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The nucleus consists of protons and neutrons. A protonis a positively charged particle having mass 1.6726 x 10(27 !g and charge 1.6 x 10(-1" coulom#. The charge of the proton is e$ual in magnitude of the charge of an electron% #ut opposite to it in sign. &eutrons have no charge. 'ts mass is 1.67(0 x 10(-)1 . The mass of proton is 1*)6 times the mass of an electron. MASS NUMBER The sum of the num#er of protons and neutrons in a nucleus is called +ass &um#er. 't is denoted #y ,A-. This num#er is also called &ucleus &um#er. ATOMIC NUMBER The num#er of protons in a nucleus is called Atomic &um#er or proton num#er or charge num#er. 't is denoted #y ,.-.

NEUTRON NUMBER The difference #et/een mass num#er and atomic num#er is called &eutron &um#er. 't is denoted #y ,&- and is given #y &0A1. REPRESENTATION OF AN ELEMENT An element 2 having mass num#er A and atomic num#er . is represented #y the sym#ol 32A. 4here 2 is the chemical a##reviation for the particular element. ISOTOPES The elements having same atomic num#er #ut different mass num#er or neutrons num#er are called isotopes. 5or example hydrogen deuterium and tritium 6ydrogen A 0 1% . 0 1% & 0 0 7euterium A 0 2% . 0 1% & 0 1 Tritium A 0 )% . 0 1% & 0 2 Qs. Explain th ph n!" n!n !# $a%i!a&ti'it(. Int$!%)&ti!n 6enri 8ac$ural discovered that 9ranium atoms (3 0 "2 emit highly penetrating radiations that could penetrate paper% glass and even aluminium. :n the #asis of his

experimental results% he explained the phenomenon of radiation. * #initi!n The phenomenon of spontaneous disintegration of nucleus of atoms is !no/n as radioactivity. Explanati!n ;adioactivity is a self-disrupting activity exhi#ited #y some naturally occurring elements. 't has #een found% that the elements /ith atomic num#er greater than *) are unsta#le and emit certain type of radiations. <uch su#stances (e.g. 9ranium% ;adium% Thorium are called ;adio-active su#stances and the radiations emitted from their nuclei are called radio active radiations and the phenomenon is !no/n as ;adioactivity. ;utherford and his co-/or!ers proved that the radiations emitted #y a radio active su#stance are of three different types. Exp $i" nt ;adio Active radiations can #e separated #y applying electric or magnetic field to the element. A small amount of radioactive su#stance is placed at the #ottom of a cavity drilled in a #loc! of lead. 4hen the narro/ #eam of radioactive rays is allo/ed to pass through the space #et/een the t/o charged plates% the path of some rays #end. A similar effect is o#served in the presence of magnetic field.

R s)lts O+tain % The conclusion that /ere made fro the experiment are 1. , Pa$ti&l s The rays to/ards the negative plate indicate that they consist of positively charged particles. These /ere named as =-rays. 2. - Pa$ti&l s The rays #ending to/ards the positive plate indicate that they consist of negatively charged particles. These /ere named as > (#eta rays. ). . Ra(s The rays that go undeflected indicate no charge and are therefore energetic photons or ? (gamma rays. P$!p $ti s !# , Pa$ti&l s 1. = 1 @articles are 6elium nuclei. The charge of a =particle is t/ice the charge of a proton and its mass is four times than that of a-proton. 2. The speed of =-particles is 1A100 times the speed of light. ). They produce fluorescence and effect the photographic plate. B. = 1 @articles have lo/ penetrating po/er. (. They have high ioni3ation po/er. 6. 4hen a nucleus 32A disintegrates #y the emission of an =-particles% its charge num#er (3 decreases #y 2 and

mass num#er (A decreases #y B. 32A C-D .2 (EA.B F = 1 @article P$!p $ti s !# - Pa$ti&l s 1. > 1 @articles are electrons /ith more energy as compared to ordinary electrons #ecause their origin is nucleus and not the atomic or#its. 2. The speed of > 1 particles is 1A10 times the speed of light. ). They produce fluorescence and affect the photographic plate. B. > 1 particles have greater penetrating po/er then =particles. (. They have lo/ ioni3ing po/er. 6. 4hen a nucleus 32A disintegrates #y the emission of > 1 particle% its charge num#er (. decreases or increases #y 1% /hile mass num#er remains same. 32A C-D 3F1 ?A F -1>G (electron 32A C-D 3-1 ?A F F1>G (positron P$!p $ti s !# . Ra(s 1. ? 1 ;ays are energetic photons and have no charge. They are similar to 2 1 rays #ut more energetic. 2. They travel /ith the speed of light. ). The produce fluorescence and affect the photographic plate. B. Their penetrating po/er is very high. (. They do not have any ioni3ation po/er.

6. 4hen ? 1 ;ays emit out from the nucleus of a radio active su#stance% then the mass num#er (A and charge num#er (. remain same 32A C-D 32A F ? 1 ;ays 4here 32A represents the nucleus in excited state. Qs. * #in an% xplain th la/ !# $a%i!a&ti' % &a(. H!/ &an (!) % t $"in th hal# li# !# a $a%i!a&ti' s)+stan& /ith th h lp !# this la/0 Stat " nt The rate of decay in a radioactive process is directly proportional to the num#er of parent nuclides% present in the unsta#le nuclides of the given species. Math "ati&al F!$" 'f H& #e the num#er of nuclides disintegrated in time Ht and & #e the num#er of &uclides at time t% thenI H& J & H& J Ht 0D H& J &Ht 0D H& 0 -K&Ht 0D H& A Ht 0 -K& 4here is the decay constant and negative sign sho/s that num#er of atoms decrease /.r.t 0D 1A& H& 0 1 KHt 0D H& A &0 1 KHt HALF LIFE OF ELEMENT

* #initi!n 't is the time in /hich half of radioactive elements decays from paront element to daughter element. 't is denoted #y T 1A2. Exa"pl <uppose /e have 10%000 radioactive atoms. 'f in 10 seconds% (0%000 of them decay% then this time is called the half life that radioactivity element. Qs. Explain n)&l a$ #issi!n $ a&ti!n als! %is&)ss its t(p . Int$!%)&ti!n 'n 1"B)% 5ermi% <erge and their co-/or!ers studied the phenomenon of nuclear studies the phenomenon of nuclear reactions. :n the #asis of their experimental results they proposed a remar!a#le reaction. This /as advanced #y many scientist and fission reaction /as discovered. * #initi!n The process in /hich a heavy nucleus #rea!s up into t/o lighter nuclei of nearly e$ual masses after #om#ardment #y a slo/ neutron is !no/n as nuclear fission. Explanati!n 4hen an isotope of uranium of "292)( is #om#arded /ith slo/ moving neutrons% then fission reactions ta!es place. 7uring this process t/o ne/ elements three

neutrons and a large amount of energy is released. The t/o nuclei of ne/ elements produced are 8arium and Lrypton. The nuclear fission reaction. 8arium and Lrypton are !no/n as 5ission pigments% /hich are radio active. A large amount of heat energy is also li#erated% /hich may #e produced. CHAIN REACTION 5ission reaction is a chain reaction that has #een classified into the follo/ing t/o types. 1. Montrolled 5ission Mhain ;eaction. 2. 9ncontrolled 5ission Mhain ;eaction. 1. C!nt$!ll % Fissi!n Chain R a&ti!n 'n a fission reaction for one atom of uranium% three neutrons are produced% /hich may give rise to fission reaction in other uranium atoms. 'f t/o neutrons out of three are stopped then chain reaction ta!es place at uniform rate and a fixed amount of energy is o#tained. This is done #y usually Madmium or graphite rods. 'n a nuclear reactor controlled chain reaction ta!es place. 2. Un&!nt$!ll % Fissi!n Chain R a&ti!n 'f in a fission reaction% the num#er of neutrons is not controlled% then the reaction /ill #uild up at a very fast rate and in only fe/ seconds% an explosion occurs. 'n an atom #om#% uncontrolled fission chain reaction ta!es place.

Qs. * #in an% xplain th ph n!" na !# N)&l a$ F)si!n. NUCLEAR FISSION * #initi!n A process in /hich t/o light nuclei com#ine (or fuse together to form a heavy nucleus and energy is released is called &uclear 5usion. The energy released is called Thermo-&ucleus 5usion Nnergy. Explanati!n 5or example /hen light nuclei of hydrogen are com#ined to form a heavier nucleus of helium energy is li#erated. The final mass is smaller than the initial mass and the deficit of mass is comparatively greater than in fission. 5or this reason the energy li#erated in the process of fission. 't is very difficult to produce fusion reaction due to the fact that /hen t/o positively charged nuclei are #ought closer and closer and then fused together. 4or! has to #e done against the electrostatic force of repulsion. This re$uires a great deal of energy. 5usion reaction can produce great amount of energy. The ra/ material 1 the reaction is deuteron% /hich is found in a#undance in /orld oceans as heavy /ater.

The fusion reaction is possi#le in sun and stars #ecause of very high temperature. The fusion reactions are also the #asic source of energy in stars including the sun. This process is called @roton-@roton cycle. 'n this fusion process the amount of energy released is of the order of 2( +eE. Another fusion process is suggested #y 8ethe. 't is called Mar#on-&itrogen cycle or simply Mar#on Mycle. This process is assumed to occurs in the sun. 'n this process four protons are converted into an alpha particle /ith car#on acting as a catalyst in the reaction.