka;k
S a kej; ñksidg wys;lr n,hka f,i
l%shda;aul ùug we;s wjia:d je<elaùug h'

108

kele;a i;a úiai yd ne¢
ú/lshdj" wOHdmkh

Tnf.a úu¾Yk wei ffNrj fodaIh yd ffNrj mQcdj
flfrys fhduq fldg ta ms<sn|j kj oDIaÀfldaKhlska
ne,Sug fuu ,smsfhka Tng wdrdOkd lrñ'

Wiia fm< úNd.h iu;a jqj;a" Wmdêhla .;a;;a wkqkg
w; fkdmdk /lshdjla lr .kakmq¿jka uÜgulg Ôú;h
f.dvk.d .ekSu b;du;a wmyiq ld,hlhs wms wo Ôj;a
fjkafk' fndfyda ;reK ;reKshkag m%Odk .eg¿jla ù
we;af;a;uqkaf.a fkdie<ls,a, u; fyda wd¾Ól ÿIalr;d
u; fyda ,enQ wvq wOHdmkh ksid fyda —/lshdjla f;dard.
ekSfï § ljr wxYhlska ;uqkaf.a jD;a;Suh wkd.;h
109

;SrKh l< hq;=o@˜ hkak úi|d.ekSuls'
fujeks orefjl=f.a wkd..ek ;Skaÿ ;SrK .ksoaÈ Tyqf.a
fyda wehf.a flakaorh neÆ fouõmsfhl= fõ kï ta
b;du;a w;f<diaila fofkl= muKla úh hq;=h' we;eï
fouõmshka ;uqkaf.a wdYdjka uqÿka muqKqjkakg orejkag
W.kajkakg fmr ta orejdf.a wdYdj fyda yelshdj l=ula
o lshd úuid ne¨jd kï" wo uqyqK fok .eg¨jlg
uqyqK §ug Tqjqkag isÿ fkdfõ' Bg fya;=j ta orejkaf.a
leue;a; fyda orejkaf.a yelshdj fhduq jqk ÈYdk;sh
ta orejkaf.a ckaum;%fha ke;fyd;a úYaj .%y is;shfï
oelafjk ksidh'
hful=f.a jD;a;Suh wkd.;h id¾:l ùfï m<uq wä;d,u
Tyqf.a fm!reIhhs' flakaorfha m<uq fldgqj Tyqf.a fyda
wehf.a fm!reIh ms<sn|j b;d úYd, udkhla újr lr
fmkajhs' m<uq fldgqj ksfhdackh lrk rdYsh wk;=rej
;j;a me;slvla fmkajd fohs' ta kï m<uq fldgqj
ksfhdackh lrk .%yhdf.a iajNdjh" Tyqf.a n,h iy
Tyq ys¢k ia:dkhkah' ta wkqj tu mqoa.,hdf.a fm!reIh
ms<sn| ksjerÈ Ñ;%hla wmg ks¾udKh lr .; yels
fõ' Tyqf.a fyda wehf.a fm!reI rgdj y÷kd.ekSfuka
wk;=rej" wm fhduq úh hq;af;a Tyqf.a Okia:dkhghs'
tfiau whia:dkh yd jehia:dkh we;=¿j ia:dk ;=ku
110

ms<sn|j hg oelajQ wdldrhg lreKq úuish hq;= fõ' fï
ish¿ lreKq úuiSfuka wek;=rej Tyqf.a l¾uia:dkfha
ke;fyd;a Tyqf.a jD;a;sh ms<sn|j mejfik lreKq iDcqj
oel.; yels ia:dkh jk flakaøfha oY jk Ndjfha
iajNdjh úuiSu wjYHhs'
Y%S ufyakaømdohka úiska úrÑ; zfydardNrKfhysZ
úoHdrïN úê ms<sn|j i|yka jk 13 jk mßÉfþofha 97
jk Yaf,dalfha isg 113 jk Yaf,dalh olajd jk Yaf,dal
fid<ilska kele;a i;a úiafika mgka .; hq;= Ys,am
ljf¾oehs fmkajd § ;sfí' fuu kele;a i;a úiafika
mgka .; hq;= Ys,am tu kele;aj,ska Wmka wh úiskau
lrkqfha kï" ta ta Ys,amfhys Tjqkg fl< meñKsh yels
nj fndfyda fcHda;sI{hska w;r ;ju;a ryils'
hful=f.a jD;a;Suh wkd.;h ms<sn| lreKq fiùfï §
fuu i;a úis kele;aj,g ksi¾.j ysñ jD;a;Ska ljf¾oehs
úuiSu wksjd¾hfhkau l< hq;= lreKls' tneúka ckau
flakaorfha tl" fol" tfld<y iy oyh jeks Ndjhkaf.
ka lshefjk lreKq iu.ska fuu kele;a i;a úiaig
wod< lreKq o iuj f.k ;=,kd;aulj m,dM, lSfuka
fuu Ydia;%fhys i;H;djh ;yjqre l< yelsjd fiau Bg
lrk f,dl=u fiajh o fjhs' tneúka fu;eka isg ta
ta kele;aj,ska yod< hq;= Ydia;% ljf¾oehs olajd we;s
111

lreKq olajkq ,efí' Tfí Wmka kel;g ysñ fCIa;%h
l=ula o lshd thska Tng n,d.; yels fõú'
• wiaúo



wdhq¾fõo$jDCIdhq¾fõo$wiqka
ke.Su
^r:jdyk
yeisrùu&$kele;a
bf.kSu$^ld,.=K úoHd& Yl=K ksñ;s
bf.kSu
fnrK - wiqka" we;=ka yslauùu
le;s - .sKs isis< l¾u ^w.aks ia:ïNk - my; rg
kegqï wdÈfhys fhfok& w.aks mQcd
frfyK - kCI;%h$ ksñ;s Ydia;%h$ w¾: Ydia;%h$
^wd¾Ól úoHdj&$ lvq Ys,amh$ wd.ñl
kHdhka b.ekaùu ^fõo Ydia;%&
uqjisri - we;=ka wiqka yslauùu ^r: jdyk
yeisrùu& $ u,a,jfmdr yd fjk;a
wd;audrCIl igka l,djka$ iQm Ydia;%
^.Dy úoHd&$ ix.S;h b.ekaùu
wo - we;=ka wiqka yslauùu ^r: jdyk yeisrùu&$
iQm$ u,a,jfmdr iy fjk;a wd;audrCIl
igka l,djka$ Nr; kegqï$ .Ks;h
bf.k .ekSu iy b.ekaùu$ lvq Ys,am
bf.k .ekSu iy b.ekaùu$ Ysjd.u
bf.k .ekSu
mqkdji - kegqï iy fnr .eiSfï l,dj$ yia;
112


f¾Ld Ydia;%$ YíO Ydia;% ^fi;alú rpkh
yd lsheùu& $ jHdlrK Ydia;%$ kele;a
Ydia;% ^iqN uqyq¾: idOkh&$ ix.S;h$
ksñ;s Ydia;%h ^wkdjels iy wkd.;
jdlH mejiSu&$ ;ka;$ Ydia;% .Ks;h
weiqßka fjk;a NdIdkqhqla; uka;% rpkh
iy .dhkh&$ uka;% Ydia;%$ T!IO Ydia;%
^wdhq¾fõoh&
mqI - we;=ka yslauùu$ wiqka yslauùu ^r:jdyk
yeisrùu&$ .Ks; dia;%$ wdhqO wNHdi ^ish¿
j¾.fha&$ fnr jehSu$ ;d,h iïnkaO
Ydia;%$ yia: f¾Ld Ydia;%$ u,a,jfmdr
iy fjk;a wd;audrCIl igka l,djka$
kegqï iy kdgH oelaùfuys$ iQm Ydia;%
^.Dy úoHd&$ kele;a yd fjolu
wia,si - ^ld,.=K úoHd& Yl=K ksñ;s bf.kSu$
úI fjolu ^ridhksl úoHd&$ wd.ñl
b;sydilrKh
ud - meúoao$ b.ekaùfuys$ b;sydih b.ekaùfuys
mqjm,a - urKl¾u lsÍfuys ^w¨f.daiq fyda fjk;a
urKl¾u lrkq ,nk jD;a;Ska$ uka;%
m%fhda.% ;kaf;%daÉPdgk Ydia;
W;%m,a we;=ka yslauùu$ wiqka yslauùu
^r:jdyk yeisrùu&$ ÿkq Ys,amfhys$ ;¾l
113



Ydia;%fhys
y; - kdgHlrKfhys$ ksñ;s Ydia;%fhys$ yia:
f¾Ld Ydia;%fhys$ fnr jehqfuys$ kCI;%
úoHdfjys$ fõoh bf.kqfuys$ .Ks;
Ydia;%fhys$ wdhqO Ys,amfhys$ jHdlrK
Ydia;%fhys
is; - úis;=re l¾ufhys$ ;¾l Ydia;%fhys$
úIaKq mqrdKd§ mqrdK .%ka: ye§Ífuys$
.Ks;fhys
id - fcHda;sI Ydia;%fhys$ we;=ka yslauùu$ we;=ka
msg ke.Su$ wiqka yslauùu $ wiqka msg
ke.Su ^r:jdyk yeisrùu&$ u,a,jfmdr
iy fjk;a igka l,djka wOHhkfhys$
ix.S;h$ wdhq¾fõoh$ iQm Ydia;%h
úid - fcHda;sI bf.kqfuys$ wyia ;re mÍCId
lsÍu wqe;=¿ jkakd jQ ;drld úoHdfjys
wkqr - YHdu fõoh ke;fyd;a i;rjk
fõoh
yeoeÍfuys$
kele;a
Ydia;%
bf.Kqfuys$ kS;s Ydia;% bf.Kqfuys$
iQm Ydia;% bf.Kqfuys$ ldjHlrKfhys$
kdgHlrKfhys
fog - rdc kS;s yeoEÍfuys$ ÿkq Ys,am yeoEÍfuys$
b;sydih bf.KSfuys
uq, - ialkaO mqrdK bf.kSfuys$ fnfy;a iE§fuys
114



^ ridhksl úoHdfõ § ( j¾;udkfha
*duishl jev lsÍu& uka;% Ys,amfhys
mqji, - i¾m úys; Ydia;% bf.Kqfuys ^ridhk
úoHdj o we;=<;a fjhs&$ c, ia:ïN ^lsñÿï
Ys,afhys&
W;%i, we;=ka wiqka yslauùu ^r: jdyk
yeisrùu&$ lvq Ys,amfhys$ w¾: Ydia;%fhys
^wd¾Ól úoHd&$ u,a,jfmdr iy fjk;a
igka l,djka wOHhkfhys
iqjK - O¾u Ydia;% yeoEÍfuys$ u,a,jfmdr iy
fjk;a igka l,djka wOHhkfhys$ wdhqO
Ys,amfhys$ we;a wia yrUfhys ^r: jdyk
yeisrùu&$ kele;a Ydia;%fhys
fokg - .Ks;dhq¾fõofhys ^ridhksl úoHd .Ks;
l¾u yeoEÍfuys& wdhq¾fõofhys
ishdji - f.da Ñls;aid ^mY= ffjoH l¾u&" fhda.
Ydia;%" we;=ka yslauùu$ we;=ka msg ke.Su$
wiqka yslauùu $ wiqka msg ke.Su ^r:jdyk
yeisrùu&
mqjmqgqm - iQm Ydia;%$ ueKsla ms<sn| lghq;=
^N+f.da,Sh ridhk úoHd&
W;%mqgqm - wdhqO Ys,amfhys$ O¾u Ydiaf;%daoa.
yKfhys$ u,a,jfmdr iy fjk;a igka
l,djka yeoEÍfuys
115

• f¾j;S - .Ks; l¾ufhys$ wdhq¾fõofhys$ jdok
Ys,amfhys$ u,a,jfmdr iy fjk;a
igka l,djka yeoEÍfuys$ O¾u Ydia;%
yeoEÍfuys$ we;a wia yrUfhys ^r: jdyk
yeisrùu&
ta ta kele;aj,ska werôh hq;= ldhH_hka úYaj .%y is;shfï
ke;fyd;a orejkaf.a flakaø igyfka oelafjk jD;a;Sh
wkd.;h ms<sn| úuish hq;= Ndjia:dk ms<sn|j o lreKq
úuid n,d mshjr .ekSug fouõmshka Wkkaÿ jkafka kï
th hym;a wkd.;hla orejkag Wreu lr §uls'
miq jok ( ,xld fcHda;sI ix.%yfhys 2005 jif¾ cqks ui
1 ldKavfha 3 jk l,dmfha m< jQ ,smshls'

116

foaYmd,k fcHda;sIh

ÿrd;S;fha mgkau fcHda;sIh hk jHjydrh iudch ;=<
úúO jQ l;sldj;a weiqre lrñka j¾Okh ù we;' úúO
jQ oDIaÀ fldaK weiqßka tu l;sldj;a kej; kej; o
úuiSug ,la lr we;' tlS l;sldj;a foi úhqla;j ne,Sfï
§ ke;fyd;a tu l;sldj;aj,ska neyerj ta foi ne,Sfï oS
fmkShkafka tu iEu l;sldj;la ;=<u hï iqúfYaI;ajhla
.eíj we;s njh' fcHda;sIh kï jQ jHjydrh ;=< o th
±lsh yelsh' fuys,d meyeÈ<s lr.; hq;= lreKq lsysmhla
fjhs' fcHda;sIh jkdys ixialD; ke;fyd;a ñksid úiska
f.dvkxjk ,o úIhhls' fuu úIh ;=< o¾Ykhla fiau
m%dfhda.sl Ndú;hla o fjhs' o¾Ykh yd m%dfhda.sl;ajh
117

;=< meyeÈ<s fjkila ±lsh yelsh' tu fjki we;sùfuys,d
n,mdk ,o lreKq ms<sn| iudf,dapkhla lr.; hq;=h'
fcHda;sIh ms<sn| .eUqre jegySula idudkH ck;djg
fkdue;s ùu bka m<uqjekakhs' fcHda;sI mqj;a m;a .Kkdjla rfÜ olakg ;snqK o idudkH ckhdf.a fcHda;sIh
ms<sn| iú[dKsl;ajh ke;fyd;a ±kqj;aNdjh b;du
ÿ¾j, uÜgul mej;Su fojeks lreKhs' f;jk lreK
f,i fmkajd Èh yelafla fcHda;sI oekqula hï muKlg
we;s msßi u;jd§j fyda fjk;a úúO jQ fya;+ka n,mdkq
,eîfuka Tjqkaf.a fcHda;sI ±kqu wjq,a iy.; ;;ajhl
mej;Suhs'
fcHdaa;sIfõ§ka ms<sn|j ne,Sfï § ke;fyd;a fcHda;sIfhys
kshe,S lghq;= lrk msßi foi ne,Sfï § m<uqj fmkShk
lreKla jkafka Tjqkaf.a fcHda;sIh ms<sn| oekqï uÜgï
tlsfkldg fjkianjh' úúO ±Kqï uÜgï ;=< miqjkakka
l=,l.; lrk úg my; ±lafjk l=,lhkag Tjqka we;=<;a
l< yels nj my; fjkarEmfhka fmkajdosh yelsh'
1. fcHda;sI uQ,sl ±kqu muKla we;s wh
2. fcHda;sI uQ,sl ±kqu iy iudc ±kqu we;s wh
3. fcHda;sI uQ,sl ±kqu iy fjk;a úIhdkqnoaO
±kqu we;s wh
4. fcHda;sIh ms<sn| ukd YsCIKhla we;s wh
5. fcHda;sIh ms<sn| ukd YsCIKhla we;s iudc
±kqñka msßmqka wh
118

6. fcHda;sIh ms<sn| ukd YsCIKhla we;s fjk;a
úIhdkqnoaO ±kqñka msßmqka wh
7. fcHda;sIh ms<sn| ukd YsCIKhla we;s iudc iy
fjk;a úIhdkqnoaO ±kqñka msßmqka wh

úúO jQ nqoê
a uh ;,hka ksfhdackh lrkakd jQ fcHda;I
s {hska
fj; fhduq jk mdßfNda.slhka o tu nqoaêuh ;,hka ksfhdackh lrk msßila fjhs' Tjqkaf.a fcHda;sI wjYH;djka
imqrd,Su tu fcHda;sI{hska isÿ lrkq ,nkafka ;u
;uqkaf.a úúO jQ nqoaêuÜgï wkqjh'
fuys§ isÿjk ;j;a fohla we;' tkï fuu nqoê
a uh ;,hka
jgd f.dKq jk foaYmd,ksl l;sldj;la ±l.; yelsh'
nqoaêuh ;, yd foaYmd,kh w;r iïnkaO;djla flfia
kï we;sjkafka o lshd Tng .eg¿jla mek ke.sh yelsh'
th idOdrKh' foaYmd,kh iy fcHda;sIh hk úIhhka
foi tljru n,k úg § lsisÿ iy iïnkaOhla ke;s
wx. folla f,i fmkS hd yelsh' ke;skï ue;sjrK
iuhl ljr foaYmd,k mCIhla ch ;yjqre lrkafkao
hkak ms<sn|j m%ldY lrk wkdjelshlg fyda we;eï
foaYmd,k{fhl=f.a ckau flakaø igyfkys ±lafjk
rdc fhda.hla ms<sn| úia;r flfrk m%ldYhlg muKla
foaYmd,kh ms<sn| l;sldj fcHda;sIh ;=< ,>qfldg we;'
kuq;a fcHda;sIfhys úIh.; foaYmd,khla ±l.; yelsh'
wêm;s u;jdo l%shdldÍ;ajh (Hegemony of Confederacy)
fyj;a tla md¾Yjhla úiska ork wdl,amh wfkla
md¾Yjhka fj;" md,kh lsÍfï woyiska fyda fjkhï
119

udkisl rduqjlg we;=<;a lsÍfï woyiska lghq;= lsÍu
foaYmd,ksl ixl,amhla nj uQ,slj fmkajdosh hq;=h' th
fcHda;sIh ;=< muKla ±l.; yels iqúfYaIS fohla fkdj
iuia: iudchSh úµdjka .Khg wh;a jkakd jQ iEu
úIhlgu fmdÿ ,CIKhls'
fcHda;sIh ;=< fuu wêm;s u;jdo l%shdldÍ;ajh hï
hï .=rel=, mokï lr úfgl l%shd;aul fõ' fndfyda
wjia:djkays fuu .=rel=, mokï lr.;a wêm;s u;jdo
l%shdldÍ;ajh fcHda;sIfhys ialCO;%fhka ;ka;%ialkaOh
Ndú;h ;=< l%shd;aul jk nj wmg iq,nj ±l.; yelsh'
,xldfõ uE; b;sydifha b;du uE;la jk ;=re ,s;a.Ks;h
iïnkaOfhka mej;sfha fuu ;;ajhhs' b;d m%isoaO ,s;a
w;r zwEmd" brKu" úµdidr yd ,xld mÙpd[. .%yiaMqgZ
hk ,s;a fjhs' fuu ,s;a m%ldYkh ;=< ,s;a .Ks;h ms<sn|
.=reuqIaÀ ta ta .=re mrïmrdkqhd;j mj;ajdf.k tk
,§' fcHda;sIh yodrk tu .=re l=,hkAf.ka mßndysr jQ
wfhl=g tu ,s;a.Ks;h ms<sn| ÿrjfndaOh ,nd.ekSug
u.la fkdùh'
mß.Kl Ndú;h iy uqøK úma,jh fya;=fjka wo jk
úg ,s;a m%ldYkh b;du;a iq,n lreKla njg m;aj we;'
fï fya;=fjka ,s;la ñ,§ .ekSug yels ´kEu flfkl=g
b;d myiqfjka fcHda;sI{fhl= ùug fydr mdrj,a újD;j
we;ehs mejiSu Ydia;%hg lrk ks.djla f,i fkdolsñ'
fya;=j jkafka ,s;a.Ks;fha .eUqre .Ks; iQ;% mfil ,d
,s;la yd m,dM, mejiSfï lD;shla ,xlr.;a úg b;du;a
myiqfjka hg lS fcHda;sI{fhl= ùug b;d flá uÕla
120

úúr ùuh' fuh b;du ,dNodhS jHdmdrhla f,i we;ful=
mj;ajdf.k hhs' kuq;a fuu ;;ajh b;du;a ne?reï
iy.; .eg¿jlg wmj fhduq lrjhs'
b;du;a .eUqre YsCIKhlska hq;=j m<,a jQ ukilska yd
ukeiska olsñka fCIa;h
% ;=< lghq;= l< hq;= jqj;a fj<|m,
kHdh u; mokïj fufia ìysjk fcHda;I
s {hskf
a .ka fndfydaúg isÿjkafka fCIa;%fha mdßfNda.slhka fCIa;%fhka
bj;a lr,SSuhs'
Tng z,xld fcHda;sI ix.%yfhysZ jßka jr úúO jQ
Ydia;%ys;ldó Ydia;%jka;%hka úiska m< lrk ,o ,sms
weiqfrka fmr ,xldfõ úiQ fld;auf,a .Ks;hd" ;x.,af,a
isákdu¿fõ nrK .Ks;hd hkd§ fcHda;sI{hska lsysmfofkl= y÷kajd ÿka nj Tng u;l we;ehs is;uq'
Tjqka uqøs; fyda wÉpq .ik ,o ,s;a Ndú; l< njla wid
ke;af;uq' wf;a weÕs<s mqrela .Kkh lsÍfuka" <ufhl=
Wmkafõ,dj rd;%f
s ha kï tflfKys lmk ,o flfi,a .i
o¿ ,d jevqkq m%udKh ueK n,d iE¥ flakaøfha .%yhska
msysgùu;a" Èjd ld,fha isÿ jQ ore Wm;la kï iQhH_df.a
.uk wkqj hï jia;=jl fijke,a, ^fndfyda úg fï
i|yd Ndú; lrk ,oafoa ñksidf.a fijke,a, ñksia
mshjrj,ska .Kkh lsÍfuks& ueK n,d iE¥ flakaøfha
.%yhska msysgùu;a Tjqkg b;d iq¿ ldhH_hla úh' Tjqyq
;ka;%ialkaOh u; úkd wka lsisfjl= u; hemqkjqka
fkdùh'
,s ; la u; hemS u g is ÿ ùu yd .Kl hka ; % h la fyda
mß>klhla Ndú; lsÍu tla w;lska myiq yd fõ,dj
121

b;sßlrk ud¾.hla f,i we;ful=g fmkajdosh yelsh' th
i;H lreKls' wo iudch foi ne,Sfï § ld,h rkaj,g;a
jvd ják ld,hla nj ikd: lreKls'
fcHda;sIh jkdys id.rh n÷ jQ tlls' ;uka fcHda;sIh
ms<sn| o;a {dKh wn msh,a,lska ueKsh yels Èh;a;la nj
yÕskd flfkl= ;rug ksy;udkS jk wh fidhd .ekSu
b;du ÿ¾,N lreKls' kuq;a we;eï wjia:dj, .y okakd
whg fld, lvd fmkaùula we;eï ;ekl isÿùug bv we;'
tjeks wjia:djl hg lS wêm;s u;jdofha fkd.e,S lreKq
ldrKd ikaikaokd;aulj úuid ne,Sulg fyda úu¾Yk
nqoaêh o,ajd lghq;= lsÍug fhduqúh yels kï fcHda;sIh
;=< muKla fkdj ´kEu iudchSh úIhhla ;=< tys wêm;s
u;jdohg hgùulg bvla fkd,efí'
tfiau ;j;a úfgl l¾uh" l¾u M,h hk WNh l%shdjka
u; isÿjk úYaj l%shdj,sh úYaùh jia;+kaf.a ixirKhla
weiqfrka f;dard.ekSu ke;fyd;a ú.%y lr.ekSu i|yd
Ndú; lrk hï kHdhla ^fuh jkdys fcHda;sI úIh f,i
fmkajdÈh yelsh& ms<sn|j jerÈ wdl,amhl .e,S lghq;=
lsÍu ±lsh yelsh' fuh o fN!;sl úµdfõ § meyeÈ<s lrk
lafjdkagïjd§ ^Quantum& u;jdo Tiafia ú[a[dKjd§
kHdhka neyer lsÍfï woyiska ngysr .e;s we;eï foaYSh
ngysr W.;=ka úiska f.dvk.k ,o wêm;s u;jdohla
f,i fmkajdÈh yelsh'
kuq;a fï jk úg ngysr lafjdkagïjd§ ^Quantum&
u;jdo ;,fha fuu ;;ajh neyer ù we;s nj Y%S ,dxlsl
122

ffjµjßhla úiska ,o ^Near Death Experience& urKdikak w;a±lSula mdol fldg 2006 Tlaf;dan¾ ui 22 jk
bre Èk cd;sl mqj;a m;l m< jQ ,smh
s lska fmkajd § ;snK
q 's
fuu l¾uh" l¾u M,h hk ixisoaëka uq,alr.;a woyi
bia u ;= ls Í ug woyia lrk ,oa f oa fï ;= < mj;s k
foaYmd,ksl l%shdodhu újrKh lr .ekSfï woyisks'
2004 uehs ui r;akmqrh wjg isÿ jQ uyd c, .e,Su;a" tu
jif¾u foieïn¾ ui uqyqK ÿka iqkdñ jHikh;a Tng
u;l we;ehs is;uq'
2005 jif¾ mlsia:dkfha isÿ jQ uyd N+ñlïmdj Tng
isysm;a lrñ' tfiau weußld tlai;a ckmoh yryd yud
.sh ±jeka; iq,s l=Kdgq ;;ajhka o Tng isysm;a lruq' fï
Èkj, ,xldj" bkaÈhdj" nx.,dfoaYh yd ;j;a rgj,a
.Kkdjl weoyef,k Odrdksmd; j¾Idj fya;=fjka
c,.e,Sï ;;ajhka o isysm;a lr.uq' fuu ish¿ iajdNdúl
jHikhkag uqyK
q ÿka ñksik
q f
a .a brKu ljr wdldrhlg
Tjqkf.a flakøa igykaj, we£ ;snf
q kao hkak Tng fukau
wmg o we;eï úfgl mqÿu t<jk iq¿h'
wm fndfyda úg flakaø ke;fyd;a ckaum;% fj; fhduqjkafka l¾u M,h w;a ú¢kd wjia:dfõ fyda bka
miqjhs' bka miqj mYapd;a urK mÍCIK mj;ajk whqßka
wm flakaø igyka ;=< hg lS l¾u M,h Tjqkg w;aú£ug
;snqfka o hkak úu¾Ykh lsÍug fm<ö isáuq'
<ore yd Yhk oYlhka ;=< Ôú; f.jk mqoa.,hka
yer wka mqoa.,hkag wod<j fuu flakaø weiqßka isÿ
123

lrk mYapd;a urK mÍCIK fyda ryia mÍCIl mÍCIK
wod<;ajhla orkafka ishhg 60]l m%udKhla muKla
nj wjOdrKh lr.; hq;=h' Bg fya;=j <ore wjêfha yd
Yhk oYlfha Ôú; f.jk mqoa.,hkag fÉ;kd;aulj
hï l%shdjla isÿlsÍu ^fÉ;kdyx NsCLfõ lïux jodñ nqÿrcdKka jykafia& g we;s yelshdj b;d úr< ùuhs'
fï ;;ajh ;=< by; wdldrfha jHikhl § lghq;=
lsÍug fm<ö isákafka iajdNdúl jHikhkag f.dÿreùu
l¾uM,fha iajNdjh wkqj isÿ jQjla nj ;yjqre lr
±laùugh' th fndfyda fofkl= ms<s.kakd i;Hla njg
m;aj we;' kuq;a hï msßila tlg tlaj isÿlrkq ,nk hï
l¾uhla fõ hhs wms is;uq' thg wkqrEm úmdl iajdNdúl
jHik wdldrhg l%shd;aul jk njg mkaish mKia cd;l
fmdf;ka lÈu WodyrK .; yelsh'
fufia m%ldY lrk úg we;ful= mkaish mKia cd;l
fmd; nqoaO NdIs;hla fkdfõ hhs fmkajd§ug W;aidy ±ßh
yelsh' wm mkaish mKia cd;l fmd; WodyrKh jYfhka
fmkajd§ug woyia lrk ,oafoa th ta ;=< mj;sk iudc
úµd;aul iudc prKh ;=<ska .; yels WodyrKh biau;=
fldg ±laùug ñi th nqoaO NdIs;hla o ke;fyd;a Y%djl
NdIs;hla o hkak ;yjqre lsÍug fkdfõ'
wêm;s u;jdo l% s h dldÍ;a j h ms < s n | ;;a j h muKla
fkdj" ;jo foaYmd,ksl kHdhhka /ila fcHda;sIhh ;=<
l%shd;aul jk nj wmg fmkajdÈh yelsh'
mCI foaYmd,kh hkak wm fndfyda fofkl=g b;d
124

ióm ixl,amhls' fcHda;sIfhys fuu mCI foaYmd,kh
l%shd;aul jkqfha .=rel=, mokï lrf.kh'
m%Odk Odrdjka folla fuu fcHd;sIfhys mCI ksfhdackhla orkq ,nhs' o, flakaø Ndú;d lrk iy Ndj
flakaø Ndú;d lrk tu mCI fol fndfyda úg mCI.%dyS
u;jdo l%shd;aul lrkq ,nhs' fuf,i mCI.%dyS u;jdo
;=< we;eï ;ekl flakaøfha fldgq fod<i .Kskd ÈYdj
uq,l
a rf.k o u;jdo ìysù we;' ;j o úfgl Ndj flakøa h
;=< o wdrïN úrdu iy uOH ikaê .Kkh iïnkaOfhka
u;jdo ìysj we;'
tfiau iamqG .Kkfha § whkdxY m%udKhka u; isÿ flfrk idhk ksrhk fNaoh o uq,alr u;jdo ìysj we;'
fufia whkdxY uq,alr ìysj we;s u;jdo idhk yd ksrhk
hkqfjka WNh;djla .kq ,nk l,ays ta ;=< ±l.; yels
m%fNao lsysmhla fjhs'

1'
Ñ;%mCI

2'
rduka

3'
l%sIaK uQ¾;s

4'
idhk fyj;a ngysr whkdxY iu. isÿlrk
.kkh lsÍï hkd§ isõ wdldr whkdxY fNaohla ±l.;
yelsh'
;j;a úfgl uyd kCI;%h yd pQ, kCI;%h uq,alr iqN
uqyq¾: idOkfha § o úúO u;jdo ±l.; yelsh' fï wdldr
ish¿ fNao uq,a lr mCI foaYmd,khla fcHd;sIfhys
l%shd;aul nj mejiqjfyd;a kï Tn Bg tlÕjkq we;'

125

fuu l;sldj iu. Tng tlÕùug fyda fkdùug bvlv
we;snj oksuq' tfiau fuu l;sldj; ms<sn| Tng woyia
bÈßm;a lrkafka fcHda;sIh kHdh iy jHjydrh ;=<
l%shd;aul jk foaYmd,ksl Ndú;dj ms<sn| Tfí fk;a
újr fldg fcHda;sIh úIhh foi úúO jQ oDIaÀfldaK
Tiafia úuid ne,Sug Tn fhduq lsÍu i|ydh'

126

iudc .eg¿jla f,i
zújdyh m%udo ùuZ úÿ weiska

iudc .eg¿jla hkq" hï N+f.da,Sh iSudjl jdih lrk
ck fldgila flfrys tu ck fldÜGdYfha meje;aug
^iudc i;;ajh& ndOd we;s lrjk fiau tys .,dhdu ^iudc
.;sl;ajh& wvmK lrjk hï l%shdj,shla ye¢kaùu i|yd
iudc udkj úoHd{hska úiska Ndú; lrk ,o m¾hdh
mohls'
hf:dala; ixisoaêh y÷kdf.k tlS ixisoaêuh jgdmsgdj
fjkia lsÍfuys ,d l%shdldÍ jkakkag ;;ajh meyeÈ<s
lsÍu i|yd Ndú; lrk m¾hdh moh idudkHlrKhlg
,la ùu woH;k iudch ;=< oelsh yelsh' iudc udkj
úoHd{hska iudch ;=< we;sjk úúO jQ iudc m%Yak flfrys ish oDIaÀ fldaKfhka úúO úu¾IKhka lrñka tys
,d ms<s;=re fiùfuys fh§ isá;s'
127

fï w;r foaYmd,k{hska ;uqka md,kh lrk N+f.da,Sh
iSudj ;=< fjfik ck;djf.a hg lS wdldrfhka meK
kef.k úúO jQ .eg¿ ksrdlrKh i|yd foaYmd,kuh
úi÷ï fiùfuys ksr;j isá;s' fun÷ iudc .eg¿ úfgl
b;d ne?reï wjia:djka lrd fhduq lrùug mjd fya;=jk
nj wmg fkdryils'
ñksid m%d.a ft;sydisl hq.fha mgkau iudch ;=< ldhsl
wjYH;d ms<sn| ixl,amh;a" wdrCIdj ms<sn| ixl,amh;a
hk wjYH;d fol flfrys muKla iSud jQ ;;ajhla
oel.; yelsj ;snQ nj fmkajdosh yelsh'

msrsisÿ jd;h"

c,h"

wdydr"

jia;%"

T!IO"

ksjdi" hk
uQ,sl hk uQ,sl wjYH;d iïmQ¾K lsrSfuys,d m%d.a
ft;sydis; iudc.; ñksid fhduq jQ w;r"

bvlv ^cSj;a ùug iy wdydr imhd.ekSug&"

kSfrda.SNdjh"

YrSr l%shdldrS;ajfha ksis meje;au ;yjqrelrKhg
wjYH jHdhdï wdosh"

,sx.sl ;Dma;sh"
 úfõlh hk wjYH;d flfrys fojkqj fhduqjk
ñksid tlS wjYH;d mQ¾K;ajhg m;alr.ekSu i|yd YsIag
128

iïu; l%shdud¾.j,g t<eöu;a iu. ñksid YsIagdpdr.;
jQjd hhs iudch úiska fmkajdfokq ,nhs' fï iu.u
wdrCIdj ms<sn| wjYH;djh m%d.a ft;sydisl hq.fha isgu
ñksid i;= lr.ekSug fhduq jQ w;r tys uQ,sl mshjr
f,iska újdyh keu;s iudc ixia:dj f.dvke.Su oelsh
yelsh'
fuu oaú wjYH;d;aul ;;ajhka fkdue;s l, ñksid
m%d:ñl jYfhka muKla fkdj YsIagdpdr.; j¾:udk
f,dalh ;=<o ñksidf.a ukqIH;ajfha iSudjka blaujd
hk ;;ajhla oelsh yels ùu fuysoS wjOdrKh l< hq;=
lreKls' wk;=rej ñksidf.a f;jk" isõjk iy miajk
wjYH;d iïmQ¾K lr.ekSu hkq mqoa.,hdf.a udkisl
wdl,am u; f.dv kef.kq ,nk wjYH;d;aul ;;ajhla
f,i fmkajdosh yelsh'
fun÷ jQ iudc miq;,hl mqoa.,noaOj mj;skakd jQ wiykldrS jd;djrKuh ;;ajhka iudc .eg¿ njg m;ajk
nj fuys§ wmg meyeÈ<s lr .; yelsh'
fuu iudc udkj úoHd;aul mQ¾úldj Tng bÈßm;a lsÍug
woyia lrk ,oafoa újdyh keu;s iudcuh ixisoaêh jgd
f.dKq ù we;s lreKq ms<sn| Ñ;%hla Tfí isf;ys ujd
.ekSug myiq bvla újr lr §ugh'
újyh keu;s iudc ixisoaêh uQ,slju flakaø .; jk
l%shd ud,djla fjhs' fuu iudc l%shd ud,dj uQ,slj myo
oelafjk j¾.SlrKhg ,la l< yelsh'

129


ñksidf.a uQ,sl wjYH;d mQrKh ^,sx.sl l%shdj,sh
yd ,sx.sl ;Dma;sh ,eîu&

j¾.hdf.a meje;au ;yjqre lsÍu

j¾.hdf.a m%;s ksIamdok l%shdj
fuu l%shdoduhka Tiafia újdyhg t<efUk udkjhd
Bg k;=jk jhia ldKavhla iïu; lr we;' fuu jhia
ldKavfha miqjk idudðlhka újdyhg fhduqùu uQ,slj
ia;%shlf.a uq,a wd¾;jh mokï lr we;s nj oel.; yels
lreKls'
ia ; % s h la ;uq k a j¾.hdf.a m% ; s k s I a m dok l% s h dj,s h g
fhda.H;djh m<uq wd¾;jfhka ,nk w;r wd¾;jyrKh
olajd ld, jljdkqj újdyh i|yd iïu; jhia ldKavh
f,i Ôj úoHd;aul mkoulska hq;=j wmg fmkajdÈh
yelsh'
idudkHfhka ia;%shlf.a jhi wjqreÿ 10 isg 20 olajd jQ
oYlh ^widudkH ;;ajhka hgf;a óg m%:ufhka m<uq
wd¾;jh isÿjk wjia:d we;s nj iudch ;=< oel.;
yels lreKls& m<uq wd¾;jh olajk w;r jhi wjqreÿ
40 isg 50 olajd jQ oYlh ^widudkH ;;ajhka hgf;a
wd¾;jyrKh o óg miq ld,hla olajd mej;Su o isÿjk
wjia:d we;s nj iudch ;=< oel.; yels ;j o lreKls&
;=< wd¾;jyrKh ùu oel.; yelsh' fuu ld,h ;=< m<uq
wd¾;jh yd wd¾;jyrKh w;r ld, jljdkqj wjqreÿ
40l ld,hla ia;%shlf.a ire ld,h f,i oelaúh yelsh'
fuu ire ld,fhka w¾Ohla ke;fyd;a wjqreÿ 20la .;
jQ jhi f,i wjqreÿ 30 oelaúh yelsh' fuu ld,h f;la
130

újdyhlg t<eöu m%udoùu újdyh we;af;kau m%udo jk
;;ajhla f,i fmkajdÈh yelsh'
fuys,d n,mdk fya;= idOl úúOh' mjq,a miqìu" wOHdmk
rgdj" wd¾Ólh" iudc mßirh wd§ úúO lreKq fuys,d
n,mEï iy.;j l%shd;aul jk nj fkdryils' kuq;a
fuu ;;ajh fcHda;s¾úoHdkql+, mokulska ú.%y lr
.ekSu ;=< wmg ta i|yd m%;sl¾u flfrys fhduq ùug
;j;a bvla fmkajdfok nj lsj hq;=h' mqoa.,hd úiska
isÿlrkq ,nk l%shdjkag wkqrEm úmdlhka ksfhdackh
lrñka mqoa., ckau m;%hl .%y msysàï we;sfjhs' úYaj
.%y ;drld is;shu jYfhka ye¢kaúh yels mqoa., ckau
m;%hlska hf:dala; l%shd úmdl y÷kd.; yels w;r tys,d
wkqhqla; lsÍfuys wNsfm%ß; m%;sl¾u fcHda;s¾úoHdkql+,j
hd;=l¾u .Khg we;=<;a jk nj fmkajdÈh yelsh' kuq;a
uQ,sl iudc ;;ajhka yd wd¾Ól foaYmd,ksl fya;=idOl
fuys§ úu¾IKhg ,la fkdlrk nj wjOdrKh l< hq;h
= '
úYaj .%y ;drld is;shulska y\qkd.kakd mqoa., l%shd
úmdlhkaf.a ;;ajhka fjkia lsÍu i|yd fcHda;¾
s úoHdkql,
+
hd;=l¾uj, mokula we;' úYaj Yla;Ska Wmfhda. lr
.ksñka mqoa., l%shd úmdlhkaf.a ;;ajhka fjkia lsÍug
yelshdjla we;af;a o hk m%Yakh fuys§ u;= jkakls'
úYaj Yla;Ska hkq mGú" wdfmda" f;afcda" jdfhda iy wdldY
hk mxp uyd N+;hkah' kuq;a fuys,d mxp uyd N+;hkaf.
ka f;dr hula we;s nj fmkajd Èh hq;=h' th mqoa., uki
ke;fyd;a mqo.
a , ú{dk Od;=jhs' fuu mqo.
a , ú{dk Od;=j
uq,alr mxp uyd N+;hkag wkqrEmj rEm" YíO" .kaO" ri"
131

Yam¾I yd O¾u hkqfjka oaú;Shsl úYaj Yla;shla we;s
fjhs' mqoa., l%shd úmdlhka we;sjkafka fulS mqoa., uki
ke;fyd;a mqoa., ú{dk Od;=j uq,alr oaú;Shslj we;sjk
;;ajhkaf.ka neúka Bg m%;sl¾u hd;=l¾udÈfhka tfia;a
ke;fyd;a úYaj Yla;Skaf.ka we;s lr.kakd Yla;shlska
we;af;kau yelshdjla we;' tys § mqo.
a , ukiu Bg uq,j
a k
nj fuys§ wjOdrKh l< hq;= i;Hhls'
újdyh m%udo ùu flfrys fuu fcHda;s¾ úoHdkql+,
ikao¾Nh Wmfhda.d;aulj ú.%yhg ,la l< yelsh' újdy
m%udohg ms<shï jYfhka fcHda;s¾ úoHdkql+,j isÿ lrk
m%;sl¾u f,i fi;alú" hka;% oeóu" uka;% Ndú;h yd
fjk;a Ydka;sl¾u Ndú; lsÍu fmkajdÈh yelsh'

132

Èlalido ùfï m%jK;djh jeä jljdkqjl
fmdfrdkaoï ne,Su Wmfhda.;
S dj ke;fyd;a
fmdfrdkaoï ne,Su
flfia n,mdkjdo@ hkak úuiSu

újdyh keu;s ixialD;sl ne£fuka iudch ;=< we;s jQ
iudchSh tallhla jYfhka mjq, keu;s iudc ixia:dj
fmkajdÈh yelsh' tu iudc ixia:dj .eg¿jlska f;drj
l%shd;aul ùu -lidoh˜ hk jHjydrfhka meyeÈ<s lrhs'
tfiau -Èlalidoh˜ hk jHjydrfhka hg lS iudc
ixia:dfõ .eg¿uh ;;ajhla we;sùula fmkakqï lrhs'
fuu ;;ajh kS;suh oDIaÀfldaKfhka meyeÈ,s lsÍfï §
;j;a wdldrhlska fmkajdÈh yelsh' hï iudc ixia:djl
meje;a u tlS iudch úis k a u mKjd.kq ,enQ kS ; s
moaO;shlska ,ndfok wdrCIKhlska wdjrKh lr we;s
wjia:dj lidoh f,iska fmkajd Èh yelsh' tfiau Èlalidoh" hï iudc ixia:djl meje;au w¾nqoldÍ ;;ajhla
hgf;a ;jÿrg;a mj;ajdf.k hdug wfmdfydi;a ùfï §
iudc .; kS;s moaO;shlska ,ndÿka rCIK wdjrKfhka
133

jkaÈf.ùulg hg;aj fyda hg;a fkdù hf:dal;
a mqo.
a ,hka
ksoyia lsÍu f,iska w¾: oelaúh yelsh'
ixialD;sl ne£ulska we;sjk iudc tallhl l%h
s dldÍ;ajh
ft;sydisl yd iudchSh úoHd;aul úu¾Ykhla ;=<ska
meyeÈ<s lr .; yelsh' tn÷ ixialD;sl ne£ulska hq;=
iudc tallhl l%h
s dldÍ;ajh blau jQ h:d¾:jd§ Ndú;djl
meje;au msßlaiSu i|yd fcHda;s¾ úoHd;aul ú.%yhla isÿ
lsÍfï § mj;sk iudchSh úoHd;aul hhs mjik tn÷
m¾fhaIK úêl%uhla wkq.ukh lsÍu W.yg h' iudchSh
úoHdjkaf.a iSudjka blauj ,o biõ y÷kd.ekSu tys §
w;HjYH jk nj wjOdrKh l< hq;=h'
iudchSh l;sldj ;=< hf:dala; ikao¾Nh l%shd;aul jk
wdldrh meyeÈ<s lsÍfï § fcHda;s¾ úoHd;aul ixl,amhla
jk -fmdfrdkaoï ne,Su˜ hkak m%Odk idOlhla j mj;sk
nj fmkajd Èh hq;=h' Y%S ,dxlSh iudch" bkaÈhdj o
we;=<;aj -fmdfrdkaoï ne,Su˜ pdß;%hla jYfhka wkq.
ukh lrk nj lreKq úu¾Ykfha § meyeÈ<s fjhs'
,xldfõ m,jk cd;sl mqj;am;a foi ne,Sfï § fmkS hk
lreKla jkafka flakaøh uq,a lr .;a fmdfrdkaoï ne,Su
,dxlSh ck ú{dKfha uq,a nei we;s fohla njh' flakøa fha
újdylia:dkfha ^y;ajekafka& mdmSkaf.ka ^rú" l=c" nqO"
Yks" rdyq" fla;= hk .%yhska& f;dr fyda mdmSkaf.ka hq;=
fyda flakaøysñ ;reKhska fyda ;reKshka fyda fidhk
ux., fhdackd iys; oekaùï m%udKh foi ne,Sfï § újdy
ixia:dj flfrys b;d úYd, n,mEï iy.; idOlhla njg
fcHda;sIh m;aj we;s nj fmkajd fokakls'
134

újdyh keu;s ixia l D;s l dx.h ljr miq ì ula ;= <
l%h
s d;aul jkakla oehs úuid ne,Su fuys§ m%fhdackj;a jkq
we;ehs is;ñ' úfYaIfhka yskaÿ Nla;slhka iy fn!oaOhska
fuu fmdfrdkaoï ne,Su flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrk
msßi jYfhka ke;fyd;a wod< .eg¿fõ fCIa;%.; ksheos
ldKavh jYfhka fmkajdÈh yelsh' fï ksheÈh w;rg
uqia,sï" l%sia;shdks iy lf;da,sl Nla;slhka we;=¿ùug
we;s bvlv b;d iSñ;h' fya;=j Tjqka woyk wd.ï úiska
fuu úIhh Ndú; lsÍfuys,d oeä kS;suh ;yxÑ mKjd
we;s fyhsks'
fuu wd.ï ;=<ska YsCIKh lrk ,o yd YsCIKh fkdlrk
,o fiau wd.u hk idOlh lafjdkagïjd§ wú[a[dKsl
oDIaÀfldaKfhka neyer lrk hk ,CIKj,ska hq;= kQk;
;reK mrmqr yd újdyhg t<efUk msßia b;d nyq, jYfhka Èlalidohg f.dÿrejk nj ,xldfõ Èlalido kvq
m%udKh ms<sn| ióCIKhla lsÍfï § meyeÈ<s lr .;
yelsh'
fufia Èlalidohg keUqrejk msßi zjkaÈf.ùulg hg;aj
fyda hg;a fkdù kS;suh ne£ulska ksoyia ùuZ hk ;ekg
ldrKh ,>q fldg w;msiod .ekSug fm<ö isàu iudc
.eg¿jls' fuu iudc .eg¿j úi£fuys ,d fcHda;sIhh
;=<ska isÿl< yels fiajhla f,iska fmdfrdkaoï ne,Su˜
fmkajdÈh yelsh'
,dxlSh iudchg lreKq wjOdrKh lsÍfï woyiska yd tu
fiajhg úoHdkql+, újrKhla iemhSu ;=<ska fcdfrdkaoï
135

ne,Su iqcd;lrKhg ,la lsÍug ,xldfõ úúO jQ fcHda;sI
mqj;am;a iÕrd ;=<ska fcHda;s¾fõ§ka .kakd W;aidyhka
meiish hq;=h'
Èlalido ùfï m%jK;djh jeä jljdkqjl zfmdfrdkaoï
ne,SuZ flfrys ;;aj iy;slhla §u ;rul m%Yak lsÍug
,laúh yels lreKla f,i we;eï úg fmkS hd yelsh'
kuq;a tys ,d mj;sk ;;ajh yd tfia we;sjk ;;ajhka
flfrys n,mdk idOl úuiSfï § th .eg¿jla fkdjk
nj fmkajdÈh yelsh'
fmdfrdkaoï ne,Sug m%:u mdßfNda.slhka úiska fmdfrdkaoï ne,Su isÿ lrk fcHda;s¾fõ§kaf.a oeKqu ms<sn|
;;aj iy;slh úuid isàu b;d jeo.;a lreKls' fuys,d
fcHda;s¾fõofhys mj;sk idrO¾u yd m%{ma;Skag wkql+,j
lghq;= lrk lsisÿ fcHda;s¾fõÈfhl= w;ska jerÈ fmdfrdkaoï m%ldYhla n,dfmdfrd;a;= úh fkdyelsh'
fcHda;I
s fhys Wkak;sh i|yd iy tys Ndú;dj iqlr lsÍfï
mru wruqKska t<s olajk mÙpd[a. ,s;aj, olajd we;s
fmdfrdkaoï mÍCIdj keu;s WOD;h hgf;a fmdfrdkaoï
úiaila olajd we;' tysu .%y fmdfrdkaofï § ie,ls,a,g
.; hq;= .%y msysàï we;eï ,s;a fmd;l úia;r lr we;'
hQÔ j¾. úNd.h" iqo¾Yk pl%h" mdmdxYl pl%h" w;HdjYH
tfldf<dia fmdfrdkaoï" oi fmdfrdkaoï yd wg fmdfrdkaoï fyj;a wIgl+Gh hk lreKq o .re`vd§ wIaG fhdaks
úNd.h" .re`vd§ wIaG fhdaks kdudCIr .Ks; l%uh" tu
,s;a fmd;aj, olajd we;' kuq;a wkqfõokSh j mejiSug
isÿ ù we;s lreKla we;' tkï fï ;;ajh jxpksl l+G
136

mqoa.,hska fcHda;s¾fõ§ka hhs ;uqka u lshd .ksñka ,s;a
fmd;aj, we;s úis fmdfrdkaoï muKla hka;ï n,d iqN
jYfhka tys § .efKk fmdfrdkaoï .Kk 10la fyda
Bg jeä m%udKhl w.hla meñfKa kï újdyhg iqN nj
ke;fyd;a wiqN nj olajd isá;s'
újdyfhys iqN wiqN whkhka" kele;a" ;sÓ" lrK" fhda.
iy ,.akdÈh" wiqN ;sÓ jdr yd fo¾ldK wxYl" wiqN .%y
;;ajhka hgf;a isÿ l< hq;= Ydka;s l¾udÈh" újdyfhys iqN
wiqN ffoj{hkaf.ka úuid isáh hq;= nj yd ffoj{hka
lrd t<eôh hq;= ke;fyd;a hdhq;= wdldrh" ffoj{hd
úiska ;;ald, .%ypdrdkql+,j újdyfhys iqN wiqN úi¢h
hq;= wdldrh" wmq;%S ffjOjH fhda. fkdfyd;a orejka yg
fkd.kakd fhda." wUqieñ fofokdf.a Nd.H iïm;a olajk
fhda." iajdñhdf.a fyda Nd¾hdjf.a keiSu olajk fhda."
iajdñhdf.a fyda Nd¾hdjf.a uõmshka ke;sùu flfrys
n,mdk fhda." wUqieñ fofokdf.a Ôj;ajk fkdjk nj
oelafjk fhda." iajdñhdf.a fyda Nd¾hdjf.a kskaÈ; nj
úuik fhda." YdÍßl fn,ySk;djka fyda úl,dx. iys;
;;ajhka úuik fhda." Èlalidofhys pQÈ;hd njg iajdñhd
fyda Nd¾hdj m;ajk fhda." nd, úfhys §u jekaoUq ùu
fyda nd, wmpdrhkag ,lajk fhda." mxpldu iïm;a
ke;fyd;a rEm" YíO" .kaO" ri iy Yam¾I hk iïm;a
fkd,nk fhda." lkHdx. úNd.h" úI lkHd .%y fhda."
m%:u wd¾;jfha kele;a M," Èk M," bßhdm: M, iy reêr
M, o újdyhla isÿ lsÍug m%udKj;a fmdfrdkaoï .Kk
o ia;%Skagu wkql+,j ke;fyd;a wd¾;jh uq,alr újdy
kele;a iEÈh hq;= nj o hk w;s úYd, fCIa;%hl úys§ we;s
fmdfrdkaoï mÍCIdfõ § úuid ne,sh hq;= m%Odk lreKq
137

flfrys fuu m%fhda.ldÍ jxpksl mqoa.,hka wjOdkh
fhduq fkdlr;s' we;af;kau Tjqyq tn÷ oE fcHda;sIfhys
we;s nj j;a okafka ke;'
Èlalido ùfï m%jK;dj jeä jljdkqjla t<eöu flfrys
o fuu jxpksl m%fhda.ldÍ ffoj{hka hhs ;uqka u lshd.
kakd mqoa.,hkaf.a l%shd l,dmhka iDcqj n,md we;s nj
fmkajd Èh hq;=h'
fmdfrdkaoï ne,Sfï § oelsh yels mdßfNda.slhka w;ska
isÿjk jerÈ o hï muKlg Èlalido ùfï m%jK;dj
jeä ùug n,mdkq ,nhs' tys,d Wmka Èkh" fõ,dj yd
ia:dkh jerÈhg fcHda;s¾fõÈhd fj; iemhSfuka ilikq
,nk fla k a ø Ndú; ls Í u' iudc ;;a j hka " n,hka "
ñ,uqo,a yd n,mqjkaldrlï uq,alr isÿlrk újdyhkays
§ fukau fm%au in|;d u; isÿlrk újdyhkays § we;eï
úg flakaø .e,mSu fkdi,ld fouõmshka úiska újdy
lghq;= isÿ lrkq ,n;s' ke;skï ys;=u;hg újdy fhdacl
;reK ;reKshka ;u ;uqka u újdyhg t<efU;s' tys§
we;sjk ;;ajka yuqfõ jk Èlalidohlg fhduq ùul§
fcHda;sI{hd fj; fodaIdfrdamK t,a, l< yels kuq;a
tu fodaIdfrdamK w¾: úrys; tajd nj mejish hq;= fjhs'
Èlalido ùfï m%jK;dj jeä jljdkqjl § idudkH
uyckhd i;= m%n, j.lSula we;' tkï fcHda;I
s {fhl=f.a
oeKqu" w;aoelSu yd fcHda;sI oeKqfuys m%d.=kHh we;s
ffoj{ uyf;l= ,jd fmdfrdkaoï mÍCId lsÍu l< hq;=
nj h'

138

fuys§ fcHda;I
s hg w¿;ska msúfik kjlhska we;eï úfgl
fpdaokdjla t,a, l< yelsh' th idOdrKh' kuq;a hful=
fcHda;sIhg w¿;ska msúfik kjlfhl= ,jd fmdfrdkaoï
mÍCId lr .kafka kï wksjd¾hfhka u fcHda;sIfhys
m%ùKfhl= ,jd kej; tu flakaø mÍCId lr .; hq;= nj
wjOdrKh l< hq;=h'
Bg ir< WodyrKhla mejish yelsh' Tn hï lsis ldhsl
wdndOhlska fmf,k úg ffjoH Wmdêh w¿;ska .;a
ffjoHjrfhl= fj; hk wjia:djla isyshg k.d .kak'
Tng we;s frda.hg ir, ffjoH Wmfoila fyda ir,
m%;sldrhla kshu lrk Tyq Tng we;s frda.hg wkqj
ksYaÑ; m%;sldrhla ,nd.ekSu i|yd úfYaI{ oeKqula
we;s úfYaI{ ffjoHjrfhl= fj; wksjd¾hhfkau Tnj
fhduq lrkq we;'
fï mßoafoka wdOqksl fcHda;s¾fõÈfhl= ,jd isÿlrk fmdfrdkaoï mÍCIdj m%ùK fcHda;¾
s fõÈfhl= lrd fhduq lrúh
hq;=h' ;ukaf.a wdOqksl;ajh ms<sn| ksy;udkS;ajfhka
ms<s.kakd wdOqksl fcHda;s¾fõÈhd yg wksjd¾hfhka u
Ydia;%h msysgk w;r Ydia;%OdÍ lD;yia; Ndjh keu;s
jia;= iïm;a lrd ,Õdùug th hd;%djla lr.; yelsh'

139

140

f,daldh; fcHd;sIh yd foaYmd,k úµdj

zzfoaYmd,k úµdjZZ hkak wo ojfia fndfyda újdohkag ,laj
we;s úIhSh ud;Dldjls' tfia jqj;a zzf,daldh; fcHd;sIhZZ
ms<sn|j l;d lrkqfha fcHd;sI mqj;am;a l,dfj§ka muKls'
fuu ;;a;ajh fndfyda úg wmg fmkS hkafka rfÜ m%Odk
mqj;am;a tla mfil isg foaYmd,k úoHdj wkqj foaYmd,kuh
l;sldjla ;u mqj;am;a weiqfrka f.k hk w;r ;j;a mfil
fcHd;sI mqj;am;a ish úYaf,aIKhka fcHd;sI úµdkql=,j
f.kyer olajkq ±l.; yel'
,dxlSh foaYmd,k l;sldj ;=< fuf,i fowdldr jq lshdj,shla
l%shd;aul úug idol lSmhla we;'
m<uqjeks idOlh njg m;aj we;af;a idudkH ckhdf.a ckao
n,h u; uyck u;h mokï jk neúka th ;udg ,nd.eksfï
ls%hdj,sh ;=< uOH m%pdrKh fhdod.kakd foaYmd,k{hska ta
141

i|yd Bg fcHd;sI wkq.; lsßug W;aidy orkafka uyckhd
fcHd;sI ms<sn|j jq isj{dksl wkqN+;shla ;=< Ôj;a jk
ksidfjks' uyckhd Wmf;a isg urKh f;la iEu iqúfYaI
wjia:djlÈu fcHd;sIhg wkql+,j ish ffoksl l%shdoduhka
isÿ lrkq ,eìu fya;=jls' ck ðú;h yd neÈ.;a fohla njg
fcHd;sIh m;aj ;sìu
ksid we;eï foaYmd,k{hkaf.a
iydhl udOH WmfoaYlhf.a th m%fhdckhg .ksñska lrk
wÉpdrj;a WmfoaYk ksid úoHdkql=, mokula u; f.dvkeÕs
;snq fcHd;sIh úIh mqiaila njg m;aù we;s nj fmfkkak
;sìKs'
ue;sjrK foaYmd,k m%pdrKh ;=< muKlA fkdj foAYm,Hk
Ndú;j ;=< o fcHd;sI
S {hdf.a N+ñldj fj;ska wm w;aú¢
a kq ,enq
kso¾Ykd;aul isoaëka .Kkdjls' m%Odk ck kdhlhl= njg
m;a jq tla foaYmd,k{fhl= jgd f.dkq jq óg iudk isoaëka
.Kkdjla 90 oYlh uq,oS aswmg ±l.; yelsúh' uka;% úµj o
fcd;sIh ;=<u wkq.; jkakd jq tla Wm úIh lafI;%hla jk
neúka tu úµdj Tyq úiska Wmldr lr.;a njg o rdjhla úh'
kuq;a f,daldh; fcH;sIh ;=< funÿ ir, lreKq i|ykaj
ke;' th werfUkafka mqoa., Wmam;a;s flakaøh o iu.sks'
mqoa., Wmam;a;s flakaøh ;=< i|yka jkakd jq rdc fhda. iuÕ
f,daldh; fcH;sIh wdrïN fjhs' wjka;s foaYfha úiq fcHd;sI
wdpd¾h jrhl= úiska ,shk ,o jrdyñysßhg ls%ia;= j¾I 966
oS ,shk ,o zzNÜfgd;aM, gsldj ZZg wkqj mKaä; ms sfõr.u
keu;s fcHd;sI{hd úiska lrk ,o jrdyñysr ikakhg
wkaj zzrdc fhd. ZZkï jq tfldf<dia mßÉfÊ m,uq mka;sfha
rdc fhda. 77la o fojksm;sfha rdcfhda . 7lao ms<sj i|yka
fldg ckau m;%hg wkqj rdcH;ajh nefnk ld, n,dd.kak
wdldrh o fmkajd § ;sfí' f,dalhg b;du;a fiajhla ngq
l< isoaOd¾: f.!;uhkaf.a foayfhys jq fo;sia uyd mqreI
142

,laIK wkqj fyf;u pl%j¾;S rdcH;ajhg fyda nqoaO;ajhg
m;ajk nj kdulrK ux.,Hhg meñK isá fcHd;sIfhys fl<
meñk isá n%dyauKhka 107 fofkl= mjid idá w;r W!¾K
frdau Od;= ,laIKhg wkqj wksjd¾fhkau nqÿjk nj mjid
isá fldKav[a[ kï n%dyauKhd miqj l=ure nqÿùfï ÿIalr
l%shd wjêfha § Wmia:dkmjd fhduqj isá wfhl= nj fmkajd
Èh yelsh'
tfiau uhqrmdo "Y=rmdo" O¾u lS¾;smdod§ .Dyia: mçjrekag
iuld,Skfhl= f,i i,lk YS% ufyaømdohka úiska ÑrÑ;
fcHd;sIfhys ialkaO;%fhka fydrd ialkaOhg wh;a hehs
i,lk zzfydardNrKZZkï jq lD;shg wkqj tys 15jk mßÉfcofhys 127 isg 132 olajd jq Yaf,dal ihlska rdcdNsfIal
úê ljf¾±hs olajd ;sfí' wo o foaYmd,k moú md%ma;suh
wjia:djkag yd tu moú Èjqreï §fï wjia:djkag wod< kele;a
iE§fus § fuu .=re WmfoaY wkqj tu kel;a idokq ,nk nj
tu kele;a idokq ,nk fcHd;sI{fhda oks;s'
foaYmd,kh ms<n
s |j yd foaYmd,k moú m%dma;u
s h wjia:djka yd
ine|s foaYmd,k wkdjels m<lsßfuys fh§ we;s fcHd;sI{hka
ms<sn|j úuisSfï§ ngysr f,dalh ;=< wo o b;du;a m%isoaêhla
Wiq,k wfhls' zzfkda;%oduqia ZZ iema;eïn¾ 11jk Èk wefußldkq b;sydifha isÿjqKq w÷re isÿúu ms<sn|j mjd fyf;u
wkdjels m<fldg ;snq nj mqj;am;a úiska ;;a ld, jljdkqj
iys;j fmkajd § ;sîKs' tfiau jerÈ wkdjelsh m< lrkakg
fhÿk fcHd;sI{hkag urK ovqjug mjd ,laùug isÿ jq
wjia:d b;sydi .%ka: ;=<ska ±l.; yelsh
foaYmd,kh ms<n
s |j yd foaYmd,k moú m%dma;u
s h wjia:djka yd
ine¢ foaYmd,k wkdjels m<lsÍfuys fh§ we;s fcHd;sI{hka
ms<sn|j úuisfï§ ngysr f,dalh ;=< wo o b;du;a m%isoaêhla
143

Wiq,k wfhls' fkda;ø% uqia bka§h wêrdcH ìysùfï wjia:dfõ§
.=ma; hq.hg wjOdkh fhduq lrkq ,nk úg § ta ;=< fu!¾h
jxYhg ysñ jkafka fY%aIaG ia:dkhls' l%sia;= mQ¾j 321 § isyiqkg m;a kkao kï rcqf.ka isyiqk ,nd .;af;a pkao .=ma;
l=udrhdh' Tyq lsisÿ rdcH Wreuhla fkd;snqfjla hehs
uE;
b;sydi{hka úiska ^ Thapar, Romila. History of India, (tr)
(1973 . India: Messßs penguin Books Ltd ; Dehiwala:
Thisara packaging Indñtry.)
wkdjrKh lrkq ,eîh'
pkaø kï jq .=ma; jxYhg wh;a l=ufrl=f.a .=rejrhd fukau
fcHd;sIh ;=< fl< meñK isá fl!á,H kï jq wdpdhHSjrhd
WmfoaYk ;=<ska
pkaø wêrdcHhlg ysñlï lshkq ,nhs'
fl!á,H kï fuu wdpdhHSjrhd ms<sn|j Tn fyd¢ka wdid
we;af;a Tyqf.a w¾: Ydia;%h ;=< i|yka jk zzu;aiH kHdhZZiuÕks' fl!á,Hfha w¾: Ydia;%h yd iudk m%isoaO;ajhla
Wiq,k" ngysr foaYmd,k úµd kHdh ;=< jvd;au idlÉcdjg
n÷ka ù we;s zzl=udrhd Zzkeu;s .%ka:h rpkd lrk ,o
uelshdfj,a,s kï jq foaYmd,k WmfoaYlhdf.a WmfoaYk .ek
Tn wid fyda lshjd we;ehs is;uq'
fl!á,H yd uelshdfj,a,s kï fofokdf.au b;sydih foi
jsuis,af,ka mßlaId lr n,k úg § Tjqka fofokdu fcHd;sI
Ydia;%fhys yi, ±kqula iys;j isá mqoa.,hka fofokl= nj
fmkS hhs' pkaø.=ma; yg rdcH;aajhg úfYaI f,a Wreuhla
fkdjqj;a Tyqf.a ckau m;%hg wkqj rdcH;ajhg wkqu; wêrdc
fhda. ;=klska iukaú; isá whqre yd fcHd;sIfhys Wm úIh
lafIa;hla jk foay ,laIK úµdjg wkqj o wêrdcH;ajhg
m;aùug wjYH lrk foay ,laIK pkaø.=ma;% ;=< ;snq nj
fl!á,Hhkaf.a ±l ;snq nj NÜafgda;aM, àldfjys rdcfhda.
ms<n
s |j jk mßÉfÊohg l,dka >fKaIdpdhHS n%dyauK mä;=uka
úiska úrÑ; cd;ld,xldrfhys ^mqiafld, fmd;& i|yka jk
nj mQ¾úldfjys i|yka fjhs'
144

f,daldh; fcHd;sIhg fï wdldrfhka mq¾úldjla ilid
.ksñska tys úIh lreKq foig fhduqùfï§ mqoa., flakaø
igyka jvd;a jeo.;a fjhs'tfiau hï foaYmd,k ,laIhla
fyda mqoa.,hl= rdcH;ajhg m;ajk wjia:dfõ ;;ald, flakaø
igyk ^tu fõ,djg ysñ õYaj .%y is;shu& wkqj f,daldh;
fcHd;sIfhys m,m, l:kh isÿ lrkq ,nhs' kuq;a fuysÈ
újdyhg muKla wm mßlaId lrk fmdfrdkaoï ne,Su hg ls
;;ald, flakaø igyfkys Wod wjia:dfõ .%y msysáu;a kel;;a
yd mqoa., flakaøfhys .%y msysgsu yd kel;;a w;r fmdfrdkaoï
mßlaId lsßu;a wksjd¾fhkau l< hq;= jkafkah'
fuys§ wm f,dalfhys jvd;a Ñr m%isoaêhla Wiq,kq ,nk
foaYmd,k kdhlhska lsysm fofkl=f.a ckau ,.ak ljf¾±hs
úuid ne,Su m%fhdckj;a fjhs' nKavdrfj, fmrÈ.
fcHd;sI
úoHd,hdêm;sj isá wNdjm%dma; jq weia 'ví' lia;=ßr;akhkag
wkqj fuu ,.ak igyka Tng olajd,uq' ^lia;ß
= r;ak" tia'ví'f.
dapr M, ^1972&' fudrjl ud;r" ls¾;s wfíúl%u 147-161 msgq
v isoaOd¾: f.!;uhkaf.a ckau ,.akh - lgl
v ,xldfõ wd.ñl yd foaYmd,ksl kdhlfhl=j isá
wk.dßl O¾umd,;=ud - lkHd ,.akh
v ,xldfõ w.ue;s j rfhl= j is á tia ' ví' wd¾' vS '
nKavdrkdhl uy;d - l=ïN ,.akh
v j;auka ckdêm;s m¾is ufyakøa rdcmCI - lkHd ,.akh
v ysgmqq ckdêm;sks pkaøsld nKavdrkdhl l=udr;=x.
ue;sksh - lgl ,.akh
v wefußldfõ m%:u cksêm;s fcda¾Ê fjdIsxgka uy;d
- fïI ,.akh
v reishdfõ ld¾,a ud¾laia - l=ïN ,.akh
v c¾uksfha ìiaud¾la - lgl ,.akh
145

v c¾uksh tlai;a l< flhssi¾ w.rcq - ñ:qk ,.akh
v wefußldfõ ckdêm;sjrfhl=j isá
ma/kala,ska
rEiafj,aÜ uy;d - lkHd ,.akh
v b;d,s wd{dodhl uQfida,skS - ;=,d ,.akh
v kefmda,shka w.rcq lkHd ,.akh
v miajk fcda¾Ê rcq - ók ,.akh
v yhjk fcdaÊ rcq - ;=,d ,.akh
v y;ajk tâjâ rcq - Okq ,.akh
v uy;aud .dkaê
- ;=,d ,.akh
v w.ue;sjrfhl=j isá úkaaikaÜ p¾Ñ,a - ;=,d ,.akh
v úlafgdarshd /ðk - jDIN ,.akh
v reishka wd{dodhl fcdai iagd¾,ska - ;=,d ,.akh
v reishdkq cd;sl ù'whs'f,kska - ;=,d ,.akh
v frdau wêrdcHfhl=j isá kSfrda - Okq ,.akh
v tan%yï ,skalka - ók ,.akh
v weußlka ckdêm;sjrfhl=jisá jqâfrda ú,aika - ók
,.akh
fuu ,.ak ysñ ta ta foaYmd,k kdhlhska wdrïN lrkakg
fhÿk foaYmd,k l%shdjka ;;ald, flakaø igyka iuÕ úuid
ne,Sfï§ fndafydaúg Wla; foaYmd,k l%shdoduhka Tiafia
b;sydih f.dvke.=k wdldrh f,daldh; fcHd;sIh ;=<ska
meyeÈ<s lr.; yel' fuu f,daldh; fcHd;sIh ms<sn|j
l;sldj f.dvk.kqfha foaYmd,k wkd.;h iïnkaOfhka
mqfrdal;k bÈßm;a lsßu Tiafiah' ieu fcH;sI{fhl= úiskau
fndafydaúg fuu mqfrdal;kh f.dvk.kq we;' ;uka mßYSkh
lrk mxpd[a. ,sf;ys ixj;air m;%h yd ikaikaokh lSßu
f,daldh; fcHd;sIfhys ;j;a tla wx.hls'
fuu ixj;air m;% ms<sn|j lreKq úuiSfï § lia;=ßr;akhka
^lia;=ßr;ak"tia 'ví'f.dapr M, ^1972&' msgq &' bÈßm;a lrk 21
146

jk Y;j¾I m,dm, l:kh b;du;a m%Yia; uÜgulmj;sk
nj fmfkkakg ;sfí'
foaYmd,k yd f,daldh; fcHd;sIh w;r lsi÷
s iy iïnkaO;djla
fkdue;s tlla fia we;eful= is;d isák kuqÿ fuu fol w;r
mj;sk iyiïnkaOh f.dvk.d.; yels wdldrh yd ta ;=<
mj;sk iïnkaO;djh jsjr lr.; yels ud¾. ms<sn|j ijdohl
fh§u ldf,daÑ; jqjls'

147

148