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King Saud University

Deanship of Scientific Research Research Center College of Engineering

Project No: 12/425

EFFECTS OF ELECTRICAL SUPPLY VOLTAGE DIPS IN PROCESS INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS

By Prof. Saad M. Alghuwainem Prof. Hossam E.A. Talaat Department of Electrical Engineering

JumdadaII 1428 H June 2007 G

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors are greatly indebted to Saudi Basic Industry Company (SABIC) and to the college of engineering research centerKing Saud University for their financial support and assistantship in completing this project.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 General 1.2 Research Topic and Significance 1.3 Objectives of the Project 1.4 Organization of the Report 1 2 4 4

Chapter 2: Voltage Dip Impact On Industrial Processes


2.1 Voltage Dip Definition 2.2 Causes of Voltage Dips 2.3 Statistical Analysis of Voltage Dips 2.4 Classification of Voltage Dip 2.5 Voltage Dip Effect on Industrial Equipment 2.6 Cost Estimation of Voltage Dip Disturbance 6 7 13 14 19 26

Chapter 3: Methods of Mitigation


3.1 General 3.2 Mitigation Methods Based on Power System Design 3.3 Increasing Equipment Immunity 3.4 Compensation Devices 3.5 Dynamic Voltage Restorer: A Literature Review 29 29 31 33 37

Chapter 4: Proposed Strategy For Dynamic Voltage Restorer


4.1 General 4.2 System Description and Assumptions 4.3 Analysis of Existing Compensation Strategies 4.5 Analysis of Voltage Sag Resulting from Faults 43 43 45 54

4.4 Minimum-Energy Unbalanced Compensation (Proposed Strategy) 52

Chapter 5: Performance Evaluation of the Proposed Compensation Strategy


5.1 General 5.2 Calculations of Voltage Sag 5.3 Evaluation of the Energy Capability of DVR 5.4 Evaluation of the Voltage Capability of DVR 60 60 66 73 84

Chapter 6: Conclusions

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SUMMARY
A voltage dip is a brief (0.5-30 cycles) drop in voltage magnitude, usually caused by a fault somewhere on the power system transmission or distribution network. Voltage dips are the most important power quality problem facing many process industry companies. Equipment used in modern industrial plants (process controllers, programmable logic controllers, adjustable speed drives) is actually becoming more sensitive to voltage dips as the complexity of the equipment increases and the equipment is interconnected in sophisticated processes. Even relays and contactors in motor starters can be sensitive to voltage dips, resulting in shut down of a process. This research conducts the characterization of voltage dips and its impact on industrial processes with special attention on the mitigation techniques. The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), being reliable and cost effective, is adopted to be the optimal solution for the voltage dip phenomenon. A new compensation strategy for the DVR has been proposed in this research. Its idea is based on the minimization of the energy supplied from DVR irrespective of the balance of the three-phase voltages supplied to the load. The evaluation of the proposed compensation strategy for DVR revealed its superiority from energy minimization point of view as compared to other strategies including the minimum energy technique with balanced compensation.

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Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 General
Voltage dips, also known as voltage sags, are short- duration reductions in rms voltage. In this report the two terms are intermingled meaning the same. Disruptive voltage dips are usually caused by fault conditions on the utility transmission and distribution systems or within a customers facility. Motors starting within the customer facilities can also result in voltage dips for neighborhood customers. The characteristics of these voltage dips are predictable and can be prevented. The duration of the dip caused by motor starting is generally longer, but the voltage drops are usually small and do not cause serious problems at the customer locations. It is relatively easy to design the system such that dips due to motor starting do not pose any problems. Voltage dips due to short-circuit faults have become one of the most important power quality problems facing industrial customers. As the complexity of the electronics equipment used in the industrial plant increases, the equipment is becoming more sensitive to voltage dips. It is important to understand the difference between an interruption (complete loss of voltage) and a voltage dip. Interruptions occur when a protective device actually interrupts the circuit serving a particular customer. This will normally only occur if there is a fault on that circuit. Voltage dips occur during the period of a fault for faults over a wide part of the power system. Faults on parallel feeder circuits or on the transmission system will cause voltage dips but will not result in actual interruptions. Therefore, voltage dips are much more frequent than interruptions. If equipment is sensitive to these voltage dips, the frequency of problems will be much greater than if the equipment was only sensitive to interruptions. This research describes the voltage dip characteristics and the sensitivity of equipment. With this information, the range of fault locations on the power system that can cause problems can be estimated. Options for improving equipment performance in the presence of voltage dips include power conditioning and/or equipment design modifications. Both of these options are described.

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A voltage dip is most of the time described by two essential characteristics, magnitude and duration. However, the dip magnitude is not constant, due to the induction motor load present in many industrial systems. It has been shown in references [1, 2] that it is often difficult to define a constant dip magnitude for dips in an industrial system. Apart from the drop in voltage magnitude, the voltage also shows a jump in phase angle [3] and three-phase imbalance [4]. When an imbalanced voltage dip occurs at a certain voltage level (e.g., 33 kV) and is then transferred down to the equipment terminals (e.g., 660 V), the magnitude and phase-angle jumps in the three phases will change in the process. The transformer winding connections between the point of the fault and the equipment terminals swap the three phase voltages in case of an imbalanced dip. A single line-toground fault (SLGF) on the primary side of a delta/wye or wye/delta transformer will change into a phase-to-phase fault on the secondary side. Reference [4] has shown that the voltage dips experienced by three-phase loads, like adjustable-speed drives, can be classified into four types characterized by a magnitude and a phase-angle jump. From this classification, it is possible to determine the voltages at the equipment terminals for a given fault at a higher voltage level. It can, for example, be shown that, for an SLGF, the lowest phase voltage after a transformer is never less than 33%. This is due to the loss of zero-sequence voltage when the dip is transferred through a transformer (the transformer is an exception to this rule). For line-to-line faults (LLFs), it is still possible that the voltage in one of the phases at a lower voltage goes down to zero. The influence of the load on the voltage dip has not been taken into account in either of these studies. Some studies of induction motor load influence on voltage dips have been performed [1, 2]. They were, however, restricted to three-phase faults. Induction motors are a large fraction of the total load, especially in industrial power systems.

1.2 Research Topic and Significance


When voltage dips occur, equipment connected to the power system can mal operate or even fail. When this equipment fails, it can affect the safety and production of facilityrelated equipment. A momentary interruption of power during a critical stage can be disastrous, collapsing and contaminating the critical environment surrounding the product, resulting in material losses in the tens of millions of riyals and requiring another several million riyals in recovery time and effort. Recovery times of 13 h were required for voltage dips of less than 300 ms.
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In some industrial process, a power interruption of only a very short duration and magnitude can adversely affect the process. In fact, durations as low as 100 ms with a voltage drop of 25% may only be perceivable as a blink of lights, yet such a voltage dip can initiate a chain reaction of industrial shutdowns and failures that can be catastrophic to a facilitys daily profitability. Equipment shutdowns and failures can be easily correlated with incidents of lightning storms in the surrounding region. Adjustable-speed drives probably are the type of equipment most sensitive to voltage dips. Not only are these drives very sensitive, it is also generally assumed that it is difficult to make them more tolerant against dips. The sensitivity of drives to dips is mentioned in several papers [5], [6]. Testing of drives has been performed as well in [7] and [8].

Emphasis is on the DC-bus voltage and on the drop in speed of the motor load driven by the drive. DC-bus undervoltage is the main reason for drive tripping during a voltage dip. In case the electrical part of the drive can tolerate a voltage dip, the underspeed criterion of the mechanical load may become the limiting factor. In most ac adjustable-speed drives, the three ac voltages are fed to a three-phase diode rectifier. The output voltage of the rectifier is smoothed further by means of a DC capacitor. Occasionally, a DC line inductance is present to smooth the rectifier current and so reduce the harmonic distortion in the current taken from the supply. The DC voltage is inverted to an ac voltage of variable frequency and magnitude, by means of a so-called voltage-source converter (VSC). The most commonly used method for this is pulsewidth modulation (PWM). Many adjustable-speed drives are very sensitive to voltage dips. Tripping may occur due to several phenomena. The drive controller or protection will detect the sudden change in operating conditions and trip the drive to prevent damage to the power electronic components. Tripping of the drive is mainly on DC-bus undervoltage. The increased ac currents during the dip or the post-dip overcurrents charging the DC capacitor will cause an overcurrent trip or blowing of fuses protecting the power electronics components. The process driven by the motor will not be able to tolerate the drop in speed or the torque variations due to the dip.

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The main causes of drive trips at the moment are still the control system and the protection. Some of the more modern drives restart immediately when the voltage comes back; others restart after a certain delay time or only after a manual restart. The various automatic restart options are only relevant when the process tolerates a certain level of speed and torque variations. The effect of a balanced dip on a three-phase rectifier is that the maximum ac voltage no longer exceeds the DC-bus voltage. Thus, the capacitor continues to discharge. This discharging continues for a number of cycles, until the capacitor voltage drops below the maximum of the ac voltage. After that, a new equilibrium will be reached. It is important to realize that the discharging of the capacitor is only determined by the load connected to the DC bus, not by the ac voltage. Thus, all dips will cause the same initial decay in DC voltage. However, the duration of the decay is determined by the magnitude of the dip. The deeper the dip the longer it takes before the capacitor has discharged enough to enable charging from the supply. As long as the absolute value of the ac voltage is less than the DC-bus voltage, all electrical energy for the load comes from the energy stored in the capacitor.

1.3 Objectives of the Project


The major objectives of this project are: Studying the types, characteristics and causes of voltage dips. Studying the effects of voltage dips on industry applications. Investigating different methods of analysis techniques of voltage dips. Investigating different mitigation techniques of voltage dips with emphasis on Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR). Investigating and analyze existing compensation strategies for DVR. Proposing a new DVR compensation strategy. Investigating the performance of the proposed strategy through a comparative study.

1.4 Organization of the Report


After this introductory chapter, Chapter TWO presents a literature survey on the voltage dips; Causes, Statistical Studies, Classification, Impact on industrial processes and Industry standards. Chapter THREE presents another literature survey on the mitigation methods of voltage dips with concentration on the use of Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR). Chapter FOUR introduces the proposed compensation strategy of DVR through analytical study. The evaluation of the new strategy has been presented in Chapter FIVE
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through a comparative study with other strategies. Chapter SIX includes the conclusions and main findings of the research.

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Chapter 2 VOLTAGE DIP IMPACT ON INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES


2.1 Voltage Dip Definition
Voltage dips, also known as voltage dips, are short- duration reductions in rms voltage. In this report the two terms are intermingled meaning the same. Voltage dips are due to short-duration increases in current elsewhere in the power system. The main causes of voltage dips are faults, motor starting, and transformer energizing. A serious voltage dip at the terminals of equipment may lead to mis-operation of the equipment [9-12]. Most mis-operations are associated with voltage dips sue to utility Transmission/Distribution faults. Even on something straightforward as the definition of a voltage dip, the various standard documents disagree. Two main standards are of concern [9]; The IEC standard and that of IEEE. The IEC 61000-4-30 defines the voltage dip: "a temporary reduction of the voltage at a point in the electrical system below a threshold". No specific threshold value is given; it is up to the user to decide when a temporary reduction of the voltage is counted as a voltage dip. There is also no lower limit given for the voltage during a dip; i.e. short interruptions are a sub-set of voltage dips. In IEEE Std.1159-1995 a voltage dip (sag) is defined as: "an rms variation with a magnitude between 10% and 90% of nominal and a duration beween 0.5 cycles and one minute" Events with voltage below 10% nominal are considered as interruptions. In both cases a threshold is introduced to define dip. Alternatively, voltage dip may be defined as the consequence of a short-duration overcurrent, e.g. due to a fault, motor starting or transformer energizing. Such a definition is very practical for power-system studies where the rms voltage is not known in advance [10]. However, when the resulting voltage drop is very small, the event is not of concern to the customers and monitoring equipment normally does not record the event.

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2.2 Causes of Voltage Dips


The characteristics of a voltage dip (amplitude and duration) depend mainly on the cause of the voltage dip [13-15]. This section summarizes the main causes of voltage dips from reference [13]. 2.2.1 Transmission/Distribution system Faults Voltage dips due to faults can be severe and therefore are of major concern. They cause problems to a large number of customers as they propagate in the system. The magnitude of this type of voltage dip at a certain point in the system depends mainly on the type of the fault, the distance to the fault, the system configuration and the fault resistance. Its duration depends on the type of protection that is used and varies between half a cycle (for a fuse) to a few seconds. Faults are either symmetrical (three phase or three phase-toground faults) or non-symmetrical (single phase or double phase or double phase-toground faults). Depending on the type of fault the magnitudes of the voltage dips of each phase might be equal (symmetrical fault) or unequal (nonsymmetrical faults). Fig.2.1 shows the voltage waveforms during a fault induced voltage dip. The measurement was performed in an 11 kV network. The duration of dip is approximately 5 cycles, which is the typical time for a circuit breaker to open after it receives a trip command from the systems protective relays. The recovery of voltage is fast and it creates an almost rectangular shape for the fundamental frequency voltage magnitude. The magnitude of the voltage dip is different for each phase (non-symmetrical fault).

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Fig. 2.1 Voltage Dip Caused by a Non-Symmetrical Fault (a)-(c) Phase-to-Phase Voltage waveforms during Fault. (d) The Fundamental Frequency Magnitude of Voltage. (Depicted From Reference [13])

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2.2.2 Induction Motor Starting During starting, motors draw approximately five-times their full-load running current, and at a very low power factor. This starting current causes shallow voltage dips. The magnitude of the voltage dip depends on the characteristics of the induction motor and the strength of the system at the point that the motor is connected. Fig. 2.2 shows the voltage waveforms during a voltage dip due to induction motor starting. The measurement was performed in a 400 V network. The fundamental frequency voltage magnitude of all phases drops approximately 10% of the pre-event value and then recovers gradually as the current that is drawn by the motor decreases.

Fig. 2.2 Voltage Dip Caused by Induction Motor Starting (a)-(c) Phase-to-Phase Voltage waveforms during Fault. (d) The Fundamental Frequency Magnitude of Voltage. (Depicted From Reference [13])

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2.2.3 Self-Extinguishing Faults Voltage dips due to self-extinguishing faults are the ones that disappear before the fastest possible breaker opening time. Fig. 2.3 shows the voltage waveforms during a selfextinguishing voltage dip. The measurement was performed in a 10 kV network. As the fundamental frequency magnitude of voltage shows the voltage decreases for less than 2 cycles before it disappears without causing operation of the protection system. The healthy phases present an overvoltage.

Fig. 2.3 Voltage Dip Caused by Self-Extinguishing Fault (a)-(c) Phase-to-Phase Voltage waveforms during Fault. (d) The Fundamental Frequency Magnitude of Voltage. (Depicted From Reference [13])

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2.2.4 Transformer Energizing Voltage dips due to transformer energizing have been reported in the literature [14]; but neither the frequency in which this event appears in a power quality survey nor the characteristics of this event in terms of voltage have been presented. The main attention has been given to the effects of the inrush current on the protection relays of the transformer itself [15]. In a transformer under steady-state conditions there is a particular value of flux in the core, for each point on the voltage waveform. When the transformer is energized, the initial value of flux in the core might not necessarily be the steady-state value for this particular point on the voltage waveform. A transient will occur to change the flux in the core to the steady state condition. In general, this will cause the flux to go above the saturation value once each cycle until the average value of the flux for a cycle has decayed to nearly zero. This temporary over-fluxing of the transformer core causes high values of the magnetizing current. This phenomenon is known as magnetizing inrush current. In turn, short duration voltage dips are caused that might result in an unwanted tripping of differential protective relays. As described in [13] and [14] this voltage dip can be long in duration and drive more transformers into saturation. Fig 2.4 shows the voltage waveforms during transformer energizing. The measurement was performed in an 11 kV network. The fundamental frequency voltage magnitude drops for a very short time and recovers gradually as the magnetizing current decreases. The largest drop is approximately 8% of the pre-event voltage.

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Fig. 2.4 Voltage Dip Caused by Transformer Energizing (a)-(c) Phase-to-Phase Voltage waveforms during Fault. (d) The Fundamental Frequency Magnitude of Voltage. (Depicted From Reference [13])

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2.3 Statistical Analysis of Voltage Dips


Characteristics of voltage dips, frequency and duration, could be determined by the aid of statistics obtained from survey studies of the monitored utilization voltage levels at rural sites [16-18]. The survey results provide a knowledge base for monitoring, operating electric equipment, and designing and utilizing power quality mitigating technologies in rural electric environments. The following paragraphs summarize the results obtained by a survey study entitled Canadian National Power Quality Survey, carried out by the Canadian Electrical Association (CEA) in 1991 involving 22 utilities [18]. The main findings of the study are: The occurrence of secondary voltage dips tended to occur more frequently in the early morning (i.e., 4-9 am) during plant startup and shut down periods. The primary and secondary monitored voltage dips tended to occur a larger percentage of the time during the normal working days (i.e., Monday to Friday) for many of the industrial plants. At many, but not all of the industrial sites, the frequency of power system disturbances on an average tended to be higher on the secondary side (i.e., utilization voltage) than on the primary side (i.e., utility supply). The voltage dips occurring on the secondary side of industrial sites were more frequent and "deeper" than on the primary (i.e., voltage dips occurring below 60% of their nominal voltage was the lower limit on the sample of primary monitored voltage dips). A summary of the statistical characteristics of the primary and secondary voltage dips (based on 33 primary & 66 secondary industrial sites) is shown in Table 2-1. Table 2-1 Voltage Dips Statistical Characteristics
(depicted from [19])

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2.4 Classification of Voltage Dips


The clear knowledge of the characteristics of a voltage dip is required for studying its impact on industrial equipment. Reference [19] has reported that symmetrical components give a better understanding of the characteristics of unbalanced dips. A generalized model based on symmetrical components is developed to classify the different types of unbalanced dips. Under the assumption that positive and negative sequence impedances are equal, it is possible to characterize an unbalanced dip with one phasor. To assess the validity of the assumption, a second phasor is introduced. Its deviation from unity is due to the difference between positive and negative sequence impedance, thus due to the presence of dynamic load. The purpose of the proposed characterization is to provide an analytical method to understand the characteristics of both balanced and unbalanced dips from the systems point of view. This characterization can assist in the further development of standards for monitoring voltage dips and for the exchange of information between utilities, customers, and equipment manufacturers. Regarding the classification of voltage dips, there are two main approaches [20]. The first one is related to the definition and description of various dip types in regards to their general three-phase nature. With this approach, dips can be divided according to the number of dipped phases and presence of asymmetries. Additionally, if complex phase voltages (phasors) are used instead of voltage magnitude values, dip types can be defined with regards to phase angles too [20]. The minimum magnitude/ total duration approach is the second dip classification approach. This approach eliminates any possibility for classification of dips with regards to their three-phase nature. With this approach, all dip types are reduced to one typeless dip, which is represented by the minimum of all phase rms voltages during the dip and the total duration of the dip in all dipped phases. In the second approach, the classification of dips is simply the categorization/separation of dips into several ranges, regarding the (minimum) dip magnitude, or (total) dip duration, or both. 2.4.1 Classification With Regards to Number of Dipped Phases: This classification method considers the actual number of dipped phases, and divide voltage dips further into single-phase dips (one phase has rms voltage magnitude below the dip threshold, the other two have magnitudes above it), two-phase dips (two phases
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have rms voltage magnitudes below the dip threshold, the third phase has magnitude above it), and three-phase dips (all three phases have rms voltage magnitudes below the dip threshold). Poly-phase dips then can be divided into symmetrical dips (which means that dipped phases have equal rms voltage magnitudes), and asymmetrical dips (when at least two dipped phases have different rms voltage magnitudes). This is a good example of intuitive dip classification, because differences between the various dip types are self-explanatory. This classification is implicitly incorporated in all power-quality standards, and widely used in a day-to-day practice. A short description of this classification is given in Table 2-2. This classification is related only to rms phase voltages during the dip and it assumes that they do not change during the dip. It does not consider the phase angles of phase voltages, the origin, and propagation of the dip, nor duration of the dip. In the general case, three-phase voltage magnitudes are necessary for the description of dip types in this classification. Table 2-2 Number of Sagged Phases Classification
(depicted from [21])

2.4.2 Classification With Regards to Complex Phase Voltages: Another dip classification, based on the analysis of propagation and changes of four basic dip types due to the four general fault types in an idealized power systems, is proposed in [5] and given in Table 2-3. Instead of using the rms phase voltage values, it uses complex phase voltages (magnitudes and phase angles). All dip types from this classification have at least two-phase voltage magnitudes equal during the dip.

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As a direct consequence, dip type 4 from previous classification (asymmetrical two-phase dip) is excluded from this classification. Dip types A, B, and E from this classification are the same as dip types 3, 1, and 2 from previous classification, respectively. Dip type C is practically dip type 2 (symmetrical two-phase dip), but with the phase shift in two dipped phases. The three remaining dip types (D, F, and G) from this classification correspond to general dip type 5 from previous classification (asymmetrical three-phase dip), except they all have phase shift in two phases with equal magnitudes. In fact, pairs of dip types D&F and C&G are so similar, that their distinction and identification from the recording in actual power systems is almost impossible without further knowledge about the fault types that caused them. Some of the factors that are associated with the faults in the power system, which can make it difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish between different dip types are: unbalances in the fault resistances, load characteristics or system impedance characteristics, contributions of motors, coupling between the overhead transmission lines, changes in unfaulted voltages and phase shifts introduced by the differences in X/R ratios during the fault [5]. The main advantage of this method is that three complex phase voltages for all dip types in Table 2-3 can be reconstructed if the characteristic voltage and related dip type are known. Characteristic voltage is generally determined as the lowest of six phase-toground and phase-to-phase voltages, calculated in per-unit values and after extracting the zero-sequence component from phase-to-ground voltages. Although this classification, as given in Table 2-3, neglects the phase shifts due to the differences in X/R ratios introduced by the fault, (some values of) this parameter can be easily incorporated. This means that three per-phase values are not necessary for the full description of various dip types as defined in this method, and that only one set can be provided instead. The assumption that magnitudes, phase angles, and phase shifts of phase voltages do not change in time means that dip duration is an independent parameter. However, if the dip duration is different in different phases, individual dip duration values should be provided as additional information, and related dip types, which now change during the dip, should be determined regarding the individual dip duration intervals. It is also important to consider dip propagation and dip change phenomena when the (expected) number of dips is calculated from the known fault rate data of system components. Depending on the number and type of transformers between the fault
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locations and buses of interest, single-line faults, for example, can produce either twophase or single-phase dips. Related fault rates, expressed as the number of single-line faults per year, then should be carefully related to each dip type in order to obtain the precise number of their occurrences. Practically, this means that in this method, the fault type should also be considered as an additional parameter for characterization of various dip types. Table 2-3 Classification of Voltage Dips in Regards to Complex Phase Voltages
(depicted from [21])

Note 1: Dip types A, B, C, and E are four basic dip types, which means that they are caused by four general fault types, as they occur at the fault location. They correspond to three-phase, single-phase, two-phase, and two-phase to ground faults, respectively. Note 2: Dip type C may occur as a result of propagation of dip types B and D. Dip types D, F, and G are only the results of propagation of dips caused by single-phase and two-phase faults (for type D), or two-phase-to-ground fault (for types F and G). Only dip type A does not change in propagation. Note 3: Phase shift characterizes dip types C, D, F, and G. As given in Table II, the phase shift for dip type C is introduced either due to the nature of two-phase fault at the fault location, or due to the further propagation of dip types B (and D) through the systems transformers. The phase shift for dip types D, F, and G is introduced only in propagation through the systems transformers.

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Finally, information about the fault type can be useful in a more general context. For example, it is generally assumed that the point on wave of dip initiation is, in most faults, associated with the breaking of electrical insulation and flashovers/arcs, which are more likely to occur when voltage is near the maximum (90 or 270 in the voltage waveform), than when voltage is near zero. However, all characteristics of dips change in propagation and it may happen that at the bus of interest, point on wave values are completely random, or start to cluster around some other point on the voltage waveform. In that situation, back-tracking of the dips all of the way back to the fault locations at which the dips originate can provide explanation.

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2.5 Voltage Dip Effect on Industrial Equipment


2.5.1 General Electrical and electronic equipment may be affected by voltage dips, short interruptions or voltage variations of power supply. Voltage variations are caused by the continuously varying loads connected to the network. These phenomena are random in nature and can be characterized in terms of the deviation from the rated voltage and duration [22]. Voltage dips and short interruptions are caused by faults in the network in installations or by a sudden large change of load. In certain cases, two or more consecutive dips or interruptions may occur. Voltage dips and short interruptions are not always abrupt, because of the reaction time of rotating machines and protection elements connected to the power supply network. If large mains networks are disconnected (local within a plant or wide area within a region) the voltage will only decrease gradually due to the many rotating machines, which are connected to the mains networks. For a short period, the rotating machines will operate as generators sending power into the network. Voltage dips and their impact on customer loads constitute the most prevalent power quality problem in distribution systems. Voltage dips can result in tripping of customer equipment and shutting down of production lines leading to production loss and expensive restart procedures. Sensitive equipment to voltage dips include: computercontrolled processes, variable speed drives, AC contactors and induction motors. System modifications can be implemented to minimize the magnitude and duration of voltage dips. Special measures can be implemented at the customer end to reduce equipment sensitivity to voltage dips. The following paragraphs conduct in some details the impact of voltage dip on the different types of industrial equipment. 2.5.2 Induction Motors [23] Among the different types of equipment, which are susceptible to voltage dips, induction motors are the most commonly used and are the easiest to deal with. As the supply voltage to the induction motor decreases, the motor speed decreases. Depending on the size and the duration of the voltage dip, the motor speed may recover to its normal value as the voltage amplitude recovers. If the voltage dip magnitude and/or duration exceed certain limits the motor may stall and would be taken out of the system by the locked
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rotor protection. Maximum voltage dip magnitude and/or duration, which the motor operation can survive, depend on the motor parameters and the torque-speed characteristic of the driven load. Motor recovering process after voltage dips is dynamically similar to motor starting process and is accompanied by large inrush currents. Depending on motor protection settings, these currents can trigger short circuit or locked rotor protection of the motor resulting in the tripping of the motor. Most of induction machine protection settings are too conservative. This leaves room for adjusting these settings without causing any threat to the motor safety. Many of the unnecessary motor tripping incidents can be avoided by simple adjustment to the motor protection settings. 2.5.3 AC Drives Adjustable-speed drives probably are the type of equipment most sensitive to voltage dips [24,25]. Not only are these drives very sensitive, it is also generally assumed that it is difficult to make them more tolerant against dips. Tripping of speed drives may occur due to several phenomena [25]: The drive controller or protection will detect the sudden change in operating conditions and trip the drive to prevent damage to the power electronic components. Tripping of the drive is mainly on dc bus undervoltage. The increased ac currents during the dip or the postdip overcurrents charging the dc capacitor will cause an overcurrent trip or blowing of fuses protecting the power electronics components. The process driven by the motor will not be able to tolerate the drop in speed or the torque variations due to the dip. The main causes of drive trips at the moment are still the control system and the protection. Some of the more modern drives restart immediately when the voltage comes back; others restart after a certain delay time or only after a manual restart. The various automatic restart options are only relevant when the process tolerates a certain level of speed and torque variations. The effect of a balanced dip on a three-phase rectifier is that the maximum ac voltage no longer exceeds the dc bus voltage. Thus the capacitor continues to discharge. This discharging continues for a number of cycles, until the capacitor voltage drops below the maximum of the ac voltage. After that a new equilibrium will be reached.

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It is important to realise that the discharging of the capacitor is only determined by the load connected to the dc bus, not by the ac voltage. Thus all dips will cause the same initial decay in dc voltage. But the duration of the decay is determined by the magnitude of the dip. The deeper the dip the longer it takes before the capacitor has discharged enough to enable charging from the supply. As long as the absolute value of the ac voltage is less than the dc bus voltage, all electrical energy for the load comes from the energy stored in the capacitor. The adjustable-speed drive will trip either due to an active intervention by the undervoltage protection (which is the most common situation), or by a maloperation of the inverter or the controller. In both cases the trip will occur when the dc bus voltage reaches a certain value Vmin. As long as the ac voltage does not drop below this value the drive will not trip. For a three-phase unbalanced dip of type C or type D, different phases have different voltage drops. Some phase voltages also show a jump in phase angle. The behaviour of the dc bus voltage, and thus of the drive, is completely different from the behaviour for a balanced dip. Most ac adjustable-speed drives trip on dc bus undervoltage. After the tripping of the drive, the induction motor will simply continue to slow down until its speed gets out of the range acceptable for the process. In case the electrical part of the drive is able to tolerate the dip, the drop in system voltage will cause a drop in voltage at -the motor terminals. For balanced dips all three phase voltages drop the same amount. Assume that the voltages at the motor terminals are equal to the supply voltages (in p.u.), thus that the dip at the motor terminals is exactly the same as the dip at the rectifier terminals. The dc bus capacitor will somewhat delay the drop in voltage at the dc bus and thus at the motor terminals, but saw that this effect is relatively small. The voltage drop at the motor terminals causes a drop in torque and thus a drop in speed. This drop in speed can disrupt the production process requiring an intervention by the process control. The speed of a motor is governed by the energy balance equation. The main conclusion from the above that it is difficult to make the current design of ac adjustable speed drives immune to voltage dips due to three-phase faults. This would require a much larger amount of energy storage or serious improvements in the power electronics inverter or rectifier. However, even for three-phase balanced dips, the effect of the dip on the motor speed is limited. Keeping the drive on-line would be the best way
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of mitigating the effect of a dip on the mechanical load. To make the drives immune against voltage dips due to single-phase and phase-to-phase faults, only requires a moderate amount of capacitance. The dc bus voltage, even for the most severe unbalanced dip, does not drop below 80% of its nominal value. If the drive remains online the effect on the load is minor. A reported problem with ac drives is that they trip on the current unbalance due to a three-phase unbalanced dip. This effect already occurs for shallow dips and even for unbalanced during normal operation. Mitigating this requires rating of the diodes to 200% of nominal and a time delay in any unbalance or missing pulse detection. 2.5.4 DC Drives [26] Direct-Current (DC) motors are used extensively in industrial variable-speed drive applications. DC motors can provide a high starting torque and offer easy speed control over a wide range. DC motor drives are particularly susceptible to dips since they normally have no energy storage capacitors. In fact, many drives will trip if the voltage magnitude of one, two, or all of the supply phases dips below 90%. Since the majority of the voltage dips have a magnitude of around 80-90% and a duration of few cycles, nuisance tripping is common in most industrial plants where AC/DC dives are utilized. Since DC drives do not have extra energy storage other than the motors own inertia, whenever a voltage dip occurs the DC motor slows down due to undervoltage or unbalance (phase loss), tripping the drive. However, AC drives may ride-through short duration voltage dips. AC drives have energy storage in the DC link capacitance (and inductance to some extent) which helps the motor ride-through short duration voltage dips. With proper precautions, this capacitance can be increased to improve the ridethrough capability. In general, the drive manufacturers try to minimize the capacitance so that cost and packaging space is minimized. Unfortunately, electrical energy storage is not available for most DC drives. One cannot arbitrarily place large capacitors in parallel with the DC motor to improve its ride-through capability for the following reasons: When each thyristor is fired, the partially discharged parallel capacitor causes the DC drive to draw a huge amount of charging and load current. This surge may cause damage to thyristors or blow fuses unless careful counter measures have been taken.

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The control range of the rectifier becomes limited. Under normal circumstances (continuous current in the armature circuit, no capacitor), a firing angle of = 90o will yield an average voltage of zero at the motors terminals. If a capacitor is added, the output voltage will not be zero at = 90o, instead it will be a positive value. The new zero voltage point will be for firing angles between 90o < < 120o. The total range of acceptable firing angles will be reduced, depending on the size of the capacitor and the loading condition of the motor. Furthermore, the thyristors may misfire if the firing angle is less than 30o. This results in decreased control range of the drive. The field winding of most DC motor drives is supplied from an uncontrolled diode rectifier bridge. During a dip, the voltage applied to the field winding will also collapse, weakening the field. The time constant of the field winding is rather large, and when power is restored, the DC motor may experience an overcurrent in the armature circuit accompanied by an overshoot in the motors speed during re-acceleration. Therefore, a capacitor connected in parallel with the field winding may improve the ride-through capability of this aspect of the drive. One must be careful that the capacitor does not cause an oscillation or ringing in the field winding or an excessive inrush current during power-up or dip recovery. Although DC drives have been available for many years, the basic power topology used in older drives is the same as found in modern ones. The modern digital drives offer the user greater flexibility and controllability when compared to analog drives. Since the modern drives have microprocessor controllers and switch-mode power supplies for the electronics, they are particularly sensitive to power system disturbances. These drives typically monitor many voltages and currents in the system, and are easily tripped. Unfortunately, many of these trips are unnecessary. It is difficult to determine after-thefact which component dropped out and caused a trip. Many trips do not show a trip code on the drive, leaving the operator with no information about the nature of the problem. Usually, the only indication that dip occurred is that operators notice that the lights dimmed momentarily. DC drives have many options available for improving ride-through. Some of these do not involve any significant modifications to the drives. First, lets address the balanced threephase dip. How can the continuity of the process operation during such dips be maintained? First, all peripheral equipment and other devices in the process must be able
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to ride-through to this dip depth; otherwise the improvement is useless. Then, the power supplies in the drive must be held up somehow: UPSs or additional capacitance. Signals feeding the timing information to the drive must be maintained during the dip, and trip points must be altered (hardware or software). Next, the re-acceleration control loops need to be examined to ensure that excessive currents will not be drawn during the recovery stage. These could damage components and cause a secondary dip in a weak ac system. Unbalanced dips can be dealt with in two ways. Most drives will trip due to either phase loss or phase sequence trip codes during unbalanced dips. Since typical dips are of short duration, simply inhibiting thyristor firing during the period of unbalance yields some short term ride-through without damaging the drive. A circuit that senses an unbalance would be needed to monitor the power supply to inhibit the firing when an unbalance is detected. Once the system recovers from the dip, the firing could be reenabled. The drives control circuitry would simply see a deceleration and the system could re-accelerate the motor. In high inertia applications, the speed variation would typically be very small. In high friction applications, such as extruders, the loss of speed would correspond to a loss of pressure, but the time interval may be short enough that the pressure does not fall below some critical threshold level. Thus in many applications, a product quality variation might occur due to the speed change, but the process will not shut down in a disorderly fashion and require an expensive re-start. A second but more elaborate method would yield better performance. This method would require changes in the algorithms used to fire the thyristors to allow operation during the dip. In a previous paragraph, it was shown that the drive can output sufficient voltage to operate the motor during balanced dips of substantial depth. However, the drives input voltage is unbalanced and the phase angles shift. The firing strategy for the thyristors could be altered during unbalance to allow continuous operation. Since the dip is a transient phenomenon, the voltage magnitudes and angles shift on a continuous basis. So any algorithm for actively compensating for the imbalance would be predictive, and require a significant amount of real-time computations. It is likely that these techniques would require a dedicated digital signal processing (DSP) chip or a microcontroller. But an active firing technique would greatly extend the ride-through capability of the drive. This type of ride-through enhancement would not be easy to retrofit onto existing drives except by changing out the drives control circuit board.

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2.5.5 AC Contactors [27] Electrical contactors are electromechanical devices that have recently been identified as weak links in many industrial processes during supply voltage transient events. Contactors act as AC switches in a variety of electrical systems for both power and control purposes. Problems may occur when contactors disconnect during power disturbances. Since the initiating events occur outside the systems control and are random, the resulting disconnects may lead to an uncontrolled and possibly expensive process shutdown. A contactor is an electrically controlled switch that utilizes a solenoid to cause one or more pairs of electrical contacts to engage when an appropriate voltage is applied to the solenoids coil. The magnetic fields within the electromagnet and the bar increase dramatically as the bar approaches (due to a decrease in the magnetic reluctance and a corresponding increase in inductance) and then touches the electromagnet. As a result, considerably more current is required through the coil to cause the magnetic circuit to close than required for the magnetic circuit to remain closed once it is closed. The coil of a contactor provides the force which offsets the spring tension and ultimately causes the electrical contacts to engage. The magnetic force must be sufficient to offset the spring tension or the electrical contacts of the contactor will disengage. To understand what happens during dips, one must first consider what happens during the steady state. The coil of the AC contactor is predominately inductive so, during steady state operation, the current lags the voltage by about 90 degrees. It can be shown that the force holding the armature in position depends upon the interaction of flux through the shaded portion of the core with the unshaded remainder core flux. It has been demonstrated [27] that the force is periodic with a periodicity of one half that of the supply. The magnitude of the minimum force is approximately ten times the spring force and it is always attractive. Thus the electrical contacts of the contactor do not disengage during normal operation and 60 Hz buzzing effects are minimized. Disengagement of the electrical contacts requires a combination of factors that include the depth of the voltage dip and its duration. Furthermore, the mechanical system is designed so that the electrical contacts engage before the armature has completed its movement. As a result, the electrical contacts engage before the magnetic circuit fully engages and the magnetic circuit disengages partially before the electrical contacts have disengaged. This behavior allows for a combination of conditions that will allow the
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magnetic circuit to disengage and then re-engage without any disengagement of the electrical contacts. For practical applications, the major concern is the unintended disengagement of the electrical contacts. However, the disengagement of the magnetic circuit serves to establish the limit of contactor steady state behavior. Dip magnitude and duration have been the primary measures that utilities have used to characterize dips but those measures alone have failed to provide a framework that adequately describes AC contactor performance during those events. It has been shown [27] that there are several other characteristics of dips that can, under the right circumstances, be more important than magnitude or duration. Namely, the point in wave where a dip occurs and the point in wave where the voltage recovers can have a dramatic effect on the performance of electrical contactors. 2.5.6 Data Processing equipment [28]

Some equipment is more sensitive to gradual variations in voltage than to abrupt change. Power electronics is used extensively in power supplies of Data Processing
equipment. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and other computers utilize switchmode power supplies. The power electronic components are easily damaged if subjected to current or voltage surges, and the control of these devices usually protects the electronics by tripping or otherwise shutting the circuit down if there is a disturbance in the incoming ac voltage waveforms.

Most data-processing equipment has built-in power-fail detectors in order to protect and save the data in internal memory so that after the mains voltage has been restored, the equipment will start up in the correct way. Some power-fail detectors will not react sufficiently fast on a gradual decrease of the mains voltage. Therefore, the d.c. voltage to the power-fail detector is activated and data will be lost or distorted. When the mains voltage is restored, the data-processing equipment will not be able to restart correctly before it has been re-programmed.

2.6 Cost Estimation of Voltage Dip Disturbance


A synthesis of a statistical survey conducted by the Research Department of a company leader in semiconductor and pharmaceutical facilities construction has been performed [29]. The survey has concemed about 30 industries located in Europe, USA and Far East and not provided with any means for mitigating effects of PQ disturbances. The data

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collected for the industries of the sample have permitted estimate costs due to voltage dip disturbances effects on production processes. The available statistics of voltage dip disturbances having had an impact on production for the industries of the sample have been classified in terms of disturbance types and their yearly occurrence. Three different categories have been carried out as most meaningful for estimation of costs: category A - including few voltage dips (maximum 10 per year) with duration minor than 100 ms and magnitude minor than 40% of nominal voltage, category B - including: a) few voltage dips (maximum 10 per year) with duration minor than 100 ms and magnitude minor than 40% of nominal voltage; b) further voltage dips (maximum 5 per year) with duration ranging between 100 ms and 300 ms and magnitude minor than 70% of nominal voltage, category C - including only one long interruption with duration not minor than 3 minutes. In Table 2-4, the costs calculated for each category have been reported for the various industrial sectors as investigated. The costs have been calculated in percentage of the total yearly power costs. Table 2-4 Estimated costs for industrial sectors in percentage of the total yearly power costs . Category A 0~2% 0~0.8% 0~1% 0~1% 0~0.2% 0~0.2% 0~0.5% Category B 2~10% 1~5% 1~3% 2~5% 0~1% 0~1.5% 0~1.5% Category C 5~6% 2~4% 2~4% 1.5~3.5% 0.8~1% 1~1.5% 0~0.2%

Industrial Process Semiconductor Pharmaceutical Chemical Petrochemical Manufacturing Metallurgy Food

The percentage cost variations reported in Table 2-4 are mainly due to the range of possibilities of impact on production as consequent to the facility actual operative condition during disturbances occurrence. From Table 2-4 it is also possible to deduce the classification of the different susceptibility levels of the industrial sectors. Another approach has been conducted in Reference [30]. The method has demonstrated the whole procedure of estimating the load performance and the consequent economic

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loss. The cost estimation is based on known ride through capability of the individual component and the system voltage dip performance. It can be seen that, with many technical aspects included in the estimation, any modification to the system or the load can be conveniently incorporated into the estimation. Typically, the economic loss of a customer can be reduced from these three perspectives: improvement of the supply performance, installation of power-conditioning devices, or improvement of the equipment ride-through capability. All of them can be considered in this method. The improvement from the supply performance can be considered as a change in the dip density table. The change of the equipment ride through capability can be taken into consideration in the tolerance curve, which alters the component behaviour function. As for the power-conditioning devices, for those serving the load as a whole, its influence can be demonstrated through the change in the dip density table. For those serving only a crucial component, the effect is very much the same as the improvement of the component ride through capability. In this way, the economic impact of voltage dips under a changed condition can be determined using the same method, with only slight changes to some of the parameters.

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Chapter 3 METHODS OF MITIGATION


3.1 General
The harmful impact of voltage sag on industrial processes has been the motivation of discovering various methods to mitigate the effect of voltage sag. The mitigation methods can be classified under three main categories; methods based on power system design, methods based on the equipment design and methods based on inclusion of compensation devices. The following paragraphs summarize the main features of the methods of mitigation. The characteristics of one of the compensating devices namely; the Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) which is the subject of this research, are highlighted through conducting a literature survey.

3.2 Mitigation Methods Based on Power System Design


3.2.1. Reducing the likelihood of Fault Occurrence The complete avoidance of power system faults is unattainable; however reducing the likelihood of fault occurrence will be useful in mitigating the voltage sag. Limiting the number of faults is an effective way to reduce not only the number of voltage sags, but also the frequencies of short and long interruptions. Fault prevention actions may include [31]: a) Replacing overhead lines by underground cables, which are less affected by adverse weather leading to a considerable reduction in the number of faults per year. However, in case of a fault the repair time of the underground cables is longer, in addition to the rise in installation cost. b) Investigating the Lines which are often subject to lightning-induced faults for improvement of the insulation level. c) The addition of lightning arresters. d) The maintenance of line insulator through regular washing. e) The institution of tree trimming policies. f) The addition of animal guards. g) The use of recently introduced special wires, which are covered by a thin layer of insulation material.

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h) The installation of additional shielding wires, placed in such a way that they are more likely to be hit by a lightning stroke than the phase conductors. 3.2.2 Faster Protection Systems Reducing fault-clearing time leads to less severe voltage sags by reducing the fault clearing time. Controlling the fault-clearing times not only depend on the selection of faster protective device but also on the adopted protection policies. Present utility equipment for clearing faults on distribution circuits has been shown to be generally incompatible with customer equipment [31]. Therefore utilities could consider the opportunity to install current-limiting fuses or modern static circuit breakers, which are able to clear the fault well within a half cycle at the power frequency, thus ensuring that no voltage sag can last longer. In addition, modern digital relays enable short tripping times, which may in some cases be a very cost effective way to mitigate voltage sags [32]. Some caution has to be used, however, when applying these new protection devices in existing distribution systems. If only some of the protective devices were replaced with new ones, it would not be possible to co-ordinate them with previously existing downstream protective devices, due to their extremely fast operation. If faster fault clearing is needed, then the whole system has to be redesigned and all the protective devices have to be replaced with faster ones. This would greatly reduce the grading margin between the breakers, thus leading to a significant reduction in fault-clearing time. Fast devices can still be placed directly on the load. e.g. where there is no downstream protective device with which they must co-ordinate. A current-limiting fuse (much cheaper than a static circuit breaker) is very suitable in this case, since no re-closure is necessary: with a single load, the fault is likely to be permanent and repair is needed before power restoring. 3.2.3 Distribution System Design For distribution systems a simple, radial structure is usually preferred, particularly because it enables the use of a simple and cheap system of overcurrent protection. The performance of radially-operated systems can be improved by reducing the number of feeders originating from the same bus, thus limiting the number of faults leading to a voltage sag for equipment fed from that bus. A common practice is to supply the sensitive load through a dedicated feeder. Where it is not possible, a certain improvement can be achieved by installing current-limiting reactors or fuses in all the other feeders originating
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from the same bus as the sensitive load. This increases the electrical distance between the fault and the common bus, thus decreasing the depth of the sag for the sensitive load. A higher redundancy level, as compared to a simple radial scheme, can be achieved by parallel operation, either with two feeders operated in parallel or with a looped system. The system is characterized by single redundancy, meaning that it can be operated correctly in case of outage of one component, as long as the alternative path for the supply is available. Unfortunately, looping the feeders or putting them in parallel exposes the load to more severe voltage sags, since these configurations serve to lower the impedance between the fault and the load [33]. 3.2.4 High Speed Bus Transfer High speed bus transfer is an effective way to mitigate voltage sags. A successful bus transfer requires speed and synchronization. This can be achieved by utilizing the capabilities of digital relays [32].

3.3 Increasing Equipment Immunity


Case studies and power quality surveys show that sensitive equipment include both lowpower electronics (computers, process-control devices, consumer-electronics) and high power electronics (for ac and dc drives) [31]. It has been reported that an installation using only electromechanical contro1 could tolerate a sag down to 60% voltage without problems, while a completely automated factory could be disrupted by a sag to 85% [33]. Improvement of equipment voltage tolerance thresholds appears as the most effective solution against voltage sags in the long term. This is especially true for short-duration and shallow sags which can hardly be mitigated by means of the utility-side solutions described above. Unfortunately, customers can only require a specific voltage tolerance level for very large industrial equipment, and these are usually tailored for specific applications. In other cases, the customer has no direct contact with the manufacturer and can in no way intervene to modify equipment sensitivity to voltage disturbances [31]. 3.3.1 Computers and Process-Control Equipment The power supply of computers and other low-power devices, e.g. programmable logic controllers, normally consists of a single-phase diode rectifier followed by a dc-dc voltage regulator. The latter transforms the non-regulated dc voltage at a few hundreds
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volts into a regulated dc voltage. A capacitor is connected to the non-regulated dc bus in order to reduce the voltage ripple at the input of the voltage regulator. If the RMS value of the ac voltage drops suddenly, the capacitor discharges not only for half a cycle, as in normal operation, but for a longer period, until its voltage drops below the ac value of voltage again, and a new equilibrium is reached. The duration of the discharge of the capacitor is directly dependent on the magnitude of the voltage sag. The voltage regulator is normally able to maintain the output voltage constant over a certain range of variation of the input voltage. But if the voltage on the non-regulated side becomes too low, the protection will trip the device to protect the digital electronic components on the other side of the regulator. This can be a limiting factor in applying electronic equipment for the automation of production lines: the operation of a 120 V ac PLC U0 unit, for instance, has been reported to be disrupted by a sag of less than 86 % magnitude and more than 16 ms duration [31]. 3.3.2 AC Drives AC drives usually include a three-phase diode rectifier which converts the ac voltage into a dc voltage. The latter is then re-converted into a three-phase voltage of variable magnitude and frequency by an inverter. A capacitor on the dc side is used to smooth the voltage. Under normal, balanced operation, the output voltage of the rectifier peaks six times per cycle and the capacitor charges to the peak of the input line voltage. Between two subsequent peaks, the diodes are reverse biased and the capacitor discharges through the inverter. During balanced sags (equal voltage in all three phases) the capacitor discharges quickly, as with a single-phase load. It continues to discharge until the voltage at its terminals drops below the ac voltage, so that the diodes can once again be forward biased. The current drawn from the ac mains can be, quite high, since the capacitor has discharged more than normal. 3.3.3 DC Drives In a dc drive, a three-phase ac voltage is fed into a three-phase controlled rectifier which powers the armature winding of the motor. The average dc output voltage is varied by controlling the firing angle of the thyristors in the bridge. A single-phase diode rectifier is normally used for the field winding. DC motor drives are more sensitive to voltage sags than ac drives, due to their inherent lack of energy storage devices other than the motors own inertia. Many dc drives will trip if the voltage magnitude on any of the supply phases
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falls below 90% [31]. If the drive is subject to a sag then a small drop in the armature voltage leads to a large drop in the armature current and thus in torque and speed of the motor. Dc drives are typically used for speed-sensitive processes, so that a drop in speed quickly leads to process disruption. Moreover, the phase-angle jump of the sag can disrupt the firing-angle control of the three-phase controlled rectifier. Providing the drive with some energy storage capability by connecting a capacitor in parallel with its terminals does not represent a viable option, as it limits the control range of the rectifier [31]. Improvement of the voltage tolerance requires fast control of the output voltage of the armature rectifier. A proper algorithm may be implemented for adjusting the firing angle of the thyristors according to the variation of the input voltage.

3.4 Compensation Devices


Customer solutions usually involve power conditioning for sensitive loads. Different devices are currently available for the mitigation of power quality problems. Correct understanding of their features, as well as that of load requirements, is needed for their proper application. To provide voltage sag ride-through capability, the different solutions available always include some kind of energy storage. 3.4.1 Motor-generator sets Motor-generator sets store energy in a flywheel. They consist of a motor supplied by the plant power system, a synchronous generator supplying the load and a flywheel, all connected to a common axis. The rotational energy stored in the flywheel can be used to perform steady-state voltage regulation and to support voltage during disturbances. This system has high efficiency, low initial costs and enables long duration ride through (several seconds) but can only be used in industrial environments, due to its size, noise and maintenance requirements. 3.4.2 Transformer-Based Solutions These devices can be categorized under three main titles as follows. A. Constant Voltage Transformer A Constant Voltage, or ferroresonant, Transformer (CVT) works in a similar manner to a transformer with a 1:l turns ratio which is excited at a high point on its saturation curve, thus providing an output voltage which is not affected by input voltage variations. In the actual design a capacitor, connected to the secondary winding, is needed to set the

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operating point above the knee of the saturation curve. This solution is suitable for lowpower, constant loads, whereas variable loads can cause problems, due to the presence of this timed circuit on the output [3l]. B. Electronic Tap Changer Transformer Electronic tap changers can be mounted on a dedicated transformer for the sensitive load, in order to change its turns ratio according to changes in the input voltage. They can be connected in series on the distribution feeder and placed between the supply and the load. Part of the secondary winding supplying the load is divided into a number of sections, which are connected or disconnected by fast static switches, thus allowing regulation of the secondary voltage in steps. This should allow the output voltage to be brought back to a level above 90% of nominal value, even for severe voltage sags. Thyristor-based switches which can only be turned on once per cycle are used, therefore the compensation is accomplished with a time delay of at least one half cycle [31]. C. Static Voltage Boosters Static voltage boosters (SVB) are fast voltage regulators, with no energy stored, conceived to exploit the energy that the power system can still transmit during a voltage sag. Experience proves that a large majority of voltage sags concerning an individual customer are not outages, but partial sags with non-negligible residual voltage. The no energy stored voltage booster can be regarded a simple mean to perform, in most cases, an effective voltage sag compensation. The basic concept for an SVC consists in a transformer with one winding series-connected, which allows adding to the line voltage a proper voltage vector, with the same phase, in order to keep the output close to the nominal value. The output voltage regulation can be obtained by means of electronic switches, performing either a continuous or a step by step control [34]. With respect to energy stored compensating devices, the advantages of static voltage booster concern simplicity and cost, still remaining an efficient voltage conditioner in majority of the cases. In a three-phase distribution, the simplest SVB will consist of three single-phase devices, common neutral connected, with independent control on each input star voltage. In such a case, the booster will of course perform an amplitude regulation only. Provided that this action is fast enough, in most circumstances the above arrangement can be reasonably believed sufficient. This is the case, for example, of a bus feeding single-phase sensitive loads, as PCs, divided on the three phases [34].
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3.4.3 Voltage-Source Inverter-Based Solutions These devices can be classified into four categories as follows. A. Uninterruptible Power Supply A UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) consists of a diode rectifier followed by an inverter. The energy storage is usually a battery block connected to the dc link, During normal operation, power coming from the ac supply is rectified and then inverted. The batteries remain in standby mode and only serve to keep the dc bus voltage constant. During a voltage sag or an interruption, the energy released by the battery block maintains the voltage at the dc bus. Depending on the storage capacity of the battery block, it can supply the load for minutes or even hours [31]. Low cost, simple operation and control have made the UPS the standard solution for lowpower equipment like computers. For higher-power loads, the costs associated with losses due to the two additional conversions and the maintenance of the batteries become too high and this solution no longer appears to be economically feasible B. Backup Power Source To avoid the losses due to the additional energy conversions in the UPS, a backup power source can be used instead. As soon as a disturbance is detected, the sensitive load is isolated from the power system by a static switch and supplied from the stored energy. For storing the necessary energy, either batteries (Transportable Battery Energy Storage System, TBESS) or small-sized Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) systems, which take advantage of the high efficiency of superconducting coils, can be used [31]. The main advantages of the SMES as compared to the batteries are the reduced size and lower maintenance requirements. C. Shunt Compensators The shunt-connected voltage controller [31,35-37] is a voltage source converter that is shunt connected to the distribution feeder circuit via a tie reactance. It can exchange both real and reactive power with the distribution system by varying the amplitude and phase angle of the voltage source with respect to the line terminal voltage. The result is controlled current flow through the tie reactance between the device and the distribution line, which enables a certain voltage support capability. The contribution of the shunt controller to the bus voltage is equal to the injected current times the impedance seen by the device. This is the source impedance in parallel with the load impedance. This impedance becomes very small for faults at the same voltage level, close to load. The
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device will then draw a very large reactive current without providing any noticeable change in voltage. For these reasons, a shunt controller is normally used not for mitigating voltage sags, but for the implementation of other functions such as power factor correction, the mitigation of load fluctuation (including voltage flicker) and active filtering purposes. D. Series Compensators A series compensator is also called; series voltage controller [31], series power conditioner [38,39] and Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) [40-61]. A series compensator consists of a voltage-source converter connected in series with the distribution feeder by means of an injection transformer. It can inject voltages of controllable amplitude, phase angle and frequency into the distribution feeder, thus restoring the voltage to critical loads during sags. The reactive power exchanged between the series controller and the distribution system is internally generated by the controller, while the real power exchanged at its ac terminals must be provided at the dc terminal by an energy storage system. Even without stored energy, the series controller can provide limited compensation for variations of terminal voltage by injecting a lagging voltage in quadrature with the load current. The inverter is usually based on IGBTs characterized by high switching frequencies: therefore, with proper control, it is possible to perform perfect voltage compensation in less than half a cycle. This solution, although still costly (but the prices are likely to decrease rapidly in the near future), is very attractive for huge industrial customers (a few MVA) which have very high power quality demands. It allows for the protection of the entire plant from voltage sags (usually down to 50% magnitude and a few hundred milliseconds duration) through the installation of only one device. However, sensitive loads inside the plant will not be protected against sags originating within the plant. Being a series device, this voltage controller has the obvious disadvantage of not protecting the load against interruptions. The Dynamic Voltage Restore (DVR) is the most commonly used compensating device due to being reliable and cost effective. The following subsection presents a literature review on the publications related to DVR.

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3.5 Dynamic Voltage Restorer: A Literature Review


A huge number of publications have been addressed the voltage sag compensation using DVR. The researchers have investigated all the topics associated to DVR including; the compensation strategy, the circuit topology, the components design, the control circuit, the filter design and the detection of the sag. The following paragraphs conduct a brief literature review on the DVR and its associated topics. The strategy of the operation of the DVR has attracted a great attention on the last few years. In Reference [40], four different system topologies for DVRs are analyzed and tested, with particular focus on the methods used to acquire the necessary energy during a voltage sag. Comparisons are made between two topologies that can be realized with a minimum amount of energy storage, with energy taken from the grid during the voltage sag, and two topologies that take energy from stored energy devices during the voltage sag. Experimental tests using a 10-kVA DVR show that the no-energy storage concept is feasible, but an improved performance can be achieved for certain voltage sags using stored energy topologies. The results of this comparison rank the no-storage topology with a passive shunt converter on the load side first, followed by the stored energy topology with a constant dc-link voltage. Reference [41] exploited various operation modes and boundaries such as inductive operation, capacitive operation, and minimal power operation. The power flow of a DVR is analyzed both in Minimal Energy Control method and In-Phase Control method. The operation of the Minimal Energy Control method is compared with that of the In-Phase Control method. A new phase advance compensation strategy for the DVR is proposed in [42,43] in order to enhance the voltage restoration property of the device. The scheme requires only an optimum amount of energy injection from the DVR to correct a given voltage sag. Supply voltage amplitude and phase detection scheme as well as phase advance determination scheme are also included. The resulting DVR design is shown to be superior in terms of lower storage energy need compared to the conventional in-phase boosting method. The analytical results are validated by laboratory tests carried out on a prototype of the restorer. The efficacy of the proposed method is illustrated. In [44] different control strategies for dynamic voltage restorer are analyzed with emphasis put on the compensation of voltage sags with phase jump. Voltage sags
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accompanied by a phase jump are in some cases more likely to trip loads and satisfactory voltage compensation is more difficult to achieve. Different control methods to compensate voltage sags with phase jump are proposed and compared. Two promising control methods are tested with simulations carried out in Saber and finally tested on a 10 kVA rated Dynamic Voltage Restorer in the laboratory. Both methods can be used to reduce load voltage disturbances caused by voltage sags with phase jump. One method completely compensates the phase jump, which is the best solution for very sensitive loads. The second method does only partly compensate the phase jump, but it is expected to have a better performance in compensating a broader range of voltage sags. A generalized voltage restoration method is proposed in [45]. It can satisfactorily alleviate the phase angle jump and voltage wave form discontinuity associated with the energy-saving voltage restoration method used in the DVR. The method takes into account the characteristics of the voltage sag magnitude and phase-shift that may appear at the load bus as well as the voltage amplitude injection capability of the injection transformer. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method, thus paving the way for voltage sag mitigation using DVR at reduced cost. Reference [46] addresses the voltage, current and power ratings of DVR. The active power injection requirements are calculated for a DVR under various system and load conditions, for different fault types, for three-phase load and for single-phase load. It is shown that the power requirement depends on the sag magnitude and phase-angle jump as well as on the power factor of the load. For controllers with an energy reservoir the voltage-tolerance curve of the load-controller combination is obtained. For a combined shunt-series controller the current rating of the shunt controller is found. Finally the voltage rating of the series controller is assessed. Regarding the design of the DVR circuit and its components, Reference [47] investigates the feasibility of achieving dynamic voltage restoration without the use of the injection transformer. The configuration of a proposed transformerless DVR features separate energy storage capacitors for phase-to-phase isolation, cascaded switches/inverters for the voltage boosting functions and a dynamic energy replenishing charging circuit. Comparison of the scheme with the conventional DVR is conducted in terms of voltage regulation property, power losses, reliabilities, costs and ride-through capabilities. The transformerless DVR is seen to be advantageous over the conventional DVR in many

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aspects. Simulation results also demonstrate the effective dynamic performance of the DVR scheme. Reference [48] describes a new DVR with the solid-state switched tap changer. Conventional solid-state switched tap changer was modified to minimize the total cost and the harmonic contents in the injected voltage. Proposed DVR was designed to compensate the typical power disturbance such as the voltage sag up to 50% level. It is composed of a parallel transformer, a series transformer, gate turned-off AC switches and bypass switches. Since the proposed DVR does not need any kind of energy storage devices such as capacitor or battery, we can minimize maintenance problems and maximize reliability compared to the conventional DVR, which is composed of voltage sourced inverter and energy storage capacitor. In the proposed DVR, the bypass switch shorts the secondary winding of the series transformer during the normal condition. On the other hand, ac switches are controlled to compensate the voltage sag during the voltage disturbance. Parallel transformer provides only two tap voltage levels to minimize the number of switching devices. The project described in [49] has developed a mini-DVR prototype to: firstly, recompose the voltage transients present and operate as a voltage active filter, and secondly, act also compensating part of the reactive load, in this way, improving the voltage control. This device is in its final test phase at the EPUSP laboratory with the transient re-composition function (sag/well and voltage harmonics). Reference [50] states that the existing open-loop control strategy used in the DVR to regulate load voltage can produce poorly damped response due to the presence of the switching harmonic filter in the restorer. Damping is shown to be improved if the proposed multiloop controller is used. Furthermore, the new control scheme permits a closer tracking of the reference load voltage under varied load conditions. The analysis of the proposed method is then validated by simulation studies and laboratory experimental tests which show the efficacy of the new control scheme. Reference [51] describes the design of the control loop of a enhanced Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) controller which can handle power quality problems from not only voltage sag/swell but also harmonics. A novel controller, which has a feed-forward loop and two feed-back loops, is proposed. A feed-back loop is used to actively increase the damping component of LC filter system to keep the output voltage overshoot within
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allowable range, while a feed-forward loop is used to compensate the voltage drop due to the feedback loop. Another feed-back loop based on the digital repetitive control algorithm is implemented to compensate the periodic harmonics of load voltage, which may come from the source, power converter, and nonlinear load. The feasibility of the proposed DVR controller has been verified by the computer simulation results and also by experimental results on 5kVA DVR system under the various source and load conditions. The both results reveal satisfactory performance not only against sag/swell but also against harmonics. A DVR based on the voltage-space-vector pulsewidth-modulation algorithm is presented in [52]. Phase-jump compensation is achieved using a software phase-locked loop and a lead-acid battery energy store. A battery- charging control technique using the DVR itself is also described. To validate the control of the DVR, a three-phase prototype with a power rating of 10 kVA has been successfully developed. Simulation and experimental results are shown to validate the control methods. Control of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) based on Space Vector PWM is described in [53]. The control algorithm is able to compensate for any type of voltage sag and uses a software phase-locked loop to track phase jumps during a fault. The control algorithm restores the depressed voltages to the same phase and magnitude as the nominal pre-sag voltages and then gradually tracks to the phase of the depressed voltages. Experimental results are shown to validate the control algorithm using a threc-phase prototype with a power rating of 10 kVA. At present, most of DVR use feed-forward control because of the compensation response time requirement, this kind of control may introduce steady state error and on-site calibration problems. Although closed-loop PI regulation could not meet the dynamic response requirement, this paper demonstrates that a closed-loop nonlinear state variable control algorithm is a viable industrial solution. Practical issues, such as fault type analysis and controller design method, are included in [54]. The dynamic performance is analyzed and verified through simulation and experimental tests on a 2 kVA prototype. Reference [55] presents a generalized control algorithm for voltage disturbance extraction and mitigation. The suggested control algorithm employs an adaptive perceptron to effectively and adaptively track and extract the most common voltage harmonics, voltage

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unbalance (which include negative and zero sequence voltage drops), and different types of voltage sags, which include balanced and unbalanced voltage sags. Digital simulation results are obtained using PSCAD/EMTDC to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm. Experimental results are demonstrated to prove the practicality of the mitigating device. Reference [56] presents and verifies a novel voltage sag detection technique for use in conjunction with the main control system of a DVR. In all cases it is necessary for the DVR control system to not only detect the start and end of a voltage sag but also to determine the sag depth and any associated phase shift. The DVR, which is placed in series with a sensitive load, must be able to respond quickly to a voltage sag if end users of sensitive equipment are to experience no voltage sags. A problem arises when fast evaluation of the sag depth and phase shift is required, as this information is normally embedded within the core of a main DVR control scheme and is not readily available to either users monitoring the state of the grid or parallel controllers. Previous research presented an additional controller, which required phase and sag depth information to manipulate the injection voltage vector returned by the main controller in order to prevent the DVR injection transformers from saturating. Typical standard information tracking or detection methods such as the Fourier transform or phase-locked loop (PLL) are too slow in returning this information, when either applied to the injection voltage vector, or to the supply voltages directly. As a result of this the voltage sag detection method in this paper proposes a new matrix method, which is able to compute the phase shift and voltage reduction of the supply voltage much quicker than the Fourier transform or a PLL. The paper also illustrates that the matrix method returns results that can be directly interpreted, whereas other methods such as the wavelet transform return results that can be difficult to interpret. Reference [57] reports practical test results obtained on a medium voltage (10 kV) level using a DVR at a Distribution test facility in Kyndby, Denmark. The DVR was designed to protect a 400-kVA load from a 0.5 p.u. maximum voltage sag. The reported DVR verifies the use of a combined feed-forward and feed-back technique of the controller and it obtains both good transient and steady state responses. The effect of the DVR on the system is experimentally investigated under both faulted and nonfaulted system states, for a variety of linear and nonlinear loads. Variable duration voltage sags were created using a controllable LV breaker fed by a 630 kVA Distribution transformer placed upstream of
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the sensitive load. The fault currents in excess of 12 kA were designed and created to obtain the required voltage sags. It is concluded the DVR works well in all operating conditions. Reference [58] illustrates a correction technique, which draws a minimum amount of energy from the DVR during the process of compensation of a voltage sag or swell. Using the proposed method it can be shown that a particular disturbance can be corrected with less amount of storage energy compared to that of existing in-phase boosting method. The paper also discusses a multiloop feedback control method applicable for the DVR to obtain good dynamic perfomance. Reference [59] presents a new DVR circuit topology which has the ability to mitigate long duration voltage sags with comparatively small energy storage capacitors. The proposed DVR is equipped with a line-side current forced reversible rectifier that helps to maintain the DC-link voltage under voltage sag conditions. A closed loop controller that consists of an inner current loop and an outer voltage loop has been incorporated into the DVR inverter to maintain the load voltage at a desired level. Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of proposed DVR multiloop controller for various voltage sags. Reference [60] discusses the design and operation of a three-phase dynamic voltage compensator, including control strategies for the converters. The proposed topology and control strategies are evaluated through simulation studies based on measured data, selected by the IEEE Power Quality Task Force for the characterization of power quality events and device performance evaluation, along with disturbances recorded in a steel plant, in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. An experimental implementation of the compensator is developed to allow a better evaluation of specific and critical operating modes, such as the forced commutation of the bypass thyristors and inverter operation.

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Chapter 4 PROPOSED STRATEGY FOR DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER


4.1 General
In this section the proposed compensation strategy for the Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is conducted. At first, the description of the system under study is covered. Secondly, the existing compensation strategies are analyzed. Finally the proposed compensation strategy is derived based on the stated objectives.

4.2 System Description and Assumptions


The system under study comprises a sensitive load connected to the supply through the series compensation of DVR, as shown in Fig 4.1. The voltages are that corresponding to phase-p during the sag period, where p is phase-a, phase-b or phase-c.

The voltage phasors describing the pre-sag and sag voltages at the supply side are shown in the phasor diagram of Fig 4.2. The pre-sag voltages are assumed balanced positive sequence three-phase nominal voltages. Thus
U a = U0 o
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U b = U 120 o
U c = U120o

(4.1)

Meanwhile, the sag voltages are assumed to be unbalanced three-phase voltages resulting from any type of short circuit. Thus
V a = V a a
S S S S o

V b = Vb 120 + b V c = Vc 120 + c
S S o

(4.2)

Fig 4.2

Pre-Sag and Sag Supply Side Voltages for Unbalanced Faults

The load voltage of any phase during sag will be the phasor resultant of the supply voltage and the voltage injected by the DVR. For example
V a = V a +V a
L S D

(4.3)

The load is assumed balanced having a constant impedance model; so, the load power factor cos is constant. The magnitude of the resulting load voltage after compensation is assumed to be equal to that before sag; i.e. the nominal voltage U. Therefore, the magnitude of the load current during sag I is equal to that before sag.
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4.3 Analysis of Existing Compensation Strategies


The diversity between compensation strategies depend on the assumed phase angles of the resulting load voltages after compensation. Accordingly, the magnitude and phase angles of the injected DVR voltages will change. Figure 4.3 represents a general compensation strategy where there are no special conditions limiting the phase angles of the compensated load voltages, meanwhile their magnitudes are equal to the nominal voltage. Various compensation techniques may apply any special assumption for the angles of compensated load voltages. The evaluation of the different compensation strategies is carried out considering the compromise between the quality of compensated load voltage and the required capabilities of the DVR which include voltage capability, power capability and energy (ride-through) capability.

Figure 4.3

General Compensation Strategy

In the following subsections, three well-known strategies are covered. One should notice that Fig 4.3 will be modified for each strategy according to the assumptions made. The

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phasors of load voltages, and also load currents, will rotate with respect to the pre-sag voltages while the phasors of the supply sag voltages will not change.

4.3.1 Pre-Sag Compensation In this strategy the supply voltage is continuously detected, when voltage sag is detected the load voltage is compensated to the pre-sag condition. Referring to Fig 4.3, this strategy assumes

a = b = c = 0
The pre-sag compensation strategy is illustrated by Fig 4.4.

(4.4)

Figure 4.4

Pre-Sag Compensation Strategy

The concept of the method is ideal from the load point of view since it provides a nearly undisturbed load voltage. However the DVR voltage capability required carrying out this strategy does not only depend on the voltage sag magnitudes but it also depends on the phase jumps of the three phases which may sometimes reach high values leading to exhausting the rating of the DVR. The three-phase voltages injected by DVR are given by

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Va = U 2 + (Va ) 2 2 U Va cos a
D S S

Vb = U 2 + (Vb ) 2 2 U Vb cos b
D S S

(4.5)

Vc = U 2 + (Vc ) 2 2 U Vc cos c
D S S

The DVR voltage capability VDVR is defined as the maximum voltage to be injected by the DVR in per unit of the nominal voltage, therefore

DVR

max(Va ,Vb ,Vc ) = U

(4.6)

Applying this strategy, the energy supplied by the DVR is not optimized. The power injected by the DVR Pinj is the difference between the power required by the load, which assumed to be intact, and the power supplied by the supply during sag condition, therefore Pinj = 3.U .I . cos Va .I . cos( a ) Vb .I . cos( b ) Vc .I . cos( c )
S S S

(4.7)

The power injected by the DVR in per unit of the load power is P DVR = 1 Va . cos( a ) + Vb . cos( b ) + Vc . cos( c ) 3.U . cos
S S S

(4.8)

For a three-phase short circuit, which is considered as a special case, the DVR voltage capability and DVR power are given respectively by

V DVR = 1 + (V S / U ) 2 2 (V S / U ) cos

(4.9)

P DVR = 1

V . cos( )
S

U . cos

(4.10)

4.3.2 In-Phase Compensation

The philosophy of this strategy depends on injecting a voltage in phase of the supply voltage during sag so as to minimize the voltage capability of the DVR. Referring to the general compensation method of Fig 4.3, the following relationships apply

a = a , b = b and c = c
The in-phase strategy is illustrated by Fig 4.5.

(4.11)

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Figure 4.5

In-Phase Compensation Strategy

Unlike the pre-sag strategy, the DVR voltage injection required here depends only on the voltage sag magnitudes. Simply
Va = U Va
D S

Vb = U Vb
D

(4.12)

Vc = U Vc
D

Similar to previous strategy, the DVR voltage capability VDVR is determined from equation (4.6). Once more in this case, the energy supplied by the DVR is not optimized. The power supplied by the DVR is the difference between the power required by the load, which is assumed to be intact, and the power supplied by the supply during sag condition, therefore Pinj = 3.U .I . cos Va .I . cos Vb .I . cos Vc .I . cos
S S S

(4.13)

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And in per unit this will be P Where


S V mean =
DVR

=1

S V mean

U
S S

(4.14)

Va + Vb + Vc 3
S

(4.15)

For a three-phase short circuit, which is considered as a special case, the DVR voltage capability and DVR power are given respectively by

V P

DVR

VS = 1 U VS = 1 U

(4.16)

DVR

(4.17)

4.3.3 Minimum-Energy Balanced Compensation

In this strategy, the three-phase injected voltages of the DVR are determined such that the injected power is minimized while providing balanced compensated load voltage. For balanced voltage sag, this strategy implies that the load current will be in phase with the supply voltage. However, this is not the case for unbalanced voltage sag. Thus, Fig 4.3 shall be redrawn with one special assumption

(4.18)

The minimum-energy balanced compensation strategy is illustrated by Fig 4.6. The minimum energy assumption, which can not be represented directly in the phasor diagram, will affect the calculation of the angle . One should start by the power injected by the DVR Pinj = 3.U .I . cos Va .I . cos( + a ) Vb .I . cos( + b ) Vc .I . cos( + c )
S S S

(4.19)

Differentiating Pinj with respect to gives minimum power injection [61] Pmin = 3.(U . cos V 1 ).I
S

(4.20)

Corresponding to

= V 1S
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(4.21)
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Where V 1 is the positive sequence voltage of the supply during sag,


S S 1 S S V 1 = (V a + a.V b + a 2 .V c ) 3

(4.22)

Fig 4.6 Minimum-Energy Balanced Compensation

From (4.20), note that Pmin is negative when V 1 > U . cos , which means that the supply
S

will deliver power to DVR. Since this is not recommended, one may control the injected voltage to obtain zero-power injection. In summary the power injected by DVR in this strategy is given by

P DVR =

0
V1
S

V 1 U . cos
S

(4.23) V 1 < U . cos


S

U . cos

While the corresponding angle is given by

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U . cos S V 1 arccos( ) S V1 V 1
S

V 1 U . cos
S

(4.24) V 1 < U . cos


S

The injected voltages of the DVR are given by

Va = U 2 + (Va ) 2 2 U Va cos( a )
D S S

Vb = U 2 + (Vb ) 2 2 U Vb cos( b )
D S S

(4.25)

Vc = U 2 + (Vc ) 2 2 U Vc cos( c )
D S S

The DVR voltage capability VDVR is determined from equation (4.6). For a three-phase short circuit, which is considered as a special case, the DVR voltage capability and DVR power are given respectively by V DVR = 1 + (V S / U ) 2 2 (V S / U ) cos( ) (4.26)

P DVR =

0
VS 1 U . cos

V S U . cos (4.27) V < U . cos


S

4.4 Minimum-Energy Unbalanced Compensation (Proposed Strategy)

This proposed strategy is similar to the previous strategy except that the constraint of balanced compensation is not applied; therefore, the compensated load voltage may be unbalanced. This assumption is based on the fact that only voltage magnitude is considered by the standards that specify the operating limits of voltage sag. The unbalanced voltage will continue during sag period which is relatively short and will not produce considerable overheating. The three-phase injected voltages of the DVR are determined such that the injected power is minimized irrespective of the resulting phase angles of the compensated load voltage. This leads to load currents that are in phase with sag supply voltages. Thus Fig 4.3 shall be redrawn with the assumptions

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a = a b = b c = c
The minimum-energy unbalanced compensation strategy is illustrated by Fig 4.7. (4.28)

Fig 4.7 Minimum-Energy Unbalanced Compensation

In general, the energy injected by the DVR is given by Pinj = 3.U .I . cos Va .I . cos( + a a ) Vb .I . cos( + b b ) Vc .I . cos( + c c )
S S S

(4.29) Minimizing Pinj with respect to a , b & c gives


S ).I , Pmin = 3.(U . cos Vmean
S is given by (4.15). Where a , b & c are described by equation (4.28), and Vmean S From (4.30), it clear that Pmin is negative when Vmean > U . cos , which means that the

(4.30)

supply will deliver power to DVR. Since this is not recommended, one may control the

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injected voltage to obtain zero-power injection. In summary the per unit power injected by DVR in this strategy is given by

P DVR =

0
1 V U . cos
S mean

S Vmean > U . cos

(4.31) V
S mean

U . cos

The angles a , b & c during the zero-power injection depend on the value of V 1 with
S

respect to U . cos . If V 1 U . cos , one can use balanced compensation as applied in


S

previous strategy equation (4.24). However, if V 1 < U . cos we have to use unbalanced
S

compensation. Equating (4.29) by zero gives infinite number of solutions for a , b & c . We will use the following control angles

a = a b = b c = c + arccos(
3.U . cos VaS VbS ) VcS (4.32)

In summary, the control angles a , b & c are described in three given intervals by Table 4.1.
Table 4.1 Control Angles for Proposed Strategy

Control Angles a , b & c

Condition

a = a , b = b & c = c a = a , b = b &
3.U . cos VaS VbS c = c + ar cos( ) VcS
a = b = c = V 1S + arccos(
U . cos V1
S

S Vmean < U . cos

S Vmean U . cos > V 1

V 1 U . cos
S

For any operating condition, the injected voltages of the DVR are given by
53

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Va = U 2 + (Va ) 2 2 U Va cos( a a )
D S S

Vb = U 2 + (Vb ) 2 2 U Vb cos( b b )
D S S

(4.34)

Vc = U 2 + (Vc ) 2 2 U Vc cos( c c )
D S S

For instance, the DVR voltage capability VDVR is determined from (4.6) For a three-phase short circuit, the DVR voltage capability and DVR power are the same as the minimum-energy balanced-compensation strategy which are described respectively by (4.26) and (4.27).

4.5 Analysis of Voltage Sag Resulting from Faults


4.5.1 Voltage Sag at Load Point as Affected by Delta/Wye Transformers

The main source for the voltage sag is the short circuits occurring on the distribution network. The analysis of voltage sag propagated through the network to the load point depends on the location of the load with respect to the fault. Specifically, it depends on the existence of /Y transformer in the route from the load to the fault, as per its vector group. Usually, /Y transformers are used widely with two vector groups; Dy1 and Dy11 involving positive sequence phase shifts of 30o and -30o respectively for the HV side with respect to LV side. In this research, the location of the load is assumed to be one of five possibilities as shown in Fig 4.8. At the point of common coupling (pcc) the load will view the voltages and currents without any phase shifts. For other locations, both the positive and negative sequence voltage must be modified according to Table 4.2.

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Fig 4.8 Considered Load Locations with respect to the Fault Point

Table 4.2 Phase Shifts Associated with Different Load Locations Location PCC L1 L2 L3 L4

Phase Shift of the positive sequence component w.r.t fault point (1)
0 30o -30o 60o -60o

Phase Shift of the negative sequence component w.r.t fault point (2)
0 -30o 30o -60o 60o

The calculation of the three-phase voltages during sag at the considered load locations starts by the calculation of the three sequence voltage at the point of common coupling (pcc). Then the relevant phase shift is applied to calculate the modified three sequence voltage at the load location. Finally, the three-phase voltages at the load point are obtained.
4.5.2 Determination of Sequence Voltages at Point of Common Coupling

The system under study can be simplified by the equivalent circuits shown in Fig 4.9. It is assumed that the positive and negative sequence impedances are equal for the supply and the line (Zs1=Zs2=Zs and Zf1=Zf2=Zf). Meanwhile, the zero sequence impedances have different values (Zs0 and Zf0). The effect of pre-fault loading is neglected. In the following paragraphs, the sequence voltages are derived for different fault types.

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Fig 4.9 System under Study

a- Single-Line-Ground (SLG) Fault The equivalent circuit of SLG fault is illustrated in Fig 4.10. From which, one can easily find the sequence voltages at the pcc bus as follows: V1 = E ( Z s + Z s 0 + 2Z f + Z f 0 ) (2Z s + Z s 0 + 2Z f + Z f 0 )
E (Z s ) (2 Z s + Z s 0 + 2 Z f + Z f 0 )

V2 =

(4.35)

V0 =

E (Z s0 ) (2 Z s + Z s 0 + 2 Z f + Z f 0 )

Fig 4.10 Equivalent Circuit of SLG fault

b- Line-Line (LL) Fault


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The equivalent circuit of LL fault is illustrated in Fig 4.11. From which, one can easily find the sequence voltages at the pcc bus as follows: V1 = E ( Z s + 2Z f ) (2 Z s + 2 Z f )
E (Z s ) (2 Z s + 2 Z f )

V2 =

(4.36)

V0 = 0

Fig 4.11 Equivalent Circuit of LL fault

c- Double-Line- Ground (DLG) Fault The equivalent circuit of DLG fault is illustrated in Fig 4.12. From which, one can easily find the sequence voltages at the pcc bus as follows:
V1 = E ( Z f + Z eq ) ( Z s + Z f + Z eq ) E ( Z eq )( Z s ) ( Z s + Z f + Z eq )(Z s + Z f ) E ( Z eq )( Z s 0 ) ( Z s + Z f + Z eq )( Z s 0 + Z f 0 ) (4.37)

V2 =

V0 =

Where Zeq is given by Z eq = ( Z s + Z f )(Z s 0 + Z f 0 ) (Z s + Z f + Z s 0 + Z f 0 ) (4.38)

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Fig 4.12 Equivalent Circuit of DLG fault

d- Three-Line-Ground (TLG)Fault The equivalent circuit of TLG fault is illustrated in Fig 4.13. From which, one can easily find the sequence voltages at the pcc bus as follows:
V1 = E(Z s ) (Z s + Z f )

V2 = 0

(4.38)

V0 = 0

Fig 4.13 Equivalent Circuit of TLG fault

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4.5.3 Determination of Phase Voltages at Load Point

The sequence voltages at the load point are related to the sequence voltages of the point of common coupling as follows: V1L =V1*1/1 V2L =V2*1/2 V0L = 0 Where 1 and 2 are obtained from Table 4.2 according to the load location with respect to the pcc bus. Notice that the zero sequence voltage is always zero in this case due to the use of /Y transformers. After the calculation of V2L and V2L the phase voltages at load are: Va 1 1 2 Vb = 1 a Vc 1 a Where a = 1/120o.
4.5.4 Evaluation of Unbalanced Compensation Strategy
L 1 V1 L a V2 2 a 0

(4.39)

(4.40)

The proposed compensation strategy assumes to operate under unbalanced condition during the fault duration. One has to check the consequences of this condition on the load. Specifically, the resulting overheating of the load due to this unbalanced operation should be estimated. In principle, the zero sequence component will not contribute in the unbalanced condition since the use of Delta/Wye transformers will block it. Therefore, only the negative sequence component can express the unbalance condition during the sag. The magnitude of this component is considered as a measure of the degree of the unbalance. Referring to Fig 4.7 of Section 4, it can be noticed that the three-phase load voltages (after compensation) are displaced from the three-phase sag voltages (supply side) by the same for the three phases. This angle is the phase angle of the load. Therefore, the magnitude of the negative sequence voltage at the load terminals is equal to that of the sag voltages. Accordingly, in the next Section will use the value of the negative sequence voltage of the sag as an index of unbalance.

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Chapter 5 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE PROPOSED COMPENSATION STRATEGY


5.1 General
In this section the proposed compensation strategy for the Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is evaluated by a comparative study along with the existing compensation strategies. The study system assumes five possible locations of the loads with respect to Delta-Wye transformers. The characteristics of voltage sag are then analyzed based on the results obtained from the data of two different systems. Finally, the voltage and power capabilities, which have been analyzed in Section 4, are compared for the various compensation strategies.

5.2 Calculations of Voltage Sag


5.2.1 System parameters The system configuration is illustrated in Fig 4.9 of Section 4. The considered parameters are given in Table 5.1. It is assumed that the fault location on the line is changing from 1 km to 100 km.

Table 5.1 Parameters of Study System Rated Voltage of the Line Positive Sequence Impedance of the Supply (Zs) Zero Sequence Impedance of the Supply (Zs0) Positive Sequence Impedance of the Line (Zf) Zero Sequence Impedance of the Line (Zf0) 132 kV j3.81 j7.62 0.23 + j0.39 /km 0.4 + j1.34 /km

5.2.2 Results The main source of the voltage sag is the short circuit that may occur on one of the feeders. The resulting voltage sag, which is propagating through the network, will have diverse impact on the load according to the location of the load. The major factor that

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may change the magnitude and phase angle of the voltage sag is the existence of DeltaWye transformers which produce phase shift to positive and negative sequence voltages. The formulas derived in Section 4 for the calculation of phase voltages at the load point are applied for the considered locations of the load. Additionally, all types of fault are assumed to calculate the sag voltages at load. The adopted strategy of compensation assumes the operation under unbalanced condition during the fault. As a measure of this unbalanced condition the magnitude negative sequence voltage at supply side during the fault is utilized. This was previously mentioned in Sectrion 4. This study is illustrated in Fig 5.1 -5.4. Each figure represents a fault type and calculates the phase jump producing from the sag for the five assumed locations of load. In the 6th part of the figure, the measure of the unbalanced operation, which is the negative sequence voltage of the sag, is given. For the case of SLG fault, shown in Fig 5.1, the maximum phase jump occurring during the sag is less than 20o which will result in a negative sequence voltage value from 0.12 p.u. to 0.17 p.u. according to the location of the load. This level of unbalance may be considered as acceptable. It is also shown that the phase jumps of one Dy1 transformer (30o phase shift) is the mirror of that of one Dy11 transformer (30o phase shift). The same relation exist between two Dy1 transformers and two Dy11 transformers. This similarity is obtained in all fault types. On the other hand, the LL fault and DLG fault, refer to Figs 5.2&5.3, yields higher values of phase jumps and consequently higher values of negative sequence voltage especially when using two Dy1/Dy11 transformers. The duration of the fault is a crucial factor in determining the effect of this unbalance on the load. According to the definition of voltage sag, the duration should not exceed one second which is a very short duration for producing overheating of the load. For the symmetrical fault, Fig 5.4, the phase jumps are identical for all load locations, which is expected, and the value of negative sequence voltage is almost zero.

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15 10

a- Point of Common Coupling (0 deg)


Phase A Phase B Phase C

15 10

b- ONE Dy1 Transformer (-30 deg)

Phase Jump (deg)

0 -5 -10 -15 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100

Phase Jump (deg)

5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100

15 10

c- ONE Dy11 Transformer (30 deg)

15 10

d- TWO Dy1 Transformer (-60 deg)

Phase Jump (deg)

Phase Jump (deg)


0 20 40 60 80 100

5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20

5 0 -5 -10 -15

20

40

60

80

100

15 10

e- TWO Dy11 Transformer (60 deg)

0.7

f- Negative Sequence Volt. at Different Locations


PCC 30 deg 60 deg -60 deg -30 deg

(p.u.) after compensation V


0 20 40 60 80 100

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 20 40 60

Phase Jump (deg)

5 0 -5 -10 -15

neg

80

100

Distance to fault (km)

Distance to fault (km)

Fig 5.1 Voltage Sag Phase Jumps Due to SLG Fault

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60 40

a- Point of Common Coupling (0 deg)


Phase A Phase B Phase C

30 20

b- ONE Dy1 Transformer (-30 deg)

Phase Jump (deg)

20 0 -20 -40 -60

Phase Jump (deg)


0 20 40 60 80 100

10 0 -10 -20 -30

20

40

60

80

100

30 20

c- ONE Dy11 Transformer (30 deg)

60 40

d- TWO Dy1 Transformer (-60 deg)

Phase Jump (deg)

10 0 -10 -20 -30

Phase Jump (deg)


0 20 40 60 80 100

20 0 -20 -40 -60

20

40

60

80

100

60 40

e- TWO Dy11 Transformer (60 deg)

f- Negative Sequence Volt. at Different Locations


0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 PCC 30 deg 60 deg -60 deg -30 deg

20 0 -20 -40 -60

20

40

60

80

100

neg

(p.u.) after compensation

Phase Jump (deg)

20

40

60

80

100

Distance to fault (km)

Distance to fault (km)

Fig 5.2 Voltage Sag Phase Jumps Due to LL Fault


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5 0

a- Point of Common Coupling (0 deg)


Phase A Phase B Phase C

30 20

b- ONE Dy1 Transformer (-30 deg)

Phase Jump (deg)

Phase Jump (deg)


0 20 40 60 80 100

-5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35

10 0 -10 -20 -30

20

40

60

80

100

30 20

c- ONE Dy11 Transformer (30 deg)

60 40

d- TWO Dy1 Transformer (-60 deg)

Phase Jump (deg)

10 0 -10 -20 -30

Phase Jump (deg)


0 20 40 60 80 100

20 0 -20 -40 -60

20

40

60

80

100

60 40

e- TWO Dy11 Transformer (60 deg)

0.7

f- Negative Sequence Volt. at Different Locations


PCC 30 deg 60 deg -60 deg -30 deg

(p.u.) after compensation V


0 20 40 60 80 100

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 20 40 60

Phase Jump (deg)

20 0 -20 -40 -60

neg

80

100

Distance to fault (km)

Distance to fault (km)

Fig 5.3 Voltage Sag Phase Jumps Due to DLG Fault

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0 -5

a- Point of Common Coupling (0 deg)


Phase A Phase B Phase C

0 -5

b- ONE Dy1 Transformer (-30 deg)

Phase Jump (deg)

-10 -15 -20 -25 -30

Phase Jump (deg)


0 20 40 60 80 100

-10 -15 -20 -25 -30

20

40

60

80

100

0 -5

c- ONE Dy11 Transformer (30 deg)

0 -5

d- TWO Dy1 Transformer (-60 deg)

Phase Jump (deg)

-10 -15 -20 -25 -30

Phase Jump (deg)


0 20 40 60 80 100

-10 -15 -20 -25 -30

20

40

60

80

100

0 -5

e- TWO Dy11 Transformer (60 deg)

0.7

f- Negative Sequence Volt. at Different Locations


PCC 30 deg 60 deg -60 deg -30 deg

(p.u.) after compensation V


0 20 40 60 80 100

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 20 40 60

Phase Jump (deg)

-10 -15 -20 -25 -30

neg

80

100

Distance to fault (km)

Distance to fault (km)

Fig 5.4 Voltage Sag Phase Jumps Due to Symmetrical Fault

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5.3 Evaluation of the Energy Capability of DVR


The selection of a suitable DVR depends on its voltage rating, power rating and energy rating. The cost of the DVR may considerably raise when the energy rating increases, since bigger energy storage system will be required. Therefore, reducing the energy capability will be a good feature of the compensation strategy. The proposed strategy by definition uses minimum energy injection by using the maximum available power from the supply. To evaluate the performance of the proposed compensation strategy, the injected power of the DVR is calculated as a percentage of the served load. Four different DVR strategies are considered: the pre-sag compensation, the in-phase compensation, the minimum injected energy balanced compensation, and the minimum injected energy unbalanced compensation (the proposed strategy). Since the value of load power factor is essential in this respect, four different values are assumed 0.7 lag, 0.8 lag, 0.9 lag and unity. Regarding the location of load, only three locations are considered: the point of common coupling, one Dy1 transformer (-30o shift) and two Dy1 transformer (-60o shift). The other two cases give similar results, i.e. using Dy11 is similar to Dy1. Fig 5.5 illustrates the case of a single line to ground fault. For the pcc bus, Fig 5.5-a, at 0.7 lag power factor the application of the proposed strategy implies the complete saving of the DVR energy, i.e. no power is needed to be injected. Same situation takes place for 0.8 and 0.9 power factor for a fault occurring at 10 km and more. The strategy of minimum energy injection with balanced compensation yields similar characteristic however, the proposed strategy is slightly better. The other two strategies need higher values of injected power. For the unity power factor cas, all strategies perform similar to each other. As seen from Fig 5.5-b and Fig 5.5-c, the effect of vector group of transformer is minor in determining the energy capability. Therefore, for the other types of fault only the location of ppc is considered. The case of LL fault, Fig 5.6, shows better performance for the proposed strategy with all other strategies even for unity power factor case. For the LLG fault and three-phase fault, Fig 5.7 and Fig 5.8 respectively, typical performances are recorded for the two strategies of minimum energy injection balanced/unbalanced. However, they are still visibly better than the other two strategies.

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25

a- Power Factor = 0.7 lag In-Phase Compensation Pre-sag Compensation Min energy balanced comp Proposed Strategy

25

b- Power Factor = 0.8 lag

20

20

DVR Injected Power %

15

DVR Injected Power % 0 20 40 60 Distance to Fault (km) 80 100

15

10

10

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

25

c- Power Factor = 0.9 lag

25

d- Power Factor = Unity

20

20

DVR Injected Power %

15

DVR Injected Power % 0 20 40 60 Distance to Fault (km) 80 100

15

10

10

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Fig 5.5-a DVR Injected Power for SLG Fault pcc bus

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25

a- Power Factor = 0.7 lag In-Phase Compensation Pre-sag Compensation Min energy balanced comp Proposed Strategy

25

b- Power Factor = 0.8 lag

20

20

DVR Injected Power %

15

DVR Injected Power % 0 20 40 60 Distance to Fault (km) 80 100

15

10

10

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

25

c- Power Factor = 0.9 lag

25

d- Power Factor = Unity

20

20

DVR Injected Power %

15

DVR Injected Power % 0 20 40 60 Distance to Fault (km) 80 100

15

10

10

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Fig 5.5-b DVR Injected Power for SLG Fault one Dy1 (-30o)

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25

a- Power Factor = 0.7 lag In-Phase Compensation Pre-sag Compensation Min energy balanced comp Proposed Strategy

25

b- Power Factor = 0.8 lag

20

20

DVR Injected Power %

15

DVR Injected Power % 0 20 40 60 Distance to Fault (km) 80 100

15

10

10

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

25

c- Power Factor = 0.9 lag

25

d- Power Factor = Unity

20

20

DVR Injected Power %

15

DVR Injected Power % 0 20 40 60 Distance to Fault (km) 80 100

15

10

10

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Fig 5.5-c DVR Injected Power for SLG Fault two Dy1 (-60o)

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45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

a- Power Factor = 0.7 lag In-Phase Compensation Pre-sag Compensation Min energy balanced comp Proposed Strategy

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

b- Power Factor = 0.8 lag

DVR Injected Power %

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

DVR Injected Power %

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

c- Power Factor = 0.9 lag

50 45 40 35 DVR Injected Power % 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

d- Power Factor = Unity

DVR Injected Power %

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Fig 5.6 DVR Injected Power for LL Fault

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60

a- Power Factor = 0.7 lag In-Phase Compensation Pre-sag Compensation Min energy balanced comp Proposed Strategy

60

b- Power Factor = 0.8 lag

50

50

DVR Injected Power %

30

DVR Injected Power % 0 20 40 60 Distance to Fault (km) 80 100

40

40

30

20

20

10

10

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

60

c- Power Factor = 0.9 lag

60

d- Power Factor = Unity

50

50

DVR Injected Power %

30

DVR Injected Power % 0 20 40 60 Distance to Fault (km) 80 100

40

40

30

20

20

10

10

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Fig 5.7 DVR Injected Power for DLG Fault

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90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

a- Power Factor = 0.7 lag In-Phase Compensation Pre-sag Compensation Min energy balanced comp Proposed Strategy

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

b- Power Factor = 0.8 lag

DVR Injected Power %

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

DVR Injected Power %

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

c- Power Factor = 0.9 lag

100 90 80 70 DVR Injected Power % 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

d- Power Factor = Unity

DVR Injected Power %

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Fig 5.8 DVR Injected Power for Three-Phase Fault

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5.4 Evaluation of the Voltage Capability of DVR


The performance of the adopted strategy shows its superiority regarding the DVR energy required to be injected. The unbalanced condition during sag, which is assumed for the operation of the proposed strategy is shown to have acceptable levels enabling its safe use. Now, one has to check the voltage capability of the proposed DVR and compare it with other strategies. The voltage capability of all methods are analyzed in detail in the previous Section. The comparison here is done in a manner similar to that of the energy capability. Thus, four strategies are compared against four values of power factor. The load location is assumed to be one of three locations as indicated in the previous sub-section. Four fault types are assumed. The voltage capability required for the DVR is obtained in per unit of the rated voltage of the load and is compared to 0.5 p.u. which is a common rating for numerous DVR systems. This study is illustrated in Fig 5.9 through Fig 5.12. Starting with the SLG fault, Fig 5.9, the case of pcc bus indicates similar performances for all types DVR. Meanwhile, the load location at one Dy1 implies lower voltage capability for both the in-phase and presag compensation strategies. This is expected since these two methods concentrate on lower voltage capability on the account of energy capability. The case of LL fault, Fig 5.10, indicates bigger difference between voltage capabilities. The proposed strategy is always better than the other minimum energy injection strategy (balanced compensation). This comparison is important since these two strategies adopt the same concept, i.e. minimize energy injection. The DLG fault yield similar performances. However, the three-phase fault clearly separate between the two compensation concepts; the minimum energy injection and the minimum compensation voltage. As a general comment to the whole set of results, it can be concluded that application of minimum energy injection , balanced or unbalanced, need higher voltage capability for all type of faults except the SLG fault. Fortunately, this type of fault is the most likely occurring. Even for the other types of faults, the proposed DVR of 50% voltage capability can cover the fault locations at 20 km and up.

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1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

a- Power Factor = 0.7 lag In-Phase Compensation Pre-sag Compensation Min energy balanced comp Proposed Strategy

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

b- Power Factor = 0.8 lag

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

c- Power Factor = 0.9 lag

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

d- Power Factor = Unity

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Fig 5.9-a DVR Voltage Capability for SLG Fault pcc bus

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1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

a- Power Factor = 0.7 lag In-Phase Compensation Pre-sag Compensation Min energy balanced comp Proposed Strategy

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

b- Power Factor = 0.8 lag

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

c- Power Factor = 0.9 lag

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

d- Power Factor = Unity

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Fig 5.9-b DVR Voltage Capability for SLG Fault one Dy1

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1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

a- Power Factor = 0.7 lag In-Phase Compensation Pre-sag Compensation Min energy balanced comp Proposed Strategy

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

b- Power Factor = 0.8 lag

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

c- Power Factor = 0.9 lag

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

d- Power Factor = Unity

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Fig 5.9-c DVR Voltage Capability for SLG Fault two Dy1

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1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

a- Power Factor = 0.7 lag In-Phase Compensation Pre-sag Compensation Min energy balanced comp Proposed Strategy

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

b- Power Factor = 0.8 lag

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

c- Power Factor = 0.9 lag

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

d- Power Factor = Unity

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Fig 5.10-a DVR Voltage Capability for LL Fault pcc bus

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1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

a- Power Factor = 0.7 lag In-Phase Compensation Pre-sag Compensation Min energy balanced comp Proposed Strategy

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

b- Power Factor = 0.8 lag

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

c- Power Factor = 0.9 lag

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

d- Power Factor = Unity

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Fig 5.10-b DVR Voltage Capability for LL Fault one Dy1

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1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

a- Power Factor = 0.7 lag In-Phase Compensation Pre-sag Compensation Min energy balanced comp Proposed Strategy

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

b- Power Factor = 0.8 lag

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

c- Power Factor = 0.9 lag

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

d- Power Factor = Unity

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Fig 5.10-c DVR Voltage Capability for LL Fault two Dy1

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1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

a- Power Factor = 0.7 lag In-Phase Compensation Pre-sag Compensation Min energy balanced comp Proposed Strategy

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

b- Power Factor = 0.8 lag

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

c- Power Factor = 0.9 lag

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

d- Power Factor = Unity

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Fig 5.11-a DVR Voltage Capability for DLG Fault pcc bus

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1 0.9 0.8 0.7 Max Injected Voltage (p.u.) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

a- Power Factor = 0.7 lag In-Phase Compensation Pre-sag Compensation Min energy balanced comp Proposed Strategy

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 Max Injected Voltage (p.u.) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

b- Power Factor = 0.8 lag

20

40 60 80 Distance to Fault (km)

100

20

40 60 80 Distance to Fault (km)

100

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 Max Injected Voltage (p.u.) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

c- Power Factor = 0.9 lag

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 Max Injected Voltage (p.u.) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

d- Power Factor = Unity

20

40 60 80 Distance to Fault (km)

100

20

40 60 80 Distance to Fault (km)

100

Fig 5.11-b DVR Voltage Capability for DLG Fault one Dy1
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1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

a- Power Factor = 0.7 lag In-Phase Compensation Pre-sag Compensation Min energy balanced comp Proposed Strategy

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

b- Power Factor = 0.8 lag

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

c- Power Factor = 0.9 lag

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

d- Power Factor = Unity

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Fig 5.11-c DVR Voltage Capability for DLG Fault two Dy1

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1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

a- Power Factor = 0.7 lag In-Phase Compensation Pre-sag Compensation Min energy balanced comp Proposed Strategy

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

b- Power Factor = 0.8 lag

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

c- Power Factor = 0.9 lag

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

d- Power Factor = Unity

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Max Injected Voltage (p.u.)

20

40 60 Distance to Fault (km)

80

100

Fig 5.12 DVR Voltage Capability for Three-Phase Fault pcc bus

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Chapter 6 CONCLUSIONS
This research has studied the characterization of voltage dips and its impact on industrial processes with special attention on the mitigation techniques. The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), being reliable and cost effective, was adopted to be the optimal solution for the voltage dip phenomenon. A new compensation strategy for the DVR has been proposed in this research. Its idea is based on the minimization of the energy supplied from DVR irrespective of the balance of the three-phase voltages supplied to the load. On other words, unbalanced compensation of load may be applied to guarantee minimum DVR energy. A detailed analysis was performed for the performance of four different compensation strategies of DVR, including the proposed strategy. The analysis was made to compare the energy requirement and voltage capability of each of the strategies under consideration. To simulate the conditions always met in real networks, five load locations have been studied depending on the location of the load with respect to the fault location and the type of transformer connections used in the route from the fault to the load. The evaluation of the proposed compensation strategy for DVR revealed its superiority from energy minimization point of view as compared to other strategies including the minimum energy technique with balanced compensation. This feature guarantees increasing the ride-through time of the proposed DVR during voltage dip, which is very useful for dip with long duration. Regarding the required voltage capability for the proposed DVR, it was found that it needs higher voltage rating as compared to the in-phase and the pre-sag compensation techniques. This was expected since these latter methods scarify the minimum energy requirement to get minimum voltage capability. However, comparing with the other minimum energy strategy, the proposed DVR is still having better performance. The price to be paid for the minimum energy operation with fair voltage capability is the operation under unbalanced condition during the period of dip. Though, the analysis carried out during the research proves that the level of unbalance is low in most cases. Even if the unbalance level is high, the short duration of dip, maximum one second by
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definition, will not allow the overheating of the load. For this reason, the international power quality standards do not apply any limits on the angle phase shift of the voltages during voltage dip.

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REFERENCES
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