University of Social Sciences and Humanities - Policy Brief, first edition

Distinguis hed Readers, The "Policy Brief" fro m the University of Social Sciences and H umanities (USSH ), Vietn am Na tiona l Uni ver sit y aims to p rovid e national and int erna tion al aud ien es with upda ted kno wled ge and information on cu rrent even ts concern ing Vietnam in the int ernational con text. It includes Vietnam 's foreign, security, and inte gr ation policy as well as its positi on and point of views on d ifferen t region al and intern at ional p robl em s. In order to d o so th e "Policy Brief " will invite a w id e range of contribu tors includ ing po licy makers and experts, research ers and practitioners, professors and en trepr eneu rs, both in Vietnam as well as ab roa d . To reach both Vietna mese and internation al au d iences, the "Policy Brief" is a bilingual publication with Vietnamese and English language.
It is ou r grea t honor to introduce to the di stinguish read ers the fir t iss ue of the "Policy Brief" w hich deal

with the d ecision of Vietnam to participate in UN Peacekeepi ng Operations accord ing to Prime Minister gu yen Tan Dung's anno unceme n t on th e 12'hShangri-la Dialog ue in Singapore in May 2013. Pro fesso r Dr. Carlyle Th ayer from the Au stralian Academy of Defense an alyses the fact r having influenced Vietn am 's d ecision to commit to UN peacekeeping, including Vietn am 's rece n t active mil itary coop eration, ASEAN in volvement in UN peacekee ping and the possib ility for Vietna m to play a greater role in international affairs . Major Gene ral Nguyen Hong Qu an, Deputy Dir ector of the Institute for Strategic Defen e, Ministry of Defense of Vietnam confirms in hi s contribution that Vietn am 's particip at ion in peacekeeping serves as one measu re to streng then its relations with the internati onal community. Thi s Policy Brief was de velope d in coop er at ion w ith the Fried rich-Ebert-Stiftu ng (FES), a Ge rman poli tical fou nda tion that aims to foster int ernal understan ding and cooperation. I hope that our upcoming se ries of "Policy Briefs" will b ridge Vietna m an d the World and help under standing Vietn am 's internation al int egration policies. Than k you, de ar read ers, for your att ention . We look forwa rd to you r cooper ation an d com ment . Sine rely yo ur s, Assoc. Pro f. Dr. Pharn Qu ang Minh Vice Recto r, Un iversity of Social Sciences and Hum anities

Vietnam Commits to UN Peacekeeping




Carlyle A. Thayer*

Introduction Vietnam has no historical legacy of working with the United Nations (UN) prior to reunification in 1975. Vietnamese leaders based on their historical experience, have bee~ opposed to foreign intervention in the internal affairs of another country. Vietnam has also been wary about UN intervention. Its 2009 Defence White Paper declared: Vietnam greatly appreciates the role of the UN and regards the peace-keeping operations (PKO) as an important function of the UN. To better fulfil this function , UN PKO must abide by the principle of respecting independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, and non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries; ensure impartiality; and only be carried out with the acceptance of the parties concerned.' Vietnam's leaders also have other reservations about UN peacekeeping. In June 2008, military staff at the Ministry of National Defence's Institute for Defence and International Relations told the author that there were five obstacles to joining a UN peacekeeping mission: domestic opposition to sending soldiers abroad, the costs of training, English language competency, the risk of casualties, and fear that Vietnamese working abroad could become targets by armed non-state groups. Further, Vietnam's leaders were concerned that the prestige of their armed forces could suffer if they demonstrated any shortcomings
Socialist R~~ublic of Vietnam, Vietnam National Defence (HanOI: Ministry of National Defence, 2009), 27.

or deficiencies due to lack of experience while serving with other armed forces under UN auspices. Vietnam's leaders also were concerned that Vietnam did not have the resources to support a major contribution to UN peacekeeping operations. Despite these ingrained attitudes and reservations Vietnam, after extensive deliberations over a decade, finally made the decision to make a contribution to UN Peacekeeping Operations (UN PKO). In May 2013, Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung, in delivering the keynote address to the 12th Shangri-La Dialogue, announced that "at this prestigious forum, I have the honour to announce that Vietnam has decided to participate in UN peacekeeping operations, first in such areas as military engineering, military medicine and military observation [emphasis in the original]."? Background The idea that Vietnam should contribute to UN peacekeepingwas first raised by UN Secretary General BoutrousBoutrous-Ghali in 1993.During a visit to Hanoi, the UN Secretary General said, "There is no reason why, in the next fiveyears, we might not ask Vietnam to participate in United Nations peacekeeping efforts in Latin America or Europe.":' Vietnam reacted to this proposal with studied silence
2 "Building Strategic Trust for Peace, Cooperation and Prosperity in the Asia-Pacific Region," Keynote Addressby H.E. Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung at the 12th Shangri-La Dialogue, Singapore, May 31,2013. "UN chief pledges to help Hanoi's development efforts," BusinessTimes, April 13, 1993; and Associated Press/Agence France-Presse. "UN chief offers broad assistance to Vietnam," The Nation, April 13, 1993.



Policy Brief 1/2014 Vietnam Commits to UN Peacekeeping

and for the next twelve years the ideaof participating in UN peacekeeping activities was put in cold storage. Vietnam seriously began to consider involvement in UN peacekeeping in late 2003 when Indonesia, as ASEAN Chair, proposed the creation of a regional peacekeeping force. Foreign observers reported that the idea of contributing to UN peacekeeping was increasingly mentioned by Vietnamese officials in 2004 and 2005 in response to internal ASEAN deliberations. In October 2004, for example, Ngo DucThang, Vietnam's permanent representative to the United Nations, made these guarded remarks to theGeneral Assembly's 59th session: We highly appreciate the tirelessefforts of the Secretary-General to strengthen the organisation's capacity to prevent andresolve armed conflicts, including peace-keeping and peace-building activities. In thisregard, Viet Nam has an important role to tackle global challenges and maintaininternational peace and security. We encourage speeding up of the development of acomprehensive and coherent conflict-prevention strategy to respond effectively tochallenges posed by peace-keeping and peace-building processes [emphasis added].' More significantly, Prime Minister Phan Van Khai revealed the following in thecourse of an interview on the eve of hishistoric visit to the United States in 2005:

Washington Post: Including UN peacekeeping?
Khai: Depending on our conditions, Vietnam's still a poor economy. We are now also trying to train some people, including military personnel so that we may be able to participate in peacekeeping. We might have some expertise in landmine clearing, medical staff. You know our condition. Vietnam is still a poor country." On January 6, 2006, Le Dung, a spokesperson for Vietnam's Foreign Ministry, officially announced that Vietnam had decided to run for non-permanent membership on the UN Security Council for the 2008-2009 term. He added that Vietnam was also "preparing to join UN peacekeeping activities when possible.:" However, Vietnam would not send armed soldiers but only medical or mine clearance personnel." On October 27, 2006 the Group of Asian Countries unanimously nominated Vietnam as its only candidate for non-permanent membership on the Security Council." Throughout 2007, in tandem with its bid for a seat on the Security Council, Vietnam played up the possibility of making a contribution to UN peacekeeping. In March, for example, when Ambassador Le Luong Minh, head of Vietnam's Permanent Mission to the UN, spoke before the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations he revealed that Vietnam had
5 6 "Transcript: Interview with Phan Van Khai," The

Washington Post, June 17, 2005.
Agence France-Presse, "Vietnam mulls contribution to UN peacekeeping," Thanh Nien News, January 6, 2006. See also: "VN may join UN peace-keeping forces: ministry" VietNam News, January 7, 2006 and Vietnam News Agency, "Vietnam to run for UN Security Council membership," Nhan Dan, January 10 2006. Christine Webster interview with Carlyle Thayer, "Vietnam: Interest grow in UN peacekeeping operations," ABC Radio, Asia Pacific, January 11, 2006. Vietnam News Agency, "Nation steps closer to UN Security Council inclusion," VietNamNet Bridge, October 30,2006; Deutsche Presse-Agentur, "Vietnam to be nominated to UN Security Council, state media says," October 30, 2006. Vietnam's' interest in becoming a non-permanent member of the Security Council dates back to 1997.

Washington Post: You'll be meeting with Kofi Annan. Will you be making any gesturestoward the United Nations, perhaps through UN Peacekeeping?
Khai: Yes, in the future, we will try to fulfil our obligations.
4 Quoted in Carlyle A. Thayer, "Vietnam and UN Peacekeeping," Thayer Consultancy Background Brief, January 12,2006 (updated January 15,2006).



· Vietnam Commits to UN Peacekeeping

Policy Brief 1/2014

been engaged in discussions with the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations to prepare for Vietnam's participation in UNsanctioned peacekeeping operations." Vietnam's quest for membership on the Security Council was successful. In October 2007 the UN General Assembly overwhelmingly elected Vietnam a non-permanent member." But Vietnam remained equivocal about a definite commitment to UN peacekeeping. On November 13, 2007, for example, Ambassador Minh stated that, "Vietnam is ready to take part in the UN's peacekeeping activities when necessary and appropriate."!' During its two-year tenure on the Security Council, which commenced January 2008, Vietnam refrained from making any contribution to UN peacekeeping operations.
In 2009 Vietnam released its third Defence White

right time as "this would help the country improve its position and study various issues around the world." General Vinh stated that Vietnam had begun preparing to join UN PKO four years ago by conducting training, securing government approval and seeking funding. Any international participation would be purely humanitarian. Vinh stated, "Vietnam's policy is not to send its peacekeepers to places where there are conflicts."13 In July 2012 a delegation from Vietnam's State Steering Committee on National Action Program held working sessions in New York with UN's Department of Peacekeeping Operations, UN Mine Action Service and the United Nations Development Programme." Seven months later Vietnam signalled privately that it was now ready to make a contribution to UN PKO. Deputy Defence Minister Senior Lt. Gen. General Vinh told visiting UN Assistant General Secretary Edmond Mulet that Vietnamese soldiers would be available to participate in UN peacekeeping operations 5 In May, as noted above, Prime in early 2014. 1 Minster Dung publicly announced that Vietnam would commit to UN peacekeeping. In order to lay the legal basis for participation in UN PKO by Vietnamese military forces, in November 2013 Vietnam's National Assembly amended Chapter IV (Article 44) of its 1992 State Constitution to include the clause that the armed forces will "contribute to the maintenance of peace in the region and the world."16 Based on this amendment,
13 "Vietnam denies participation in joint military drills," Thanh Nien, February 21, 2011. 14 Vietnam News Agency, "Mine clearance committee delegation visits US," Tuoi Tre News, July 14, 2012. 15 Associated Press, "Vietnam says it will be ready to participate in United Nations peacekeeping operations," Febtruary 27, 2013. 16 "Toan van Du thao Hien Phaplvuoc Cong hoa Xa hoi Chu nghia Viet Nam nam 1992 (sua doi narn 2013)," Nghi quyel so 38/2012/QH13 cua Quoc hoi ve viec to chuc lii'y y kien nhan dan ve du thao sua doi Hien phap nam ]992, 14. http://www.tracuuphapluat. info/2013/01/du-thao-hien-phap-nuoc-cong-hoaxhcn-viet-nam-nam-2013.html.

Paper. This document was the first Defence White Paper to make reference to UN peacekeeping. It offered these guarded comments: Vietnam is accomplishing its preparations for effectively participating in UN PKO, in conformity with its capability and conditions. Vietnam's relevant agencies are actively studying experience of other countries, and preparing its personnel with sufficient professional skills, foreign language proficiency and knowledge of international laws to participate effectively in UN PKOY In February 2011, Deputy Minister for National Defence Lt. Gen. Nguyen Chi Vinh confirmed that Vietnam was "actively" preparing to take part in UN peacekeeping. He expressed Vietnam's willingness to join UNPKO at the
9 "UN peacekeepers supported by Vietnamese: ambassador," VietNamNet Bridge, March 3, 2007.

10 "Libya and Vietnam elected to UN Security Council," The New York Times, October 16, 2007. 11 "Vietnam to Start UN Security Council Presidency for July Next Yr."Thanh Nien, November 13,2007. 12 Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Vietnam National Defence (Hanoi: Ministry of National Defence, 2009), 27.

Policy Brief 1/2014


Vietnam Commits to UN Peacekeeping

the government will now promulgate bylaws and official policies to enable Vietnam's involvement in UN peacekeeping. Preparing for UN Peacekeeping Beginning in 2005, and over the course of the next eight years, Vietnam approached at least nine countries to learn about their experiences in UN peacekeeping operations and to solicit assistance in training Vietnamese military personnel for UN service. Vietnam first made contact with Australia and the United Kingdom. In November 2005, two Vietnam People's Army officers became the first in a steady stream to attend the course for Peace Operations Military Observers hosted by the Australian Defence Force Peace Operations Training Centre. In October 2010, Vietnam and Australia signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that included capacity building for UN peacekeeping missions. In addition to providing annual stipends for Vietnamese officers to attend the military observers course, Australia funded a second English-language teaching laboratory at the Military Technical Academy in Hanoi. During the course of a visit to Vietnam in August 2012, Defence Minister Stephen Smith announced that Australia was providing training to eighty Vietnamese personnel for possible future UN peacekeeping missions. I? Also in November 2005 the United Kingdom (UK) organized a strategic-level seminar on peacekeeping in Hanoi. Vietnam's defence cooperation with the UK was formalized in November 2011 with the signing of a MOU that raised bilateral relations to a strategic partnership. The MOU included cooperation in peacekeeping. IS In July 2012, under the
17 "Australia calls for South China Sea resolution," Radio Australia, August 30, 2012. 18 "UK concludes English course for Vietnam peacekeeping personnel," Tuoi Tre News, July 12, 2012.

terms of the MOU, the UK delivered the first of two five-month English language courses in Hanoi for twenty-four future Vietnamese peacekeeping personnel. . In 2007, Vietnam broadened its outreach by approaching New Zealand, Singapore and India. In March 2007,Lt. Gen. Nguyen HuyHieu, Deputy Minister of National Defence, visited Wellington where he expressed an interest in receivingNewZealand'sassistanceindeveloping Vietnam's capabilities in peacekeeping. The Chief of the New Zealand Defence Force made a return visit to Hanoi in August 2008 and discussed with his counterpart how "both countries might work together as Viet Nam considers future involvement in United Nations peace operations." In February 2009, New Zealand's Defence Secretary offered to share his country's experiences in UN peacekeeping. 19 In September 2007, Singapore's Defence Minister, Teo Chee Hean, visited Hanoi for talks with his counterpart General PhungQuang Thanh that covered Singapore's experiences in peacekeeping. In November 2012, at the 5 th Singapore-Vietnam Defence Policy Dialogue the two sides agreed "to improve effective and practical cooperation ... and sharing experience in international peacekeeping activities.?" After Vietnam announced its intention to commit to UN PKO, Singapore agreed to assist Vietnam in training military doctors for service with the UNY In November 2007, at the third India-Vietnam security dialogue in New Delhi, India agreed to share its expertise in training for UN
19 "NZ defence secretary visits Vietnam," Voice of Vietnam News, May 15, 2009. 20 "Defence dialogue boosts Vietnam-Singapore partnership," QuanDoiNhan Dan Online, November 22,2012. 21 "Vietnam and Singapore to boost cooperation in military medicine," QuanDoiNhan Dan Online, July 9,2013.

Policy Brief 112014 Vietnam Corr mits to UN Peacekeeping


peacekeeping operations. The following year India dispatched a four-member army team to Vietnam to conduct training on UN peacekeeping operations. In October 2010, the defence ministers of India and Vietnam met in Hanoi. India's A. K. Anthony responded affirmatively to a request from his counterpart, General Thanh, for India to send experts to Vietnam to help train Vietnamese military personnel for international missions." In 2008, Vietnam further broadened its outreach to include Canada, the United States, Poland and Bulgaria. In May, Canadian officials travelled to Hanoi to discuss Vietnam's capacity to contribute forces to UN PKO. In October, the United States and Vietnam discussed Vietnamese participation in UN peacekeeping operations at their 1 st Security Dialogue on Political, Security and Defense Issues." And in November, in separate visits to Hanoi, both the Polish Defence Minister and Bulgarian Chief of General Staff discussed their country's experiences in international peacekeeping with their Vietnamese counterparts. Vietnam's interaction with the United States led to series of follow on engagements. In April 2009, the U.S. Asia-Pacific Centre for Security Studies conducted a five-day workshop in Hanoi on "Vietnam and United Nations Peace Operations" for nearly fifty mid-level and senior policy officials from the Ministry of National Defence, Ministry of Public Security and Ministry of Foreign Affairs." In December 2009, Vietnam's Minister for
22 "India to help Vietnam train peacekeeping forces," The Economic Times, October 14, 2010. 23 Mark E. Manyin, U.S-Vietnam Relations: Background and Issues for Congress, CRS Report for Congress, (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, October 31, 2008), 3. William R. Goodwin, "Workshop focuses on UN Peacekeeping options, challenges," April 10, 2009. http://www. a pcss. org/workshop-focuses-on-unpeaekeeping-optons-challenges/.





Thanh visited Washington where he held discussions on bilateral cooperation with the United States on peacekeeping activities, exchange of experiences in bomb and mine clearance, and military medicine." In June 2010, at the 3 r d U.s.-Vietnam security dialogue, the participants" conferred about future Vietnamese participation in United Nations peacekeeping missions.r " In September 2011, in a major step forward, Vietnam and the United States formalized their defence cooperation in a MOU that made provision for a senior level dialogue to discuss five areas of cooperation including UN PKOY In July the following year, a delegation from Vietnam's State Steering Committee on National Action Program on unexploded ordnance made a ten-day working visit to the United States. The delegation was led by Senior Lt. General Nguyen Chi Vinh, Deputy Minister of National Defence, and toured a number of Department of Defense agencies involved in research on mine clearance technology." In July 2013, during President Truong

Tan Sang's visit to Washington that led to the adoption of a joint statement on comprehensive partnership, President Barack Obama offered to assist Vietnam with training and other support for its first involvement in UN peacekeeping. At the end of the year Secretary of State John Kerry
25 He also noted that Vietnam had held UN PKO discussions with Malaysia and Cambodia. No details were forthcoming. 26 "Strengthening Ties Between The U.s. And Vietnam," Voice of America News, June 16,2010. 27 Robert Kamiol, "Vietnam's dual-track defence strategy" The Straits Times, September 26, 2011. The other areas of cooperation included maritime security, search and rescue, humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. 28 Vietnam News Agency, "Mine clearance committee delegation visits US," Tuoi Tre News, July 14,2012.


Policy Brief 112014


Vietnam Commits to UN Peacekeeping

reported at a press conference in Hanoi that "We're also working more closely than ever on peacekeeping in the United Nations global peacekeeping operations.t" In 2012, Vietnam approached the European Union. In late February-early March, David O'Sullivan, Chief Operating Officer of the European External Action Service, paid a working visit to Vietnam. At this time Vietnam formally requested the EU to share its experiences in UN PKO and support Vietnam's preparation and participation in United Nations peacekeeping activities.P

2003, when Indonesia was chairman of the ASEAN Standing Committee, it mooted the idea of a regional peacekeeping centre and regional peacekeeping forces. The idea of regional peacekeeping also has been discussed by ASEAN defence officials, including the chiefs of army. An Expert Working Group on Peacekeeping is now functioning under the ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting Plus. In sum, a normative shift has gradually taken place for regional involvement in peacekeeping under the UN Charter. Third, Vietnam served on the UN Security Council in 2008-09. Although it did not contribute to UNPKO at that time it learned that if Vietnam wanted to playa greater role in international security making a contribution to UN peacekeeping operations was one avenue. Vietnam's then Ambassador to the UN, Le Luong Minh, stated, for example, "If Vietnam joins the peacekeeping force, our role would be larger, enabling us to have more say in security matters.">' In sum, all three factors appear to have contributed to Vietnam's decision to make a modest contribution to UN PKO in 2014.

There appear to be at least three factors that influenced Vietnam's decision to make a commitment to UN peacekeeping operations. First, Vietnam's military has become more internationally active in international defence cooperation in recent years than in the past. As a result Vietnam has entered into dialogues on UN peacekeeping with at least ten states (including the EU). Vietnamese military officers who have attended overseas courses have been exposed to changing international and regional norms regarding UN peacekeeping. Vietnamese military personnel, for example, have interacted with military officers from Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippine, Singapore and Thailand - all fellow members of ASEAN - who have served with the UN. Second, ever since 1999 when a UN-approved international force intervened in East Timor there has been regional consideration for ASEAN involvement in peacekeeping. In
29 U.s. Department of State, "Joint Press Availability With Vietnamese Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Pham Binh Minh, Government Guest House, Hanoi, December 16, 2013, 4. 30 "EU boosts cooperation with Vietnam," VietNamNet Bridge, March 2, 2012.

31 "Vietnam mulls UN peacekeeping role," Thanh Nien, January 13, 2006.

Plll k )' Br, d 1/ 201 1

About the Authors



Major General Nguyen Hong Quan
Major General, Docto r Ngu yen Hong Qu an is Associate Professor and Vice Director Gene ral of Vietnam Institute for Defen se Stra tegy (IDS). He is graduate of Vietna m National Defense Academy. He also attende d the Institute for H igh er Studies of National Defen se, France (IH EDN) . In his fourty years in the Army, he has ten anted pr estigiou s com man d, instruction al an d staff appointments, notably, Vice Director Gen er al of the Foreign Relations Departm ent (FRO), Ministry of Nationa l Defense. He was also UN Observer at th e Algeri an Legislature in 1997. He obtaine d his Bach elor of Arts in Int ernational Relations and d id his Master of Ar ts in Internati on al Relations from the Dipl om ati c Academ y of Viet Nam, and Post Grad uate Diplom a from th e Int ern ational Inst itute of Publi c Adminstration, Paris, France. He has a Doctorate in Modern World History from the Social Sciences and Humanities College, Vietnam Na tional Uni versity. He is visitin g Pro f ssor at Vietn am Nation al Defen se Academy, regularl y pa rticipates in in tern ational seminars and con ferences in Vietn am and ab road, and contributes in academic fields. Over 70 articles and opinions piece. ha e bee n published in academic and professional journals. He is fre quently consu lted by go vern me nt agencies an d the m edi a on in tern ational affairs.

Carlyle A. Thayer
Carl yle A. Thayer is Emer itu s Professor, The University of Ne w South Wales (UNSW) at th e Au stralian Defence Force Acad em y (ADFA). He was educated at Brown, Yale and The Australian Na tional University (ANU). He joined UNSW in 1979 and tau ght first in its Faculty of Military Stu d ies at The Royal Military CollegeDuntroon until 1985 and then at University College ADFA. In 1993 he was a United Nati ons-accredited obse rve r for the elections in Cambodi a. Thayer erved as Head of th e School of Politics from 1995-97. In 1999, he was gr an ted leave of absence 'in the nation al intere st' to tak e up a th ree-year appointment at the A ia-Pacific entre for Security Studies in Haw aii. He was then seconded to Deakin Univ ersity as their On Site Acad emi c Co-ordinator for the senior defen ce course at the Cen tre for Defenc and Stra tegic Studies, Aus tra lia n Defen ce Coll ege (2002-04). In 2005, Tha yer was appointed the C. V. Starr Distinguished Visiting Professor of Southe ast Asian Stu d ies at the School of Advan ced In ternational Studies, Joh ns Hopkins Univer sity in Washingt on. In 2006-07 and 2010, Professor Thayer co-ord ina ted Regiona l Security Stu dies at the Au st ra lian Command and Staff College. In 2008, he was ap poin ted the In au gur al Frances M. and Stephen H . Fuller Distingui sh ed Vis iting Professor of Southeas t Asia n Stu d ies at hie Un iversity. In January 2011, Thayer was con ferr ed the title Eme ritus Pro fessor by UNSW. He is curren tly Director of Th ayer Consultancy, a sm all bu siness register ed in Au stralia th at pr ovides assessme nts of cur rent politi cal, secu rity and foreig n policy developments in Southeast Asia. He also writes a weekl y column on ASEAN defence and security issues for The Dipl om at. Professor Thayer is the author of over 480 publications includ ing Sou theas t Asia: Patterns of Security Cooperation (ASPI 2010), Vietnam People's Army : Devel opment and Modernizati on (IDSS 2009), Beyond Ind ochina (IISS Adelphi Pap er 1995), The Vietn am Peopl e's Army Under DoiMoi (ISEAS 1994) and co-editor of Vie tna mese Foreign Policy in Tran siti on (ISEAS 1999 with Ram ses Amer ), Bringing Dem ocracy to Cambod ia: Peacekeeping and Elections (AN U and ADSC 1996 with VerbertoSelochan), and A Crisis of Expectatio ns: UN Peacekeeping in th e 1990s (Westview 1995 with Ram esh Th akur).

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful