CHAPTER H
DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR COMBINED FORCES AND TORSION
For all interaction equations in Specification Section H, the required forces and moments must include the results
of a secondorder analysis, as required by Section C of the Specification. This represents a significant change for
ASD users, who are accustomed to using an interaction equation that includes a partial secondorder
amplification.
H2
Example H.1a Wshape Subjected to Combined Compression and Bending
About Both Axes (braced frame).
Given:
Verify if an ASTM A992 W1499 has sufficient available strength to support the axial forces and moments
listed below, obtained from a second order analysis that includes Po effects. The unbraced length is 14 ft and
the member has pinned ends. KL
x
= KL
y
= L
b
= 14.0 ft
LRFD ASD
P
u
= 400 kips
M
ux
= 250 kipft
M
uy
= 80.0 kipft
P
a
= 267 kips
M
ax
= 167 kipft
M
ay
= 53.3 kipft
Solution:
Material Properties:
ASTM A992 F
y
= 50 ksi F
u
= 65 ksi
Manual
Table 23
Try a W1499
Take combined strength parameters from Manual Table 61
LRFD ASD
p = 3
0.886
10 kips
at 14.0 ft
b
x
=
3
1.38
10 kipft
at 14.0 ft
b
y
= 3
2.85
10 kipft
p = 3
1.33
10 kips
at 14.0 ft
b
x
=
3
2.08
10 kipft
at 14.0 ft
b
y
=
3
4.29
10 kipft
Manual
Table 61
Check limit for Equation H11a Check limit for Equation H11a
u
c n
P
P 
=
400 kips
1,130 kips
= 0.354
Since
u
c n
P
P 
> 0.2,
pP
u
+ b
x
M
ux
+ b
y
M
uy
M 1.0
( )
( )
( )
 
=

\ .
 
+

\ .
 
+

\ .
3
3
3
0.866
400 kips
10 kips
1.38
250 kipft
10 kipft
2.85
80.0 kipft
10 kipft
= 0.346 + 0.345 + 0.228 = 0.927 M 1.0 o.k.
/
a
n c
P
P O
=
267 kips
751 kips
= 0.356
Since
/
a
n c
P
P O
> 0.2,
pP
a
+ b
x
M
ax
+ b
y
M
ay
M 1.0
( )
( )
( )
 
=

\ .
 
+

\ .
 
+

\ .
3
3
3
1.33
267kips
10 kips
2.08
167kipft
10 kipft
4.29
53.3kipft
10 kipft
= 0.356 + 0.347 + 0.229 = 0.931 M 1.0 o.k.
Manual
Table 41
Section H1.1
Manual Table 61 simplifies the calculation of Specification Equations H11a and H11b. A
direct application of these equations is shown in Example H.2.
H3
Example H.1b Wshape Column Subjected to Combined Compression and
Bending Moment About Both Axes (braced frame)
Verify if an ASTM A992 W1499 has sufficient available strength to support the axial forces and moments
listed below, obtained from a second order analysis that includes secondorder effects. The unbraced length is
14 ft and the member has pinned ends. KL
x
= KL
y
= L
b
= 14.0 ft
LRFD ASD
P
u
= 400 kips
M
ux
= 250 kipft
M
uy
= 80.0 kipft
P
a
= 267 kips
M
ax
= 167 kipft
M
ay
= 53.3 kipft
Solution:
Material Properties:
ASTM A992 F
y
= 50 ksi F
u
= 65 ksi
Manual
Table 23
Take the available axial and flexural strengths from the Manual Tables
LRFD ASD
at KL
y
= 14.0 ft,
P
c
= 
c
P
n
= 1130 kips
at L
b
= 14.0 ft,
M
cx
= M
nx
= 642 kipft
M
cy
= M
ny
= 311 kipft
u
c n
P
P 
=
400 kips
1,130 kips
= 0.354
Since
u
c n
P
P 
> 0.2, use Eqn. H1.1a
8
+ +
9
ry
rx r
c cx cy
M
M P
P M M
 


\ .
M 1.0
400 kips 8 250 kipft 80.0 kipft
+ +
1130 kips 9 642 kipft 311 kipft
 

\ .
= ( )
8
0.354 + 0.389 + 0.257
9
= 0.929 < 1.0
o.k.
at KL
y
= 14.0 ft,
P
c
= P
n
/O
c
= 751 kips
at L
b
= 14.0 ft,
M
cx
= M
nx
/O = 428 kipft
M
cy
= M
ny
/O = 207 kipft
/
a
n c
P
P O
=
267 kips
751 kips
= 0.356
Since
/
a
n c
P
P O
> 0.2, use Eqn. H1.1a
8
+ +
9
ry
rx r
c cx cy
M
M P
P M M
 


\ .
M 1.0
267 kips 8 167 kipft 53.3 kipft
+ +
751 kips 9 428 kipft 207 kipft
 

\ .
= ( )
8
0.356 + 0.390 + 0.257
9
= 0.931 < 1.0
o.k.
Manual
Table 41
Manual
Table 310
Manual
Table 32
Eq. H1.1a
H4
Example H.2 WShape Column Subjected to Combined Compression and
Bending Moment About Both Axes
(by Specification Section H2)
Given:
Verify if an ASTM A992 W1499 shown in Example H.1 has sufficient available strength, using
Specification Section H2.1. This example is included primarily to illustrate the use of Specification Section
H2. KL
x
= KL
y
= L
b
= 14.0 ft
LRFD ASD
P
u
= 400 kips
M
ux
= 250 kipft
M
uy
= 80.0 kipft
P
a
= 267 kips
M
ax
= 167 kipft
M
ay
= 53.3 kipft
Solution:
Material Properties:
ASTM A992 F
y
= 50 ksi F
u
= 65 ksi
Geometric Properties:
W1499 A = 29.1 in.
2
S
x
= 157 in.
3
S
y
= 55.2 in.
3
Manual
Table 23
Manual
Table 11
Calculate the required flexural and axial stresses
LRFD ASD
2
400 kips
13.7ksi
29.1in.
u
a
P
f
A
= = =
3
250 kipft 12in.
19.1ksi
ft 157in.
ux
bw
x
M
f
S
 
= = =

\ .
3
80.0 kipft 12in.
17.4 ksi
ft 55.2in.
uy
bz
y
M
f
S
 
= = =

\ .
2
267kips
9.18ksi
29.1in.
a
a
P
f
A
= = =
3
167kipft 12in.
12.8ksi
ft 157in.
ax
bw
x
M
f
S
 
= = =

\ .
3
53.3kipft 12in.
11.6 ksi
ft 55.2in.
ay
bz
y
M
f
S
 
= = =

\ .
Calculate the available flexural and axial stresses from the available strengths in Example H.1b
LRFD ASD
2
1,130 kips
38.8ksi
29.1in.
c n
a c cr
P
F F
A

=  = = =
3
645kipft 12in.
49.3ksi
ft 157in.
b nx
bw
x
M
F
S

 
= = =

\ .
3
311kipft 12in.
67.6 ksi
ft 55.2in.
b ny
bz
y
M
F
S

 
= = =

\ .
2
751kips
25.8ksi
29.1in.
cr n
a
c c
F P
F
A
= = = =
O O
3
431kipft 12in.
32.9ksi
ft 157in.
nx
bw
b x
M
F
S
 
= = =

O
\ .
3
207kipft 12in.
45.0 ksi
ft 55.2in.
ny
bz
b y
M
F
S
 
= = =

O
\ .
As shown in the LRFD calculation of F
bz
above, the available flexural stresses can exceed the
yield stress in cases where the available strength is governed by yielding and the yielding strength
is calculated using the plastic section modulus.
H5
Calculate the combined stress ratio
LRFD ASD
+ +
a bw bz
a bw bz
f f f
F F F
M 1.0
13.7 ksi 19.1 ksi 17.4 ksi
+ +
38.8 ksi 49.3 ksi 67.6 ksi
= 0.998 < 1.0
o.k.
+ +
a bw bz
a bw bz
f f f
F F F
M 1.0
9.18 ksi 12.8 ksi 11.6 ksi
+ +
25.8 ksi 32.9 ksi 45.0 ksi
= 1.00 o.k.
Eqn. H21
A comparison of these results with those from Example H.1 shows that Equation H11a will
produce less conservative results than Equation H21 when its use is permitted.
Note: this check is made at a point. The designer must therefore select which point along the
length is critical, or check multiple points if the critical point can not be readily determined.
H9
Example H.4 WShape Subject to Combined Axial Compression and
Flexure
Given: Select an ASTM A992 Wshape with a 10 in. nominal depth to carry nominal axial compression
forces of 5 kips from dead load and 15 kips from live load. The unbraced length is 14 ft and the ends are
pinned. The member also has the following nominal required moment strengths, not including secondorder
effects:
M
xD
= 15 kipft M
xL
= 45 kipft
M
yD
= 2 kipft M
yL
= 6 kipft
The member is not subject to sidesway.
Solution:
Material Properties:
ASTM A992 F
y
= 50 ksi F
u
= 65 ksi
Calculate the required strength, not considering secondorder effects
LRFD ASD
P
u
= 1.2(5.00 kips) + 1.6(15.0 kips)
= 30.0 kips
M
ux
= 1.2(15.0 kipft) + 1.6(45.0 kipft)
= 90.0 kipft
M
uy
= 1.2(2.00 kipft) + 1.6(6.00 kipft)
= 12.0 kipft
P
a
= 5.00 kips + 15.0 kips
= 20.0 kips
M
ax
= 15.0 kipft + 45.0 kipft
= 60.0 kipft
M
ay
= 2.00 kipft + 6.00 kipft
= 8.00 kipft
Try a W1033
Geometric Properties:
W1033 A = 9.71 in.
2
S
x
= 35.0 in.
3
Z
x
= 38.8 in.
3
I
x
= 171 in.
4
S
y
= 9.20 in.
3
Z
y
= 14.0 in.
3
I
y
= 36.6 in.
4
L
p
= 6.85 ft L
r
= 12.8 ft
Manual
Table 11
Table 31
Calculate the available axial strength
For a pinnedpinned condition, K = 1.0.
Since KL
x
= KL
y
= 14.0 ft and r
x
> r
y
, the yy axis will govern.
Commentary
Table
CC2.2
LRFD ASD
Manual
P
c
= 
c
P
n
= 253 kips P
c
= P
n
/O
c
= 168 kips Table 41
H10
Calculate the required flexural strengths including second order amplification
Use Amplified FirstOrder Elastic Analysis procedure from Section C2.1b. Since the
member is not subject to sidesway, only Po amplifiers need to be added.
1
1
1 /
m
r e
C
B
P P
=
o
C
m
= 1.0
XX axis flexural magnifier
( )
( )( )
( )( )( ) ( )
2 4
2
1 2 2
1
29, 000 ksi 171in.
1.0 14.0ft 12in./ft
x
e
x
EI
P
K L
t
t
= = = 1730 kips
Eqn. C22
Eqn. C25
LRFD ASD
o = 1.0
( )
1
1.0
1 1.0 30.0 kips /1730 kips
B =
= 1.02
M
ux
= 1.02(90.0 kipft) = 91.8 kipft
o = 1.6
( )
1
1.0
1 1.6 20.0 kips /1730 kips
B =
= 1.02
M
ax
= 1.02(60.0 kipft) = 61.2 kipft
Eqn. C22
YY axis flexural magnifier
( )
( )( )
( )( )( ) ( )
2 4 2
1 2 2
1
29, 000 ksi 36.6in.
1.0 14.0ft 12in./ft
y
e
y
EI
P
K L
t t
= = = 371 kips Eqn. C25
LRFD ASD
o = 1.0
( )
1
1.0
1 1.0 30.0 kips / 371kips
B =
= 1.09
M
uy
= 1.09(12.0 kipft) = 13.1 kipft
o = 1.6
( )
1
1.0
1 1.6 20.0 kips / 371kips
B =
= 1.09
M
ay
= 1.09 (8.00 kipft) = 8.76 kipft
Eqn. C22
Calculate the nominal bending strength about the xx axis
Yielding limit state
M
nx
= M
p
= F
y
Z
x
= 50 ksi(38.8 in.
3
) = 1940 kipin or 162 kipft
Lateraltorsional buckling limit state
Since L
p
< L
b
< L
r
, Equation F22 applies
From Manual Table 31, C
b
= 1.14
Eqn. F21
Manual
Table 31
H11
M
nx
=
( )

 0.7

b p
b p p y x
r p
L L
C M M F S
L L
(  
( 

(
\ .
M M
p
M
nx
= ( )( ) ( )
3
14.0ft  6.85ft
1.14 1940 kipin.  1940 kipin.  0.7 50 ksi 35.0 in.
21.8 ft  6.85ft
(  
( 
\ .
= 1820 kipin. M 1940 kipin., therefore use:
M
nx
= 1820 kipin. or 152 kipft controls
Local buckling limit state
Per Manual Table 11, the member is compact for F
y
= 50 ksi, so the local buckling limit state
does not apply
Calculate the nominal bending strength about the yy axis
Since a W1033 has compact flanges, only the yielding limit state applies.
M
ny
= M
p
= F
y
Z
y
M 1.6F
y
S
y
= 50 ksi(14.0 in.
3
) M 1.6(50 ksi)(9.20 in.
3
)
= 700 kipin < 736 kipin., therefore
Use M
ny
= 700 kipin. or 58.3 kipft
Eqn. F22
Manual
Table 11
Section F6.2
Eqn. F61
LRFD ASD

b
= 0.90
M
cx
= 
b
M
nx
= 0.90(152 kipft) = 137 kipft
M
cy
= 
b
M
ny
= 0.90(58.3 kipft) = 52.5 kipft
O
b
= 1.67
M
cx
= M
nx
/O
b
= 152 kipft/1.67 = 91.0 kipft
M
cy
= M
ny
/O
b
= 58.3 kipft/1.67 = 34.9 kipft
Section F2
Check limit for Equation H11a
LRFD ASD
u r
c c n
P P
P P
=

=
30.0 kips
253 kips
= 0.119, therefore,
use Specification Equation H1.1b
+ +
2
ry
rx r
c cx cy
M
M P
P M M
 


\ .
M 1.0
30.0 kips 91.8 kipft 13.1 kipft
+ +
2(253 kips) 137 kipft 52.5 kipft
 

\ .
0.0593 + 0.920 = 0.979 M 1.0 o.k.
/
a r
c n c
P P
P P
=
O
=
20.0 kips
168 kips
= 0.119, therefore
use Specification Equation H1.1b
+ +
2
ry
rx r
c cx cy
M
M P
P M M
 


\ .
M 1.0
20.0 kips 61.2 kipft 8.76 kipft
+ +
2(168 kips) 91.0 kipft 34.9 kipft
 

\ .
0.0595 + 0.924 = 0.983 M 1.0 o.k.
Section H1.1
Eqn. H1.1b