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01. How does introducing cis double bonds into the fatty acids of membrane phospholipids effect the packing of these phospholipids in a biomembrane? a. Packing is less tight. b. Packing is more tight. c. There is no effect on packing. d. Packing is entirely disrupted and the membrane dissolves. e. There is an effect but it is of no biological consequence. 02. Fluorescently labeled, single-stranded DNAs are/were used to localize the positions of specific complementary DNA sequences within chromosomes in a. centrifuge tubes. b. F.I.S.H. analysis. c. laser tweezer experiments. d. GFP analysis. e. subcellular fractionation. 03. The types of molecules that pass through a cell membrane most easily are a. large and hydrophobic. b. small and hydrophobic. c. large polar molecules. d. ions. e. monosaccharides such as glucose 04. Which of the following is a characteristic property of a carrier protein in a plasma membrane? a. It is a peripheral membrane protein. b. It has high specificity for a particular type of molecule. c. It requires energy to function. d. It works against diffusion. e. It has few, if any, hydrophobic amino acids. 05. The membrane returns near the normal negative value after an action potential due to the a. opening of a voltage-gated K+ channel. b. opening of a voltage-gated Na+ channel. c. closing of a voltage-gated K+ channel. d. opening of a ligand-gated Na+ channel. e. Both b and c are correct answers.
a. d. It is primarily the __________ molecules in a membrane that limit its permeability a. phospholipids proteins negative ions water molecules 12. 1 b.I. histones.06. __________ but not __________ can be separated from a biomembrane using solutions containing high salt concentrations. 7 d. the composition of lipids a. phosphatidylcholine 10. integral membrane proteins c.. Cholesterol. c. peripheral membrane proteins b. 11.R.H analysis. e. 21 07. is highly random due to flippases and varies throughout the cell. is identical. Which property of voltage-gated Na+ channels ensures that an action potential will travel in only one direction along an axon? a. DNA. is asymmetrical due to the positioning of cholesterol only on the inner face. a. __________sugar(s) are added to the nascent chain at once. b. reverse transcriptases e. In N-linked glycosylation of proteins in the ER lumen. c. In regards to the outer and inner faces of the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane. A cell biological technique that allows various proteins to be separated based on size. Voltage-gated Na+ channels do NOT ensure direction of the action potential. c. 2 . subcellular fractionation. 14 e. is a. d. c. F. e. polysaccharides. lipids. The location of the channels in the cell membrane at the nodes of Ranvier. d. is asymmetrical. is asymmetrical due to the positioning of cholesterol only on the outer face. d. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) is important in the synthesis of a. liposome formation. Peripheral membrane proteins. GLUT 4 transporters. d. The inactivation of each channel shortly after it is opened. F. carbohydrates b.A. proteins. 08. e.S. b. Transposases. Integral membrane proteins. 3 c. e. Each channel can sense the direction from which Na+ ions originate.P. once the proteins have been denatured. They allow Na+ to only flow INTO the axon. b. 09. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. b. Na+ channels d. c. e.
are more common in animals than in plants. c.9%. germ cells are diploid. d. 18. a measure of ionic imbalance caused by DNA inside a nucleus and proteins in the cytosol. have double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids. 99. Gene duplication is thought to occur by a. 99. a. Mutations in a germ line cell would likely be more deleterious to a mammal than a mutation in a liver cell because a. exon shuffling.9%. a measure of how many proteins are in the cytosol compared to in the lumen of the ER. are usually solid at room temperature. unequal crossing over of chromosomes during mitosis. a steroid derivative c. measured in millimoles b. measured in milligrams d. d. a. 90%.13. 17. single nucleotide polymorphisms 14. The differences are mostly __________. Unsaturated fats a. liver cells have error correction machinery to fix the mutation. unequal crossing over of chromosomes during meiosis. b. e. a measure of ionic imbalance across the plasma membrane. in the nucleus. have fewer fatty acid molecules per fat molecule than saturated fats. d. 15. measured in millivolts c. liver cells are not actively dividing. transposon number c. b. c. Resting potential is a. transposon number b. a measure of how liable you are to sit on the sofa and watch TV. all cells of offspring using that germ cell would have the mutation. c. in the extracellular space. germ cells are haploid. a phospholipid derivative e. b. 90%. alternative splicing. transposon number d. measured in millivolts e. caused by unequal concentrations of ions in the cytosol vs. single nucleotide polymorphisms e. Because cholesterol is __________ it can associate with phosphoglycerides in membranes. nonsense mutations. 16. e. e. a sphingosine derivative b. are excluded from the lipid bilayer because they are hydrophilic. You have approximately __________ similar nucleotide sequence similarities with your classmates. 75%. amphipathic 3 . measured in bags of potato chips (millibags). a measure of ionic imbalance across the nuclear membrane. caused by unequal concentrations of ions in the cytosol vs. entirely hydrophobic d.
red blood cells are inexpensive and easy to obtain. The human red blood cell membrane so well studied because a. K+ channel d.19. Clathrin and COP-II e. What is the orientation of membrane-associated carbohydrates? a. why oxygen. Internal cellular membrane carbohydrates face the organelle exterior. e. usually constitutes 50% of cell membranes. d. its concentration remains higher inside the cell. b. Membrane-associated carbohydrates always face the cytoplasm. but not glucose can difuse through the plasma membrane. histones 22. is a component of glycolipids. Rabs and SNARES b. osmosis 25. e. e. Carbohydrates are only associated with the nuclear membrane. 4 . secondary active transport c. b. is bonded to glycerol in phosphoglycerides. An understanding of electrochemical gradients in resting nerve cells can explain a. Which of the following proteins is NOT an integral membrane protein? a. d. One mechanism of getting glucose into cells is to use Na+ outside the cell in a symport mechanism. c. red blood cells are very complicated. is entirely hydrophobic. facilitated diffusion d. why the interior of the membrane is more positive than the exterior. COP-I and COP-II c. Plasma membrane-associated carbohydrates face toward the outside of cells into the extracellular space. 23. c. d. b. SRP and SRP receptor 24. Sphingosine a. direct active transport b. why the Na+/K+ ATPase pumps out more Na+ than it pumps in K+. Na+/K+ ATPase c. is bonded to phosphate in phosphoglycerides. KDEL receptor b. why the sodium concentration is kept high outside the cell. passive diffuse e. Clathrin and COP-I d. red blood cells have no contaminating internal cell membranes. c. 21. d. that although K+ can leak through the membrane. c. Both b and c are correct answers. This is an example of a. towards the cytoplasm. b and c are all correct. e. The targeting of vesicles to a particular compartment involves both a. The answers a. GLUT4 glucose transporter e. red blood cells need not be dissociated from a complex tissue. b. 20.
c. c. transport of an ion down its electrochemical gradient 31. c. It adds a single mannose back to one of the glucose residues at the exposed end of the recently trimmed oligosaccharide. b. b. diffusion of a solute across a membrane c. It degrades the oligosaccharide chain. cause increased saturation of phospholipid tails. The probable result of this stimulation will be to a. facilitated diffusion d. One of the proteins is labeled with green-fluorescent protein and the other with red-fluorescent protein.26. d. A cell biologist has transfected and expressed two proteins in the same tissue culture cells. facilitated diffusion e. d. These results suggest that a. It adds a single glucose back to one of the mannose residues at the exposed end of the recently trimmed oligosaccharide. the appropriate N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence is present on the protein. It degrades the protein. mannose-6-phosphate is added to the protein. the green protein is not translated by the ribosomes. COPI in these cells is not functioning correctly 27. To do this properly. exocytosis 29. 5 . By five hours. COPII in these cells is not functioning correctly. while the green protein in the same cells is concentrated in the ER. osmosis b. start the membrane water pump. It translocates it back into the cytoplasm. e. osmosis d. diffusion b. The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient with the help of energy input is which of the following? a. The red and green proteins are made by cells and followed through the various organelles in the secretory pathway by microscopy. active transport c. e. What does GT (glucosyltransferase) do if it binds to a misfolded glycoprotein in the ER? a. open gated channels 30. 28. e. the green protein does not possess a signal peptide recognized by the SRP for ER insertion. You are conducting research on nerve cells. d. you administer an electrical stimulation to the cells. e. the proper nuclear-export signal is on the protein. passive transport e. Which of the following processes includes all others? a. plenty of clathrin-coated pits may be formed. b. you need to make certain that a. the liver cell is capable of phagocytosis. c. b. During an experiment. activate the active transport system. You want to be sure that a transfected liver cell will synthesize and secrete a bacterial protein product. the green protein possesses an ER localization sequence. increase membrane fluidity and asymmetry d. the red protein has been secreted into the cell culture medium.
constitutive b. c. d. d. whereas folding occurs in the ER lumen. In the protein's nucleotide sequence. It first increases. Synthesis of ER targeted proteins a. It first decreases. e. b. potassium ion levels. b. They diffuse freely into the luminal leaflet. neurotransmitter levels. conditional d. c. How does decreasing the length of the fatty acid tails of phospholipids from 18 to 14 carbons affect the movement of proteins in the same lipid bilayer? a. c. They move to the cytoplasmic leaflet by osmosis. e. 34. It increases it. is completed before transportation across the ER membrane. begins in the cytosol. is completed in the cytosol. chloride ion levels. occurs exclusively on free ribosomes in the cytosol. Phospholipids are made by integral ER membrane enzymes whose active sites face the cytosol and they are inserted into the outer (cytoplasmic) leaflet of the ER membrane. In the protein's attached oligosaccharides. then increases it. 33. 37. e. How then do lipids destined for the luminal leaflet of the ER membrane get there? a. b. begins in the trans face of the Golgi apparatus. d. calcium ion levels. c. Where are the sorting signals that are used by the cell to direct proteins to the correct cellular location found? a. In the protein's amino acid sequence. e. constantive e. 6 . It decreases it. What word describes the synthesis and secretion of a substance from the cell in a continual unregulated manner? a. d. regulative 36. e. In the protein's fatty acid sequence. b. b. Both b and d are correct answers. regulated c. There are enzymes that actively translocate them across the bilayer. They are disassembled on the cytoplasmic side and reassembled on the luminal side.32. Protein movement is unrelated to the number of carbons in the fatty acids of phospholipids. The direct stimulus for the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft is increased a. then decreases it. They are translocated by aquaporin. c. sodium ion levels. d. 35.
Which of the following oligosaccharide chains is assembled exclusively in the Golgi complex? a. eIF2 41. KDEL b. 7 . Lysosomal enzymes possess sulfated mannose residues on N-linked carbohydrate chains. c. 44. KDEL receptor 42. oligosaccharides attached to asparagine residues d. Lysosomal enzymes possess sulfated mannose residues on O-linked carbohydrate chains. Golgi apparatus. Rough ER. It is rearranged. Which of the following complexes recognizes the signal peptide on a protein being translated and stops translation until the ribosome binds to the ER? a. glucosyltransferase c. histones e. Golgi apparatus. Which of the following is/are NOT made on RER-bound ribosomes? a. plasma membrane b. What is the path a secreted protein takes from synthesis to secretion from a cell? a. cytosolic surface of RER and free ribosomes d. It is thickened. It is lost. Lysosomal enzymes possess phosphorylated mannose residues on N-linked carbohydrate chains. vesicle. e. It is strengthened. coated vesicle. SNARE d. insulin b. What happens to the clathrin coat once the vesicle has budded from the plasma membrane? a. b. Rab e. plasma membrane 43. lysosome c. cytoplasm. lysosomal acid hydrolases d.38. What are the recognition signals for lysosomal enzymes that allow them to be targeted to lysosomes? a. oligosaccharides attached to serine residues e. luminal surface of RER and free ribosomes c. c. d. What are the two sites within a cell at which protein synthesis is generally thought to occur? a. plasma membrane d. Plasma membrane. vesicle. cytosolic surface of RER and cytosolic surface of SER e. N-linked oligosaccharides c. Rough ER. SRP c. free ribosomes and cytosolic surface of SER 40. b. It swells. lysosome e. O-linked oligosaccharides b. 39. d. Lysosomal enzymes possess phosphorylated glucose residues on N-linked carbohydrate chains. Lysosomal enzymes possess phosphorylated mannose residues on O-linked carbohydrate chains. cytosolic surface of RER and luminal surface of RER b. rough ER. e. Both a and d are correct answers. Lysosome.
e. c. protein cytosolic. protein luminal. Vesicles budding from the endoplasmic reticulum have a fuzzy. b. electron-dense coat on their __________ surface. lipid cytosolic. the outer chloroplast membrane. d. b. The coat appears to be made of __________. the outer mitochondrial membrane. the Golgi complex. The ER is continuous with a. lipid 46. a. luminal. the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. c. d.45. e. the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope. carbohydrate cytosolic. More questions on next page— 8 .
d. c. 1 msec c. In the graph above. D e. the point at which the voltage-gated potassium channels open is indicated by the letter a. B c. In the graph above. 4 msec 9 . depolarization. C d. 2 msec d. B c. sodium channel activity. Immediately following the stimulation (~0 msec) b. repolarization.Base your answers to questions 47 to 50 on the graph below. at which point in the action potential will the voltage-gated sodium channels be opened? a. The parts of the graph indicated at points C and D represent a. depicting an action potential CHANGE VALUES TO THAT USED IN CLASS 47. A b. 3 msec e. A b. after approximately what period of time could another impulse be propagated? a. D e. Based on the graph above. 50. E 48. the refractory period. E 49. e. C d. b. hyperpolarization.
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