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Organisational Behaviour

Bibin Thomas
M Com Part 2
Roll No

2013-14

TITLE Project Report on

Organisational Behaviour u!"itte# to $niversit% o& 'u"!ai (t Lor#)s $niversal *ollege B% 'r Bi!in Tho"as $n#er the +ui#ance o& Pro&,

DECLARATION
I hereby declare that the project work entitled Organisational Behaviour submitted to the MUMBAI U I!"#$I%&' is a record o( an original work done by me under the guidance o( )ro(* $ushant Bijlani' +aculty Member' o( ,ord-s Universal .ollege' and this project work has not per(ormed the basis (or the award o( any /egree or diploma0 associate ship0(ellowship and similar project i( any* Bibin %homas #oll no )lace1 Mumbai

ACKNOLEDGEMENT

I would like to e2press my gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this thesis* I want to thank ,ord-s Universal .ollege (or giving me permission to commence this thesis in the (irst instance' to do the necessary research work and to use departmental data* I have (urthermore to thank' who gave and con(irmed this permission and encouraged me to go ahead with my thesis* I am deeply indebted to my )ro(* (rom the ,ord-s Universal .ollege whose help' stimulating suggestions and encouragement helped me in all the time o( research (or and writing o( this thesis*

INDEX
*-(PTER 1 o o o o o o RE*R$IT'E.T 0/ ELE*TIO. 0/ O$R*I.+ 00 RE*R$IT'E.T 1OR 2I3ER IT4 05 '(6I.+ T-E 7OB O11ER 08 E3(L$(TI.+ T-E RE*R$IT'E.T (.2 ELE*TIO. PRO*E 11

*-(PTER 2 o o o (BO$T T* I.2I(. BR(.*-E (BO$T RE*R$IT'E.T 9 ELE*TIO. 12 13 14

*-(PTER 3 o o PRO*E PL(..I.+ (.2 1ORE*( TI.+ 1: 10

*-(PTER 4 o o o o o T* ) RE*R$IT'E.T 9 ELE*TIO. PRO*E I.TER3IE; PO T-I.TER3IE; +LOB(L E<PO $RE T* $PPORT TO (*(2E'I* ;ORL2 15 15 20 22 24

*-(PTER : o BIBLO+R(P-4 2:

.3A)%"# 4 Foreword
5 am ' 6th /ecember 5747** 8ust a (inal review and then we can mail it-** Announced Mahtaab as we all compiled our research gathered in bits and pieces in the past one month on this project* %his work has been a combined e((ort o( our team and all o( us have tried our best to gather the most accurate data and in(ormation about the organisational aspects o( India &amaha Motor )vt* ,td* %he analysis has been based on the available (acts and news gathered (rom various sources as well as our intuitive understanding o( the various aspects o( the two wheeler industry* Our special thanks to Mr* )ankaj /ubey' ational Business 3ead at &amaha and Mr* *9 :upta ;/epartment 3ead' $tores< at &amaha (or providing their valuable insights* =e thank )ro(* 8eyavelu (or introducing us to the various aspects o( Organisational Behaviour* =e tried to incorporate the elements o( our learning on our own approach o( working as a team so as to eliminate ine((iciencies and bank upon the competencies o( each individual member while allowing everyone to e2plore the marches o( their comprehension and creativity* %his project has been a wholesome learning e2perience (or us and we would be glad to e2tend the learning process by welcoming criticism and suggestions on our work*

Introduction About Compan


India !ama"a Motor #ri$ate Limited is an Indian subsidiary o( &amaha Motor .ompany' (ormed in 577> as a joint venture with Mitsui* It produces a range o( motorcycles (or domestic consumption and e2port* &amaha motors in India have been present in the market o( low range economy bikes (or a long time* All bikes in their store were designed (or mass market' but with the introduction o( +?@4A' +?@$' +aBer' and #4C they have made an impression on the mid@range bike market in India* %he market (or these sorts o( bikes was very small that there were only two major players in the market1 3ero 3onda and Bajaj* %he introduction o( the earlier mentioned bikes by &amaha has provided the 5@wheeler market with more choices*

Or%ani&ationa' Cu'ture at !ama"a


%o start with' let-s de(ine culture in an organiBational conte2t@ D the philosophy that guides an organiBation-s policy towards employees and customers- or Dbasic assumptions and belie(s that are shared by the members o( the organiBation*=e have analyBed the culture at &amaha by analyBing the (ollowing key characteristics@

A culture of safety:
&amaha is committed to sa(ety and health o( its employees and other stakeholders who may be a((ected by its operations* It believes that healthy work practices lead to better business per(ormance' a motivated work(orce and higher productivity* %hey create a sa(ety culture in the organiBation by1 Integrating sa(ety concerns in all activities while improving sa(ety per(ormance "nsuring compliance with applicable legislative reEuirements "mpowering employees to observe sa(ety in their respective work places* )romoting sa(ety awareness amongst employees' contractors and suppliers

Individual Initiative:
At higher levels the management is controlled by 8apanese employees ;/ivision 3ead and above< who own a su((icient degree o( (reedom in their operation* At the manager level' there is su((icient space (or individual initiatives though no signi(icant signs o( promoting creativity in employees* At the worker0 supervisor level' very less scope (or individual initiative* 3al( o( the lower level work(orce is contractual by nature so (reedom o( work is low* o clear de(inition o( jobs at the lower levels*

Reward System:
&amaha gives the best salaries and rewards to its employees which is a notch above the industry standards* As such' there are levels o( job satis(action amongst the employees in spite o( the low degree o( (reedom awarded* %he company gives increments a(ter every three years and awards educational scholarships to the wards o( the employees* A transparent system* O +avoritism and eEual opportunity to all employees* An unusual clause o( obtaining no re(erences (rom employees (or (illing a vacant post* As long as the (ather is employed in the organisation' the son0daughter cannot be employed* %he reward system at &amaha is a lot in(luenced by the 8apanese #eward .ulture* "g* 9AI?" reward (or discouraging absenteeism

Direction:
"ven a(ter acEuiring "scort-s stake in &amaha and combing the work(orce' &amaha has been able to maintain and give its employees a common direction* As (ar as the individual job direction is concerned the employees have su((icient clarity and any given ambiguities can be resolved by re(erring to the .ompany #ule Book*

Management Support:
%he management o((ers (ull support to employees however' due to high levels o( (ormalisation' the process is slow*

Conflict Management:
%he management resolves all con(licts with the unions as well as internal con(licts in a manner so as to maintain harmony in the organisation* "mployees are rotated across departments to ensure that any personal rivalry or grudges do not a((ect the working o( an individual employee or the company*

A culture of fair dealings:

%he organisation highly encourages a culture o( (air dealing with all internal and e2ternal stakeholders and has very low tolerance towards any deviation (rom the prescribed ethical standards*

DIMEN(ION( OF ORGANI(ATIONAL (TR)CT)RE


OrganiBation $tructure de(ines how tasks are to be allocated' who reports to whom' and the (ormal coordinating mechanisms and interaction patterns that will be per(ormed*

Components of Organizational Structure


.omple2ity o 3oriBontal /i((erentiation

o !ertical /i((erentiation o $patial /i((erentiation


+ormaliBation .entraliBation

Complexity
.omple2ity re(ers to the degree o( di((erentiation that e2ists within an organiBation* %his includes the degree o( specialiBation or division o( labor' the number o( levels in the organiBation-s hierarchy' and the e2tent to which the organiBation-s units are dispersed geographically* &MI has a comple2 structure*

orizontal Differentiation
It re(ers to the degree o( di((erentiation between units based on the orientation o( members' the nature o( the tasks they per(orm' and their education and training* 3oriBontal /i((erentiation in &amaha is neither very high nor very low because1 Appro2imately' F7G o( the permanent employees belong to ational .apital #egion ; .#<* %he living style' culture' language o( the

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employees is almost similar* %his leads to low degree o( horiBontal di((erentiation* %he education level o( all the departments- counterparts is almost same as company stopped recruiting a(ter its total acEuisition in 5774 (rom "scorts :roup* %he number o( departments in the company is very high* %his leads to chaos and con(usion' con(lict o( interests among the managers o( di((erent departments* As company has not recruited since 5774' the pro(essionals are hardly seen in the organiBation* But employees in the organiBation acEuire (unctional specialiBation through their e2perience*

!ertical Differentiation
It re(ers to the depth in the structure* /i((erentiation increases' and hence comple2ity' as the number o( the hierarchical levels in the organiBation increases* %he degree o( vertical di((erentiation is high in &amaha because1 $pan o( control is high under each department head* "very department head monitor the activities o( H7@67 subordinates ;including managers' sta(( members and workers<* "very big post has been acEuired by the 8apanese people* %hey are very punctual about the per(ormance Euality and rigidity in the work schedule which creates problems (or the sub@ordinates many times*

Spatial Differentiation
It re(ers to the degree to which the location o( an organiBation-s o((ices' plants' and personnel are dispersed geographically* &MI initially started their production at $urajpur plant in :reater oida* "scorts plant was in +aridabad* =hen &MI acEuired "scorts (ully' &MI made +aridabad plant (or the purpose o( making engine and small parts (or the Assembly line to reduce the vendor-s cost* $patial /i((erentiation is very high because1 /i((erence in the salaries o( two plants by around #s*H777* "mployees in +aridabad (eel unsecured (or their jobs as they think that 8apanese people never allow 8ob $ecurity*

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:ood working (acilities in $urajpur plant (rustrate the minds o( employees o( +aridabad which leads to poor per(ormance*

"ormalization
It re(ers to the degree to which jobs within the organiBation are standardiBed* %he (ormaliBation level is di((erent at di((erent positions1 In &MI' the (ormaliBation level is low at managerial levels because managers are given targets (rom the top management which he was supposed to attain with the help o( human resources he has allotted in his department* In short' managers are incumbent only to Dwhat is to be done-* But supervisors and workers are monitored by division head and managers* "mployees are incumbent not only to what is to be done' but also (or when it is to be done' and how he should do it* $o' there is a high level o( (ormaliBation at operation level*

Centralization
It re(ers to the degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organiBation* .ompany employs .asual workers and contract labors (or their production and assembly line operations* =orkers are hardly encouraged to take the immediate decisions* %hey have to take permission (rom their immediate boss (or each and every reEuirement* $o' all the decisions are always in the hands o( the department head within the department* Managers and supervisors play a culprit role (or their superiors*

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Or%ani*ation (tructure in a Nut&"e''


.OM),"II%&
-ORI=O.T(L 2I11ERIE.T(TIO. > 'O2ER(TE 3ERTI*(L 2I11ERIE.T(TIO. > -I+P(TI(L 2I11ERIE.T(TIO. - 3ER4 '(.(+ERI(L LE3EL > LO; OPER(TIO.(L LE3EL - -I+-

+O#MA,I$A%IO

." %#A,I$A%IO

'(.(+ERI(L LE3EL > 'O2ER(TE OPER(TIO.(L LE3EL - -I+-

Or%ani*ationa' De&i%n
It is concerned with constructing and hanging an organiBation-s structure to achieve the organiBation-s goals*

Di$i&ion& and Department& in India !ama"a Motor&


Accounts o .orporate +inance o %ime $hop o "mployees .ompensation o !endors and /istributors Accounting $ervices o $ales and Marketing o =arranty o 3ealth and Insurance #esearch and /evelopment

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3uman #esources Management o #ecruitment o %raining o :rievance #e@dressal o Appraisal

)roduct )lanning and Material .ontrol ;))M.< o $tores o )urchases o )roduction ;"ngines and small parts< o Assembly ,ine o Juality .heck

Manu(acturing "ngineering o )aint $hop o =elding $hop o Maintenance /epartment

India &amaha Motors )rivate ,imited has broadly si2 divisions* "ach division has various departments working under it* All the top management posts are held by 8apanese people* %he structure o( the organiBation is very vast but at the same time very simple also*

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+ierarc"

'(.(+I.+ 2IRE*TOR +RO$P -E(2 2I3I IO. -E(2 2EP(RT'E.T -E(2 E.IOR -E(2 '(.(+ER ( I T(.T '(.(+ER $PER3I OR

!MI, A Mac"ine -ureaucrac


%here are many departments in the organiBation* A(ter having the organiBation structure analysis' &MI can be categoriBed as the Machine Bureaucracy because1 8apanese believe in the principle o( standardiBation which is the very important (eature o( the Machine Bureaucracy* %he rules and regulations prevent the company to have (le2ibility in the operations* %he tasks are divided into (unctional departments*

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EN.IRONMENT
(peci/ic En$ironment Cu&tomer&
%he company primarily targets India-s burgeoning middle class by providing a resort (rom the insu((icient public transport system in the (orm o( an economical and reliable personal transport* &amaha-s core target market lies between the age group o( 4> to H7 and it is increasingly targeting the youth with the introduction o( sports bikes* 3owever' with the introduction o( &amaha !@ma2' now it also caters to the top niche segment o( the economic classes o( India*

Ri&e in India0& !oun% 1or2in% #opu'ation


=ith the rising levels o( per capita income o( people' the Indian two wheeler market o((ers a huge potential (or growth* %his growth is relevant in the light o( the (act that K7 per cent o( India-s population is below the age o( HC &ears and 4C7 million people* &amaha continues with its e((orts to enhance consumer con(idence by organiBing customer speci(ic championships

Mar2et #enetration
%he growth witnessed by the Indian two wheeler industry indicates the growing demand (or low cost personal transportation solutions amongst the H77 million Indian middleclass consumers* /espite this spectacular growth rate' the two wheeler penetration ;number o( two wheelers per 4777 inhabitants< in India remains lower than other Asian countries such as %aiwan' %hailand' Malaysia' !ietnam etc*

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Competitor&
Big players such as 3ero 3onda and Bajaj ;as shown in the (igure above< have e2ercised a huge bargaining power over suppliers as well as buyers* As such' &amaha receives heavy competitive pressures especially on grounds o( the cost as well as distribution leadership assumed by these players*

(upp'ier&
&amaha procures the heavy components (rom its vendors in 8apan and %hailand* 3owever' a motorcycle comprises o( over 5777 components which are locally sourced* %he two wheeler industry largely sources its parts and components (rom common vendors in orth India ;+aridabad being the hub<* As such' the supply side is marked by a lot o( politics between the vendors and bigger players who have a large appetite to place orders beyond capacity thus creating an arti(icial scarcity in the market* &amaha has a policy o( ordering (or the parts at least three months in advance* &et' the vendors (ail to deliver as per order leading &amaha in a situation o( ine((icient (ul(ilment o( market demand*

Di&tributor&
&amaha has a smaller range o( models in comparison with its counterparts in India like 3ero 3onda and Bajaj* As such' it e2ercises a relatively lesser in(luence on its distributors in terms o( stocking and display* &amaha has adopted the concept o( H$ @ $A,"$ $"#!I." and $)A#" )A#%$ (or meeting the customer reEuirements* &amaha India also serves to (oreign markets such as Argentina' Me2ico' )hilippines' and Bangladesh etc* Credit #o'ic @ &amaha does not o((er any credit terms to its dealers e2cept in discretional cases* %his is an aberration to the industry trend o( an average o( 5 month credit period* 3owever' the industry has also been converging towards reducing credit periods@ 3ero 3onda has brought down its vendor payment period (rom C5 days to 6C days

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Labour )nion&
Birth o( labour union during its joint venture with "scorts@ All "scorts "mployees Union ;A""U< 4FFA +ormation o( All &amaha "mployees Union under the purview o( A""U a(ter acEuiring (ull control and becoming a 477G subsidiary o( &amaha Motor .o*' ,td' 8apan* %he ,abour Union possesses a very strong bargaining power especially post the K5 day strike in 5777 which led to institution o( a binding increment in allowances at the operational@supervisory level every three years

Go$ernment
%he :overnment o( India approved a comprehensive automotive policy in March 5775* :OI has imposed certain rules and regulations regarding the emissions and imports o( components* As per government noti(ication all the two wheelers had to upgrade to Bharat $tage III norms by April 5747* &amaha' however' decided against upgrading Alba and :C because o( its low demand' but they are going to concentrate in the 4C7cc category to drive up sales*

Genera' En$ironment #o'itica' En$ironment


Under the U)A rule most o( the business (rom across all industries try and win over as much political support* =hen the U)A government was (ormed' among many businessmen who went to meet $onia :andhi' one o( (irst (ew was Mr* Bajaj* %he increasing interaction between the congress and Mr* Bajaj has been a cause o( worry (or the other players in the two wheeler segment* It is slated that political in(luence and not business acumen has helped Bajaj in winning many deals which otherwise were not very achievable* %he core competitor-s viB* &amaha and 3onda have been coming up with new higher models while the Bajaj

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industry has been upgrading its bikes model by only varying the cc engine* It is believed that Mr* Bajaj has used his political in(luence to raise the prices o( the competitors- models' thereby minimiBing his loss o( market share*

Economic En$ironment
%he Indian "conomy is marked by high growth with an e2pected :/) growth o( >*CG* %here has been an increasing in(low o( (oreign capital in the country* +ollowing are (ew o( the (actors that have helped surging the market growth1 %ightening o( the interest rates by the #BI .ombined :oods and $ervices %a2 is e2pected by 5744 which is e2pected to remove the cascading e((ect caused due to multiplicity o( ta2es* /eregulation o( petrol has led to increase in prices and increase in commission to petrol pump owners and will continue the spiral*

(ocio Cu'tura' En$ironment


)opulations can be divided according to the demographic and cultural (actors o( the society* #egions can di((er in their social and cultural values and there(ore' marketing strategy o( the company can vary owing to the di((erences in values* &amaha tries to implement the philosophy o( 9ando wherein it tries to provide customer value in each o( its products* $ince India has a young populationL &amaha launched a pool

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%o target common commuters' &amaha Motor India launched H new bikes namely &B# 45C'&amaha $? '&amaha $?@I*It also launched sporty bikes like &amaha +aBer 5C7 to cater young Indian population*

Tec"no'o%ica' En$ironment
Bikes with higher engine capacities have done commendably well on the Indian roads* Bike styling and (uel e((iciency has also seen major developments* %he new technologies including the mono shockers' back and (ront disc brakes' the magnum wheels' /iA$il .ylinder etc* are some things that many companies are looking (orward to &amaha has been able to involve many o( these technology trends in its latest bikes i*e* +? M +?$*

&amaha also developed .+ Aluminum /ie .asting %echnology (or mass production o( Aluminum* %his helped in reducing the weight o( the parts*

En$ironmenta' Force&

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/emand (or two wheelers is increasing and thereby overcrowding the roads* Another problem is the adherence to emission norms because o( the lack o( in(rastructure (or inspection*

#o''ution3Ener% E//icienc
Because o( "uro II' there will be a lot o( pressure on the two@wheeler industry to come up with greener technologies* In light o( this &amaha educates its employees about haBardous materials in products' and implemented ,.A methodologies (or measuring the environmental impact o( &amaha products* It eliminated the use o( .+.s and 3.+.s (rom manu(acturing processes* It has cut its .O5 emissions volume by 5AG compared to +&4FF7 in the year 577>* &amaha improved its production and air conditioning eEuipment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions*

Le%a' En$ironment
/ue to the steep (uel prices in India' the sector is driven by demands (or (uel e((icient automobile systems* 3ence' the regulations on (uel e((iciency are less* %he vehicular emission regulations are taken care by $ociety o( Indian Automobile Manu(acturers ;$IAM<* In 577K' the $upreme .ourt made it compulsory to wear helmets ;which meet Bureau o( Indian $tandards reEuirements< (or drivers and pillion drivers* In 577>' Madhya )radesh high court had banned the registration o( two@ wheelers which had the hand grip above the tail light to ensure a protection system (or pillion riders* /elhi 3igh .ourt came out with a ruling that a comprehensive insurance policy (or vehicles which also covered the pillion rider on a two@wheeler should be o((ered by all the insurance (irms* %his was accepted by all insurance (irms a(ter much deliberation*

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Also' $upreme .ourt stated that the two@wheeler manu(acturers will have to sell a helmet along with their bikes and scooters*

Internationa' En$ironment
%he two wheeler industry is currently growing at a .A:# o( F*6CG (rom' and has thereby drawn the interest o( a number o( international players* $uBuki 3ayabusa' 9awasaki inja' $uBuki ?eus' are some o( the bikes which are already launched in India* %hese players cater to a very speci(ic customer segment but due to the high margins make a pro(itable venture (or players like 3arley /avidson' BM= etc* 3owever' (or long term sustainability in India every player will have to enter in the market in the low and medium cc range*

Strategy
=e would be e2plaining &amaha India-s business strategy with respect to )orter-s competitive strategy' Miller-s Integrative (ramework and Miles and $now-s strategic types* !ama"a0& Mar2et Di//erentiation (trate% , #orter0& competiti$e &trate%ie& and Mi''er0& Inte%rati$e /ramewor2 According to )orter-s competitive strategies and Miller-s Integrative (ramework' &amaha is a market di((erentiator. From Co&t Contro' to Mar2et Di//erentiation +or a long time till 577K@7>' &amaha has been (ollowing the cost contro' strategy by (ocussing on the low Nend 477cc bikes like .ru2 and Alba* %his kept it market share to below CG* In lieu o( the growing Indian economy and the need (or di((erentiator products' &amaha revamped its strategy and shi(ted its (ocus to premium bikes* It plans to gain 57G market share in the premium segment by 5747* %he 477cc bikes are supplied only i( there is a pull' but the company has clearly indicated that it sees its (uture in the mid@market and premium segments*

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%he company is not just willing to limit itsel( to just prestige pricing* It will provide more value to the customer in terms o( attributes like great technology' superior design' ergonomics (or long distance travelling etc* +or e2ample the company will be launching its new superbike in the 4777cc segment* Apart (rom this' it is also optimistic about the +?@4A series it has launched in the mid@market segment ;4C7 cc< bikes* $o hence' we can see that the aim is to provide niche products (or the diverse customer segments* %his is its mar2et di//erentiation &trate% 4 A/!A %A:"

%A#:"% $.O)" B#OA/ ;Industry =ide< A##O= ;Market $egement<

,O= .O$% .O$% ,"A/"#$3I) $%#A%":& +O.U$ $%#A%":& ;,ow .ost<

)#O/U.% U IJU" "$$ /I++"#" %IA%IO $%#A%":& +O.U$ $%#A%":& ;/i((erentation<

Apart (rom providing niche products in the motorcycle segment' &amaha is also (oraying into the gearless scooter segment' according to a recent media report* &amaha Motor racing is a sort o( surrogate marketing (or the high end >77cc and 4777cc bikes* In order to strengthen its market di((erentiator position' &amaha also aims to provide ma2imum value at a cost@e((ective price* $o recently it has aimed to reduce its e2penses by 47G' and by integrating its design' procurement and manu(acturing (unctions to reduce waste*

Entr into t"e rura' mar2et&


%he rural market accounts (or K7G o( the sales o( the motorcycle industry* An e2tensive dealer network would be set up to (inance and educate the rural customers* Many bikes in the standard segment like the .ru2 and the &B#@447 are having a strong demand in the rural market and are crucial (or the company to e2pand its market share' whereas the premium segment which is still in a nascent stage is crucial (or the company to e2pand its bottom@line*

!ama"a0& -readt" (trate%

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&amaha has globally (orayed into an e2tensive range o( products like motorcycles' scooters' boats' sail boats' watercra(ts' outboard motors' music instruments' racing karts etc

#ro&pector, Mi'e& and (now0& &trate%ic t pe&


&amaha can be described as a prospector ;especially a(ter the year 577K< as it has been constantly trying to e2plore new markets and opportunities* It provides bikes (or almost every market segment ranging (rom the 477cc .ru2 to the 4777cc +?4* It aims at providing a diversi(ied product range to satis(y a wide variety o( customer pre(erences* It has come up with several innovations like improving (uel e((iciency o( the bikes' introducing environment (riendly engines' reducing the siBe o( the engines and introducing light weight and compact metals (or its bikes*

Tec"no'o%
%echnology re(ers to the in(ormation' eEuipment' techniEues and processes reEuired to trans(orm inputs into outputs in the organiBation* %hree levels e2ist (or technology1 individual' personal skills M individual knowledgeL (unctional or departmental' techniEues to per(orm work and create value in a groupL and organiBational' conversion o( inputs into outputs ;i*e*' mass production and cra(twork<* Mass@production technology involves conveyor belts usage and a standardiBed assembly process (or production o( goods* .ra(ts work involves skilled workers interacting to make a customiBed product*

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Tec"no'o% and Or%ani*ationa' E//ecti$ene&&


%echnology is used at all three stages in the value creation processOinput' conversion' and output* $ince each (unction develops technologies that (inally create value' the organiBational structure in place must ma2imiBe the e((ectiveness o( technology* %echnology in(luences the structure o( an organiBation* %hree theories consider the relationship between technology and design* Managers should understand the concept o( technical comple2ity' the di((erences between comple2 and routine tasks' and the way tasks are dependent on each other* %echnology has a bearing on the (ollowing aspects o( an organiBational structure* A* .omple2ity B* +ormaliBation .* .entraliBation

!ama"a India #'ant


&amaha-s plant has H vehicle assembly lines and 6 engine assembly lines which includes one line dedicated (or e2port engines* %he engine and vehicle assembly lines are synchroniBed which incorporate concepts o( Unit Assurance* %he plan produces 4577 bikes daily with 6 types o( bikes produced on an average* %he (inished raw material is procured (rom a multiple o( suppliers which is then assembled in the plant* %he employees are organiBed into 6 teams1 4st team works on conveyor line 5nd ' Hrd and 6th team carry raw materials (rom storage department

(tre&& on p'annin% and in$o'$ement


#ather than communicating the instructions downward' (loor workers are encouraged to plan their work schedule on their own* %hen the schedule and resources are (inaliBed through direct interaction o( workers and management* =orkers are also e2pected to state a minimum level o( productivity@ per day or per week and any deviation (rom this standard is analysed and corrected by the workers and the management*

#errow0& C'a&&i/ication

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In this model' the technology is de(ined as the action that an individual per(orms upon an object' with or without the aid o( mechanical devices' in order to make some changes in that object* As discussed above' the assembly line in &amaha is a semi@automated one with every worker assigned speci(ic tasks to be done* It relies on high levels o( /ivision o( labour to improve productivity and minimiBe wastage* ,ike any other assembly line' the &amaha-s manu(acturing process is marked by1

Low Task Variability:


%he main (eatures are 3igh /ivision o( ,abour' 3igh vertical di((erentiation' 3ighly #epetitive duties and task specialiBation.

High Problem Analysability:


&amaha employs mostly unskilled workers since the problems (aced during the assembly process are easily analysable and there(ore $tandard Operating )rocedures are in place to take care

Based on the )errow-s matri2 as shown above' &amaha will land in the #outine technology Euadrant* It is a well@structured organiBation with its rigidity and standardiBed coordination and control processes* %he decision making is centraliBed and managers have wider span o( control due to the (ormaliBation processes already in place*

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Woodwards Framework
=oodward categoriBed the (irms into three types o( technologies i*e* Unit' Mass' or )roduction* $he treated these categories as a scale with increasing degrees i( technological comple2ity' with unit being the least comple2 and process the most comple2* %he model established a link between technology' structure and e((ectiveness* As (ar as &amaha is concerned the manu(acturing process would most closely resemble to Mass production technology which is most commonly used (or large batches o( bikes* %hus the o( the various parameters concerned in =oodward-s model stand as (ollows1

Thompsons Classification

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According to %hompson-s classi(ication' &amaha should be categoriBed as long linked %echnology due to the nature o( individual tasks which have $eEuentially dependency with each other* &amaha-s assembly line technology is characteriBed by a (i2ed seEuence or repetitive steps which is one o( the most important (eatures o( long linked technology*

&amaha India' as an assembling plant' is more (ocused on the supply chain management rather than anything else* )rocurement o( individual parts' assembling them' and (inal distribution to the end users is what it is concerned with* As a result' management tends to respond to these uncertainties by controlling inputs and outputs* One o( the best means (or achieving this objective is to integrate vertically*

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.3A)%"#

BIB,O:#A)3& =ebsites
http100en*wikipedia*org0wiki0%ataP.onsultancyP$ervices http100www*citeman*com0FF>>@recruitment@and@selection@process@5 http100en*wikipedia*org0wiki0#ecruitmentQ$creeningPandPselection http100port(olio*redi((*com0Euotes0tataRconsultancyRservicesRltd http100www*tcs*com

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