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# Steady-State and Transient Thermal Analysis of a Circuit Board

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**Steady-State and Transient Thermal Analysis of a Circuit Board
**

Problem Description

The circuit board shown below includes three chips that produce heat during normal operation. One chip stays energized as long as power is applied to the board, and two others energize and de-energize periodically at different times and for different durations. A steady-state thermal analysis and transient thermal analysis are used to study the resulting temperatures caused by the heat developed in these chips.

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Features Illustrated

• Linked analyses • Attaching geometry • Model manipulation • Mesh method and sizing controls • Constant and time-varying loads • Solving • Time-history results • Result probes • Charts Back To Top

Procedure

1. Create analysis system. You need to establish a transient thermal analysis that is linked to a steady-state thermal analysis. a. Start ANSYS Workbench.

https://www.sharcnet.ca/Software/Fluent14/help/wb_sim/ds_thermal_tutorial.html

4/17/2014

html 4/17/2014 . right-click the Geometry cell. 2.ca/Software/Fluent14/help/wb_sim/ds_thermal_tutorial.sharcnet. 3. 4. a.Steady-State and Transient Thermal Analysis of a Circuit Board Page 2 of 10 b. use the Rotate toolbar button to manipulate the model so it displays as shown below. Release the mouse button to define the linked analysis system. a. d. From the Toolbox.. From the Toolbox. For convenience .x_t. Continue preparing the analysis in the Mechanical Application. In the Steady-State Thermal schematic. and then choose Import Geometry. Attach geometry. and 6 are highlighted in red. b. The Mechanical Application opens and displays the model. drag a Steady-State Thermal system onto the Project Schematic. c. https://www. and then choose Edit.. b.. Browse to open the file BoardWithChips. right-click the Model cell. drag a Transient Thermal system onto the Steady-State Thermal system such that cells 2. In the Steady-State Thermal schematic. This file is included in the tutorial input file download. See the introductory Tutorials section for downloading instructions if needed. 3.

Mesh Body Sizing – Board: a. Select all bodies by choosing Edit> Select All from the toolbar. N.sharcnet. s. set Method to Hex Dominant. and Free Face Mesh Type to All Quad. Mesh Method: a. From the main menu. Setting a specific mesh method control and mesh sizing controls will ensure a good quality mesh. c.ca/Software/Fluent14/help/wb_sim/ds_thermal_tutorial. 4. b. Right-click Mesh in the tree and choose Insert> Sizing. Select all bodies except the board by first enabling the Body selection toolbar button. Generate Mesh: • Right-click Mesh in the tree and choose Generate Mesh.0009 m. choose Units> Metric (m. https://www. b. Change Element Size from Default to 0.002 m. V. then clicking the Apply button in the Details view. c. then holding the Ctrl keyboard button and clicking on the 15 individual bodies. Right-click Mesh in the tree and choose Insert> Method. kg. A) . b. In the Details view. Click the Apply button in the Details view when you are done selecting the bodies.Steady-State and Transient Thermal Analysis of a Circuit Board Page 3 of 10 Note: You can perform the same model manipulations by holding down the mouse wheel or middle button while dragging the mouse. Right-click Mesh in the tree and choose Insert> Sizing.html 4/17/2014 . Mesh Body Sizing – Board Components: a. c. Select the board only and change Element Size from Default to 0. Set mesh controls and generate mesh.

6.Steady-State and Transient Thermal Analysis of a Circuit Board Page 4 of 10 5. Type 5e7 in the Magnitude field and press Enter.sharcnet. https://www. c. the loads are ramped from zero. • In a steady-state thermal analysis. You can edit the table of load vs. • You can also type in expressions that are functions of time for loads. The chip on the board that is constantly energized represents an internal heat generation load of 5e7 W/m3. b. • The default end time of the analysis is 1 second. Right-click Steady-State Thermal in the tree and choose Insert> Internal Heat Generation.html 4/17/2014 . Apply internal heat generation load to chip. then clicking on the chip. Select the chip shown below by first enabling the Body selection toolbar button. • Time is used even in a steady-state thermal analysis. Apply a convection load to the entire circuit board.ca/Software/Fluent14/help/wb_sim/ds_thermal_tutorial. General items to note: • The applied loads are shown using color coded labels in the graphics. time to modify the load behavior. a.

then click OK. ii. the read only displays of Initial Temperature and Initial Temperature Environment.(as in this example) where you import the temperature specification at time = 0 from a steady-state analysis. • The initial temperature environment is from the steady-state thermal analysis that you just performed. Click the flyout menu in the Film Coefficient field and choose Import. Note that the Ambient Temperature defaults to 22oC. You can specify a different set (different time point) if multiple result sets are available. Review the temperature result.where you specify a temperature for all bodies in the structure at time = 0. By default the last set of results from the steady-state analysis will be used as the initial condition. • Right-click Solution in the tree under Steady-State Thermal and choose Insert> Thermal> Temperature. https://www.Simplified Case. a. 8.. • Highlight Temperature in the tree. • Choose Solve from the toolbar.Steady-State and Transient Thermal Analysis of a Circuit Board Page 5 of 10 The entire circuit board is subjected to a convection load representing Stagnant Air . b. 9. you will notice in the Details view. The resulting temperature of the entire model will be reviewed. You have completed the steady-state thermal analysis.. which is the first part of the overall objective for this tutorial. Import temperature dependent convection coefficient and choose Stagnant Air .html 4/17/2014 . Items to note in preparation for the transient thermal analysis: • If you highlight Initial Temperature under Transient Thermal in the tree. or ◦ Non-Uniform Temperature . Click the radio button for Stagnant Air . Select all bodies by choosing Edit> Select All. You will perform the transient thermal analysis in the remaining steps.Simplified Case. 7. In general.Simplified Case. c.sharcnet. Solve the steady-state thermal analysis. Choose Convection from the toolbar. the initial temperature can be: ◦ Uniform Temperature . Prepare for a temperature result. (adjacent to the thermometer icon).ca/Software/Fluent14/help/wb_sim/ds_thermal_tutorial. i.

• Under Transient Thermal. and minimum time step controls for this analysis. Internal Heat Generation = 5e7 • Time = 40. Internal Heat Generation = 5e7 • Time = 40.1. Internal Heat Generation = 0 Note: Enter each of the following sets of data in the row beneath the end time of 200 s. highlight the Analysis Settings object and enter 200 in either the Step End Time field in the Details view or in the End Time column in the Tabular Data window. Right-click Transient Thermal in the tree and choose Insert> Internal Heat Generation.ca/Software/Fluent14/help/wb_sim/ds_thermal_tutorial. Internal Heat Generation = 0 https://www. a.html 4/17/2014 . Select the chip shown below by first enabling the Body selection toolbar button. maximum. A time duration of the transient study will be 200 seconds. Apply internal heat generation to simulate on/off switching on first chip. 11. Also note and accept the default initial. • Time = 20.sharcnet.Steady-State and Transient Thermal Analysis of a Circuit Board Page 6 of 10 10. Specify a time duration for the transient analysis.1. c. b. Enter the following data in the Tabular Data window: • Time = 0. A chip on the board is energized between 20 and 40 seconds and represents an internal heat generation load of 5e7 W/m3 during this period. then clicking on the chip. Internal Heat Generation = 0 • Time = 20.

Select the chip shown below by first enabling the Body selection toolbar button.html 4/17/2014 . Internal Heat Generation = 0 Note: Enter each of the following sets of data in the row beneath the end time of 200 s. The function definition requires you to start with a ‘=‘ as the first character. Internal Heat Generation = 0 • Time = 60. Apply internal heat generation to simulate on/off switching on second chip. Enter the following data in the Tabular Data window: • Time = 0. • Time = 60.Steady-State and Transient Thermal Analysis of a Circuit Board Page 7 of 10 The Graph window reflects the data that you entered. time.1. Internal Heat Generation = 1e8 https://www.ca/Software/Fluent14/help/wb_sim/ds_thermal_tutorial. 12. ◦ Function – enter a function such as “=10*sin(time)” to define a variation of load with respect to time. then clicking on the chip. Another chip on the board is energized between 60 and 70 seconds and represents an internal heat generation load of 1e8 W/m3 during this period.sharcnet. ◦ Tabular (Time) – (as in this example) define a table of load vs. General items to note: • Loads can be specified as one of three types: ◦ Constant – remains constant throughout the time history of the transient. Right-click Transient Thermal in the tree and choose Insert> Internal Heat Generation. c. b. a.

Select the chip to which internal heat generation was applied in the steady state analysis and click the Apply button in the Details view.1. Internal Heat Generation = 0 The Graph window reflects the data that you entered. • Right-click Solution in the tree under Transient Thermal and choose Insert> Thermal> Temperature. 14. Temperature probes are used to obtain temperatures at specific locations on the model.html 4/17/2014 . Review the time history of the temperature result for each of the chips. https://www. • Click the right mouse button again on Solution and choose Solve.Steady-State and Transient Thermal Analysis of a Circuit Board Page 8 of 10 • Time = 70. ◦ The Tabular Data window shows the min/max values of temperature at a time point. b. • Highlight the Temperature object. Review the time history of the temperature result for the entire model. 16. The resulting temperature of the entire model will be reviewed. The time history of the temperature result for the entire model is evaluated and displayed. 15. ◦ By moving the mouse. Prepare for a temperature result. Right-click Solution and choose Insert> Probe> Temperature. to any time. d.sharcnet. you can move the bar along the Graph as shown. You can ignore the Warning message and click the Graph tab. 13. The solution is complete when green checks are displayed next to all of the objects. click the right mouse button and Retrieve this Result to review the results at a particular time. Follow the same procedure to insert two more probes for the two chips with internal heat generations in the transient thermal analysis. c.ca/Software/Fluent14/help/wb_sim/ds_thermal_tutorial. Solve the transient thermal analysis. Internal Heat Generation = 1e8 • Time = 70. a. ◦ You can also animate the solution. Right-click Solution or Temperature Probe and choose Evaluate All Results.

ca/Software/Fluent14/help/wb_sim/ds_thermal_tutorial.Steady-State and Transient Thermal Analysis of a Circuit Board Page 9 of 10 17. A Chart object is added to the tree. Plot probe results on a chart. b. https://www. Right-click in the white space outside the chart in the Graph window and choose Show Legend.html 4/17/2014 . In the Details view. you can change the X Axis variable as well as selectively omit data from being displayed. a.sharcnet. Select the three temperature probes in the tree and select the New Chart and Table button from the toolbar. c.

html 4/17/2014 . Inc.© 2011 SAS IP. https://www. End of tutorial.sharcnet.Steady-State and Transient Thermal Analysis of a Circuit Board Page 10 of 10 You have completed the transient thermal analysis and accomplished the second part of the overall objective for this tutorial.ca/Software/Fluent14/help/wb_sim/ds_thermal_tutorial.0 . Release 14. All rights reserved.