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THE ATOMIC SPECTRA

CHAPTER 18 THE ATOMIC SPECTRA Qs. What are the basic postulates o !ohr"s Ato#ic Thoer$% I&tro'uctio& Neil Bohr studied the spectrum of hydrogen atom. On the basis of his study, he proposed a theory, which is known as Bohrs Atomic theory. POST()ATES O* !OHR"S ATOMIC THEOR+ The important Postulates of Bohrs Atomic Theory are as follows A&,ular Mo#e&tu# !lectrons re"ol"e only in those orbits for which its orbital angular momentum is an integral multiple of h#$%, i.e. & ' m"r(n) ' nh # $% *here, m ' mass of electron + ' "elocity of electron r(n) ' radius of nth orbit

n ' Principal ,uantum number h ' Planks -onstant .. E&er,$ The total energy of an electron remains constant as long as it remains in the same orbit. i.e. it does not radiate energy while re"ol"ing around the nucleus. $. E&er,$ Release *hen an electron /umps from a higher orbit ha"ing energy 0!n to a lower orbit ha"ing energy 0!p then energy is released in the form of energy 0h" i.e. !o 1 !p ' h" ' hc # 2 *here, " ' 3re,uency of Photon 2 ' *a"elength of Photon c ' 4peed of light h ' Planks constant Qs. *i&' out the ra'ius- e&er,$ a&' .a/e &u#ber o h$'ro,e& ato# .ith the help o !ohr"s Ato#ic theor$. H+0RO1E2 ATOM A hydrogen atom is the simplest of all atoms. 5t consist of a proton in the nucleus and an electron re"ol"ing around the nucleus. RA0I(S O* H+0RO1E2 OR!IT

-onsider an electron of charge 06e re"ol"ing in a hydrogen atom around a proton of charge 07e with constant speed ". *hen the electron re"ol"es around the nucleus, then two forces balance its motion. -oulombs 3orce ' 3 ' ke8 # r8 991 (5) -entrifugal 3orce ' 3 ' m"8 # r 996 (55) -omparing e, (5) and (55) ke8 # r8 ' m"8 # r ': ke8 # m"8 ' r8 # r ': r ' ke8 # m"8 991 (555) According to Bohrs theory, angular momentum is an integral multiple of h#$% m"r ' nh # $% ': " ' nh # $% mr ': .#" ' $% mr # nh Taking s,uare of both sides ': .#"8 ' ;%8 m8 r8 # n8h8 4ubstituting the abo"e "alue in e, (555) r ' <e8 # m ' ;%8 m8 r8 # n8h8 ': r # r8 ' ;%8 m k e8 # n8h8 ': . # r ' ;%8 m k e8 # n8h8 ': r ' n8h8 # ;%8m k e8 *e know that, k ' . #;% =o ': . # k ' ;% =o ': r ' n8h8 # ; %8 m e8 > ;% =o ': r ' n8h8 =o # % e8 The abo"e e,uation gi"es the radius of hydrogen atom.

Ra'ii o 3arious Orbits ?adius of first orbit of hydrogen atom is calculated by substituting the following "alues in the e,uation of radius. n'. h ' @.$A > .B(6C;) D.sec m ' E.. > .B(6C.) kg k ' E > .B(E) Nm8#col8 e ' ..@ > .B(6.E) col r ' (.)8 (@.@$A > .B(6C;)8 # ;8 (E.. > .B(6C.) (E > .B(E)) (..@ > .B6.E)8 ': r ' B.AC > .B(6.B)m ': r. ' B.AC AF 3or other orbits radius is gi"en by r$ ' ($)8 > B.AC AF rC ' (C)8 > B.AC AF 4imilarly, rn ' n8 > B.AC AF E2ER1+ O* H+0RO1E2 E)ECTRO2 An electron re"ol"ing in the orbit of hydrogen atom possesses kinetic energy as well as Potential !nergy. Therefore, total energy is gi"en by ! ' <.! 7 P.! 99 (5) 4i&etic E&er,$ *hen an electron re"ol"es in the orbit, then coulombs force is balanced by centrifugal force

ke8#r8 ' m"8#r ': m"8 ' ke8#r ': .#$ m"8 ' ke8#$r ': <.! ' ke8#$r Pote&tial E&er,$ Potential energy is gi"en by P.! ' 3.dr ': P.! ' <e8 # r8 dr ': P.! ' ke8 . # r8 dr ': P.! ' ke8 G6.#rG ': P.! ' 6ke8 H.#r 6 .#IJ ': P.! ' 6ke8 (.#r 1 B) ': P.! ' 6ke8 # r Total E&er,$ 4ubstituting the "alues of <.! and P.! in e, (5) ! ' ke8 # $ 1 ke8 # r ': ! ' k$8 # $r 4ince, r ' n8 h8# ;%8 m k e8 ': ! ' ke8 # $ ;%8 m k e8 # n8 h8 ': G! ' $%8 m k8 e8 # n8 h8G The abo"e e,uation gi"es the energy of the orbits of hydrogen atom. Negati"e sign shows that the electron is bound with the nucleus. *hen energy of the electron becomes positi"e, then electron will lea"e the nucleus. WA3E 2(M!ER

*hen art electron /umps from higher orbit to inner orbit, then it radiates energy in the form of photons. Qs. E5plai& the spectru# o h$'ro,e& ato#. SPECTR(M O* H+0RO1E2 ATOM *hen an electron /umps from a higher orbit to a lower orbit, it radiates energy which appears in the form of a spectral line. A set of such spectral lines is known as hydrogen spectrum. Kydrogen spectrum is the simplest one which consists of fi"e series. .. )a$#a& Series *hen an electron /umps from a higher orbit to the first orbit, &aymen 4eries (ultra "iolet region) is obtained. The wa"elength and wa"e number of &aymen 4eries can be calculated by " ' ?(K) (.#.8 1 .#n8) *here n ' $, C, ;, LL $. !al#er Series *hen an electron /umps from a higher orbit to the second orbit then Balmer 4eries ("isible region) is obtained. The wa"elength and wa"e number of Balmer 4eries can be calculated by " ' ?(K) (.#$8 1 .#n8) *here n ' C, ;, A, LL

C. Pasche& Series *hen an electron /umps from a higher orbit to the third orbit then Paschen 4eries (infra red region) is obtained. The wa"elength and wa"e number of Paschen 4eries can be calculated by " ' ?(K) (.#C8 1 .#n8) *here n ' ;, A, @, LL ;. !rac6et Series *hen an electron /umps from a higher orbit to the fourth orbit then Bracket 4eries (infra red region) is obtained. The wa"elength and wa"e number of Bracket 4eries can be calculated by " ' ?(K) (.#;8 1 .#n8) *here n ' A, @, M, LL A. P u&' Series *hen an electron /umps from a higher orbit to the fifth orbit then Pfund 4eries (infra red region) is obtained. The wa"elength and wa"e number of Pfund 4eries can be calculated by " ' ?(K) (.#A8 1 .#n8) *here n ' @, M, L.. Qs. Write a &ote o& spectra o 78ra$s. Also .rite 'o.& the properties. I&tro'uctio& N6?ays were disco"ered by *.<. ?oentgen are also

known as ?oentgen rays. These rays of shorter wa"elength, ranging from B.. nm to i nm. N6rays are produced if hea"ier atoms are bombarded by energetic electrons. PRO0(CTIO2 O* 78RA+S A 3ilament 3 and target T are produced in a "acuum chamber and "oltage + is applied across the ends. !lectrons are produced by heating the filament. These electrons are accelerated towards the metal by applying "ery high "oltage (se"eral thousands "olts). *hen electrons hit the target, then N6rays are produced. There are two types of spectra obtained from this e>periment. .. A continuous spectrum of fre,uencies or N6rays Brems 4trahlung. $. -haracteristics spectrum or a line spectrum of a limited number of fairly definite fre,uencies. .. Co&ti&uous Spectra *hen electrons hit the metal target, a continuous spectrum of fre,uencies of N6rays is emitted. The fre,uencies depend upon the accelerating "oltage and are "ery nearly independent of the material of target. -ontinuous spectrum is produced when electrons pass close to the atomic nuclei. The are deflected and slowed down due to which they lose their energy. The energy lost by decelerating electrons appears in the form of photon in

the N6ray range. The process is represented as Atoms 7 e(3ast) 91: Atom 7 e(4low) 7 h" $. Characteristic Spectra 5n the hea"y atoms, electrons are assumed to be arranged in concentric shells at increasing distance from the nucleus. The electrons of inner shell are much tightly bound as compared to the electrons of outer shells. Therefore, a large amount of energy is re,uired to displace them -onse,uently photons of larger energy are emitted when atoms are stabiliOed. Thus the transition of inner shell electrons gi"es rise to high6energy spectra or -haracteristic spectra. To obtain characteristic spectra, target metal of higher atomic number is used. The process of emission of characteristic spectra takes place as follows. *hen a highly energetic incident electrons knocks an electron from the k6shell, a "acancy occurs in that shell. This "acancy is filled by the arri"al of an electron from outside the k6shell, emitting e>cess amount of energy in the form of photon. 5f the electrons /umps only one shell and returns with the emission of N6rays to P shell, then N6rays are termed as 0PQ N6rays. 5f the electron /umps two shells and returns with emission of N6rays to suppose 0P shell, then N6rays are termed as 0PR rays and so on, where P may be <, &, S, LL