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Chinese Literature

Comprising The Analects of Confucius, The Sayings of Mencius, The Shi-King, The Travels of F-Hien, an The Sorro!s of Han
Anonymous
The Project Gutenberg EBook of Chinese Literature, by Anonymous This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoe er! "ou may co#y it, gi e it away or re$use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www!gutenberg!net Title% Chinese Literature Com#rising The Analects of Confucius, The &ayings of 'encius, The &hi$(ing, The Tra els of )*$+ien, and The &orrows of +an Author% Anonymous ,elease -ate% .o ember /0, 1223 4EBook 5/22678 Language% English Character set encoding% 9&: Latin$/ ;;; &TA,T :) T+9& P,:<ECT G=TE.BE,G EB::( C+9.E&E L9TE,AT=,E ;;; Produced by <uliet &utherland, Tam and PG -istributed Proofreaders C+9.E&E L9TE,AT=,E C:'P,9&9.G T+E A.ALECT& :) C:.)=C9=&, T+E &A"9.G& :) 'E.C9=&, T+E &+9$(9.G, T+E T,A>EL& :) )?$+9E., A.- T+E &:,,:@& :) +A. @9T+ C,9T9CAL A.- B9:G,AP+9CAL &(ETC+E& B" EP9P+A.9=& @9L&:., A!'!

,E>9&E- E-9T9:. /A22 T+E A.ALECT& :) C:.)=C9=& 9ntroduction B::( 9! :n Learning$$'iscellaneous &ayings 99! Good Go ernment$$)ilial Piety$$The &u#erior 'an 999! Abuse of Pro#rieties in Ceremonial and 'usic 9>! &ocial >irtue$$&u#erior and 9nferior 'an >! A -isci#le and the Golden ,ule$$'iscellaneous >9! 'ore Characteristics$$@isdom$$Philanthro#y >99! Characteristics of Confucius$$An 9ncident >999! &ayings of Tsang$$&entences of the 'aster 9B! +is )a orite -isci#leCs :#inion of +im B! Confucius in Pri ate and :fficial Life B9! Com#arati e @orth of +is -isci#les B99! The 'asterCs Answers$$Philanthro#y$$)riendshi#s B999! Answers on the Art of Go erning$$Consistency B9>! Good and Bad Go ernment$$'iscellaneous &ayings B>! Practical @isdom$$,eci#rocity the ,ule of Life B>9! Against 9ntestine &trife$$Good and Bad )riendshi#s B>99! The 'aster 9nduced to Take :ffice$$.ature and +abit B>999! Good 'en in &eclusion$$-uke of Chow to +is &on B9B! Teachings of >arious Chief -isci#les BB! EDtracts from the Book of +istory T+E &A"9.G& :) 'E.C9=& 9ntroduction Book 9! (ing +wuy of LEang!$$ Part 9 4FBooks 99!, 999!, and 9>! are omittedF8 Book >! @an Chang!$$ Part 9 T+E &+9$(9.G 9ntroduction FPart 9!$$Lessons from the &tatesF! B::( 9!$$T+E :-E& :) C+:@ A.- T+E &:=T+!$$

B::( 99!$$T+E :-E& :) &+A:= A.- T+E &:=T+!$$ The 'arriage of a Princess The 9ndustry and ,e erence of a PrinceCs @ife The @ife of &ome Great :fficer Bewails his Absence The -iligence of the "oung @ife of an :fficer The Lo e of the Peo#le for the -uke of &haou The Easy -ignity of the :fficers at &ome Court AnDiety of a "oung Lady to Get 'arried B::( 999!$$T+E :-E& :) PCE9!$$ An :fficer Bewails the .eglect with which +e is Treated A @ife -e#lores the Absence of +er +usband The Plaint of a ,ejected @ife &oldiers of @ei Bewail &e#aration from their )amilies An :fficer Tells of +is 'ean Em#loyment An :fficer &ets )orth +is +ard Lot The Com#laint of a .eglected @ife 9n Praise of a 'aiden -iscontent Chwang (eang Bemoans +er +usbandCs Cruelty 4FBooks 9>!, >!, and >9! are omittedF8 B::( >99!$$T+E :-E& :) C+C9.G!$$$ The Peo#leCs Admiration for -uke @oo A @ife Consoled by +er +usbandCs Arri al 9n Praise of &ome Lady A 'anCs Praise of +is @ife An Entreaty A @oman &corning +er Lo er A Lady 'ourns the Absence of +er &tudent Lo er$$$ B::( >999!$$T+E :-E& :) T&CE!$$ A @ife =rging +er +usband to Action The )olly of =seless Effort The Prince of Loo B::( 9B!$$T+E :-E& :) @E9!$$ :n the 'isgo ernment of the &tate The 'ean +usband A "oung &oldier on &er ice B::( B!$$T+E :-E& :) TCA.G!$$ The (ing Goes to @ar Lament of a Berea ed Person The -rawbacks of Po erty A @ife 'ourns for +er +usband

Celebrating the >irtue of (ing @anCs Bride Celebrating the 9ndustry of (ing @anCs Gueen 9n Praise of a Bride Celebrating TCae$&HeCs )reedom from <ealousy The )ruitfulness of the Locust Lamenting the Absence of a Cherished )riend Celebrating the Goodness of the -escendants of (ing @an The >irtuous 'anners of the "oung @omen Praise of a ,abbit$Catcher The &ong of the Plantain$Gatherers The Affection of the @i es on the <oo

B::( B9!$$T+E :-E& :) T&C9.!$$ Celebrating the :#ulence of the Lords of TsCin A Com#laint A @ifeCs Grief Because of +er +usbandCs Absence Lament for Three Brothers 9n Praise of a ,uler of TsCin The Generous .e#hew B::( B99!$$T+E :-E& :) C+C9.!$$ The Contentment of a Poor ,ecluse The -isa##ointed Lo er A Lo e$&ong The Lament of a Lo er B::( B999!$$T+E :-E& :) (@E9$$ The @ish of an =nha##y 'an B::( B9>!$$T+E :-E& :) T&CA:=!$$ Against )ri olous Pursuits B::( B>!$$T+E :-E& :) P9.!$$ The -uke of Chow Tells of +is &oldiers There is a Pro#er @ay for -oing E erything FPart 99!$$'inor :des of the (ingdomF! B::( 9!$$-ECA-E :) L=+ '9.G!$$ A )estal :de A )estal :de Com#limenting an :fficer The >alue of )riendshi# The ,es#onse to a )estal :de An :de of Congratulation An :de on the ,eturn of the Troo#s B::( 99!$$T+E -ECA-E :) P9+ +@A!$$ An :de A##ro#riate to a )esti ity B::( 999!$$T+E -ECA-E :) TC=.G (=.G!$$ Celebrating a +unting ED#edition The (ingCs AnDiety for +is 'orning Le ee 'oral Lessons from .atural )acts B::( 9>!$$T+E -ECA-E :) (CE$)::!$$ :n the Com#letion of a ,oyal Palace The Condition of (ing &euenCs )locks B::( >!$$T+E -ECA-E :) &EA:= '9.!$$ A Eunuch Com#lains of +is )ate An :fficer -e#lores the 'isery of the Time :n the Alienation of a )riend B::( >9!$$T+E -ECA-E :) P9+ &+A.!$$ A Picture of +usbandry The Com#laint of an :fficer B::( >99!$$-ECA-E :) &A.G +::!$$ The ,ejoicings of a Bridegroom

Against Listening to &landerers B::( >999!$$T+E -ECA-E :) T:: <9. &IE!$$ 9n Praise of By$gone &im#licity A @ife Bemoans +er +usbandCs Absence The Earl of &haouCs @ork The Plaint of (ing "ewCs )orsaken @ife +os#itality :n the 'isery of &oldiers FPart 999!$$Greater :des of the (ingdomF! B::( 9!$$-ECA-E :) (9.G @A.!$$ Celebrating (ing @an 4FBook 99! is omittedF8 B::( 999!$$-ECA-E :) TA.G!$$ (ing &euen on the :ccasion of a Great -rought FPart 9>!$$:des of the Tem#le and AltarF! B::( 9!$$&AC,9)9C9AL :-E& :) C+:@!$$ A##ro#riate to a &acrifice to (ing @an :n &acrificing to the (ings @oo, Ching, and (Cang T+E T,A>EL& :) )?$+9E. TranslatorCs 9ntroduction C+APTE, 9! )rom ChCang$gan to the &andy -esert 99! :n to &hen$shen and thence to (hoten 999! (hoten$$Processions of 9mages 9>! Through the TsCung 'ountains to (Ceech$chCa >! Great GuinJuennial Assembly of 'onks >9! .orth 9ndia$$9mage of 'aitreya Bodhisatt a >99! The Perilous Crossing of the 9ndus >999! @oo$chang, or =dyana$$Traces of Buddha 9B! &oo ho$to$$Legends of Buddha B! Gandhara$$Legends of Buddha B9! Takshasila$$Legends$$The )our Great To#es B99! BuddhaCs Alms$bowl$$-eath of +wuy$king B999! )esti al of BuddhaCs &kull$bone B9>! Crossing the 9ndus to the East B>! &ym#athy of 'onks with the Pilgrims B>9! Condition and Customs of Central 9ndia B>99! Legend of the Trayastrimsas +ea en B>999! BuddhaCs &ubjects of -iscourse B9B! Legend of BuddhaCs -anta$kashtha BB! The <eta ana >ihara$$Legends of Buddha BB9! The Three Predecessors of &akyamuni BB99! Legends of BuddhaCs Birth BB999! Legends of ,ama and its To#e BB9>! @here Buddha ,enounced the @orld BB>! The (ingdom of >aisali BB>9! ,emarkable -eath of ?nanda BB>99! (ing AsokaCs &#irit$built Palace and +alls BB>999! ,ajagriha, .ew and :ld$$Legends Connected with 9t

BB9B! )*$+ien Passes a .ight on Gridhra$kuta +ill BBB! &rata#arna Ca e, or Ca e of the )irst Council BBB9! &akyamuniCs Attaining to the Buddhashi# BBB99! Legend of (ing Asoka in a )ormer Birth BBB999! (asya#a BuddhaCs &keleton on 'ount Guru#ada BBB9>! :n the @ay ,eturning to Patna BBB>! -akshina, and the Pigeon 'onastery BBB>9! )*$+ienCs 9ndian &tudies BBB>99! )*$+ienCs &tay in Cham#a and Tamali#ti BBB>999! At Ceylon$$)eats of Buddha$$+is &tatue in <ade BBB9B! Cremation of an Arhat$$&ermon of a -e otee BL! After Two "ears )*$+ien Takes &hi# for China Conclusion T+E &:,,:@& :) +A. 9ntroduction TranslatorCs Preface -ramatis Personae Prologue Act )irst Act &econd Act Third Act )ourth T+E A.ALECT& :) C:.)=C9=& 4FTranslated into English by @illiam <enningsF8 P,:.=.C9AT9:. :) P,:PE, .A'E& FjF, as in )rench! FngF, commencing a word, like the same letters terminating one! FaiF or FeiF, as in FaisleF or FeiderF! FauF, as in German, or like FowF in FcowF! FKF, as in FfLteF! FiF Mnot followed by a consonantN, as FeeF in FseeF! FuF Mfollowed by a consonantN, as in FbullF! FiuF, as FewF in FnewF! FuiF, as FooiF in FcooingF! FhF at the end of a name makes the #receding owel short! FiF in the middle of a word denotes an as#irate MFhFN, as F(CungFO(hung! 9.T,:-=CT9:.

The strangest figure that meets us in the annals of :riental thought is that of Confucius! To the #o#ular mind he is the founder of a religion, and yet he has nothing in common with the great religious teachers of the East! @e think of &iddartha, the founder of Buddhism, as the ery im#ersonation of romantic asceticism, enthusiastic self$sacrifice, and faith in the things that are in isible! Ioroaster is the friend of God, talking face to face with the Almighty, and drinking wisdom and knowledge from the li#s of :mniscience! 'ohammed is re#resented as snatched u# into hea en, where he recei es the -i ine communication which he is bidden to #ro#agate with fire and sword throughout the world! These great teachers li ed in an atmos#here of the su#ernatural! They s#oke with the authority of ins#ired #ro#hets! They brought the unseen world close to the minds of their disci#les! They s#oke #ositi ely of immortality, of reward or #unishment beyond the gra e! The #resent life they des#ised, the future was to them e erything in its #romised satisfaction! The teachings of Confucius were of a ery different sort! Throughout his whole writings he has not e en mentioned the name of God! +e declined to discuss the Juestion of immortality! @hen he was asked about s#iritual beings, he remarked, P9f we cannot e en know men, how can we know s#iritsQP "et this was the man the im#ress of whose teaching has formed the national character of fi e hundred millions of #eo#le! A tem#le to Confucius stands to this day in e ery town and illage of China! +is #rece#ts are committed to memory by e ery child from the tenderest age, and each year at the royal uni ersity at Pekin the Em#eror holds a festi al in honor of the illustrious teacher! The influence of Confucius s#rings, first of all, from the narrowness and definiteness of his doctrine! +e was no transcendentalist, and ne er meddled with su#ramundane things! +is teaching was of the earth, earthyR it dealt entirely with the common relations of life, and the Golden ,ule he must necessarily ha e stumbled u#on, as the most ob ious canon of his system! +e strikes us as being the great &toic of the East, for he belie ed that irtue was based on knowledge, knowledge of a manCs own heart, and knowledge of human$kind! There is a #athetic resemblance between the accounts gi en of the death of Confucius and the death of Ieno! Both died almost without warning in dreary ho#elessness, without the ministrations of either lo e or religion! This may be a mere coincidence, but the li es and teachings of both men must ha e led them to look with indifference u#on such an end! )or Confucius in his teaching treated only of manCs life on earth, and seems to ha e had no ideas with regard to the human lot after deathR if he had any ideas he #reser ed an inscrutable silence about them! As a moralist he #rescribed the duties of the king and of the father, and ad ocated the culti ation by the indi idual man of that rest or a#athy of mind which resembles so much the dis#osition aimed at by the Greek and ,oman &toic! E en as a moralist, he seems to ha e sacrificed the ideal to the #ractical, and his loose notions about marriage, his tolerance of concubinage, the slight em#hasis which he lays on the irtue of eracity$$of which indeed he does not seem himself to ha e been #articularly studious in his historic writings$$#lace him low down in the rank of moralists! "et he taught what he felt the #eo#le could recei e, and the flat mediocrity of his character and his teachings has been stam#ed fore er u#on a #eo#le who, while they are kindly, gentle, forbearing, and full of family #iety, are #al#ably lacking not only in the eDaltation of 'ysticism, but in any religious feeling, generally so$called!

The second reason that made the teaching of Confucius so influential is based on the circumstances of the time! @hen this thoughtful, earnest youth awoke to the consciousness of life about him, he saw that the abuses under which the #eo#le groaned s#rang from the feudal system, which cut u# the country into se#arate territories, o er which the #ower of the king had no control! China was in the #osition of )rance in the years #receding Phili##e$Auguste, eDce#ting that there were no #laces of sanctuary and no Truce of God! The great doctrine of Confucius was the unlimited des#otism of the Em#eror, and his moral #rece#ts were intended to teach the Em#eror how to use his #ower aright! But the Em#eror was only ty#ical of all those in authority$$the feudal duke, the judge on the bench, and the father of the family! Each could discharge his duties aright only by submitting to the moral disci#line which Confucius #rescribed! A ital element in this system is its conser atism, its adherence to the im#erial idea! As <ames 9 said, P.o bisho#, no king,P so the im#erialists of China ha e found in Confucianism the strongest basis for the throne, and ha e su##orted its dissemination accordingly! The Analects of Confucius contain the gist of his teachings, and is worthy of study! @e find in this work most of the #rece#ts which his disci#les ha e #reser ed and recorded! They form a code remarkable for sim#licity, e en crudity, and we are com#elled to admire the force of character, the #ractical sagacity, the insight into the needs of the hour, which enabled Confucius, without claiming any -i ine sanction, to im#ose this system u#on his countrymen! The name Confucius is only the LatiniHed form of two words which mean P'aster (Cung!P +e was born 66/ B!C!, his father being go ernor of &hantung! +e was married at nineteen, and seems to ha e occu#ied some minor #osition under the go ernment! 9n his twenty$fourth year he entered u#on the three yearsC mourning for the death of his mother! +is seclusion ga e him time for dee# thought and the study of history, and he resol ed u#on the regeneration of his unha##y country! By the time he was thirty he became known as a great teacher, and disci#les flocked to him! But he was yet occu#ied in #ublic duties, and rose through successi e stages to the office of Chief <udge in his own country of Lu! +is tenure of office is said to ha e #ut an end to crime, and he became the Pidol of the #eo#leP in his district! The jealousy of the feudal lords was roused by his fame as a moral teacher and a blameless judge! Confucius was dri en from his home, and wandered about, with a few disci#les, until his siDty$ninth year, when he returned to Lu, after accom#lishing a work which has borne fruit, such as it is, to the #resent day! +e s#ent the remaining fi e years of his life in editing the odes and historic monuments in which the glories of the ancient Chinese dynasty are set forth! +e died in his se enty$third year, S0T B!C! There can be no doubt that the success of Confucius has been singularly great, owing es#ecially to the narrow sco#e of his scheme, which has become crystalliHed in the habits, usages, and customs of the #eo#le! Es#ecially has it been instrumental in consolidating the em#ire, and in strengthening the #ower of the monarch, who, as he e ery year burns incense in the red$walled tem#le at Pekin, utters sincerely the in ocation% PGreat art thou, : #erfect &ageU Thy irtue is full, thy doctrine com#lete! Among mortal men there has not been thine eJual! All kings honor thee! Thy statutes and laws ha e come gloriously down! Thou art the #attern in this im#erial school! ,e erently ha e the sacrificial essels been set out! )ull of awe, we sound our drums and bells!P E! @!

T+E A.ALECT& B::( 9 :n Learning$$'iscellaneous &ayings%$$ PTo learn,P said the 'aster, Pand then to #ractise o##ortunely what one has learnt$$does not this bring with it a sense of satisfactionQ PTo ha e associates in study coming to one from distant #arts$$does not this also mean #leasure in storeQ PAnd are not those who, while not com#rehending all that is said, still remain not un#leased to hear, men of the su#erior orderQP A saying of the &cholar "u%$$ P9t is rarely the case that those who act the #art of true men in regard to their duty to #arents and elder brothers are at the same time willing to turn currishly u#on their su#eriors% it has ne er yet been the case that such as desire not to commit that offence ha e been men willing to #romote anarchy or disorder! P'en of su#erior mind busy themsel es first in getting at the root of thingsR and when they ha e succeeded in this the right course is o#en to them! @ell, are not filial #iety and friendly subordination among brothers a root of that right feeling which is owing generally from man to manQP The 'aster obser ed, P,arely do we meet with the right feeling due from one man to another where there is fine s#eech and studied mien!P The &cholar Tsang once said of himself% P:n three #oints 9 eDamine myself daily, iH!, whether, in looking after other #eo#leCs interests, 9 ha e not been acting whole$heartedlyR whether, in my intercourse with friends, 9 ha e not been trueR and whether, after teaching, 9 ha e not myself been #ractising what 9 ha e taught!P The 'aster once obser ed that to rule well one of the larger &tates meant strict attention to its affairs and conscientiousness on the #art of the rulerR careful husbanding of its resources, with at the same time a tender care for the interests of all classesR and the em#loying of the masses in the #ublic ser ice at suitable seasons! PLet young #eo#le,P said he, Pshow filial #iety at home, res#ectfulness towards their elders when away from homeR let them be circums#ect, be truthfulR their lo e going out freely towards all, culti ating good$will to men! And if, in such a walk, there be time or energy left for other things, let them em#loy it in the acJuisition of literary or artistic accom#lishments!P The disci#le TsH$hiV said, PThe a##reciation of worth in men of worth, thus di erting the mind from lasci ious desires$$ministering to #arents while one is the most ca#able of so doing$$ser ing oneCs ruler when one is able to de ote himself entirely to that object$$being sincere in

oneCs language in intercourse with friends% this 9 certainly must call e idence of learning, though others may say there has been Cno learning!CP &ayings of the 'aster%$$ P9f the great man be not gra e, he will not be re ered, neither can his learning be solid! PGi e #rominent #lace to loyalty and sincerity! P+a e no associates in study who are not ad anced somewhat like yourself! P@hen you ha e erred, be not afraid to correct yourself!P A saying of the &cholar Tsang%$$ PThe irtue of the #eo#le is renewed and enriched when attention is seen to be #aid to the de#arted, and the remembrance of distant ancestors ke#t and cherished!P TsH$kCin #ut this Juery to his fellow disci#le TsH$kung% said he, P@hen our 'aster comes to this or that &tate, he learns without fail how it is being go erned! -oes he in estigate mattersQ or are the facts gi en himQP TsH$kung answered, P:ur 'aster is a man of #leasant manners, and of #robity, courteous, moderate, and unassuming% it is by his being such that he arri es at the facts! 9s not his way of arri ing at things different from that of othersQP A saying of the 'aster%$$ P+e who, after three yearsC obser ation of the will of his father when ali e, or of his #ast conduct if dead, does not de iate from that fatherCs ways, is entitled to be called Ca dutiful son!CP &ayings of the &cholar "u%$$ P)or the #ractice of the ,ules of Pro#riety,4/8 one eDcellent way is to be natural! This naturalness became a great grace in the #ractice of kings of former timesR let e eryone, small or great, follow their eDam#le! P9t is not, howe er, always #racticableR and it is not so in the case of a #erson who does things naturally, knowing that he should act so, and yet who neglects to regulate his acts according to the ,ules! P@hen truth and right are hand in hand, a statement will bear re#etition! @hen res#ectfulness and #ro#riety go hand in hand, disgrace and shame are ke#t afar$off! ,emo e all occasion for alienating those to whom you are bound by close ties, and you ha e them still to resort to!P

A saying of the 'aster%$$ PThe man of greater mind who, when he is eating, cra es not to eat to the fullR who has a home, but cra es not for comforts in itR who is acti e and earnest in his work and careful in his wordsR who makes towards men of high #rinci#le, and so maintains his own rectitude$$that man may be styled a de oted student!P TsH$kung asked, P@hat say you, sir, of the #oor who do not cringe and fawnR and what of the rich who are without #ride and haughtinessQP PThey are #assable,P the 'aster re#liedR Pyet they are scarcely in the same category as the #oor who are ha##y, and the rich who lo e #ro#riety!P P9n the CBook of the :des,CP TsH$kung went on to say, Pwe read of one Polished, as by the knife and file, The gra ing$tool, the smoothing$stone! -oes that coincide with your remarkQP PAhU such as you,P re#lied the 'aster, Pmay well commence a discussion on the :des! 9f one tell you how a thing goes, you know what ought to come!P P9t does not greatly concern me,P said the 'aster, Pthat men do not know meR my great concern is, my not knowing them!P 4)ootnote /% An im#ortant #art of a ChinamanCs education still! The teDt$book, PThe Li (i,P contains rules for beha ior and #ro#riety for the whole life, from the cradle to the gra e!8 B::( 99 Good Go ernment$$)ilial Piety$$The &u#erior 'an &ayings of the 'aster%$$ PLet a ruler base his go ernment u#on irtuous #rinci#les, and he will be like the #ole$star, which remains steadfast in its #lace, while all the host of stars turn towards it! PThe CBook of :desC contains three hundred #ieces, but one eD#ression in it may be taken as co ering the #ur#ort of all, iH!, =nswer ing mindfulness! PTo go ern sim#ly by statute, and to reduce all to order by means of #ains and #enalties, is to render the #eo#le e asi e, and de oid of any sense of shame! PTo go ern u#on #rinci#les of irtue, and to reduce them to order by the ,ules of Pro#riety, would not only create in them the sense of shame, but would moreo er reach them in all their errors! P@hen 9 attained the age of fifteen, 9 became bent u#on study! At thirty, 9 was a confirmed student! At forty, nought could mo e me from

my course! At fifty, 9 com#rehended the will and decrees of +ea en! At siDty, my ears were attuned to them! At se enty, 9 could follow my heartCs desires, without o erste##ing the lines of rectitude!P To a Juestion of 'ang$i, as to what filial #iety consisted in, the master re#lied, P9n not being #er erse!P Afterwards, when )an ChCi was dri ing him, the 'aster informed him of this Juestion and answer, and )an ChCi asked, P@hat was your meaningQP The 'aster re#lied, P9 meant that the ,ules of Pro#riety should always be adhered to in regard to those who brought us into the world% in ministering to them while li ing, in burying them when dead, and afterwards in the offering to them of sacrificial gifts!P To a Juery of 'ang @u res#ecting filial #iety, the 'aster re#lied, PParents ought to bear but one trouble$$that of their own sickness!P To a like Juestion #ut by TsH$yu, his re#ly was this% PThe filial #iety of the #resent day sim#ly means the being able to su##ort oneCs #arents$$which eDtends e en to the case of dogs and horses, all of which may ha e something to gi e in the way of su##ort! 9f there be no re erential feeling in the matter, what is there to distinguish between the casesQP To a like Juestion of TsH$hia, he re#lied% PThe manner is the difficulty! 9f, in the case of work to be done, the younger folks sim#ly take u#on themsel es the toil of itR or if, in the matter of meat and drink, they sim#ly set these before their elders$$is this to be taken as filial #ietyQP :nce the 'aster remarked, P9 ha e con ersed with +wWi the whole day long, and he has contro erted nothing that 9 ha e said, as if he were without wits! But when his back was turned, and 9 looked attenti ely at his conduct a#art from me, 9 found it satisfactory in all its issues! .o, indeedU +wWi is not without his wits!P :ther obser ations of the 'aster%$$ P9f you obser e what things #eo#le MusuallyN take in hand, watch their moti es, and note #articularly what it is that gi es them satisfaction, shall they be able to conceal from you what they areQ Conceal themsel es, indeedU PBe ersed in ancient lore, and familiariHe yourself with the modernR then may you become teachers! PThe great man is not a mere rece#tacle!P 9n re#ly to TsH$kung res#ecting the great man%$$ P@hat he first says, as a result of his eD#erience, he afterwards follows u#! PThe great man is catholic$minded, and not one$sided! The common man is the re erse! PLearning, without thought, is a snareR thought, without learning, is a danger!

P@here the mind is set much u#on heterodoD #rinci#les$$there truly and indeed is harm!P To the disci#le TsH$lu the 'aster said, P&hall 9 gi e you a lesson about knowledgeQ @hen you know a thing, maintain that you know itR and when you do not, acknowledge your ignorance! This is characteristic of knowledge!P TsH$chang was studying with an eye to official income! The 'aster addressed him thus% P:f the many things you hear hold aloof from those that are doubtful, and s#eak guardedly with reference to the restR your mistakes will then be few! Also, of the many courses you see ado#ted, hold aloof from those that are risky, and carefully follow the othersR you will then seldom ha e occasion for regret! Thus, being seldom mistaken in your utterances, and ha ing few occasions for regret in the line you take, you are on the high road to your #referment!P To a Juestion #ut to him by -uke .gai 418 as to what should be done in order to render the #eo#le submissi e to authority, Confucius re#lied, PPromote the straightforward, and reject those whose courses are crooked, and the thing will be effected! Promote the crooked and reject the straightforward, and the effect will be the re erse!P @hen (i (Cang 438 asked of him how the #eo#le could be induced to show res#ect, loyalty, and willingness to be led, the 'aster answered, PLet there be gra e dignity in him who has the o ersight of them, and they will show him res#ectR let him be seen to be good to his own #arents, and kindly in dis#osition, and they will be loyal to himR let him #romote those who ha e ability, and see to the instruction of those who ha e it not, and they will be willing to be led!P &ome one, s#eaking to Confucius, inJuired, P@hy, sir, are you not an administrator of go ernmentQP The 'aster rejoined, P@hat says the CBook of the Annals,C with reference to filial dutyQ$$C'ake it a #oint to be dutiful to your #arents and amicable with your brethrenR the same duties eDtend to an administrator!C 9f these, then, also make an administrator, how am 9 to take your words about being an administratorQP :n one occasion the 'aster remarked, P9 know not what men are good for, on whose word no reliance can be #laced! +ow should your carriages, large or little, get along without your whi##le$trees or swing$treesQP TsH$chang asked if it were #ossible to forecast the state of the country ten generations hence! The 'aster re#lied in this manner% PThe "in dynasty ado#ted the rules and manners of the +iV line of kings, and it is #ossible to tell whether it retrograded or ad anced! The Chow line has followed the "in, ado#ting its ways, and whether there has been deterioration or im#ro ement may also be determined! &ome other line may take u# in turn those of ChowR and su##osing e en this #rocess to go on for a hundred generations, the result may be known!P :ther sayings of the 'aster%$$ P9t is but flattery to make sacrificial offerings to de#arted s#irits not belonging to oneCs own family! P9t is moral cowardice to lea e undone what one #ercei es to be right to do!P

4)ootnote 1% :f Lu MConfuciusCs nati e &tateN!8 4)ootnote 3% +ead of one of the PThree )amiliesP of Lu!8 B::( 999 Abuse of Pro#rieties in Ceremonial and 'usic Alluding to the head of the (i family, 4S8 and the eight lines of #osturers 468 before their ancestral hall, Confucius remarked, P9f the (i can allow himself to go to this eDtent, to what eDtent will he not allow himself to goQP The Three )amilies 478 were in the habit, during the ,emo al of the sacred essels after sacrifice, of using the hymn commencing, P+armoniously the Princes -raw near with re erent tread, Assisting in his worshi# +ea enCs &on, the great and dread!P P+ow,P eDclaimed the 'aster, Pcan such words be a##ro#riated in the ancestral hall of the Three )amiliesQP P@here a man,P said he again, Phas not the #ro#er feelings due from one man to another, how will he stand as regards the ,ules of Pro#rietyQ And in such a case, what shall we say of his sense of harmonyQP :n a Juestion being #ut to him by Lin )ang, a disci#le, as to what was the radical idea u#on which the ,ules of Pro#riety were based, the 'aster eDclaimed, PAhU that is a large Juestion! As to some rules, where there is likelihood of eDtra agance, they would rather demand economyR in those which relate to mourning, and where there is likelihood of being easily satisfied, what is wanted is real sorrow!P &#eaking of the disorder of the times he remarked that while the barbarians on the .orth and East had their Chieftains, we here in this great country had nothing to com#are with them in that res#ect%$$we had lost these distinctionsU Alluding to the matter of the Chief of the (i family worshi##ing on Tai$shan, 408 the 'aster said to "en "u, PCannot you sa e him from thisQP +e re#lied, P9t is beyond my #ower!P PAlas, alasUP eDclaimed the 'aster, Pare we to say that the s#irits of TCai$shan ha e not as much discernment as Lin )angQP :f Pthe su#erior man,P the 'aster obser ed, P9n him there is no contentiousness! &ay e en that he does certainly contend with others, as in archery com#etitionsR yet mark, in that case, how courteously he will bow and go u# for the forfeit$cu#, and come down again and gi e it to his com#etitor! 9n his ery contest he is still the su#erior man!P TsH$hiV once inJuired what inference might be drawn from the lines$$ P-im#les #laying in witching smile,

PColoring,P re#lied the 'aster, PreJuires a #ure and clear background!P PThen,P said the other, Prules of ceremony reJuire to ha e a backgroundUP PAhUP eDclaimed the 'aster, Pyou are the man to catch the drift of my thought! &uch as you may well introduce a discussion on the :des!P &aid the 'aster, PAs regards the ceremonial ado#ted and enforced by the +iV dynasty, 9 am able to describe it, although their own descendants in the &tate of (i can adduce no adeJuate testimony in fa or of its use there! &o, too, 9 am able to describe the ceremonial of the "in dynasty, although no more can the &ung #eo#le show sufficient reason for its continuance amongst themsel es! And why cannot they do soQ Because they ha e not documents enough, nor men learned enough! 9f only they had such, 9 could refer them to them in su##ort of their usages! P@hen 9 am #resent at the great JuinJuennial sacrifice to the FmanesF of the royal ancestors,P the 'aster said, Pfrom the #ouring$out of the oblation onwards, 9 ha e no heart to look on!P &ome one asked what was the #ur#ort of this great sacrifice, and the 'aster re#lied, P9 cannot tell! The #osition in the em#ire of him who could tell you is as e ident as when you look at thisP$$#ointing to the #alm of his hand! @hen he offered sacrifices to his ancestors, he used to act as if they were #resent before him! 9n offering to other s#irits it was the same! +e would say, P9f 9 do not myself take #art in my offerings, it is all the same as if 9 did not offer them!P @ang$sun (iV asked him once, P@hat says the #ro erb, CBetter to court fa or in the kitchen than in the drawing$roomCQP The 'aster re#lied, P.ay, better say, +e who has sinned against +ea en has none other to whom #rayer may be addressed!P :f the Chow dynasty the 'aster remarked, P9t looks back u#on two other dynastiesR and what a rich #ossession it has in its records of those timesU 9 follow ChowUP :n his first entry into the grand tem#le, he inJuired about e ery matter connected with its usages! &ome one thereu#on remarked, P@ho says that the son of the man of Tsou 4T8 understands about ceremonialQ :n entering the grand tem#le he inJuired about e erything!P This remark coming to the 'asterCs ears, he said, P@hat 9 did is #art of the ceremonialUP P9n archery,P he said, Pthe great #oint to be obser ed is not sim#ly the #erforation of the leatherR for men ha e not all the same strength! That was the fashion in the olden days!P :nce, seeing that his disci#le TsH$kung was desirous that the ceremonial obser ance of offering a shee# at the new moon might be dis#ensed with, the 'aster said, PAhU you grudge the loss of the shee#R 9 grudge the loss of the ceremony!P PTo ser e oneCs ruler nowadays,P he remarked, Pfully com#lying with the

Beautiful eyes, so dark, so brightU :h, and her face may be thought the while Colored by art, red rose on whiteUP

,ules of Pro#riety, is regarded by others as toadyismUP @hen -uke Ting Juestioned him as to how a #rince should deal with his ministers, and how they in turn should ser e their #rince, Confucius said in re#ly, P9n dealing with his ministers a #rince should obser e the #ro#rietiesR in ser ing his #rince a minister should obser e the duty of loyalty!P ,eferring to the )irst of the :des, he remarked that it was mirthful without being lewd, and sad also without being #ainful! -uke .gai asked the disci#le Tsai @o res#ecting the #laces for sacrificing to the Earth! The latter re#lied, PThe )amily of the Great "u, of the +iV dynasty, chose a #lace of #ine treesR the "in founders chose cy#ressesR and the Chow founders chestnut trees, solemn and majestic, to ins#ire, Ctis said, the #eo#le with feelings of awe!P The 'aster on hearing of this eDclaimed, P.e er an allusion to things that ha e been enacted in the #astU .e er a remonstrance against what is now going onU +e has gone away without a word of censure!P The 'aster once said of (wan Chung, 4A8 PA small$minded man indeedUP P@as he miserlyQP some one asked! P'iserly, indeedUP said heR Pnot that% he married three rimes, and he was not a man who restricted his official business to too few hands$$how could he be miserlyQP P+e knew the ,ules of Pro#riety, 9 su##oseQP P<udge%$$&eeing that the feudal lords #lanted a screen at their gates, he too would ha e one at hisU &eeing that when any two of the feudal lords met in friendly concla e they had an earthenware stand on which to #lace their in erted cu#s after drinking, he must ha e the sameU 9f he knew the ,ules of Pro#riety, who is there that does not know themQP 9n a discourse to the Chief Prece#tor of 'usic at the court of Lu, the 'aster said, P'usic is an intelligible thing! @hen you begin a #erformance, let all the arious instruments #roduce as it were one sound MinharmoniousNR then, as you go on, bring out the harmony fully, distinctly, and with uninterru#ted flow, unto the end!P The warden of the border$town of 9 reJuested an inter iew with Confucius, and said, P@hen great men ha e come here, 9 ha e ne er yet failed to obtain a sight of them!P The followers introduced himR and, on lea ing, he said to them, P&irs, why grie e at his loss of officeQ The em#ire has for long been without good go ernmentR and +ea en is about to use your master as its edict$announcer!P Com#aring the music of the em#eror &hun with the music of (ing @u, the 'aster said, PThat of &hun is beautiful throughout, and also good throughout! That of @u is all of it beautiful, but scarcely all of it good!P P+igh station,P said the 'aster, Poccu#ied by men who ha e no large and generous heartR ceremonial #erformed with no re erenceR duties of mourning engaging the attention, where there is absence of sorrowR$$how should 9 look on, where this is the state of thingsQP

4)ootnote S% The Chief of the (i clan was irtually the -uke of Lu, under whom Confucius for a time held office!8 4)ootnote 6% These #osturers were mutes who took #art in the ritual of the ancestral tem#le, wa ing #lumes, flags, etc! Each line or rank of these contained eight men! :nly in the so ereignCs household should there ha e been eight lines of themR a ducal family like the (i should ha e had but siD linesR a great official had four, and one of lower grade two! These were the gradations marking the status of families, and ConfuciusCs sense of #ro#riety was offended at the (iCs usur#ing in this way the a##earance of royalty!8 4)ootnote 7% Three great families related to each other, in whose hands the go ernment of the &tate of Lu then was, and of which the (i was the chief!8 4)ootnote 0% :ne of the fi e sacred mountains, worshi##ed u#on only by the so ereign!8 4)ootnote T% Tsou was ConfuciusCs birth#laceR his father was go ernor of the town!8 4)ootnote A% A renowned statesman who flourished about two hundred years before ConfuciusCs time! A #hiloso#hical work on law and go ernment, said to ha e been written by him, is still eDtant! +e was regarded as a sage by the #eo#le, but he lacked, in ConfuciusCs eyes, the one thing needful$$#ro#riety!8 B::( 9> &ocial >irtue$$&u#erior and 9nferior 'an &ayings of the 'aster%$$ P9t is social good feeling that gi es charm to a neighborhood! And where is the wisdom of those who choose an abode where it does not abideQ PThose who are without it cannot abide long, either in straitened or in ha##y circumstances! Those who #ossess it find contentment in it! Those who are wise go after it as men go after gain! P:nly they in whom it eDists can ha e right likings and dislikings for others! P@here the will is set u#on it, there will be no room for mal#ractices! P,iches and honor are what men desireR but if they arri e at them by im#ro#er ways, they should not continue to hold them! Po erty and low estate are what men dislikeR but if they arri e at such a condition by im#ro#er ways, they should not refuse it! P9f the Csu#erior manC make nought of social good feeling, how shall he fully bear that nameQ

P.ot e en whilst he eats his meal will the Csu#erior manC forget what he owes to his fellow$men! E en in hurried lea e$takings, e en in moments of frantic confusion, he kee#s true to this irtue! P9 ha e not yet seen a lo er of #hilanthro#y, nor a hater of misanthro#y$$such, that the former did not take occasion to magnify that irtue in himself, and that the latter, in his #ositi e #ractice of #hilanthro#y, did not, at times, allow in his #resence something sa oring of misanthro#y! P&ay you, is there any one who is able for one whole day to a##ly the energy of his mind to this irtueQ @ell, 9 ha e not seen any one whose energy was not eJual to it! 9t may be there are such, but 9 ha e ne er met with them! PThe faults of indi iduals are #eculiar to their #articular class and surroundingsR and it is by obser ing their faults that one comes to understand the condition of their good feelings towards their fellows! P:ne may hear the right way in the morning, and at e ening die! PThe scholar who is intent u#on learning the right way, and who is yet ashamed of #oor attire and #oor food, is not worthy of being discoursed with! PThe masterly manCs attitude to the world is not eDclusi ely this or that% whatsoe er is right, to that he will be a #arty! PThe masterly man has an eye to irtue, the common man, to earthly thingsR the former has an eye to #enalties for error$$the latter, to fa or! P@here there is habitual going after gain, there is much ill$will! P@hen there is ability in a ruler to go ern a country by adhering to the ,ules of Pro#riety, and by kindly condescension, what is wanted moreQ @here the ability to go ern thus is wanting, what has such a ruler to do with the ,ules of Pro#rietyQ P:ne should not be greatly concerned at not being in officeR but rather about the reJuirements in oneCs self for such a standing! .either should one be so much concerned at being unknownR but rather with seeking to become worthy of being known!P Addressing his disci#le Tsang &in, the 'aster said, PTsang &in, the #rinci#les which 9 inculcate ha e one main idea u#on which they all hang!P PAye, surely,P he re#lied! @hen the 'aster was gone out the other disci#les asked what was the #ur#ort of this remark! TsangCs answer was, PThe #rinci#les of our 'asterCs teaching are these$$whole$heartedness and kindly forbearanceR these and nothing more!P :ther obser ations of the 'aster%$$ P'en of loftier mind manifest themsel es in their eJuitable dealingsR small$minded men in their going after gain!

P@hen you meet with men of worth, think how you may attain to their le elR when you see others of an o##osite character, look within, and eDamine yourself! PA son, in ministering to his #arents, may Mon occasionN offer gentle remonstrancesR when he sees that their will is not to heed such, he should ne ertheless still continue to show them re erent res#ect, ne er obstinacyR and if he ha e to suffer, let him do so without murmuring! P@hilst the #arents are still li ing, he should not wander farR or, if a wanderer, he should at least ha e some fiDed address! P9f for three years he do not eer from the #rinci#les of his father, he may be called a dutiful son! PA son should not ignore the years of his #arents! :n the one hand, they may be a matter for rejoicing Mthat they ha e been so manyN, and on the other, for a##rehension Mthat so few remainN! PPeo#le in olden times were loth to s#eak out, fearing the disgrace of not being themsel es as good as their words! PThose who kee# within restraints are seldom losers! PTo be slow to s#eak, but #rom#t to act, is the desire of the Csu#erior man!C P>irtue dwells not alone% she must ha e neighbors!P An obser ation of TsH$yu%$$ P:fficiousness, in the ser ice of #rinces, leads to disgrace% among friends, to estrangement!P B::( > A -isci#le and the Golden ,ule$$'iscellaneous The 'aster #ronounced (ung$ye ChCang, a disci#le, to be a marriageable #ersonR for although lying bound in criminal fetters he had committed no crime! And he ga e him his own daughter to wife! :f .an "ung, a disci#le, he obser ed, that in a &tate where the go ernment was well conducted he would not be #assed o er in its a##ointments, and in one where the go ernment was ill conducted he would e ade #unishment and disgrace! And he caused his elder brotherCs daughter to be gi en in marriage to him! :f TsH$tsien, a disci#le, he remarked, PA su#erior man indeed is the like of himU But had there been none of su#erior Juality in Lu, how should this man ha e attained to this eDcellenceQP TsH$kung asked, P@hat of me, thenQP P"ou,P re#lied the 'aster$$P"ou are a rece#tacle!P P:f what sortQP said he! P:ne for high and sacred use,P was the answer!

&ome one ha ing obser ed of "en "ung that he was good$natured towards others, but that he lacked the gift of ready s#eech, the 'aster said, P@hat need of that giftQ To stand u# before men and #our forth a stream of glib words is generally to make yourself obnoDious to them! 9 know not about his good$naturednessR but at any rate what need of that giftQP @hen the 'aster #ro#osed that Tsi$tiau (Cai should enter the go ernment ser ice, the latter re#lied, P9 can scarcely credit it!P The 'aster was gratified! PGood #rinci#les are making no #rogress,P once eDclaimed the 'aster! P9f 9 were to take a raft, and drift about on the sea, would TsH$lu, 9 wonder, be my follower thereQP That disci#le was delighted at hearing the suggestionR whereu#on the 'aster continued, P+e sur#asses me in his lo e of deeds of daring! But he does not in the least gras# the #ith of my remark!P 9n re#ly to a Juestion #ut to him by 'ang @u res#ecting TsH$lu$$as to whether he might be called good$natured towards others, the 'aster said, P9 cannot tellPR but, on the Juestion being #ut again, he answered, P@ell, in an im#ortant &tate 4/28 he might be intrusted with the management of the military le iesR but 9 cannot answer for his good nature!P P@hat say you then of "en "uQP PAs for "en,P he re#lied, Pin a city of a thousand families, or in a secondary fief, 4//8 he might be charged with the go ernorshi#R but 9 cannot answer for his good$naturedness!P PTake TsH$hwa, thenR what of himQP PTsH$hwa,P said he, Pwith a cincture girt u#on him, standing as attendant at Court, might be charged with the addressing of isitors and guestsR but as to his good$naturedness 9 cannot answer!P Addressing TsH$kung, the 'aster said, P@hich of the two is ahead of the other$$yourself or +wWiQP P+ow shall 9 dare,P he re#lied, Pe en to look at +wWiQ :nly let him hear one #articular, and from that he knows tenR whereas 9, if 9 hear one, may from it know two!P P"ou are not a match for him, 9 grant you,P said the 'aster! P"ou are not his match!P Tsai "u, a disci#le, used to slee# in the daytime! &aid the 'aster, P:ne may hardly car e rotten wood, or use a trowel to the wall of a manure$yardU 9n his case, what is the use of re#rimandQ P'y attitude towards a man in my first dealings with him,P he added, Pwas to listen to his #rofessions and to trust to his conduct! 'y attitude now is to listen to his #rofessions, and to watch his conduct! 'y eD#erience with Tsai "u has led to this change! P9 ha e ne er seen,P said the 'aster, Pa man of infleDible firmness!P &ome one thereu#on mentioned &hin ChCang, a disci#le! PChCang,P said he, Pis wantonR where do you get at his infleDiblenessQP TsH$kung made the remark% PThat which 9 do not wish others to #ut u#on me, 9 also wish not to #ut u#on others!P P.ay,P said the 'aster, Pyou

ha e not got so far as that!P The same disci#le once remarked, PThere may be access so as to hear the 'asterCs literary discourses, but when he is treating of human nature and the way of +ea en, there may not be such success!P TsH$lu, after once hearing him u#on some subject, and feeling himself as yet incom#etent to carry into #ractice what he had heard, used to be a##rehensi e only lest he should hear the subject re i ed! TsH$kung asked how it was that (ung @an had come to be so styled @an Mthe talentedN! The 'asterCs answer was, PBecause, though a man of an acti e nature, he was yet fond of study, and he was not ashamed to stoo# to #ut Juestions to his inferiors!P ,es#ecting TsH$chCan,4/18 the 'aster said that he had four of the essential Jualities of the Csu#erior manC%$$in his own #ri ate walk he was humble$mindedR in ser ing his su#eriors he was deferentialR in his looking after the material welfare of the #eo#le he was generously kindR and in his eDaction of #ublic ser ice from the latter he was just! &#eaking of "en Ping, he said, P+e was one who was ha##y in his mode of attaching men to him! +owe er long the intercourse, he was always deferential to them!P ,eferring to Tsang @an, he asked, P@hat is to be said of this manCs discernmentQ$$this man with his tortoise$house, with the #illar$heads and #osts bediHened with scenes of hill and mereUP TsH$chang #ut a Juestion relati e to the chief 'inister of Tsu, TsH$wan! +e said, PThree times he became chief 'inister, and on none of these occasions did he betray any sign of eDultation! Three times his ministry came to an end, and he showed no sign of chagrin! +e used without fail to inform the new 'inister as to the old mode of administration! @hat say you of himQP PThat he was a loyal man,P said the 'aster! PBut was he a man of fellow$feelingQP said the disci#le! P:f that 9 am not sure,P he answeredR Phow am 9 to get at thatQP The disci#le went on to say%$$PAfter the assassination of the #rince of TsCi by the officer TsCui, the latterCs fellow$official ChCin @an, who had half a score teams of horses, ga e u# all, and turned his back u#on him! :n coming to another &tate, he obser ed, CThere are here characters somewhat like that of our minister TsCui,C and he turned his back u#on them! Proceeding to a certain other &tate, he had occasion to make the same remark, and left! @hat say you of himQP PThat he was a #ure$minded man,P answered the 'aster! PBut was he a man of fellow$feelingQP urged the disci#le! P:f that 9 am not sure,P he re#liedR Phow am 9 to get at thatQP (i @an was one who thought three times o er a thing before he acted! The 'aster hearing this of him, obser ed, PTwice would ha e been enough!P

:f .ing @u, the 'aster said that when matters went well in the &tate he used to ha e his wits about him% but when they went wrong, he lost them! +is intelligence might be eJualled, but not his witlessnessU :nce, when the 'aster li ed in the &tate of ChCin, he eDclaimed, PLet me get home againU Let me get homeU 'y school$children 4/38 are wild and im#etuousU Though they are somewhat accom#lished, and #erfect in one sense in their attainments, yet they know not how to make nice discriminations!P :f Peh$9 and &huh TsCi he said, PBy the fact of their not remembering old grie ances, they gradually did away with resentment!P :f @ei$shang (au he said, P@ho calls him straightforwardQ A #erson once begged some inegar of him, and he begged it from a neighbor, and then #resented him with itUP P)ine s#eech,P said he, Pand studied mien, and su#erfluous show of deference$$of such things Tso$kCiu 'ing was ashamed, 9 too am ashamed of such things! Also of hiding resentment felt towards an o##onent and treating him as a friend$$of this kind of thing he was ashamed, and so too am 9!P Attended once by the two disci#les "en "uen and TsH$lu, he said, PCome now, why not tell me, each of you, what in your hearts you are really afterQP P9 should like,P said TsH$lu, Pfor myself and my friends and associates, carriages and horses, and to be clad in light fursU nor would 9 mind much if they should become the worse for wear!P PAnd 9 should like,P said "en "uen, Pto li e without boasting of my abilities, and without dis#lay of meritorious deeds!P TsH$lu then said, P9 should like, sir, to hear what your heart is set u#on!P The 'aster re#lied, P9t is this%$$in regard to old #eo#le, to gi e them Juiet and comfortR in regard to friends and associates, to be faithful to themR in regard to the young, to treat them with fostering affection and kindness!P :n one occasion the 'aster eDclaimed, PAh, Ctis ho#elessU 9 ha e not yet seen the man who can see his errors, so as inwardly to accuse himself!P P9n a small cluster of houses there may well be,P said he, Psome whose integrity and sincerity may com#are with mineR but 9 yield to none in #oint of lo e of learning!P 4)ootnote /2% Lit!, a &tate of /,222 war chariots!8 4)ootnote //% Lit!, a +ouse of /22 war chariots!8 4)ootnote /1% A great statesman of ConfuciusCs time!8 4)ootnote /3% A familiar way of s#eaking of his disci#les in their hearing!8

B::( >9 'ore Characteristics$$@isdom$$Philanthro#y :f "en "ung, a disci#le, the 'aster said, P"ung might indeed do for a #rinceUP :n being asked by this "en "ung his o#inion of a certain indi idual, the 'aster re#lied, P+e is #assable! 9m#etuous, though!P PBut,P argued the disci#le, Pif a man habituate himself to a re erent regard for duty$$e en while in his way of doing things he is im#etuous$$in the o ersight of the #eo#le committed to his charge, is he not #assableQ 9f, on the other hand, he habituate himself to im#etuosity of mind, and show it also in his way of doing things, is he not then o er$im#etuousQP P"ou are right,P said the 'aster! @hen the -uke .gai inJuired which of the disci#les were de oted to learning, Confucius answered him, PThere was one "en +wWi who lo ed it$$a man whose angry feelings towards any #articular #erson he did not suffer to isit u#on anotherR a man who would ne er fall into the same error twice! =nfortunately his allotted time was short, and he died, and now his like is not to be foundR 9 ha e ne er heard of one so de oted to learning!P @hile TsH$hwa, a disci#le, was away on a mission to TsCi, the disci#le "en "u, on behalf of his mother, a##lied for some grain! PGi e her three #ecks,P said the 'aster! +e a##lied for more! PGi e her eight, then!P "en ga e her fifty times that amount! The 'aster said, P@hen TsH$hwa went on that journey to TsCi, he had well$fed steeds yoked to his carriage, and was arrayed in light furs! 9 ha e learnt that the Csu#erior manC should hel# those whose needs are urgent, not hel# the rich to be more rich!P @hen "uen &H became #refect under him, he ga e him nine hundred measures of grain, but the #refect declined to acce#t them!4/S8 P"ou must not,P said the 'aster! P'ay they not be of use to the illages and hamlets around youQP &#eaking of "en "ung again, the 'aster said, P9f the offs#ring of a s#eckled oD be red in color, and horned, e en though men may not wish to take it for sacrifice, would the s#irits of the hills and streams reject itQP Ad erting to +wWi again, he said, P)or three months there would not be in his breast one thought recalcitrant against his feeling of good$will towards his fellow$men! The others may attain to this for a day or for a month, but there they end!P @hen asked by (i (Cang whether TsH$lu was fit to ser e the go ernment, the 'aster re#lied, PTsH$lu is a man of decision% what should #re ent him from ser ing the go ernmentQP Asked the same Juestion res#ecting TsH$kung and "en "u he answered

similarly, #ronouncing TsH$kung to be a man of #ers#icacity, and "en "u to be one ersed in the #olite arts! @hen the head of the (i family sent for 'in TsH$kCien to make him go ernor of the town of Pi, that disci#le said, PPolitely decline for me! 9f the offer is renewed, then indeed 9 shall feel myself obliged to go and li e on the further bank of the @an!P Peh$niu had fallen ill, and the 'aster was inJuiring after him! Taking hold of his hand held out from the window, he said, P9t is taking him offU Alas, his a##ointed time has comeU &uch a man, and to ha e such an illnessUP :f +wWi, again% PA right worthy man indeed was heU @ith his sim#le wooden dish of rice, and his one gourd$basin of drink, away in his #oor back lane, in a condition too grie ous for others to ha e endured, he ne er allowed his cheery s#irits to droo#! Aye, a right worthy soul was heUP P9t is not,P "en "u once a#ologiHed, Pthat 9 do not take #leasure in your doctrinesR it is that 9 am not strong enough!P The 'aster rejoined, P9t is when those who are not strong enough ha e made some moderate amount of #rogress that they fail and gi e u#R but you are now drawing your own line for yourself!P Addressing TsH$hiV, the 'aster said, PLet your scholarshi# be that of gentlemen, and not like that of common men!P @hen TsH$yu became go ernor of @u$shing, the 'aster said to him, P-o you find good men about youQP The re#ly was, PThere is Tan$tCai 'ieh$ming, who when walking eschews by$#aths, and who, unless there be some #ublic function, ne er a##roaches my #ri ate residence!P P'ang Chi$fan,P said the 'aster, Pis no sounder of his own #raises! -uring a stam#ede he was in the rear, and as they were about to enter the city gate he whi##ed u# his horses, and said, CTwas not my daring made me lag behind! 'y horses would not go!CP F:biter dictaF of the 'aster%$$ P@hoe er has not the glib utterance of the #riest TCo, as well as the handsomeness of Prince ChVu of &ung, will find it hard to kee# out of harmCs way in the #resent age! P@ho can go out but by that doorQ @hy walks no one by these guiding #rinci#lesQ P@here #lain naturalness is more in e idence than #olish, we ha e$$the man from the country! @here #olish is more in e idence than naturalness, we ha e$$the town scribe! 9t is when naturalness and #olish are eJually e ident that we ha e the ideal man! PThe life of a man is$$his rectitude! Life without it$$such may you ha e the good fortune to a oidU PThey who know it are not as those who lo e it, nor they who lo e it as those who rejoice in it$$that is, ha e the fruition of their lo e for it!

PTo the a erage man, and those abo e the a erage, it is #ossible to discourse on higher subjectsR to those from the a erage downwards, it is not #ossible!P )an ChCi #ut a Juery about wisdom! The 'aster re#lied, PTo labor for the #romoting of righteous conduct among the #eo#le of the landR to be serious in regard to s#iritual beings, and to hold aloof from themR$$this may be called wisdom!P To a further Juery, about #hilanthro#y, he re#lied, PThose who #ossess that irtue find difficulty with it at first, success later! P'en of #ractical knowledge,P he said, Pfind their gratification among the ri ers of the lowland, men of sym#athetic social feeling find theirs among the hills! The former are acti e and bustling, the latter calm and Juiet! The former take their day of #leasure, the latter look to length of days!P Alluding to the &tates of TsCi and Lu, he obser ed, that TsCi, by one change, might attain to the condition of LuR and that Lu, by one change, might attain to good go ernment! An eDclamation of the 'aster MsatiriHing the times, when old terms relating to go ernment were still used while bereft of their old meaningN%$$PA Juart, and not a JuartU FJuartF, indeedU FJuartF, indeedUP Tsai @o, a disci#le, #ut a Juery! &aid he, P&u##ose a #hilanthro#ic #erson were told, CThereCs a fellow$creature down in the wellUC @ould he go down after himQP P@hy should he really do soQP answered the 'aster! PThe good man or, a su#erior man might be induced to go, but not to go down! +e may be misled, but not befooled!P PThe su#erior man,P said he, Pwith his wide study of books, and hedging himself round by the ,ules of Pro#riety, is not surely, after all that, ca#able of o erste##ing his bounds!P :nce when the 'aster had had an inter iew with .an$tsH, which had scandaliHed his disci#le TsH$lu, he uttered the solemn adjuration, P9f 9 ha e done aught amiss, may +ea en reject meU may +ea en reject meUP P+ow far$reaching,P said he, Pis the moral eDcellence that flows from the Constant 'eanU 4/68 9t has for a long time been rare among the #eo#le!P TsH$kung said, P&u##ose the case of one who confers benefits far and wide u#on the #eo#le, and who can, in so doing, make his bounty uni ersally felt$$how would you s#eak of himQ 'ight he be called #hilanthro#icQP The 'aster eDclaimed, P@hat a work for #hilanthro#yU +e would reJuire indeed to be a sageU +e would #ut into shade e en "au and &hunU$$@ell, a #hilanthro#ic #erson, desiring for himself a firm footing, is led on to gi e one to othersR desiring for himself an enlightened #erce#tion of things, he is led on to hel# others to be similarly enlightened! 9f one could take an illustration coming closer home to us than yours, that might be made the starting$#oint for s#eaking about #hilanthro#y!P

4)ootnote /S% At this time Confucius was Criminal <udge in his nati e &tate of Lu! "uen &H had been a disci#le! The commentators add that this was the officerCs #ro#er salary, and that he did wrong to refuse it!8 4)ootnote /6% The doctrine afterwards known by that name, and which ga e its title to a Confucian treatise!8 B::( >99 Characteristics of Confucius$$An 9ncident &aid the 'aster%$$ P9, as a transmitter4/78 and not an originator, and as one who belie es in and lo es the ancients, enture to com#are myself with our old PCang! P@hat find you indeed in meQ$$a Juiet brooder and memoriHerR a student ne er satiated with learningR an unwearied monitor of othersU PThe things which weigh hea ily u#on my mind are these$$failure to im#ro e in the irtues, failure in discussion of what is learnt, inability to walk according to knowledge recei ed as to what is right and just, inability also to reform what has been amiss!P 9n his hours of recreation and refreshment the 'asterCs manner was easy and unconstrained, affable and winning! :nce he eDclaimed, PAlasU 9 must be getting ery feebleR Ctis long since 9 ha e had a re#etition of the dreams in which 9 used to see the -uke of Chow! 4/08 PConcentrate the mind,P said he, Pu#on the Good @ay! P'aintain firm hold u#on >irtue! P,ely u#on Philanthro#y! P)ind recreation in the Arts! 4/T8 P9 ha e ne er withheld instruction from any, e en from those who ha e come for it with the smallest offering! P.o subject do 9 broach, howe er, to those who ha e no eager desire to learnR no encouraging hint do 9 gi e to those who show no anDiety to s#eak out their ideasR nor ha e 9 anything more to say to those who, after 9 ha e made clear one corner of the subject, cannot from that gi e me the other three!P 9f the 'aster was taking a meal, and there were any in mourning beside him, he would not eat to the full! :n one day on which he had we#t, on that day he would not sing! Addressing his fa orite disci#le, he said, PTo you only and myself it has been gi en to do this$$to go when called to ser e, and to go back

into Juiet retirement when released from office!P TsH$lu, hearing the remark said, PBut if, sir, you had the handling of the army of one of the greater &tates,4/A8 whom would you ha e associated with you in that caseQP The 'aster answered%$$ P.ot the one CwhoCll rouse the tiger,C .ot the one CwhoCll wade the +oRC not the man who can die with no regret! +e must be one who should watch o er affairs with a##rehensi e caution, a man fond of strategy, and of #erfect skill and effecti eness in it!P As to wealth, he remarked, P9f wealth were an object that 9 could go in Juest of, 9 should do so e en if 9 had to take a whi# and do groomsC work! But seeing that it is not, 9 go after those objects for which 9 ha e a liking!P Among matters o er which he eDercised great caution were times of fasting, war, and sickness! @hen he was in the &tate of TsCi, and had heard the ancient &hau music, he lost all #erce#tion of the taste of his meat! P9 had no idea,P said he, Pthat music could ha e been brought to this #itch!P 9n the course of con ersation "en "u said, P-oes the 'aster take the #art of the Prince of @eiQP PAh yesUP said TsH$kung, P9 will go and ask him that!P :n going in to him, that disci#le began, P@hat sort of men were Peh$9 and &huh TsCiQP P@orthies of the olden time,P the 'aster re#lied! P+ad they any feelings of resentmentQP was the neDt Juestion! PTheir aim and object,P he answered, Pwas that of doing the duty which e ery man owes to his fellows, and they succeeded in doing itR$$what room further for feelings of resentmentQP The Juestioner on coming out said, PThe 'aster does not take his #art!P P@ith a meal of coarse rice,P said the 'aster, Pand with water to drink, and my bent arm for my #illow$$e en thus 9 can find ha##iness! ,iches and honors without righteousness are to me as fleeting clouds!P PGi e me se eral years more to li e,P said he, Pand after fifty yearsC study of the CBook of ChangesC 9 might come to be free from serious error!P The 'asterCs regular subjects of discourse were the PBooks of the :desP and P+istory,P and the u#$kee#ing of the ,ules of Pro#riety! :n all of these he regularly discoursed! The -uke of &hih Juestioned TsH$lu about Confucius, and the latter did not answer! +earing of this, the 'aster said, P@hy did you not say, +e is a man with a mind so intent on his #ursuits that he forgets his food, and finds such #leasure in them that he forgets his troubles, and does not know that old age is coming u#on himQP

PAs 9 came not into life with any knowledge of it,P he said, Pand as my likings are for what is old, 9 busy myself in seeking knowledge there!P &trange occurrences, eD#loits of strength, deeds of lawlessness, references to s#iritual beings$$such$like matters the 'aster a oided in con ersation! PLet there,P he said, Pbe three men walking together% from that number 9 should be sure to find my instructorsR for what is good in them 9 should choose out and follow, and what is not good 9 should modify!P :n one occasion he eDclaimed, P+ea en begat >irtue in meR what can man do unto meQP To his disci#les he once said, P-o you look u#on me, my sons, as kee#ing anything secret from youQ 9 hide nothing from you! 9 do nothing that is not manifest to your eyes, my disci#les! That is so with me!P )our things there were which he ke#t in iew in his teaching$$scholarliness, conduct of life, honesty, faithfulness! P9t is not gi en to me,P he said, Pto meet with a sageR let me but behold a man of su#erior mind, and that will suffice! .either is it gi en to me to meet with a good manR let me but see a man of constancy, and it will suffice! 9t is difficult for #ersons to ha e constancy, when they #retend to ha e that which they are destitute of, to be full when they are em#ty, to do things on a grand scale when their means are contractedUP @hen the 'aster fished with hook and line, he did not also use a net! @hen out with his bow, he would ne er shoot at game in co er! P&ome there may be,P said he, Pwho do things in ignorance of what they do! 9 am not of these! There is an alternati e way of knowing things, iH!$$to sift out the good from the many things one hears, and follow itR and to kee# in memory the many things one sees!P Pu#ils from +u$hiang were difficult to s#eak with! :ne youth came to inter iew the 'aster, and the disci#les were in doubt whether he ought to ha e been seen! P@hy so much ado,P said the 'aster, Pat my merely #ermitting his a##roach, and not rather at my allowing him to draw backQ 9f a man ha e cleansed himself in order to come and see me, 9 recei e him as suchR but 9 do not undertake for what he will do when he goes away!P P9s the #hilanthro#ic s#irit far to seek, indeedQP the 'aster eDclaimedR P9 wish for it, and it is with meUP The 'inister of Crime in the &tate of ChCin asked Confucius whether -uke ChCan, of Lu was acJuainted with the Pro#rietiesR and he answered, P"es, he knows them!P @hen Confucius had withdrawn, the minister bowed to @u$ma (Ci, a disci#le, and motioned to him to come forward! +e said, P9 ha e heard that su#erior men show no #artialityR are they, too, then, #artialQ That #rince took for his wife a lady of the @u family, ha ing the same surname as himself, and had her named CLady TsH of @u, the elder,C 9f he knows the Pro#rieties, then who does notQP

The disci#le re#orted this to the 'aster, who thereu#on remarked, P@ell for meU 9f 9 err in any way, others are sure to know of it!P @hen the 'aster was in com#any with any one who sang, and who sang well, he must needs ha e the song o er again, and after that would join in it! PAlthough in letters,P he said, P9 may ha e none to com#are with me, yet in my #ersonification of the Csu#erior manC 9 ha e not as yet been successful!P PCA &age and a Philanthro#istQC +ow should 9 ha e the ambitionQP said he! PAll that 9 can well be called is this$$An insatiable student, an unwearied teacherR$$this, and no more!P$$PEDactly what we, your disci#les, cannot by any learning manage to be,P said (ung$si +wa! :nce when the 'aster was seriously ill, TsH$lu reJuested to be allowed to say #rayers for him! PAre such a ailableQP asked the 'aster! P"es,P said heR Pand the 'anual of Prayers says, CPray to the s#irits abo e and to those here below,CP P'y #raying has been going on a long while,P said the 'aster! PLa ish li ing,P he said, Prenders men disorderlyR miserliness makes them hard! Better, howe er, the hard than the disorderly!P Again, PThe man of su#erior mind is #lacidly com#osedR the small$minded man is in a constant state of #erturbation!P The 'aster was gentle, yet could be se ereR had an o er$awing #resence, yet was not iolentR was deferential, yet easy! 4)ootnote /7% 9n reference to his editing the siD Classics of his time!8 4)ootnote /0% This was one of his Pbelo ed ancients,P famous for what he did in hel#ing to found the dynasty of Chow, a man of great #olitical wisdom, a scholar also, and #oet! 9t was the PdreamP of ConfuciusCs life to restore the country to the condition in which the -uke of Chow left it!8 4)ootnote /T% These were siD in number, iH!% Ceremonial, 'usic, Archery, +orsemanshi#, Language, and Calculation!8 4)ootnote /A% Lit!, three forces! Each force consisted of /1,622 men, and three of such forces were the eJui#ment of a greater &tate!8 B::( >999 &ayings of Tsang$$&entences of the 'aster &#eaking of TCai$#ih the 'aster said that he might be #ronounced a man of the highest moral eDcellenceR for he allowed the em#ire to #ass by him onwards to a third heirR while the #eo#le, in their ignorance of his moti es, were unable to admire him for so doing! P@ithout the Pro#rieties,P said the 'aster, Pwe ha e these results% for

deferential demeanor, a worried oneR for calm attenti eness, awkward bashfulnessR for manly conduct, disorderlinessR for straightforwardness, #er ersity! P@hen men of rank show genuine care for those nearest to them in blood, the #eo#le rise to the duty of neighborliness and sociability! And when old friendshi#s among them are not allowed to fall off, there will be a cessation of underhand #ractices among the #eo#le!P The &cholar Tsang was once unwell, and calling his #u#ils to him he said to them, P-isclose to iew my feet and my hands! @hat says the :deQ$$ CAct as from a sense of danger, @ith #recaution and with care, As a yawning gulf oCerlooking, As on ice that scarce will bear,C At all times, my children, 9 know how to kee# myself free from bodily harm!P Again, during an illness of his, 'ang (ing, an official, went to ask after him! The &cholar had some con ersation with him, in the course of which he said$$ PC-oleful the cries of a dying bird, Good the last words of a dying man,C There are three #oints which a man of rank in the management of his duties should set store u#on%$$A li ely manner and de#ortment, banishing both se erity and laDityR a frank and o#en eD#ression of countenance, allied closely with sincerityR and a tone in his utterances utterly free from any a##roach to ulgarity and im#ro#riety! As to matters of bowls and dishes, lea e such things to those who are charged with the care of them!P Another saying of the &cholar Tsang% P9 once had a friend who, though he #ossessed ability, would go Juestioning men of none, and, though surrounded by numbers, would go with his Juestions to isolated indi idualsR who also, whate er he might ha e, a##eared as if he were without it, and, with all his substantial acJuirements, made as though his mind were a mere blankR and when insulted would not retaliateR$$this was e er his way!P Again he said% PThe man that is ca#able of being intrusted with the charge of a minor on the throne, and gi en authority o er a large territory, and who, during the im#ortant term of his su#erintendence cannot be forced out of his #osition, is not such a Csu#erior manCQ That he is, indeed!P Again%$$PThe learned official must not be without breadth and #ower of endurance% the burden is hea y, and the way is long! P&u##ose that he take his duty to his fellow$men as his #eculiar burden, is that not indeed a hea y oneQ And since only with death it is done with, is not the way longQP &entences of the 'aster%$$

P)rom the CBook of :desC we recei e im#ulsesR from the CBook of the ,ules,C stabilityR from the CBook on 'usic,C refinement! 4128 PThe #eo#le may be #ut into the way they should go, though they may not be #ut into the way of understanding it! PThe man who likes bra ery, and yet groans under #o erty, has mischief in him! &o, too, has the misanthro#e, groaning at any se erity shown towards him! PE en if a #erson were adorned with the gifts of the -uke of Chow, yet if he were #roud and a aricious, all the rest of his Jualities would not indeed be worth looking at! P.ot easily found is the man who, after three yearsC study, has failed to come u#on some fruit of his toil! PThe really faithful lo er of learning holds fast to the Good @ay till death! P+e will not go into a &tate in which a downfall is imminent, nor take u# his abode in one where disorder reigns! @hen the em#ire is well ordered he will show himselfR when not, he will hide himself away! =nder a good go ernment it will be a disgrace to him if he remain in #o erty and low estateR under a bad one, it would be eJually disgraceful to him to hold riches and honors! P9f not occu#ying the office, de ise not the #olicy! P@hen the #rofessor Chi began his duties, how grand the finale of the )irst of the :des used to beU +ow it rang in oneCs earsU P9 cannot understand #ersons who are enthusiastic and yet not straightforwardR nor those who are ignorant and yet not attenti eR nor again those folks who are sim#le$minded and yet untrue! PLearn, as if ne er o ertaking your object, and yet as if a##rehensi e of losing it! P+ow sublime was the handling of the em#ire by &hun and "uU$$it was as nothing to themU P+ow great was "au as a #rinceU @as he not sublimeU &ay that +ea en only is great, then was "au alone after its #atternU +ow #rofound was heU The #eo#le could not find a name for him! +ow sublime in his achie ementsU +ow brilliant in his scholarly #roductionsUP &hun had for his ministers fi e men, by whom he ordered the em#ire! (ing @u Min his dayN stated that he had ten men as assistants for the #romotion of order! @ith reference to these facts Confucius obser ed, PAbility is hard to find! 9s it not so indeedQ -uring the three yearsC interregnum between "au and &hun there was more of it than in the inter al before this #resent dynasty a##eared! There were, at this latter #eriod, one woman, and nine men only!

P@hen two$thirds of the em#ire were held by (ing @an, he ser ed with that #ortion the +ouse of "in! @e s#eak of the irtue of the +ouse of ChowR we may say, indeed, that it reached the #innacle of eDcellence!P PAs to "u,P added the 'aster, P9 can find no flaw in him! Li ing on meagre food and drinkR yet #ro iding to the utmost in his filial offerings to the s#irits of the deadU -ressing in coarse garmentsR yet most elegant when ested in his sacrificial a#ron and coronetU -welling in a #oor #alaceR yet eDhausting his energies o er those boundary$ditches and watercoursesU 9 can find no flaw in "u!P 4)ootnote 12% Com#arison of three of the Classics% the P&hi$(ing,P the PLi (i,P and the P"oh!P The last is lost!8 B::( 9B +is )a orite -isci#leCs :#inion of +im To#ics on which the 'aster rarely s#oke were$$Ad antage, and -estiny, and -uty of man to man! A man of the illage of Tah$hiang eDclaimed of him, PA great man is ConfuciusU$$a man of eDtensi e learning, and yet in nothing has he Juite made himself a nameUP The 'aster heard of this, and mentioning it to his disci#les he said, P@hat then shall 9 take in handQ &hall 9 become a carriage dri er, or an archerQ Let me be a dri erUP PThe sacrificial ca#,P he once said, Pshould, according to the ,ules, be of linenR but in these days it is of #ure silk! +owe er, as it is economical, 9 do as all do! PThe ,ule says, C'ake your bow when at the lower end of the hallCR but nowadays the bowing is done at the u##er #art! This is great freedomR and 9, though 9 go in o##osition to the crowd, bow when at the lower end!P The 'aster barred four words%$$he would ha e no PshallCs,P no PmustCs,P no PcertaintyCs,P no P9Cs!P :nce, in the town of (Cwang fearing that his life was going to be taken, the 'aster eDclaimed, P(ing @an is dead and goneR but is not CFwanFC 41/8 with you hereQ 9f +ea en be about to allow this CFwanFC to #erish, then they who sur i e its decease will get no benefit from it! But so long as +ea en does not allow it to #erish, what can the men of (Cwang do to meQP A high &tate official, after Juestioning TsH$kung, said, P"our 'aster is a sage, thenQ +ow many and what aried abilities must be hisUP The disci#le re#lied, PCertainly +ea en is allowing him full o##ortunities of becoming a sage, in addition to the fact that his abilities are many and aried!P

@hen the 'aster heard of this he remarked, P-oes that high official know meQ 9n my early years my #osition in life was low, and hence my ability in many ways, though eDercised in trifling matters! 9n the gentleman is there indeed such ariety of abilityQ .o!P )rom this, the disci#le Lau used to say, PCTwas a saying of the 'aster% CAt a time when 9 was not called u#on to use them, 9 acJuired my #roficiency in the #olite arts!CP PAm 9, indeed,P said the 'aster, P#ossessed of knowledgeQ 9 know nothing! Let a ulgar fellow come to me with a Juestion$$a man with an em#tyish head$$9 may thrash out with him the matter from end to end, and eDhaust myself in doing itUP PAhUP eDclaimed he once, Pthe #hoeniD does not comeU and no symbols issue from the ri erU 'ay 9 not as well gi e u#QP @hene er the 'aster met with a #erson in mourning, or with one in full$dress ca# and kirtle, or with a blind #erson, although they might be young #ersons, he would make a #oint of rising on their a##earance, or, if crossing their #ath, would do so with Juickened ste#U :nce "en "uen eDclaimed with a sigh Mwith reference to the 'asterCs doctrinesN, P9f 9 look u# to them, they are e er the higherR if 9 try to #enetrate them, they are e er the harderR if 9 gaHe at them as if before my eyes, lo, they are behind meU$$Gradually and gently the 'aster with skill lures men on! By literary lore he ga e me breadthR by the ,ules of Pro#riety he narrowed me down! @hen 9 desire a res#ite, 9 find it im#ossibleR and after 9 ha e eDhausted my #owers, there seems to be something standing straight u# in front of me, and though 9 ha e the mind to make towards it 9 make no ad ance at all!P :nce when the 'aster was seriously ill, TsH$lu induced the other disci#les to feign they were high officials acting in his ser ice! -uring a res#ite from his malady the 'aster eDclaimed, PAhU how long has TsH$luCs conduct been falseQ @hom should 9 delude, if 9 were to #retend to ha e officials under me, ha ing noneQ &hould 9 decei e +ea enQ Besides, were 9 to die, 9 would rather die in the hands of yoursel es, my disci#les, than in the hands of officials! And though 9 should fail to ha e a grand funeral o er me, 9 should hardly be left on my death on the #ublic highway, should 9QP TsH$kung once said to him, P+ere is a fine gem! @ould you guard it carefully in a casket and store it away, or seek a good #rice for it and sell itQP P&ell it, indeed,P said the 'aster$$Pthat would 9R but 9 should wait for the bidder!P The 'aster #rotested he would Pgo and li e among the nine wild tribes!P PA rude life,P said some oneR$$Phow could you #ut u# with itQP P@hat rudeness would there be,P he re#lied, Pif a Csu#erior manC was li ing in their midstQP :nce he remarked, PAfter 9 came back from @ei to Lu the music was #ut right, and each of the )estal :des and +ymns was gi en its a##ro#riate #lace and use!P PAhU which one of these following,P he asked on one occasion, Pare to be

found eDem#lified in me$$#ro#er ser ice rendered to su#eriors when abroadR duty to father and elder brother when at homeR duty that shrinks from no eDertion when dear ones dieR and kee#ing free from the confusing effects of wineQP &tanding once on the bank of a mountain stream, he said MmusinglyN, PLike this are those that #ass away$$no cessation, day or nightUP :ther sayings%$$ PTake an illustration from the making of a hill! A sim#le basketful is wanting to com#lete it, and the work sto#s! &o 9 sto# short! PTake an illustration from the le elling of the ground! &u##ose again just one basketful is left, when the work has so #rogressed! There 9 desistU PAhU it was +wWi, was it notQ who, when 9 had gi en him his lesson, was the unflagging oneU PAlas for +wWiU 9 saw him e er making #rogress! 9 ne er saw him sto##ing short! PBlade, but no bloom$$or else bloom, but no #roduceR aye, that is the way with someU P,e erent regard is due to youth! +ow know we what difference there may be in them in the future from what they are nowQ "et when they ha e reached the age of forty or fifty, and are still unknown in the world, then indeed they are no more worthy of such regard! PCan any do otherwise than assent to words said to them by way of correctionQ :nly let them reform by such ad ice, and it will then be reckoned aluable! Can any be other than #leased with words of gentle suasionQ :nly let them com#ly with them fully, and such also will be accounted aluable! @ith those who are #leased without so com#lying, and those who assent but do not reform, 9 can do nothing at all! PGi e #rominent #lace to loyalty and sincerity! P+a e no associates in study who are not ad anced somewhat like yourself! P@hen you ha e erred, be not afraid to correct yourself! P9t may be #ossible to seiHe and carry off the chief commander of a large army, but not #ossible so to rob one #oor fellow of his will! P:ne who stands$$clad in hem#en robe, the worse for wear$$among others clad in furs of foD and badger, and yet unabashed$$Ctis TsH$lu, that, is it notQP TsH$lu used always to be humming o er the lines$$ P)rom en y and enmity free, @hat deed doth he other than goodQP P+ow should such a rule of life,P asked the 'aster, Pbe sufficient to

make any one goodQP P@hen the year grows chilly, we know the #ine and cy#ress are the last to fade! PThe wise esca#e doubtR the good$hearted, troubleR the bold, a##rehension! P&ome may study side by side, and yet be asunder when they come to the logic of things! &ome may go on together in this latter course, but be wide a#art in the standards they reach in it! &ome, again, may together reach the same standard, and yet be di erse in weight of character!P PThe blossom is out on the cherry tree, @ith a flutter on e ery s#ray! -ost think that my thoughts go not out to theeQ Ah, why art thou far awayUP Commenting on these lines the 'aster said, PThere can hardly ha e been much Cthought going out,C @hat does distance signifyQP 4)ootnote 1/% P@anP was the honorary a##ellation of the great sage and ruler, whose #raise is in the P&hi$(ingP as one of the founders of the Chow dynasty, and the term re#resented ci ic talent and irtues, as distinct from @u, the martial talent$$the latter being the honorary title of his son and successor! P@anP also often stands for literature and #olite accom#lishments! +ere Confucius sim#ly means, P9f you kill me, you kill a sage!P8 B::( B Confucius in Pri ate and :fficial Life 9n his own illage, Confucius #resented a somewhat #lain and sim#le a##earance, and looked unlike a man who #ossessed ability of s#eech! But in the ancestral tem#le, and at Court, he s#oke with the fluency and accuracy of a debater, but e er guardedly! At Court, con ersing with the lower order of great officials, he s#oke somewhat firmly and directlyR with those of the higher order his tone was somewhat more affable! @hen the #rince was #resent he was constrainedly re erent in his mo ements, and showed a #ro#er degree of gra e dignity in demeanor! @hene er the #rince summoned him to act as usher to the Court, his look would change somewhat, and he would make as though he were turning round to do obeisance! +e would salute those among whom he took u# his #osition, using the right hand or the left, and holding the skirts of his robe in #ro#er #osition before and behind! +e would make his a##roaches with Juick ste#, and with elbows e enly bent outwards!

@hen the isitor withdrew, he would not fail to re#ort the eDecution of his commands, with the words, PThe isitor no longer looks back!P @hen he entered the #alace gate, it was with the body somewhat bent forward, almost as though he could not be admitted! @hen he stood still, this would ne er ha##en in the middle of the gatewayR nor when mo ing about would he e er tread on the threshold! @hen #assing the throne, his look would change somewhat, he would turn aside and make a sort of obeisance, and the words he s#oke seemed as though he were deficient in utterance! :n going u# the ste#s to the audience chamber, he would gather u# with both hands the ends of his robe, and walk with his body bent somewhat forward, holding back his breath like one in whom res#iration has ceased! :n coming out, after descending one ste# his countenance would relaD and assume an a##earance of satisfaction! Arri ed at the bottom, he would go forward with Juick ste#, his elbows e enly bent outwards, back to his #osition, constrainedly re erent in e ery mo ement! @hen holding the sce#tre in his hand, his body would be somewhat bent forward, as if he were not eJual to carrying itR wielding it now higher, as in a salutation, now lower, as in the #resentation of a giftR his look would also be changed and a##ear awestruckR and his gait would seem retarded, as if he were obeying some restraining hand behind! @hen he #resented the gifts of ceremony, he would assume a #lacid eD#ression of countenance! At the #ri ate inter iew he would be cordial and affable! The good man would use no #ur#le or iolet colors for the facings of his dress! 4118 .or would he ha e red or orange color for his undress! 4138 )or the hot season he wore a singlet, of either coarse or fine teDture, but would also feel bound to ha e an outer garment co ering it! )or his black robe he had lambCs woolR for his white one, fawnCs furR and for his yellow one, foD fur! +is furred undress robe was longer, but the right slee e was shortened! +e would needs ha e his slee#ing$dress one and a half times his own length! )or ordinary home wear he used thick substantial foD or badger furs! @hen he left off mourning, he would wear all his girdle trinkets! +is kirtle in front, when it was not needed for full co er, he must needs ha e cut down! +e would ne er wear his MblackN lambCs$wool, or a dark$colored ca#, when he went on isits of condolence to mourners! 41S8 :n the first day of the new moon, he must ha e on his Court dress and to Court! @hen obser ing his fasts, he made a #oint of ha ing bright, shiny garments, made of linen! +e must also at such times ary his food, and mo e his seat to another #art of his dwelling$room! As to his food, he ne er tired of rice so long as it was clean and #ure, nor of hashed meats when finely minced! ,ice s#oiled by dam#, and sour, he would not touch, nor tainted fish, nor bad meat, nor aught of a bad color or smell, nor aught o erdone in cooking, nor aught out of season! .either would he eat anything that was not #ro#erly cut, or that lacked its #ro#er seasonings! Although there might be an abundance of meat before him, he would not allow a #re#onderance of it to rob the rice of its beneficial effect in nutrition! :nly in the matter of wine did he set himself no limit, yet he ne er drank so much as to confuse himself! TradesmenCs wines, and dried meats from the market, he would not touch! Ginger he would ne er ha e remo ed from the table during a meal! +e was not a great eater! 'eat from the sacrifices at the #rinceCs tem#le he

would ne er #ut aside till the following day! The meat of his own offerings he would ne er gi e out after three daysC kee#ing, for after that time none were to eat it! At his meals he would not enter into discussionsR and when re#osing MafterwardsN he would not utter a word! E en should his meal consist only of coarse rice and egetable broth or melons, he would make an offering, and ne er fail to do so religiously! +e would ne er sit on a mat that was not straight! After a feast among his illagers, he would wait before going away until the old men had left! @hen the illage #eo#le were eDorcising the #ests, he would #ut on his Court robes and stand on the ste#s of his hall to recei e them! @hen he was sending a message of inJuiry to a #erson in another &tate, he would bow twice on seeing the messenger off! (i (Cang once sent him a #resent of some medicine! +e bowed, and recei ed itR but remarked, P=ntil 9 am Juite sure of its #ro#erties 9 must not enture to taste it!P :nce when the stabling was destroyed by fire, he withdrew from the Court, and asked, P9s any #erson injuredQ P$$without inJuiring as to the horses! @hene er the #rince sent him a #resent of food, he was #articular to set his mat in #ro#er order, and would be the first one to taste it! 9f the #rinceCs #resent was one of raw meat, he must needs ha e it cooked, and make an oblation of it! 9f the gift were a li e animal, he would be sure to kee# it and care for it! @hen he was in waiting, and at a meal with the #rince, the #rince would make the offering,4168 and he Mthe 'asterN was the #regustator! @hen unwell, and the #rince came to see him, he would arrange his #osition so that his head inclined towards the east, would #ut o er him his Court robes, and draw his girdle across them! @hen summoned by order of the #rince, he would start off without waiting for his horses to be #ut to! :n his entry into the Grand Tem#le, he inJuired about e erything connected with its usages! 9f a friend died, and there were no near relati es to take him to, he would say, PLet him be buried from my house!P )or a friendCs gift$$unless it consisted of meat that had been offered in sacrifice$$he would not bow, e en if it were a carriage and horses! 9n re#ose he did not lie like one dead! 9n his home life he was not formal in his manner! @hene er he met with a #erson in mourning, e en though it were a familiar acJuaintance, he would be certain to change his mannerR and

when he met with any one in full$dress ca#, or with any blind #erson, he would also unfailingly #ut on a different look, e en though he were himself in undress at the time! 9n saluting any #erson wearing mourning he would bow forwards towards the front bar of his carriageR in the same manner he would also salute the bearer of a census$register! @hen a sum#tuous banJuet was s#read before him, a different eD#ression would be sure to a##ear in his features, and he would rise u# from his seat! At a sudden thunder$cla#, or when the wind grew furious, his look would also in ariably be changed! :n getting into his car, he would ne er fail MfirstN to stand u# erect, holding on by the stra#! @hen in the car, he would ne er look about, nor s#eak hastily, nor bring one hand to the other! PLet one but make a mo ement in his face, And the bird will rise and seek some safer #lace!P A#ro#os of this, he said, P+ere is a hen$#heasant from &han Liang$$and in seasonU and in seasonUP After TsH$lu had got it #re#ared, he smelt it thrice, and then rose u# from his seat! 4)ootnote 11% Because, it is said, such colors were ado#ted in fasting and mourning!8 4)ootnote 13% Because they did not belong to the fi e correct colors M iH! green, yellow, carnation, white, and blackN, and were affected more by females!8 4)ootnote 1S% &ince white was, as it is still, the mourning color!8 4)ootnote 16% The act of Pgrace,P before eating!8 B::( B9 Com#arati e @orth of +is -isci#les PThe first to make #rogress in the Pro#rieties and in 'usic,P said the 'aster, Pare #lain countrymenR after them, the men of higher standing! 9f 9 had to em#loy any of them, 9 should stand by the former!P P:f those,P said he, Pwho were about me when 9 was in the ChCin and TsCai &tates, not one now is left to a##roach my door!P PAs for +wui,P 4178 said the 'aster, Phe is not one to hel# me on% there is nothing 9 say but he is not well satisfied with!P P@hat a dutiful son was 'in TsH$kCienUP he eDclaimed! P.o one finds occasion to differ from what his #arents and brothers ha e said of him!P .an "ung used to re#eat three times o er the lines in the :des about the

white sce#tre! Confucius caused his own elder brotherCs daughter to be gi en in marriage to him! @hen (i (Cang inJuired which of the disci#les were fond of learning, Confucius answered him, PThere was one "en +wWi who was fond of itR but unfortunately his allotted time was short, and he diedR and now his like is not to be found!P @hen "en "uen died, his father, "en Lu, begged for the 'asterCs carriage in order to get a shell for his coffin! PAbility or no ability,P said the 'aster, Pe ery father still s#eaks of Cmy son!C @hen my own son Li died, and the coffin for him had no shell to it, 9 know 9 did not go on foot to get him oneR but that was because 9 was, though retired, in the wake of the ministers, and could not therefore well do so!P :n the death of "en "uen the 'aster eDclaimed, PAh meU +ea en is ruining me, +ea en is ruining meUP :n the same occasion, his wailing for that disci#le becoming eDcessi e, those who were about him said, P&ir, this is too muchUP$$PToo muchQP said heR Pif 9 am not to do so for him, then$$for whom elseQP The disci#les then wished for the deceased a grand funeral! The 'aster could not on his #art consent to this! They ne ertheless ga e him one! =#on this he remarked, P+e used to look u#on me as if 9 were his father! 9 could ne er, howe er, look on him as a son! Twas not my mistake, but yours, my children!P TsH$lu #ro#ounded a Juestion about ministering to the s#irits of the de#arted! The 'aster re#lied, P@here there is scarcely the ability to minister to li ing men, how shall there be ability to minister to the s#iritsQP :n his enturing to #ut a Juestion concerning death, he answered, P@here there is scarcely any knowledge about life, how shall there be any about deathQP The disci#le 'in was by his side, looking affable and blandR TsH$lu also, looking careless and intre#idR and "en "u and TsH$kung, firm and #recise! The 'aster was cheery! P:ne like TsH$lu there,P said he, Pdoes not come to a natural end!P &ome #ersons in Lu were taking measures in regard to the Long Treasury +ouse! 'in TsH$kCien obser ed, P+ow if it were re#aired on the old linesQP The 'aster u#on this remarked, PThis fellow is not a talker, but when he does s#eak he is bound to hit the markUP PThere is "uCs har#sichord,P eDclaimed the 'aster$$Pwhat is it doing at my doorQP :n seeing, howe er, some disres#ect shown to him by the other disci#les, he added, P"u has got as far as the to# of the hallR only he has not yet entered the house!P TsH$kung asked which was the worthier of the two$$TsH$chang or TsH$hiV! PThe former,P answered the 'aster, Pgoes beyond the markR the latter falls short of it!P P&o then TsH$chang is the better of the two, is heQP said he! PTo go too far,P he re#lied, Pis about the same as to fall short!P The Chief of the (i family was a wealthier man than the -uke of Chow had

been, and yet "en "u gathered and hoarded for him, increasing his wealth more and more! P+e is no follower of mine,P said the 'aster! P9t would ser e him right, my children, to sound the drum, and set u#on him!P Characteristics of four disci#les%$$TsH$kVu was sim#le$mindedR Tsang &i, a dullardR TsH$chang, full of airsR TsH$lu, rough! PAs to +wWi,P said the 'aster, Phe comes near to #erfection, while freJuently in great want! TsH$kung does not submit to the a##ointments of +ea enR and yet his goods are increasedR$$he is often successful in his calculations!P TsH$chang wanted to know some marks of the naturally Good 'an! P+e does not walk in othersC foot#rints,P said the 'asterR Pyet he does not get beyond the hall into the house!P :nce the 'aster said, PBecause we allow that a manCs words ha e something genuine in them, are they necessarily those of a su#erior manQ or words carrying only an outward semblance and show of gra ityQP TsH$lu #ut a Juestion about the #ractice of #rece#ts one has heard! The 'asterCs re#ly was, P9n a case where there is a father or elder brother still left with you, how should you #ractise all you hearQP @hen, howe er, the same Juestion was #ut to him by "en "u, his re#ly was, P"esR do so!P (ung$si +wa animad erted u#on this to the 'aster! PTsH$lu asked you, sir,P said he, Pabout the #ractice of what one has learnt, and you said, CThere may be a father or elder brother still ali eCR but when "en "u asked the same Juestion, you answered, C"es, do so!C 9 am at a loss to understand you, and enture to ask what you meant!P The 'aster re#lied, P"en "u backs out of his dutiesR therefore 9 #ush him on! TsH$lu has forwardness enough for them bothR therefore 9 hold him back!P :n the occasion of that time of fear in (Cwang, "en "uen ha ing fallen behind, the 'aster said to him MafterwardsN, P9 took it for granted you were a dead man!P P+ow should 9 dare to die,P said he, Pwhile you, sir, still li edQP :n (i TsH$jen #utting to him a Juestion anent TsH$lu and "en "u, as to whether they might be called Pgreat ministers,P the 'aster answered, P9 had eD#ected your Juestion, sir, to be about something eDtraordinary, and loU it is only about these two! Those whom we call Cgreat ministersC are such as ser e their #rince conscientiously, and who, when they cannot do so, retire! At #resent, as regards the two you ask about, they may be called CJualified ministers!CP P@ell, are they then,P he asked, Psuch as will follow their leaderQP PThey would not follow him who should slay his father and his #rinceUP was the re#ly! Through the inter ention of TsH$lu, TsH$kau was being a##ointed go ernor

of Pi! P"ou are s#oiling a good manCs son,P said the 'aster! TsH$lu rejoined, PBut he will ha e the #eo#le and their su#eriors to gain eD#erience from, and there will be the altarsR what need to read booksQ +e can become a student afterwards!P P+ere is the reason for my hatred of glib$tongued #eo#le,P said the 'aster! :n one occasion TsH$lu, Tsang &in, "en "u, and (ung$si +wa were sitting near him! +e said to them, PThough 9 may be a day older than you, do not Mfor the momentN regard me as such! @hile you are li ing this unoccu#ied life you are saying, C@e do not become known!C .ow su##ose some one got to know you, what thenQP TsH$lu$$first to s#eak$$at once answered, PGi e me a &tate of large siHe and armament, hemmed in and ham#ered by other larger &tates, the #o#ulation augmented by armies and regiments, causing a dearth in it of food of all kindsR gi e me charge of that &tate, and in three yearsC time 9 should make a bra e country of it, and let it know its #lace!P The 'aster smiled at him! P"en,P said he, Phow would it be with youQP PGi e me,P said "en, Pa territory of siDty or se enty li sJuare, or of fifty or siDty sJuareR #ut me in charge of that, and in three years 9 should make the #eo#le sufficiently #ros#erous! As regards their knowledge of ceremonial or music, 9 should wait for su#erior men to teach them that!P PAnd with you, (ung$si, how would it beQP This disci#leCs re#ly was, P9 ha e nothing to say about my ca#abilities for such mattersR my wish is to learn! 9 should like to be a junior assistant, in dark robe and ca#, at the ser ices of the ancestral tem#le, and at the Grand ,ece#tions of the Princes by the &o ereign!P PAnd with you, Tsang &inQP This disci#le was strumming on his har#sichord, but now the twanging ceased, he turned from the instrument, rose to his feet, and answered thus% P&omething different from the choice of these three!P P@hat harmQP said the 'asterR P9 want each one of you to tell me what his heart is set u#on!P P@ell, then,P said he, Pgi e me$$in the latter #art of s#ring$$dressed in full s#ring$tide attire$$in com#any with fi e or siD young fellows of twenty, 4108 or siD or se en lads under that age, to do the ablutions in the 9 stream, enjoy a breeHe in the rain$dance, 41T8 and finish u# with songs on the road home!P The 'aster drew in his breath, sighed, and eDclaimed, PAh, 9 take with youUP The three other disci#les ha ing gone out, lea ing Tsang &in behind, the latter said, P@hat think you of the answers of those threeQP$$P@ell, each told me what was u##ermost in his mind,P said the 'asterR$$Psim#ly that!P P@hy did you smile at TsH$lu, sirQP

P9 smiled at him because to ha e the charge of a &tate reJuires due regard to the ,ules of Pro#riety, and his words betrayed a lack of modesty!P PBut "en, then$$he had a &tate in iew, had he notQP P9 should like to be shown a territory such as he described which does not amount to a &tate!P PBut had not (ung$si also a &tate in iewQP P@hat are ancestral tem#les and Grand ,ece#tions, but for the feudal lords to take #art inQ 9f (ung$si were to become an unim#ortant assistant at these functions, who could become an im#ortant oneQP 4)ootnote 17% The men of irtuous life were "en "uen M+wWiN, 'in TsH$kCien, "en Pihniu, and Chung$kung M"en "ungNR the s#eakers and debaters were Tsai @o and TsH$kungR the Mca#ableN go ernment ser ants were "en "u and TsH$luR the literary students, TsH$yu and TsH$hiV!8 4)ootnote 10% Lit!, ca##ed ones! At twenty they underwent the ceremony of ca##ing, and were considered men!8 4)ootnote 1T% 9!e!, before the altars, where offerings were #laced with #rayer for rain! A religious dance!8 B::( B99 The 'asterCs Answers$$Philanthro#y$$)riendshi#s "en "uen was asking about manCs #ro#er regard for his fellow$man! The 'aster said to him, P&elf$control, and a habit of falling back u#on #ro#riety, irtually effect it! Let these conditions be fulfilled for one day, and e ery one round will betake himself to the duty! 9s it to begin in oneCs self, or think you, indeedU it is to begin in othersQP P9 wanted you to be good enough,P said "en "uen, Pto gi e me a brief syno#sis of it!P Then said the 'aster, P@ithout Pro#riety use not your eyesR without it use not your ears, nor your tongue, nor a limb of your body!P P9 may be lacking in diligence,P said "en "uen, Pbut with your fa or 9 will endea or to carry out this ad ice!P Chung$kung asked about manCs #ro#er regard for his fellows! To him the 'aster re#lied thus% P@hen you go forth from your door, be as if you were meeting some guest of im#ortance! @hen you are making use of the common #eo#le Mfor &tate #ur#osesN, be as if you were taking #art in a great religious function! -o not set before others what you do not desire yourself! Let there be no resentful feelings against you when you are away in the country, and none when at home!P

P9 may lack diligence,P said Chung$kung, Pbut with your fa or 9 will endea or to carry out this ad ice!P &H$ma .iu asked the like Juestion! The answer he recei ed was this% PThe words of the man who has a #ro#er regard for his fellows are uttered with difficulty!P PC+is words$$uttered with difficultyQCP he echoed, in sur#rise! P9s that what is meant by #ro#er regard for oneCs fellow$creaturesQP P@here there is difficulty in doing,P the 'aster re#lied, Pwill there not be some difficulty in utteranceQP The same disci#le #ut a Juestion about the Psu#erior man!P P&u#erior men,P he re#lied, Pare free from trouble and a##rehension!P PC)ree from trouble and a##rehensionUCP said he! P-oes that make them Csu#erior menCQP The 'aster added, P@here there is found, u#on intros#ection, to be no chronic disease, how shall there be any troubleQ how shall there be any a##rehensionQP The same disci#le, being in trouble, remarked, P9 am alone in ha ing no brother, while all else ha e theirs$$younger or elder!P TsH$hiV said to him, P9 ha e heard this% C-eath and life ha e destined timesR wealth and honors rest with +ea en! Let the su#erior man kee# watch o er himself without ceasing, showing deference to others, with #ro#riety of manners$$and all within the four seas will be his brethren! +ow should he be distressed for lack of brothersUCP 41A8 TsH$chang asked what sort of man might be termed Penlightened!P The 'aster re#lied, PThat man with whom drenching slander and cutting calumny gain no currency may well be called enlightened! Ay, he with whom such things make no way may well be called enlightened in the eDtreme!P TsH$kung #ut a Juestion relati e to go ernment! 9n re#ly the 'aster mentioned three essentials%$$sufficient food, sufficient armament, and the #eo#leCs confidence! PBut,P said the disci#le, Pif you cannot really ha e all three, and one has to be gi en u#, which would you gi e u# firstQP PThe armament,P he re#lied! PAnd if you are obliged to gi e u# one of the remaining two, which would it beQP PThe food,P said he! P-eath has been the #ortion of all men from of old! @ithout the #eo#leCs trust nothing can stand!P (ih TsH$shing once said, PGi e me the inborn Jualities of a gentleman, and 9 want no more! +ow are such to come from book$learningQP TsH$kung eDclaimed, PAhU sir, 9 regret to hear such words from you! A gentlemanU$$But Ca team of four can neCer oCer$take the tongueUC

Literary accom#lishments are much the same as inborn Jualities, and inborn Jualities as literary accom#lishments! A tigerCs or leo#ardCs skin without the hair might be a dogCs or shee#Cs when so made bare!P -uke .gai was consulting "u <oh! &aid he, P9t is a year of dearth, and there is an insufficiency for @ays and 'eans$$what am 9 to doQP P@hy not a##ly the Tithing &tatuteQP said the minister! PBut two tithings would not be enough for my #ur#oses,P said the dukeR Pwhat would be the good of a##lying the &tatuteQP The minister re#lied, P&o long as the #eo#le ha e enough left for themsel es, who of them will allow their #rince to be without enoughQ But$$when the #eo#le ha e not enough, who will allow their #rince all that he wantsQP TsH$chang was asking how the standard of irtue was to be raised, and how to discern what was illusory or misleading! The 'asterCs answer was, PGi e a foremost #lace to honesty and faithfulness, and tread the #ath of righteousness, and you will raise the standard of irtue! As to discerning what is illusory, here is an eDam#le of an illusion%$$@hom you lo e you wish to li eR whom you hate you wish to die! To ha e wished the same #erson to li e and also to be dead$$there is an illusion for you!P -uke (ing of TsCi consulted Confucius about go ernment! +is answer was, PLet a #rince be a #rince, and ministers be ministersR let fathers be fathers, and sons be sons!P PGoodUP eDclaimed the dukeR Ptruly if a #rince fail to be a #rince, and ministers to be ministers, and if fathers be not fathers, and sons not sons, then, e en though 9 may ha e my allowance of grain, should 9 e er be able to relish itQP PThe man to decide a cause with half a word,P eDclaimed the 'aster, Pis TsH$luUP TsH$lu ne er let a night #ass between #romise and #erformance! P9n hearing causes, 9 am like other men,P said the 'aster! PThe great #oint is$$to #re ent litigation!P TsH$chang ha ing raised some Juestion about go ernment, the 'aster said to him, P9n the settlement of its #rinci#les be unweariedR in its administration$$see to that loyally!P PThe man of wide research,P said he, Pwho also restrains himself by the ,ules of Pro#riety, is not likely to transgress!P Again, PThe noble$minded man makes the most of othersC good Jualities, not the worst of their bad ones! 'en of small mind do the re erse of this!P (i (Cang was consulting him about the direction of #ublic affairs! Confucius answered him, PA director should be himself correct! 9f you, sir, as a leader show correctness, who will dare not to be correctQP (i (Cang, being much troubled on account of robbers abroad, consulted

Confucius on the matter! +e recei ed this re#ly% P9f you, sir, were not co etous, neither would they steal, e en were you to bribe them to do so!P (i (Cang, when consulting Confucius about the go ernment, said, P&u##ose 9 were to #ut to death the disorderly for the better encouragement of the orderly$$what say you to thatQP P&ir,P re#lied Confucius, Pin the administration of go ernment why resort to ca#ital #unishmentQ Co et what is good, and the #eo#le will be good! The irtue of the noble$minded man is as the wind, and that of inferior men as grassR the grass must bend, when the wind blows u#on it!P TsH$chang asked how otherwise he would describe the learned official who might be termed influential! P@hat, 9 wonder, do you mean by one who is influentialQP said the 'aster! P9 mean,P re#lied the disci#le, Pone who is sure to ha e a re#utation throughout the country, as well as at home!P PThat,P said the 'aster, Pis re#utation, not influence! The influential man, then, if he be one who is genuinely straightforward and lo es what is just and right, a discriminator of menCs words, and an obser er of their looks, and in honor careful to #refer others to himself$$will certainly ha e influence, both throughout the country and at home! The man of mere re#utation, on the other hand, who s#eciously affects #hilanthro#y, though in his way of #rocedure he acts contrary to it, while yet Juite e idently engrossed with that irtue$$will certainly ha e re#utation, both in the country and at home!P )an ChCi, strolling with him o er the ground below the #lace of the rain$dance, said to him, P9 enture to ask how to raise the standard of irtue, how to reform dissolute habits, and how to discern what is illusoryQP PAhU a good Juestion indeedUP he eDclaimed! P@ell, is not #utting duty first, and success second, a way of raising the standard of irtueQ And is not attacking the e il in oneCs self, and not the e il which is in others, a way of reforming dissolute habitsQ And as to illusions, is not one morningCs fit of anger, causing a man to forget himself, and e en in ol ing in the conseJuences those who are near and dear to him$$is not that an illusionQP The same disci#le asked him what was meant by Pa right regard for oneCs fellow$creatures!P +e re#lied, P9t is lo e to man!P Asked by him again what was meant by wisdom, he re#lied, P9t is knowledge of man!P )an ChCi did not Juite gras# his meaning! The 'aster went on to say, PLift u# the straight, set aside the crooked, so can you make the crooked straight!P )an ChCi left him, and meeting with TsH$hiV he said, P9 had an inter iew just now with the 'aster, and 9 asked him what wisdom was! 9n his answer

he said, CLift u# the straight, set aside the crooked, and so can you make the crooked straight!C @hat was his meaningQP PAhU words rich in meaning, those,P said the other! P@hen &hun was em#eror, and was selecting his men from among the multitude, he Clifted u#C (Vu$yVuR and men de oid of right feelings towards their kind went far away! And when TCang was em#eror, and chose out his men from the crowd, he Clifted u#C 9$yin$$with the same result!P TsH$kung was consulting him about a friend! P&#eak to him frankly, and res#ectfully,P said the 'aster, Pand gently lead him on! 9f you do not succeed, then sto#R do not submit yourself to indignity!P The learned Tsang obser ed, P9n the society of books the Csu#erior manC collects his friendsR in the society of his friends he is furthering good$will among men!P 4)ootnote 1A% )rom Confucius, it is generally thought!8 B::( B999 Answers on the Art of Go erning$$Consistency TsH$lu was asking about go ernment! PLead the way in it,P said the 'aster, Pand work hard at it!P ,eJuested to say more, he added, PAnd do not tire of it!P Chung$kung, on being made first minister to the Chief of the (i family, consulted the 'aster about go ernment, and to him he said, PLet the heads of offices be heads! EDcuse small faults! Promote men of sagacity and talent!P PBut,P he asked, Phow am 9 to know the sagacious and talented, before #romoting themQP PPromote those whom you do know,P said the 'aster! PAs to those of whom you are uncertain, will others omit to notice themQP TsH$lu said to the 'aster, PAs the #rince of @ei, sir, has been waiting for you to act for him in his go ernment, what is it your intention to take in hand firstQP P:ne thing of necessity,P he answered$$Pthe rectification of terms!P PThatUP eDclaimed TsH$lu! P+ow far away you are, sirU @hy such rectificationQP P@hat a rustic you are, TsH$luUP rejoined the 'aster! PA gentleman would be a little reser ed and reticent in matters which he does not understand! 9f terms be incorrect, language will be incongruousR and if language be incongruous, deeds will be im#erfect! &o, again, when deeds are im#erfect, #ro#riety and harmony cannot #re ail, and when this is

the case laws relating to crime will fail in their aimR and if these last so fail, the #eo#le will not know where to set hand or foot! +ence, a man of su#erior mind, certain first of his terms, is fitted to s#eakR and being certain of what he says can #roceed u#on it! 9n the language of such a #erson there is nothing heedlessly irregular$$and that is the sum of the matter!P )an ChCi reJuested that he might learn something of husbandry! P)or that!P said the 'aster, P9 am not eJual to an old husbandman!P 'ight he then learn something of gardeningQ he asked! P9 am not eJual to an old gardener!P was the re#ly! PA man of little mind, thatUP said the 'aster, when )an ChCi had gone out! PLet a man who is set o er the #eo#le lo e #ro#riety, and they will not #resume to be disres#ectful! Let him be a lo er of righteousness, and they will not #resume to be aught but submissi e! Let him lo e faithfulness and truth, and they will not #resume not to lend him their hearty assistance! Ah, if all this only were so, the #eo#le from all sides would come to such a one, carrying their children on their backs! @hat need to turn his hand to husbandryQ PThough a man,P said he, Pcould hum through the :des$$the three hundred$$yet should show himself unskilled when gi en some administrati e work to do for his countryR though he might know much of that other lore, yet if, when sent on a mission to any Juarter, he could answer no Juestion #ersonally and unaided, what after all is he good forQ PLet a leader,P said he, Pshow rectitude in his own #ersonal character, and e en without directions from him things will go well! 9f he be not #ersonally u#right, his directions will not be com#lied with!P :nce he made the remark, PThe go ernments of Lu and of @ei are in brotherhood!P :f (ing, a son of the -uke of @ei, he obser ed that Phe managed his household matters well! :n his coming into #ossession, he thought, C@hat a strange conglomerationUC$$Coming to #ossess a little more, it was, C&trange, such a resultUC And when he became wealthy, C&trange, such eleganceUCP The 'aster was on a journey to @ei, and "en "u was dri ing him! P@hat multitudes of #eo#leUP he eDclaimed! "en "u asked him, P&eeing they are so numerous, what more would you do for themQP PEnrich them,P re#lied the 'aster! PAnd after enriching them, what more would you do for themQP P9nstruct them!P P@ere any one of our #rinces to em#loy me,P he said, Pafter a twel emonth 9 might ha e made some tolerable #rogressRP Again, P+ow true is that saying, CLet good men ha e the management of a country for a century, and they would be adeJuate to co#e with e il$doers, and thus do away with ca#ital #unishments,CP Again, P&u##ose the ruler to #ossess true kingly Jualities, then surely

after one generation there would be good$will among men!P Again, PLet a ruler but see to his own rectitude, and what trouble will he then ha e in the work before himQ 9f he be unable to rectify himself, how is he to rectify othersQP :nce when "en "u was lea ing the Court, the 'aster accosted him! P@hy so lateQP he asked! PBusy with legislation,P "en re#lied! PThe details of it,P suggested the 'asterR Phad it been legislation, 9 should ha e been there to hear it, e en though 9 am not in office!P -uke Ting asked if there were one sentence which, if acted u#on, might ha e the effect of making a country #ros#erous! Confucius answered, PA sentence could hardly be su##osed to do so much as that! But there is a #ro erb #eo#le use which says, CTo #lay the #rince is hard, to #lay the minister not easy!C Assuming that it is understood that Cto #lay the #rince is hard,C would it not be #robable that with that one sentence the country should be made to #ros#erQP P9s there, then,P he asked, Pone sentence which, if acted u#on, would ha e the effect of ruining a countryQP Confucius again re#lied, PA sentence could hardly be su##osed to do so much as that! But there is a #ro erb men ha e which says, C.ot gladly would 9 #lay the #rince, unless my words were neCer withstood!C Assuming that the words were good, and that none withstood them, would not that also be goodQ But assuming that they were not good, and yet none withstood them, would it not be #robable that with that one saying he would work his countryCs ruinQP @hen the -uke of &heh consulted him about go ernment, he re#lied, P@here the near are gratified, the far will follow!P @hen TsH$hiV became go ernor of (X$fu, and consulted him about go ernment, he answered, P-o not wish for s#eedy results! -o not look at tri ial ad antages! 9f you wish for s#eedy results, they will not be far$reachingR and if you regard tri ial ad antages you will not successfully deal with im#ortant affairs!P The -uke of &heh in a con ersation with Confucius said, PThere are some straightforward #ersons in my neighborhood! 9f a father has stolen a shee#, the son will gi e e idence against him!P P&traightforward #eo#le in my neighborhood are different from those,P said Confucius! PThe father will hold a thing secret on his sonCs behalf, and the son does the same for his father! They are on their way to becoming straightforward!P )an ChCi was asking him about duty to oneCs fellow$men! PBe courteous,P he re#lied, Pin your #ri ate s#hereR be serious in any duty you take in hand to doR be leal$hearted in your intercourse with others! E en though you were to go amongst the wild tribes, it would not be right for you to neglect these duties!P 9n answer to TsH$kung, who asked, Phow he would characteriHe one who could fitly be called Clearned official,CP the 'aster said, P+e may be so$called who in his #ri ate life is affected with a sense of his own unworthiness, and who, when sent on a mission to any Juarter of the

em#ire, would not disgrace his #rinceCs commands!P P'ay 9 #resume,P said his Juestioner, Pto ask what sort you would #ut neDt to suchQP P+im who is s#oken of by his kinsmen as a dutiful son, and whom the folks of his neighborhood callC good brother!CP P'ay 9 still enture to ask whom you would #lace neDt in orderQP P&uch as are sure to be true to their word, and effecti e in their work$$who are gi en to hammering, as it were, u#on one note$$of inferior calibre indeed, but fit enough, 9 think, to be ranked neDt!P P+ow would you describe those who are at #resent in the go ernment ser iceQP P=ghU mere #eck and #anier menU$$not worth taking into the reckoning!P :nce he remarked, P9f 9 cannot get F ia mediaF men to im#art instruction to, then 9 must of course take the im#etuous and undisci#linedU The im#etuous ones will at least go forward and lay hold on thingsR and the undisci#lined ha e at least something in them which needs to be brought out!P PThe &outherners,P said he, Pha e the #ro erb, CThe man who sticks not to rule will ne er make a charm$worker or a medical man,C GoodU$$C@hoe er is intermittent in his #ractise of irtue will li e to be ashamed of it!C @ithout #rognostication,P he added, Pthat will indeed be so!P PThe nobler$minded man,P he remarked, Pwill be agreeable e en when he disagreesR the small$minded man will agree and be disagreeable!P TsH$kung was consulting him, and asked, P@hat say you of a #erson who was liked by all in his illageQP PThat will scarcely do,P he answered! P@hat, then, if they all disliked himQP PThat, too,P said he, Pis scarcely enough! Better if he were liked by the good folk in the illage, and disliked by the bad!P PThe su#erior man,P he once obser ed, Pis easy to ser e, but difficult to #lease! Try to #lease him by the ado#tion of wrong #rinci#les, and you will fail! Also, when such a one em#loys others, he uses them according to their ca#acity! The inferior man is, on the other hand, difficult to ser e, but easy to #lease! Try to #lease him by the ado#tion of wrong #rinci#les, and you will succeed! And when he em#loys others he reJuires them to be fully #re#ared for e erything!P Again, PThe su#erior man can be high without being haughty! The inferior man can be haughty if not high!P PThe firm, the unflinching, the #lain and sim#le, the slow to s#eak,P said he once, Pare a##roDimating towards their duty to their fellow$men!P

TsH$lu asked how he would characteriHe one who might fitly be called an educated gentleman! The master re#lied, P+e who can #ro#erly be so$called will ha e in him a seriousness of #ur#ose, a habit of controlling himself, and an agreeableness of manner% among his friends and associates the seriousness and the self$control, and among his brethren the agreeableness of manner!P PLet good and able men disci#line the #eo#le for se en years,P said the 'aster, Pand after that they may do to go to war!P But, said he, PTo lead an undisci#lined #eo#le to war$$that 9 call throwing them away!P B::( B9> Good and Bad Go ernment$$'iscellaneous &ayings "uen &H asked what might be considered to bring shame on one! PPay,P said the 'asterR P#ay$$e er looking to that, whether the country be well or badly go erned!P P@hen im#eriousness, boastfulness, resentments, and co etousness cease to #re ail among the #eo#le, may it be considered that mutual good$will has been effectedQP To this Juestion the 'aster re#lied, PA hard thing o ercome, it may be considered! But as to the mutual good$will$$9 cannot tell!P PLearned officials,P said he, Pwho hanker after a home life, are not worthy of being esteemed as such!P Again, P9n a country under good go ernment, s#eak boldly, act boldly! @hen the land is ill$go erned, though you act boldly, let your words be moderate!P Again, P'en of irtue will needs be men of words$$will s#eak out$$but men of words are not necessarily men of irtue! They who care for their fellow$men will needs be bold, but the bold may not necessarily be such as care for their fellow$men!P .an$kung (woh, who was consulting Confucius, obser ed res#ecting 9, the skilful archer, and .gau, who could #ro#el a boat on dry land, that neither of them died a natural deathR while "u and Tsih, who with their own hands had labored at husbandry, came to wield im#erial sway! The 'aster ga e him no re#ly! But when the s#eaker had gone out he eDclaimed, PA su#erior man, thatU A man who alues irtue, thatUP PThere ha e been noble$minded men,P said he, Pwho yet were wanting in #hilanthro#yR but ne er has there been a small$minded man who had #hilanthro#y in him!P +e asked, PCan any one refuse to toil for those he lo esQ Can any one refuse to eDhort, who is true$heartedQP &#eaking of the #re#aration of Go ernment .otifications in his day he

said, PPCi would draw u# a rough sketch of what was to be saidR the &hishuh then looked it carefully through and #ut it into #ro#er sha#eR TsH$yu neDt, who was master of the ceremonial of &tate intercourse, im#ro ed and adorned its #hrasesR and TsH$chCan of Tung$li added his scholarly embellishments thereto!P To some one who asked his o#inion of the last$named, he said, P+e was a kind$hearted man!P Asked what he thought of TsH$si, he eDclaimed, PAlas for himU alas for himUP$$Asked again about (wan Chung, his answer was, PAs to him, he once seiHed the town of PCin with its three hundred families from the Chief of the Pih clan, who, afterwards reduced to li ing u#on coarse rice, with all his teeth gone, ne er uttered a word of com#laint!P P9t is no light thing,P said he, Pto endure #o erty uncom#laininglyR and a difficult thing to bear wealth without becoming arrogant!P ,es#ecting 'ang (ung$chCoh, he said that, while he was fitted for something better than the #ost of chief officer in the ChVu or @ei families, he was not com#etent to act as minister in small &tates like those of TCang or &ieh! TsH$lu asked how he would describe a #erfect man! +e re#lied, PLet a man ha e the sagacity of Tsang @u$chung, the freedom from co etousness of (ung$chCoh, the boldness of Chwang of PCin, and the attainments in #olite arts of "en "uR and gift him further with the graces taught by the CBooks of ,itesC and C'usicC$$then he may be considered a #erfect man! But,P said he, Pwhat need of such in these daysQ The man that may be regarded as #erfect now is the one who, seeing some ad antage to himself, is mindful of righteousnessR who, seeing danger, risks his lifeR and who, if bound by some co enant of long standing, ne er forgets its conditions as life goes on!P ,es#ecting (ung$shuh @an, the 'aster inJuired of (ung$ming (iV, saying, P9s it true that your master ne er s#eaks, ne er laughs, ne er takes aught from othersQP PThose who told you that of him,P said he, Pha e gone too far! 'y master s#eaks when there is occasion to do so, and men are not surfeited with his s#eaking! @hen there is occasion to be merry too, he will laugh, but men ha e ne er o ermuch of his laughing! And whene er it is just and right to take things from others, he will take them, but ne er so as to allow men to think him burdensome!P P9s that the case with himQP said the 'aster! PCan it be soQP ,es#ecting Tsang @u$chung the 'aster said, P@hen he sought from Lu the a##ointment of a successor to him, and for this object held on to his #ossession of the fortified city of )ang$$if you say he was not then using constraint towards his #rince, 9 must refuse to belie e it!P -uke @an of Tsin he characteriHed as Partful but not u#rightPR and -uke +wan of TsCi as Pu#right but not artful!P TsH$lu remarked, P@hen -uke +wan caused his brother (iu to be #ut to death, &hau +wuh committed suicide, but (wan Chung did not! 9 should say he was not a man who had much good$will in him$$ehQP The 'aster re#lied, P@hen -uke +wan held a great gathering of the feudal lords, dis#ensing with military eJui#age, it was owing to (wan ChungCs

energy that such an e ent was brought about! 'atch such good$will as that$$match it if you can!P TsH$kung then s#oke u#! PBut was not (wan Chung wanting in good$willQ +e could not gi e u# his life when -uke +wan caused his brother to be #ut to death! Besides, he became the dukeCs counsellor!P PAnd in acting as his counsellor #ut him at the head of all the feudal lords,P said the 'aster, Pand unified and reformed the whole em#ireR and the #eo#le, e en to this day, rea# benefit from what he did! +ad it not been for him we should ha e been going about with locks unkem#t and buttoning our jackets Mlike barbariansN on the left! @ould you su##ose that he should show the same sort of attachment as eDists between a #oor yokel and his one wife$$that he would as#hyDiate himself in some sewer, lea ing no one the wiserQP (ung$shuh @anCs steward, who became the high officer &ien, went u# accom#anied by @an to the #rinceCs hall of audience! @hen Confucius heard of this he remarked, P+e may well be esteemed a C@an,CP The 'aster ha ing made some reference to the lawless ways of -uke Ling of @ei, (i (Cang said to him, P9f he be like that, how is it he does not ruin his #ositionQP Confucius answered, PThe Chung$shuh, "u, is charged with the entertainment of isitors and strangersR the #riest TCo has charge of the ancestral tem#leR and @ang$sun (iV has the control of the army and its di isions%$$with men such as those, how should he come to ruinQP +e once remarked, P+e who is unblushing in his words will with difficulty substantiate them!P ChCin &hing had slain -uke (ien! +earing of this, Confucius, after #erforming his ablutions, went to Court and announced the news to -uke .gai, saying, PChCin +ang has slain his #rince! 'ay 9 reJuest that you #roceed against himQP P9nform the Chiefs of the Three )amilies,P said the duke! &oliloJuiHing u#on this, Confucius said, P&ince he uses me to back his ministers, 4328 9 did not dare not to announce the matter to himR and now he says, C9nform the Three Chiefs!CP +e went to the Three Chiefs and informed them, but nothing could be done! @hereu#on again he said, P&ince he uses me to back his ministers, 9 did not dare not to announce the matter!P TsH$lu was Juestioning him as to how he should ser e his #rince! P-ecei e him not, but re#ro e him,P he answered! PThe minds of su#erior men,P he obser ed, Ptrend u#wardsR those of inferior men trend downwards!P Again, P&tudents of old fiDed their eyes u#on themsel es% now they learn with their eyes u#on others!P (X Pih$yuh des#atched a man with a message to Confucius! Confucius ga e

him a seat, and among other inJuiries he asked, P+ow is your master managingQP P'y master,P he re#lied, Phas a great wish to be seldom at fault, and as yet he cannot manage it!P P@hat a messengerUP eDclaimed he admiringly, when the man went out! P@hat a messengerUP P@hen not occu#ying the office,P was a remark of his, Pde ise not the #olicy!P The Learned Tsang used to say, PThe thoughts of the Csu#erior manC do not wander from his own office!P P&u#erior men,P said the 'aster, Pare modest in their words, #rofuse in their deeds!P Again, PThere are three attainments of the su#erior man which are beyond me$$the being sym#athetic without anDiety, wise without sce#ticism, bra e without fear!P P&ir,P said TsH$kung, Pthat is what you say of yourself!P @hene er TsH$kung drew com#arisons from others, the 'aster would say, PAh, how wise and great you must ha e becomeU .ow 9 ha e no time to do that!P Again, P'y great concern is, not that men do not know me, but that they cannot!P Again, P9f a man refrain from making #re#arations against his being im#osed u#on, and from counting u#on othersC want of good faith towards him, while he is foremost to #ercei e what is #assing$$surely that is a wise and good man!P @i$shang 'au accosted Confucius, saying, P(iu, how comes it that you manage to go #erching and roosting in this wayQ 9s it not because you show yourself so smart a s#eaker, nowQP P9 should not dare do that,P said Confucius! PTis that 9 am sick of menCs immo ableness and deafness to reason!P P9n a well$bred horse,P said he, Pwhat one admires is not its s#eed, but its good #oints!P &ome one asked, P@hat say you of the remark, C,eJuite enmity with kindnessCQP P+ow then,P he answered, Pwould you reJuite kindnessQ ,eJuite enmity with straightforwardness, and kindness with kindness!P PAhU no one knows meUP he once eDclaimed! P&ir,P said TsH$kung, Phow comes it to #ass that no one knows youQP P@hile 9 murmur not against +ea en,P continued the 'aster, Pnor ca il at menR while 9 stoo# to learn and as#ire to #enetrate into things that are highR yet Ctis +ea en alone knows what 9 am!P LiVu, a kinsman of the duke, ha ing laid a com#laint against TsH$lu

before (i (Cang, an officer came to Confucius to inform him of the fact, and he added, P'y lord is certainly ha ing his mind #oisoned by his kinsman LiVu, but through my influence #erha#s we may yet manage to see him eD#osed in the market#lace or the Court!P P9f right #rinci#les are to ha e their course, it is so destined,P said the 'asterR Pif they are not to ha e their course, it is so destined! @hat can LiVu do against -estinyQP PThere are worthy men,P said the 'aster, Pfleeing from the worldR some from their districtR some from the sight of menCs looksR some from the language they hear!P PThe men who ha e risen from their #osts and withdrawn in this manner are se en in number!P TsH$lu, ha ing lodged o ernight in &hih$mun, was accosted by the gate$kee#er in the morning! P@here fromQP he asked! P)rom Confucius,P TsH$lu res#onded! PThat is the man,P said he, Pwho knows things are not u# to the mark, and is making some ado about them, is it notQP @hen the 'aster was in @ei, he was once #ounding on the musical stone, when a man with a basket of straw crossed his threshold, and eDclaimed, PAh, there is a heart that feelsU Aye, drub the stoneUP After which he added, P+ow ulgarU how he hammers away on one noteU$$and no one knows him, and he gi es u#, and all is o erU Be it dee#, our skirts weCll raise to the waist, $$:r shallow, then u# to the knee,CP P@hat determinationUP said the 'aster! P"et it was not hard to do!P TsH$chang once said to him, P9n the CBook of the AnnalsC it is stated that while (Vu$tsung was in the 'ourning &hed he s#ent the three years without s#eaking! @hat is meant by thatQP P@hy must you name (Vu$tsungQP said the 'aster! P9t was so with all other ancient so ereigns% when one of them died, the heads of e ery de#artment agreed between themsel es that they should gi e ear for three years to the Prime 'inister!P P@hen their betters lo e the ,ules, then the folk are easy tools,P was a saying of the 'aster! TsH$lu ha ing asked what made a Psu#erior man,P he answered, P&elf$culture, with a iew to becoming seriously$minded!P P.othing more than thatQP said he! P&elf$culture with a iew to the greater satisfaction of others,P added the 'aster! PThat, and yet no moreQP P&elf$culture with a iew to the greater satisfaction of all the clans and classes,P he again added! P&elf$culture for the sake of all$$a result that, that would almost #ut "au and &hun into

the shadeUP To "uen <ang, 43/8 who was sitting waiting for him in a sJuatting Mdisres#ectfulN #osture, the 'aster deli ered himself as follows% PThe man who in his youth could show no humility or subordination, who in his #rime misses his o##ortunity, and who when old age comes u#on him will not die$$that man is a miscreant!P And he ta##ed him on the shin with his staff! &ome one asked about his attendant$$a youth from the illage of (iueh$$whether he was one who im#ro ed! +e re#lied, P9 note that he seats himself in the #laces reser ed for his betters, and that when he is walking he kee#s abreast with his seniors! +e is not one of those who care for im#ro ement% he wants to be a man all at once!P 4)ootnote 32% Confucius had now retired from office, and this incident occurred only two years before his death!8 4)ootnote 3/% 9t is a habit with the Chinese, when a number are out walking together, for the eldest to go first, the others #airing off according to their age! 9t is a custom much older than the time of Confucius!8 B::( B> Practical @isdom$$,eci#rocity the ,ule of Life -uke Ling of @ei was consulting Confucius about army arrangements! +is answer was, P+ad you asked me about such things as tem#le reJuisites, 9 ha e learnt that business, but 9 ha e not yet studied military matters!P And he followed u# this re#ly by lea ing on the following day! After this, during his residence in the &tate of ChCin, his followers, owing to a sto##age of food su##ly, became so weak and ill that not one of them could stand! TsH$lu, with indignation #ictured on his countenance, eDclaimed, PAnd is a gentleman to suffer star ationQP PA gentleman,P re#lied the 'aster, Pwill endure it unmo ed, but a common #erson breaks out into eDcesses under it!P Addressing TsH$kung, the 'aster said, P"ou regard me as one who studies and stores u# in his mind a multi#licity of things$$do you notQP$$P9 do,P he re#liedR Pis it not soQP$$P.ot at all! 9 ha e one idea$$one cord on which to string all!P To TsH$lu he remarked, PThey who know >irtue are rare!P P9f you would know one who without effort ruled well, was not &hun such a oneQ @hat did he indeed doQ +e bore himself with re erent dignity and unde iatingly Cfaced the south,C and that was all!P TsH$chang was consulting him about making way in life! +e answered, PBe true and honest in all you say, and seriously earnest in all you do, and then, e en if your country be one inhabited by barbarians, &outh or

.orth, you will make your way! 9f you do not show yourself thus in word and deed how should you succeed, e en in your own district or neighborhoodQ$$@hen you are afoot, let these two counsels be two com#anions #receding you, yourself iewing them from behindR when you dri e, ha e them in iew as on the yoke of your carriage! Then may you make your way!P TsH$chang wrote them on the two ends of his cincture! P&traight was the course of the Annalist "u,P said the 'aster$$Paye, straight as an arrow fliesR were the country well go erned or ill go erned, his was an arrow$like course! PA man of masterly mind, too, is (X Pih$yuhU @hen the land is being rightly go erned he will ser eR when it is under bad go ernment he is a#t to recoil, and brood!P P.ot to s#eak to a man!P said he, Pto whom you ought to s#eak, is to lose your manR to s#eak to one to whom you ought not to s#eak is to lose your words! Those who are wise will not lose their man nor yet their words!P Again, PThe scholar whose heart is in his work, and who is #hilanthro#ic, seeks not to gain a li elihood by any means that will do harm to his #hilanthro#y! There ha e been men who ha e destroyed their own li es in the endea or to bring that irtue in them to #erfection!P TsH$kung asked how to become #hilanthro#ic! The 'aster answered him thus% PA workman who wants to do his work well must first shar#en his tools! 9n whate er land you li e, ser e under some wise and good man among those in high office, and make friends with the more humane of its men of education!P "en "uen consulted him on the management of a country! +e answered%$$ PGo by the +iV Calendar! +a e the &tate carriages like those of the "in #rinces! @ear the Chow ca#! )or your music let that of &hun be used for the #osturers! Put away the songs of ChCing, and remo e far from you men of artful s#eech% the ChCing songs are immodest, and artful talkers are dangerous!P :ther sayings of the 'aster%$$ PThey who care not for the morrow will the sooner ha e their sorrow! PAh, Ctis ho#elessU 9 ha e not yet met with the man who lo es >irtue as he lo es Beauty! P@as not Tsang @an like one who surre#titiously came by the #ost he heldQ +e knew the worth of +wWi of Liu$hiV, and could not stand in his #resence! PBe generous yourself, and eDact little from othersR then you banish com#laints! P@ith one who does not come to me inJuiring C@hat of thisQC and C@hat of thatQC 9 ne er can ask C@hat of thisQC and gi e him u#! P9f a number of students are all day together, and in their con ersation

ne er a##roach the subject of righteousness, but are fond merely of gi ing currency to smart little sayings, they are difficult indeed to manage! P@hen the Csu#erior manC regards righteousness as the thing material, gi es o#eration to it according to the ,ules of Pro#riety, lets it issue in humility, and become com#lete in sincerity$$there indeed is your su#erior manU PThe trouble of the su#erior man will be his own want of ability% it will be no trouble to him that others do not know him! P&uch a man thinks it hard to end his days and lea e a name to be no longer named! PThe su#erior man is eDacting of himselfR the common man is eDacting of others! PA su#erior man has self$res#ect, and does not stri eR is sociable, yet no #arty man! P+e does not #romote a man because of his words, or #ass o er the words because of the man!P TsH$kung #ut to him the Juestion, P9s there one word u#on which the whole life may #roceedQP The 'aster re#lied, P9s not ,eci#rocity such a wordQ$$what you do not yourself desire, do not #ut before others!P P&o far as 9 ha e to do with others, whom do 9 o er$censureQ whom do 9 o er$#raiseQ 9f there be something in them that looks ery #raiseworthy, that something 9 #ut to the test! 9 would ha e the men of the #resent day to walk in the straight #ath whereby those of the Three -ynasties ha e walked! P9 ha e arri ed as it were at the annalistCs blank #age!$$:nce he who had a horse would lend it to another to mountR now, alasU it is not so! PArtful s#eech is the confusion of >irtue! 9m#atience o er little things introduces confusion into great schemes! P@hat is disliked by the masses needs inJuiring intoR so also does that which they ha e a #reference for! PA man may gi e breadth to his #rinci#les% it is not #rinci#les Min themsel esN that gi e breadth to the man! P.ot to retract after committing an error may itself be called error! P9f 9 ha e #assed the whole day without food and the whole night without slee#, occu#ied with my thoughts, it #rofits me nothing% 9 were better engaged in learning! PThe su#erior man deliberates u#on how he may walk in truth, not u#on what he may eat! The farmer may #lough, and be on the way to want% the student learns, and is on his way to emolument! To li e a right life is the concern of men of nobler minds% #o erty gi es them none!

P@hatsoe er the intellect may attain to, unless the humanity within is #owerful enough to kee# guard o er it, is assuredly lost, e en though it be gained! P9f there be intellectual attainments, and the humanity within is #owerful enough to kee# guard o er them, yet, unless Min a rulerN there be dignity in his rule, the #eo#le will fail to show him res#ect! PAgain, gi en the intellectual attainments, and humanity sufficient to kee# watch o er them, and also dignity in ruling, yet if his mo ements be not in accordance with the ,ules of Pro#riety, he is not yet fully Jualified! PThe su#erior man may not be con ersant with #etty details, and yet may ha e im#ortant matters #ut into his hands! The inferior man may not be charged with im#ortant matters, yet may be con ersant with the #etty details! PGood$fellowshi# is more to men than fire and water! 9 ha e seen men ste##ing into fire and into water, and meeting with death therebyR 9 ha e not yet seen a man die from #lanting his ste#s in the #ath of good$fellowshi#! P,ely u#on good nature! CTwill not allow #recedence e en to a teacher! PThe su#erior man is infleDibly u#right, and takes not things u#on trust! P9n ser ing your #rince, make your ser ice the serious concern, and let salary be a secondary matter! P@here instruction is to be gi en, there must be no distinction of #ersons! P@here menCs methods are not identical, there can be no #lanning by one on behalf of another! P9n s#eaking, #ers#icuity is all that is needed!P @hen the blind music$master 'ien #aid him a isit, on his a##roaching the ste#s the 'aster called out P&te#s,P and on his coming to the mat, said P'at!P @hen all in the room were seated, the 'aster told him P&o$and$so is here, so$and$so is here!P @hen the music$master had left, TsH$chang said to him, P9s that the way to s#eak to the music$masterQP P@ell,P he re#lied, Pit is certainly the way to assist him!P B::( B>9 Against 9ntestine &trife$$Good and Bad )riendshi#s The Chief of the (i family was about to make an onslaught u#on the Chuen$yu domain! "en "u and TsH$lu in an inter iew with Confucius told him, PThe (i is

about to ha e an affair with Chuen$yu!P P"en,P said Confucius, Pdoes not the fault lie with youQ The Chief of Chuen$yu in times #ast was a##ointed lord of the East 'ung MmountainNR besides, he dwells within the confines of your own &tate, and is an official of the &tate$worshi#R how can you think of making an onslaught u#on himQP P9t is the wish of our Chief,P said "en "u, Pnot the wish of either of us ministers!P Confucius said, P"en, there is a sentence of ChVu <in which runs thus% C+a ing made manifest their #owers and taken their #lace in the official list, when they find themsel es incom#etent they resignR if they cannot be firm when danger threatens the go ernment, nor lend su##ort when it is reeling, of what use then shall they be as AssistantsQC$$Besides, you are wrong in what you said! @hen a rhinoceros or tiger breaks out of its cage$$when a jewel or tortoise$shell ornament is damaged in its casket$$whose fault is itQP PBut,P said "en "u, Pso far as Chuen$yu is concerned, it is now fortified, and it is close to PiR and if he does not now take it, in another generation it will certainly be a trouble to his descendants!P P"enUP eDclaimed Confucius, Pit is a #ainful thing to a su#erior man to ha e to desist from saying, C'y wish is so$and$so,C and to be obliged to make a#ologies! )or my #art, 9 ha e learnt this$$that rulers of &tates and heads of +ouses are not greatly concerned about their small following, but about the want of eJuilibrium in it$$that they do not concern themsel es about their becoming #oor, but about the best means of li ing Juietly and contentedlyR for where eJuilibrium is #reser ed there will be no #o erty, where there is harmony their following will not be small, and where there is Juiet contentment there will be no decline nor fall! .ow if that be the case, it follows that if men in outlying districts are not submissi e, then a reform in education and morals will bring them toR and when they ha e been so won, then will you render them Juiet and contented! At the #resent time you two are Assistants of your ChiefR the #eo#le in the outlying districts are not submissi e, and cannot be brought round! "our dominion is di ided, #rostrate, dis#ersed, cleft in #ieces, and you as its guardians are #owerless! And #lans are being made for taking u# arms against those who dwell within your own &tate! 9 am a##rehensi e that the sorrow of the (i family is not to lie in Chuen$yu, but in those within their own screen!P P@hen the em#ire is well$ordered,P said Confucius, Pit is from the em#eror that edicts regarding ceremonial, music, and eD#editions to Juell rebellion go forth! @hen it is being ill go erned, such edicts emanate from the feudal lordsR and when the latter is the case, it will be strange if in ten generations there is not a colla#se! 9f they emanate merely from the high officials, it will be strange if the colla#se do not come in fi e generations! @hen the &tate$edicts are in the hands of the subsidiary ministers, it will be strange if in three generations there is no colla#se! P@hen the em#ire is well$ordered, go ernment is not left in the hands of high officials! P@hen the em#ire is well$ordered, the common #eo#le will cease to discuss #ublic matters!P

P)or fi e generations,P he said, Pthe re enue has de#arted from the ducal household! )our generations ago the go ernment fell into the hands of the high officials! +ence, alasU the straitened means of the descendants of the three +wan families!P PThere are,P said he, Pthree kinds of friendshi#s which are #rofitable, and three which are detrimental! To make friends with the u#right, with the trustworthy, with the eD#erienced, is to gain benefitR to make friends with the subtly #er erse, with the artfully #liant, with the subtle in s#eech, is detrimental!P Again, PThere are three kinds of #leasure which are #rofitable, and three which are detrimental! To take #leasure in going regularly through the arious branches of Ceremonial and 'usic, in s#eaking of othersC goodness, in ha ing many worthy wise friends, is #rofitable! To take #leasure in wild bold #leasures, in idling carelessly about, in the too jo ial accom#animents of feasting, is detrimental!P Again, PThree errors there be, into which they who wait u#on their su#erior may fall%$$M/N to s#eak before the o##ortunity comes to them to s#eak, which 9 call heedless hasteR M1N refraining from s#eaking when the o##ortunity has come, which 9 call concealmentR and M3N s#eaking, regardless of the mood he is in, which 9 call blindness!P Again, PThree things a su#erior should guard against%$$M/N against the lusts of the flesh in his earlier years while the ital #owers are not fully de elo#ed and fiDedR M1N against the s#irit of combati eness when he has come to the age of robust manhood and when the ital #owers are matured and strong, and M3N against ambitiousness when old age has come on and the ital #owers ha e become weak and decayed!P PThree things also such a man greatly re eres%$$M/N the ordinances of +ea en, M1N great men, M3N words of sages! The inferior man knows not the ordinances of +ea en and therefore re eres them not, is unduly familiar in the #resence of great men, and scoffs at the words of sages!P PThey whose knowledge comes by birth are of all men the first in understandingR they to whom it comes by study are neDtR men of #oor intellectual ca#acity, who yet study, may be added as a yet inferior classR and lowest of all are they who are #oor in intellect and ne er learn!P P.ine things there are of which the su#erior man should be mindful%$$to be clear in ision, Juick in hearing, genial in eD#ression, res#ectful in demeanor, true in word, serious in duty, inJuiring in doubt, firmly self$controlled in anger, just and fair when the way to success o#ens out before him!P P&ome ha e s#oken of Clooking u#on goodness as u#on something beyond their reach,C and of Clooking u#on e il as like #lunging oneCs hands into scalding liJuidCR$$9 ha e seen the men, 9 ha e heard the sayings! P&ome, again, ha e talked of Cli ing in seclusion to work out their designs,C and of CeDercising themsel es in righteous li ing in order to render their #rinci#les the more effecti eCR$$9 ha e heard the sayings, 9 ha e not seen the men!P

P-uke (ing of TsCi had his thousand teams of four, yet on the day of his death the #eo#le had nothing to say of his goodness! Peh$9 and &huh$TsCi star ed at the foot of &hau$yang, and the #eo#le make mention of them to this day! CECen if not wealth thine object be, CTis all the same, thouCrt changed to me!C P9s not this a#ro#os in such casesQP TsH$kCin asked of Pih$yu, P+a e you heard anything else #eculiar from your fatherQP P.ot yet,P said he! P:nce, though, he was standing alone when 9 was hurrying #ast him o er the estibule, and he said, CAre you studying the :desQC C.ot yet,C 9 re#lied! C9f you do not learn the :des,C said he, Cyou will not ha e the wherewithal for con ersing,C 9 turned away and studied the :des! Another day, when he was again standing alone and 9 was hurrying #ast across the estibule, he said to me, CAre you learning the ,ules of Pro#rietyQC C.ot yet,C 9 re#lied! C9f you ha e not studied the ,ules, you ha e nothing to stand u#on,C said he! 9 turned away and studied the ,ules!$$These two things 9 ha e heard from him!P TsH$kCin turned away, and in great glee eDclaimed, P9 asked one thing, and ha e got three! 9 ha e learnt something about the :des, and about the ,ules, and moreo er 9 ha e learnt how the su#erior man will turn away his own son!P The wife of the ruler of a &tate is called by her husband P'y hel#meet!P &he s#eaks of herself as P"our little handmaiden!P The #eo#le of that &tate call her PThe #rinceCs hel#meet,P but addressing #ersons of another &tate they s#eak of her as P:ur little #rincess!P @hen #ersons of another &tate name her they say also P"our #rinceCs hel#meet!P B::( B>99 The 'aster 9nduced to Take :ffice$$.ature and +abit "ang +o was desirous of ha ing an inter iew with Confucius, but on the latterCs failing to go and see him, he sent a #resent of a #ig to his house! Confucius went to return his acknowledgments for it at a time when he was not at home! They met, howe er, on the way! +e said to Confucius, PCome, 9 want a word with you! Can that man be said to ha e good$will towards his fellow$men who hugs and hides his own #recious gifts and allows his country to go on in blind errorQP P+e cannot,P was the re#ly! PAnd can he be said to be wise who, with a liking for taking #art in the #ublic ser ice, is constantly letting sli# his o##ortunitiesQP P+e cannot,P was the re#ly again! PAnd the days and months are #assingR and the years do not wait for us!P

PTrue,P said ConfuciusR P9 will take office!P 9t was a remark of the 'aster that while Pby nature we a##roDimate towards each other, by eD#erience we go far asunder!P Again, P:nly the su#remely wise and the most dee#ly ignorant do not alter!P The 'aster once, on his arri al at @u$shing, heard the sound of stringed instruments and singing! +is face beamed with #leasure, and he said laughingly, PTo kill a cock$$why use an oD$knifeQP TsH$yu, the go ernor, re#lied, P9n former days, sir, 9 heard you say, CLet the su#erior man learn right #rinci#les, and he will be lo ing to other menR let the ordinary #erson learn right #rinci#les, and he will be easily managed!CP The 'aster Mturning to his disci#lesN said, P&irs, what he says is right% what 9 said just now was only in #lay!P +a ing recei ed an in itation from (ung$shan )uh$jau, who was in re olt against the go ernment and was holding to his district of Pi, the 'aster showed an inclination to go! TsH$lu was a erse to this, and said, P"ou can ne er go, that is certainR how should you feel you must go to that #ersonQP P@ell,P said the 'aster, Phe who has in ited me must surely not ha e done so without a sufficient reasonU And if it should ha##en that my ser ices were enlisted, 9 might create for him another East Chow$$donCt you think soQP TsH$chang asked Confucius about the irtue of #hilanthro#y! +is answer was, P9t is the being able to #ut in #ractice fi e Jualities, in any #lace under the sun!P P'ay 9 ask, #lease, what these areQP said the disci#le! PThey are,P he said, Pdignity, indulgence, faithfulness, earnestness, kindness! 9f you show dignity you will not be mockedR if you are indulgent you will win the multitudeR if faithful, men will #lace their trust in youR if earnest, you will do something meritoriousR and if kind, you will be enabled to a ail yourself am#ly of menCs ser ices!P Pih +ih sent the 'aster an in itation, and he showed an inclination to go! TsH$lu Mseeing thisN said to him, P9n former days, sir, 9 ha e heard you say, CA su#erior man will not enter the society of one who does not that which is good in matters concerning himselfCR and this man is in re olt, with Chung$man in his #ossessionR if you go to him, how will the case standQP P"es,P said the 'aster, Pthose are indeed my wordsR but is it not said, C@hat is hard may be rubbed without being made thin,C and C@hite may be stained without being made blackCQ$$9 am surely not a gourdU +ow am 9 to be strung u# like that kind of thing$$and li e without meansQP PTsH$lu,P said the 'aster, Pyou ha e heard of the siD words with their

siD obfuscationsQP P.o,P said he, Pnot so far!P P&it down, and 9 will tell you them! They are these siD irtues, cared for without care for any study about them%$$#hilanthro#y, wisdom, faithfulness, straightforwardness, courage, firmness! And the siD obfuscations resulting from not liking to learn about them are, res#ecti ely, these%$$fatuity, mental dissi#ation, mischie ousness, #er ersity, insubordination, im#etuosity!P P'y children,P said he once, Pwhy does no one of you study the :desQ$$They are ada#ted to rouse the mind, to assist obser ation, to make #eo#le sociable, to arouse irtuous indignation! They s#eak of duties near and far$$the duty of ministering to a #arent, the duty of ser ing oneCs #rinceR and it is from them that one becomes con ersant with the names of many birds, and beasts, and #lants, and trees!P To his son Pih$yu he said, P&tudy you the :des of Chow and the &outh, and those of &hau and the &outh! The man who studies not these is, 9 should say, somewhat in the #osition of one who stands facing a wallUP PCEtiJuette demands it!C CEtiJuette demands it,C so #eo#le #lead,P said heR Pbut do not these hankerings after jewels and silks indeed demand itQ :r it is, CThe study of 'usic reJuires itC$$C'usic reJuires itCR but do not these #redilections for bells and drums reJuire itQP Again, PThey who assume an outward a##earance of se erity, being inwardly weak, may be likened to low common menR nay, are they not somewhat like thie es that break through walls and stealQP Again, PThe #lebeian kind of res#ect for #iety is the ery #est of irtue!P Again, PListening on the road, and re#eating in the lane$$this is abandonment of irtue!P PAh, the low$minded creaturesUP he eDclaimed! P+ow is it #ossible indeed to ser e oneCs #rince in their com#anyQ Before they ha e got what they wanted they are all anDiety to get it, and after they ha e got it they are all anDiety lest they should lose itR and while they are thus full of concern lest they should lose it, there is no length to which they will not go!P Again, P9n olden times #eo#le had three moral infirmitiesR which, it may be, are now unknown! Ambitiousness in those olden days showed itself in momentary outburstR the ambitiousness of to$day runs riot! Austerity in those days had its shar# anglesR in these it is irritable and #er erse! )eebleness of intellect then was at least straightforwardR in our day it is ne er aught but deceitful!P Again, P,arely do we find mutual good feeling where there is fine s#eech and studied mien!P Again, PTo me it is abhorrent that #ur#le color should be made to detract from that of ermilion! Also that the :des of ChCing should be allowed to introduce discord in connection with the music of the )estal &ongs and +ymns! Also that shar#$whetted tongues should be #ermitted to sub ert go ernments!P

:nce said he, P@ould that 9 could dis#ense with s#eechUP P&ir,P said TsH$kung, Pif you were ne er to s#eak, what should your #u#ils ha e to hand down from youQP P-oes +ea en e er s#eakQP said the 'aster! PThe four seasons come and go, and all creatures li e and grow! -oes +ea en indeed s#eakQP :nce <u Pi desired an inter iew with Confucius, from which the latter eDcused himself on the score of ill$healthR but while the attendant was #assing out through the doorway with the message he took his lute and sang, in such a way as to let him hear him! Tsai @o Juestioned him res#ecting the three yearsC mourning, saying that one full twel e$month was a long time$$that, if gentlemen were for three years to cease from obser ing rules of #ro#riety, #ro#riety must certainly suffer, and that if for three years they neglected music, music must certainly die out$$and that seeing nature has taught us that when the old yearCs grain is finished the new has s#rung u# for us$$seeing also that all the changes4318 in #rocuring fire by friction ha e been gone through in the four seasons$$surely a twel e$month might suffice! The 'aster asked him, P@ould it be a satisfaction to you$$that returning to better food, that #utting on of fine clothesQP P9t would,P said he! PThen if you can be satisfied in so doing, do so! But to a gentleman, who is in mourning for a #arent, the choicest food will not be #alatable, nor will the listening to music be #leasant, nor will comforts of home make him ha##y in mind! +ence he does not do as you suggest! But if you are now ha##y in your mind, then do so!P Tsai @o went out! And the 'aster went on to say, P9t is want of human feeling in this man! After a child has li ed three years it then breaks away from the tender nursing of its #arents! And this three yearsC mourning is the customary mourning #re alent all o er the em#ire! Can this man ha e enjoyed the three years of lo ing care from his #arentsQP PAh, it is difficult,P said he, Pto know what to make of those who are all day long cramming themsel es with food and are without anything to a##ly their minds toU Are there no dice and chess #layersQ Better, #erha#s, join in that #ursuit than do nothing at allUP P-oes a gentleman,P asked TsH$lu, Pmake much account of bra eryQP P,ighteousness he counts higher,P said the 'aster! PA gentleman who is bra e without being just may become turbulentR while a common #erson who is bra e and not just may end in becoming a highwayman!P TsH$kung asked, P9 su##ose a gentleman will ha e his a ersions as well as his likingsQP P"es,P re#lied the 'aster, Phe will dislike those who talk much about other #eo#leCs ill$deeds! +e will dislike those who, when occu#ying inferior #laces, utter defamatory words against their su#eriors! +e will dislike those who, though they may be bra e, ha e no regard for

#ro#riety! And he will dislike those hastily decisi e and enturesome s#irits who are ne ertheless so ham#ered by limited intellect!P PAnd you, too, TsH$kung,P he continued, Pha e your a ersions, ha e you notQP P9 dislike,P said he, Pthose #lagiarists who wish to #ass for wise #ersons! 9 dislike those #eo#le who wish their lack of humility to be taken for bra ery! 9 dislike also those di ulgers of secrets who think to be accounted straightforward!P P:f all others,P said the 'aster, Pwomen$ser ants and men$ser ants are the most difficult #eo#le to ha e the care of! A##roach them in a familiar manner, and they take libertiesR kee# them at a distance, and they grumble!P Again, P@hen a man meets with odium at forty, he will do so to the end!P 4)ootnote 31% -ifferent woods were ado#ted for this #ur#ose at the arious seasons!8 B::( B>999 Good 'en in &eclusion$$-uke of Chow to +is &on P9n the reign of the last king of the "in dynasty,P Confucius 9 said, Pthere were three men of #hilanthro#ic s#irit%$$the iscount of @ei, who withdrew from himR the iscount of (i, who became his bondsmanR and Pi$kan, who re#ro ed him and suffered death!P +wWi of Liu$hiV, who filled the office of Chief Criminal <udge, was thrice dismissed! A #erson remarked to him, PCan you not yet bear to withdrawQP +e re#lied, P9f 9 act in a straightforward way in ser ing men, whither in these days should 9 go, where 9 should not be thrice dismissedQ @ere 9 to ado#t crooked ways in their ser ice, why need 9 lea e the land where my #arents dwellQP -uke (ing of TsCi remarked res#ecting his attitude towards Confucius, P9f he is to be treated like the Chief of the (i family, 9 cannot do it! 9 should treat him as somewhere between the (i and 'ang Chiefs!$$9 am old,P he added, Pand not com#etent to a ail myself of him!P Confucius, hearing of this, went away! The TsCi officials #resented to the Court of Lu a number of female musicians! (i +wan acce#ted them, and for three days no Court was held! Confucius went away! Tsieh$yu, the madman 4338 of TsCu, was once #assing Confucius, singing as he went along! +e sang$$ P+a, the #hoeniDU +a, the #hoeniDU +ow is >irtue lying #roneU >ain to chide for what is oCer,

Confucius alighted, wishing to enter into con ersation with himR but the man hurried along and left him, and he was therefore unable to get a word with him! ChCang$tsX and (ieh$nih 43S8 were working together on some #loughed land! Confucius was #assing by them, and sent TsH$lu to ask where the ford was! ChCang$tsX said, P@ho is the #erson dri ing the carriageQP PConfucius,P answered TsH$lu! P+e of LuQP he asked! PThe same,P said TsH$lu! P+e knows then where the ford is,P said he! TsH$lu then #ut his Juestion to (ieh$nihR and the latter asked, P@ho are youQP TsH$lu ga e his name! P"ou are a follower of Confucius of Lu, are you notQP P"ou are right,P he answered! PAh, as these waters rise and o erflow their bounds,P said he, PCtis so with all throughout the em#ireR and who is he that can alter the state of thingsQ And you are a follower of a learned man who withdraws from his chiefR had you not better be a follower of such as ha e forsaken the worldQP And he went on with his harrowing, without sto##ing! TsH$lu went and informed his 'aster of all this! +e was dee#ly touched, and said, P:ne cannot herd on eJual terms with beasts and birds% if 9 am not to li e among these human folk, then with whom else should 9 li eQ :nly when the em#ire is well ordered shall 9 cease to take #art in the work of reformation!P TsH$lu was following the 'aster, but had dro##ed behind on the way, when he encountered an old man with a weed$basket slung on a staff o er his shoulder! TsH$lu inJuired of him, P+a e you seen my 'aster, sirQP &aid the old man, P@ho is your masterQ$$you who ne er em#loy your four limbs in laborious workR you who do not know one from another of the fi e sorts of grainUP And he stuck his staff in the ground, and began his weeding! TsH$lu brought his hands together on his breast and stood still! The old man ke#t TsH$lu and lodged him for the night, killed a fowl and #re#ared some millet, entertained him, and brought his two sons out to see him! :n the morrow TsH$lu went on his way, and told all this to the 'aster, who said, P+e is a recluse,P and sent TsH$lu back to see him again! But

Plan to meet whatCs yet in store! Let aloneU Let aloneU ,isky now to ser e a throne!P

by the time he got there he was gone! TsH$lu remarked u#on this, P9t is not right he should e ade official duties! 9f he cannot allow any neglect of the terms on which elders and juniors should li e together, how is it that he neglects to conform to what is #ro#er as between #rince and #ublic ser antQ +e wishes for himself #ersonally a #ure life, yet creates disorder in that more im#ortant relationshi#! @hen a gentleman undertakes #ublic work, he will carry out the duties #ro#er to itR and he knows beforehand that right #rinci#les may not win their way!P Among those who ha e retired from #ublic life ha e been Peh$9 and &huh$TsCi, "u$chung, 9$yih, Chu$chang, +wWi of Liuhia, and &hVu$lien! P:f these,P said the 'aster, PPeh$9 and &huh$TsCi may be characteriHed, 9 should say, as men who ne er declined from their high resol e nor soiled themsel es by aught of disgrace! P:f +wWi of Liu$hiV and &hVu$lien, if one may say that they did decline from high resol e, and that they did bring disgrace u#on themsel es, yet their words were consonant with established #rinci#les, and their action consonant with menCs thoughts and wishesR and this is all that may be said of them! P:f "u$chung and 9$yih, if it be said that when they retired into #ri acy they let loose their tongues, yet in their aim at #ersonal #urity of life they succeeded, and their defection was also successful in its influence! P'y own rule is different from any ado#ted by these% 9 will take no liberties, 9 will ha e no curtailing of my liberty!P The chief music$master went off to TsCi! (an, the conductor of the music at the second re#ast, went o er to TsCu! LiVu, conductor at the third re#ast, went o er to TsCai! And (iueh, who conducted at the fourth, went to TsCin! )ang$shuh, the drummer, withdrew into the neighborhood of the +o! @u the tambourer went to the +an! And "ang the junior music$master, and &iang who #layed on the musical stone, went to the sea$coast! Anciently the -uke of Chow, addressing his son the -uke of Lu, said, PA good man in high #lace is not indifferent about the members of his own family, and does not gi e occasion to the chief ministers to com#lain that they are not em#loyedR nor without great cause will he set aside old friendshi#sR nor does he seek for full eJui#ment for e ery kind of ser ice in any single man!P There were once eight officials during this Chow dynasty, who were four #airs of twins, all brothers$$the eldest #air Tab and (woh, the neDt Tub and +wuh, the third "K and +iV, the youngest &ui and (wa! 4)ootnote 33% +e only #retended to be mad, in order to esca#e being em#loyed in the #ublic ser ice!8 4)ootnote 3S% Two worthies who had abandoned #ublic life, owing to the state of the times!8

B::( B9B Teachings of >arious Chief -isci#les PThe learned official,P said TsH$chang, Pwho when he sees danger ahead will risk his ery life, who when he sees a chance of success is mindful of what is just and #ro#er, who in his religious acts is mindful of the duty of re erence, and when in mourning thinks of his loss, is indeed a fit and #ro#er #erson for his #lace!P Again he said, P9f a #erson hold to irtue but ne er ad ance in it, and if he ha e faith in right #rinci#les and do not build himself u# in them, how can he be regarded either as ha ing such, or as being without themQP TsH$hiVCs disci#les asked TsH$chang his iews about intercourse with others! P@hat says your 'asterQP he rejoined! P+e says,P they re#lied, PCAssociate with those who are Jualified, and re#el from you such as are not,CP TsH$chang then said, PThat is different from what 9 ha e learnt! A su#erior man esteems the worthy and wise, and bears with all! +e makes much of the good and ca#able, and #ities the inca#able! Am 9 eminently worthy and wiseQ$$who is there then among men whom 9 will not bear withQ Am 9 not worthy and wiseQ$$others will be minded to re#el me% 9 ha e nothing to do with re#elling them!P &ayings of TsH$hiV%$$ PE en in inferior #ursuits there must be something worthy of contem#lation, but if carried to an eDtreme there is danger of fanaticismR hence the su#erior man does not engage in them! PThe student who daily recogniHes how much he yet lacks, and as the months #ass forgets not what he has succeeded in learning, may undoubtedly be called a lo er of learning! P@ide research and steadfast #ur#ose, eager Juestioning and close reflection$$all this tends to humaniHe a man! PAs workmen s#end their time in their worksho#s for the #erfecting of their work, so su#erior men a##ly their minds to study in order to make themsel es thoroughly con ersant with their subjects! P@hen an inferior man does a wrong thing, he is sure to gloss it o er! PThe su#erior man is seen in three different as#ects%$$look at him from a distance, he is im#osing in a##earanceR a##roach him, he is gentle and warm$heartedR hear him s#eak, he is acute and strict! PLet such a man ha e the #eo#leCs confidence, and he will get much work out of themR so long, howe er, as he does not #ossess their confidence they will regard him as grinding them down! P@hen confidence is re#osed in him, he may then with im#unity administer re#roofR so long as it is not, he will be regarded as a detractor! P@here there is no o er$ste##ing of barriers in the #ractice of the

higher irtues, there may be freedom to #ass in and out in the #ractice of the lower ones!P TsH$yu had said, PThe #u#ils in the school of TsH$hiV are good enough at such things as s#rinkling and scrubbing floors, answering calls and re#lying to Juestions from su#eriors, and ad ancing and retiring to and from suchR but these things are only offshoots$$as to the root of things they are nowhere! @hat is the use of all thatQP @hen this came to the ears of TsH$hiV, he said, PAhU there he is mistaken! @hat does a master, in his methods of teaching, consider first in his #rece#tsQ And what does he account neDt, as that about which he may be indifferentQ 9t is like as in the study of #lants$$classification by FdifferentiaeF! +ow may a master #lay fast and loose in his methods of instructionQ @ould they not indeed be sages, who could take in at once the first #rinci#les and the final de elo#ments of thingsQP )urther obser ations of TsH$hiV%$$ P9n the #ublic ser ice de ote what energy and time remain to study! After study de ote what energy and time remain to the #ublic ser ice! PAs to the duties of mourning, let them cease when the grief is #ast! P'y friend TsH$chang, although he has the ability to tackle hard things, has not yet the irtue of #hilanthro#y!P The learned Tsang obser ed, P+ow loftily TsH$chang bears himselfU -ifficult indeed along with him to #ractise #hilanthro#yUP Again he said, P9 ha e heard this said by the 'aster, that Cthough men may not eDert themsel es to the utmost in other duties, yet surely in the duty of mourning for their #arents they will do soUCP Again, PThis also 9 ha e heard said by the 'aster% CThe filial #iety of 'ang Chwang in other res#ects might be eJualled, but as manifested in his making no changes among his fatherCs ministers, nor in his fatherCs mode of go ernment$$that as#ect of it could not easily be eJualled!CP "ang )u, ha ing been made senior Criminal <udge by the Chief of the 'ang clan, consulted with the learned Tsang! The latter ad ised him as follows% P)or a long time the Chiefs ha e failed in their go ernment, and the #eo#le ha e become unsettled! @hen you arri e at the facts of their cases, do not rejoice at your success in that, but rather be sorry for them, and ha e #ity u#on them!P TsH$kung once obser ed, P@e s#eak of Cthe iniJuity of ChVuC$$but Ctwas not so great as this! And so it is that the su#erior man is a erse from settling in this sink, into which e erything runs that is foul in the em#ire!P Again he said, P)aults in a su#erior man are like ecli#ses of the sun or moon% when he is guilty of a tres#ass men all see itR and when he is himself again, all look u# to him!P (ung$sun ChCan of @ei inJuired of TsH$kung how Confucius acJuired his learning!

TsH$kung re#lied, PThe teachings of @an and @u ha e not yet fallen to the ground! They eDist in men! @orthy and wise men ha e the more im#ortant of these stored u# in their mindsR and others, who are not such, store u# the less im#ortant of themR and as no one is thus without the teachings of @an and @u, how should our 'aster not ha e learnedQ And moreo er what #ermanent #rece#tor could he ha eQP &huh$sun @u$shuh, addressing the high officials at the Court, remarked that TsH$kung was a greater worthy than Confucius! TsH$fuh (ing$#ih went and informed TsH$kung of this remark! TsH$kung said, PTake by way of com#arison the walls outside our houses! 'y wall is shoulder$high, and you may look o er it and see what the house and its contents are worth! 'y 'asterCs wall is tens of feet high, and unless you should effect an entrance by the door, you would fail to behold the beauty of the ancestral hall and the rich array of all its officers! And they who effect an entrance by the door, methinks, are fewU @as it not, howe er, just like him$$that remark of the ChiefQP &huh$sun @u$shuh had been casting a slur on the character of Confucius! P.o use doing that,P said TsH$kungR Phe is irre#roachable! The wisdom and worth of other men are little hills and mounds of earth% tra ersible! +e is the sun, or the moon, im#ossible to reach and #ass! And what harm, 9 ask, can a man do to the sun or the moon, by wishing to interce#t himself from eitherQ 9t all shows that he knows not how to gauge ca#acity!P TsH$kCin, addressing TsH$kung, said, P"ou de#reciate yourself! Confucius is surely not a greater worthy than yourself!P TsH$kung re#lied, P9n the use of words one ought ne er to be incautiousR because a gentleman for one single utterance of his is a#t to be considered a wise man, and for a single utterance may be accounted unwise! .o more might one think of attaining to the 'asterCs #erfections than think of going u#stairs to +ea enU @ere it e er his fortune to be at the head of the go ernment of a country, then that which is s#oken of as Cestablishing the countryC would be establishment indeedR he would be its guide and it would follow him, he would tranJuilliHe it and it would render its willing homage% he would gi e forward im#ulses to it to which it would harmoniously res#ond! 9n his life he would be its glory, at his death there would be great lamentation! +ow indeed could such as he be eJualledQP B::( BB EDtracts from the Book of +istory The Em#eror "au said to &hun, PAh, u#on you, u#on your #erson, lies the +ea en$a##ointed order of successionU )aithfully hold to it, without any deflectionR for if within the four seas necessity and want befall the #eo#le, your own re enue will fore er come to an end!P &hun also used the same language in handing down the a##ointment to "u!

The Em#eror TCang in his #rayer, said, P9, the child Li, #resume to a ail me of an oD of dusky hue, and #resume to manifestly announce to Thee, : God, the most high and &o ereign Potentate, that to the transgressor 9 dare not grant forgi eness, nor yet kee# in abeyance Thy ministers! <udgment rests in Thine heart, : God! &hould we ourself transgress, may the guilt not be isited e erywhere u#on all! &hould the #eo#le all transgress, be the guilt u#on ourselfUP Chow #ossessed great gifts, by which the able and good were richly endowed! PAlthough,P said (ing @u, Phe is surrounded by his near relati es, they are not to be com#ared with men of humane s#irit! The #eo#le are suffering wrongs, and the remedy rests with me$$the one man!P After @u had gi en diligent attention to the arious weights and measures, eDamined the laws and regulations, and restored the degraded officials, good go ernment e erywhere ensued! +e caused ruined &tates to flourish again, reinstated interce#ted heirs, and #romoted to office men who had gone into retirementR and the hearts of the #eo#le throughout the em#ire drew towards him! Among matters of #rime consideration with him were these$$food for the #eo#le, the duty of mourning, and sacrificial offerings to the de#arted! +e was liberal and large$hearted, and so won all heartsR true, and so was trusted by the #eo#leR energetic, and thus became a man of great achie ementsR just in his rule, and all were well content! TsH$chang in a con ersation with Confucius asked, P@hat say you is essential for the #ro#er conduct of go ernmentQP The 'aster re#lied, PLet the ruler hold in high estimation the fi e eDcellences, and eschew the four e ilsR then may he conduct his go ernment #ro#erly!P PAnd what call you the fi e eDcellencesQP he was asked! PThey are,P he said, PBounty without eDtra aganceR burdening without eDciting discontentR desire without co etousnessR dignity without haughtinessR show of majesty without fierceness!P P@hat mean you,P asked TsH$chang, Pby bounty without eDtra aganceQP P9s it not this,P he re#lied$$Pto make that which is of benefit to the #eo#le still more beneficialQ @hen he selects for them such labors as it is #ossible for them to do, and eDacts them, who will then com#lainQ &o when his desire is the irtue of humaneness, and he attains it, how shall he then be co etousQ And if$$whether he ha e to do with few or with many, with small or with great$$he do not enture e er to be careless, is not this also to ha e dignity without haughtinessQ And if$$when #ro#erly ested in robe and ca#, and showing dignity in his e ery look$$his a##earance be so im#osing that the #eo#le look u# to and stand in awe of him, is not this moreo er to show majesty without fiercenessQP P@hat, then, do you call the four e ilsQP said TsH$chang!

The answer here was, P:mitting to instruct the #eo#le and then inflicting ca#ital #unishment on them$$which means cruel tyranny! :mitting to gi e them warning and yet looking for #erfection in them$$which means o##ression! Being slow and late in issuing reJuisitions, and eDacting strict #unctuality in the returns$$which means robbery! And likewise, in intercourse with men, to eD#end and to recei e in a stingy manner$$which is to act the #art of a mere commissioner!P P.one can be a su#erior man,P said the 'aster, Pwho does not recogniHe the decrees of +ea en! P.one can ha e stability in him without a knowledge of the #ro#rieties! P.one can know a man without knowing his utterances!P T+E &A"9.G& :) 'E.9C=& 4Translated into English by <ames LeggeF8 9.T,:-=CT9:. A hundred years after the time of Confucius the Chinese nation seemed to ha e fallen back into their original condition of lawlessness and o##ression! The (ingCs #ower and authority was laughed to scorn, the #eo#le were #illaged by the feudal nobility, and famine reigned in many districts! The foundations of truth and social order seemed to be o erthrown! There were teachers of immorality abroad, who #ublished the old E#icurean doctrine, PLet us eat and drink, for to$morrow we die!P This teaching was accom#anied by a s#irit of cold$blooded egotism which eDtinguished e ery s#ark of Confucian altruism! E en the #retended disci#les of Confucius confused the #rece#ts of the 'aster, and by stri##ing them of their narrow significance rendered them nugatory! 9t was at this #oint that 'ang$tsHe, P'ang the #hiloso#her,P arose! +e was sturdy in bodily frame, igorous in mind, #rofound in #olitical sagacity and utterly fearless in denouncing the errors of his countrymen! +e had been brought u# among the disci#les of Confucius, in whose #ro ince he was born B!C! 301, but he was much more acti e and aggressi e, less a 'ystic than a fanatic, in com#arisonU with his 'aster! +e resol ed on acti e measures in stemming the tendency of his day! +e did indeed surround himself with a school of disci#les, but instead of making a series of desultory tra els, teaching in remote #laces and along the high$road, he went to the heart of the e il! +e #resented himself like a second <ohn the Ba#tist at the courts of kings and #rinces, and there boldly denounced ice and misrule! 9t was not difficult for a Chinese scholar and teacher to find access to the highest of the land! The Chinese belie ed in the di ine right of learning, just as they belie ed in the di ine right of kings! 'ang em#loyed e ery wea#on of #ersuasion in trying to combat heresy and o##ressionR alternately ridiculing and re#ro ing% now a##ealing in a burst of moral enthusiasm, and now denouncing in terms of cutting sarcasm the abuses which after all he failed to check! The last #rince whom he successfully confronted was the

'arJuis of Lu, who turned him carelessly away! +e acce#ted this as the -i ine sentence of his failure, PThat 9 ha e not found in this marJuis, a ruler who would hearken to me is an intimation of hea en!P +enceforth he li ed in retirement until his ninety$se enth yearR but from his a##arent failure s#rang a #ractical success! +is written teachings are amongst the most li ely and e#igrammatic works of Chinese literature, ha e done much to kee# ali e amongst his countrymen the s#irit of Confucianism, and e en @estern readers may drink wisdom from this s#ring of :riental lore! The following selections from his sayings well eDhibit the s#irit of his system of #hiloso#hy and morality! E!@! T+E &A"9.G& :) 'E.C9=& B::( 9 (9.G +@=" :) LYA.G Part 9 'encius went to see (ing +wuy of LEang! 4/8 The king said, P>enerable &ir, since you ha e not counted it far to come here a distance of a thousand li, may 9 #resume that you are likewise #ro ided with counsels to #rofit my kingdomQP 'encius re#lied, P@hy must your 'ajesty used that word C#rofitCQ @hat 9 am likewise #ro ided with are counsels to bene olence and righteousnessR and these are my only to#ics! P9f your 'ajesty say, C@hat is to be done to #rofit my kingdomQC the great officers will say, C@hat is to be done to #rofit our familiesQC and the inferior officers and the common #eo#le will say, C@hat is to be done to #rofit our #ersonsQC &u#eriors and inferiors will try to take the #rofit the one from the other, and the kingdom will be endangered! 9n the kingdom of ten thousand chariots, the murderer of his ruler will be the chief of a family of a thousand chariots! 9n the &tate of a thousand chariots, the murderer of his ruler will be the chief of a family of a hundred chariots! To ha e a thousand in ten thousand, and a hundred in a thousand, cannot be regarded as not a large allowanceR but if righteousness be #ut last and #rofit first, they will not be satisfied without snatching all! PThere ne er was a man trained to bene olence who neglected his #arents! There ne er was a man trained to righteousness who made his ruler an after consideration! Let your 'ajesty likewise make bene olence and righteousness your only themes$$@hy must you s#eak of #rofitQP @hen 'encius, another day, was seeing (ing +wuy of LEang, the (ing went and stood with him by a #ond, and, looking round on the wild geese and deer, large and small, said, P-o wise and good #rinces also take #leasure in these thingsQP 'encius re#lied, PBeing wise and good, they then ha e #leasure in these things! 9f they are not wise and good, though they ha e these things, they do not find #leasure!P 9t is said in the CBook of PoetryC%$$

(ing @an used the strength of the #eo#le to make his tower and #ond, and the #eo#le rejoiced to do the work, calling the tower Cthe 'ar ellous Tower,C and the #ond Cthe 'ar ellous Pond,C and being glad that he had his deer, his fishes and turtles! The ancients caused their #eo#le to ha e #leasure as well as themsel es, and therefore they could enjoy it! P9n the -eclaration of TCang it is said, C: &un, when wilt thou eD#ireQ @e will die together with thee!C The #eo#le wished for (EehCs death, though they should die with him! Although he had his tower, his #ond, birds and animals, how could he ha e #leasure aloneQP (ing +wuy of LEang said, P&mall as my irtue is, in the go ernment of my kingdom, 9 do indeed eDert my mind to the utmost! 9f the year be bad inside the +o, 9 remo e as many of the #eo#le as 9 can to the east of it, and con ey grain to the country inside! 9f the year be bad on the east of the ri er, 9 act on the same #lan! :n eDamining the go ernmental methods of the neighboring kingdoms, 9 do not find there is any ruler who eDerts his mind as 9 do! And yet the #eo#le of the neighboring kings do not decrease, nor do my #eo#le increase$$how is thisQP 'encius re#lied, P"our 'ajesty lo es warR allow me to take an illustration from war! The soldiers mo e forward at the sound of the drumR and when the edges of their wea#ons ha e been crossed, on one side, they throw away their buff coats, trail their wea#ons behind them, and run! &ome run a hundred #aces and then sto#R some run fifty #aces and sto#! @hat would you think if these, because they had run but fifty #aces, should laugh at those who ran a hundred #acesQP The king said, PThey cannot do so! They only did not run a hundred #acesR but they also ran!P 'encius said, P&ince your 'ajesty knows this you ha e no ground to eD#ect that your #eo#le will become more numerous than those of the neighboring kingdoms! P9f the seasons of husbandry be not interfered with, the grain will be more than can be eaten! 9f close nets are not allowed to enter the #ools and #onds, the fish and turtles will be more than can be consumed! 9f the aDes and bills enter the hill$forests only at the #ro#er times, the wood will be more than can be used! @hen the grain and fish and turtles are more than can be eaten, and there is more wood than can be used, this enables the #eo#le to nourish their li ing and do all offices for their dead, without any feeling against any! But this condition, in which the #eo#le nourish their li ing, and do all offices to their dead without ha ing any feeling against any, is the first ste# in the ,oyal way! PLet mulberry trees be #lanted about the homesteads with their fi e

C@hen he #lanned the commencement of the 'ar ellous tower, +e #lanned it, and defined it, And the #eo#le in crowds undertook the work, And in no time com#leted it! @hen he #lanned the commencement, he said, PBe not in a hurry!P But the #eo#le came as if they were his children! The king was in the 'ar ellous #ark, @here the does were lying down$$ The does so sleek and fatR @ith the white birds glistening! The king was by the 'ar ellous #ondR$$ +ow full was it of fishes lea#ing aboutUC

acres, and #ersons of fifty years will be able to wear silk! 9n kee#ing fowls, #igs, dogs, and swine, let not their time of breeding be neglected, and #ersons of se enty years will be able to eat flesh! Let there not be taken away the time that is #ro#er for the culti ation of the field allotment of a hundred acres, and the family of se eral mouths will not suffer from hunger! Let careful attention be #aid to the teaching in the arious schools, with re#eated inculcation of the filial and fraternal duties, and gray$haired men will not be seen u#on the roads, carrying burdens on their backs or on their heads! 9t has ne er been that the ruler of a &tate where these results were seen, #ersons of se enty wearing silk and eating flesh, and the black$haired #eo#le suffering neither from hunger nor cold, did not attain to the ,oyal dignity! P"our dogs and swine eat the food of men, and you do not know to store u# of the abundance! There are #eo#le dying from famine on the roads, and you do not know to issue your stores for their relief! @hen men die, you say, C9t is not owing to meR it is owing to the year,C 9n what does this differ from stabbing a man and killing him, and then saying, C9t was not 9R it was the wea#onCQ Let your 'ajesty cease to lay the blame on the year and instantly the #eo#le, all under the sky, will come to you!P (ing +wuy of LEang said, P9 wish Juietly to recei e your instructions!P 'encius re#lied, P9s there any difference between killing a man with a stick and with a swordQP PThere is no difference,P was the answer! 'encius continued, P9s there any difference between doing it with a sword and with go ernmental measuresQP PThere is not,P was the answer again! 'encius then said, P9n your stalls there are fat beastsR in your stables there are fat horses! But your #eo#le ha e the look of hunger, and in the fields there are those who ha e died of famine! This is leading on beasts to de our men! Beasts de our one another, and men hate them for doing so! @hen he who is called the #arent of the #eo#le conducts his go ernment so as to be chargeable with leading on beasts to de our men, where is that #arental relation to the #eo#leQ Chung$ne said, C@as he not without #osterity who first made wooden images to bury with the deadQC &o he said, because that man made the semblances of men and used them for that #ur#oseR what shall be thought of him who causes his #eo#le to die of hungerQP (ing +wuy of LEang said, PThere was not in the kingdom a stronger &tate than TsCin, as you, enerable &ir, know! But since it descended to me, on the east we were defeated by TsCe, and then my eldest son #erishedR on the west we lost se en hundred li of territory to TsCinR and on the south we ha e sustained disgrace at the hands of TsCoo! 9 ha e brought shame on my de#arted #redecessors, and wish on their account to wi#e it away once for all! @hat course is to be #ursued to accom#lish thisQP 'encius re#lied, P@ith a territory only a hundred li sJuare it has been #ossible to obtain the ,oyal dignity! 9f your 'ajesty will indeed dis#ense a bene olent go ernment to the #eo#le, being s#aring in the use of #unishments and fines, and making the taDes and le ies of #roduce light, so causing that the fields shall be #loughed dee#, and the weeding well attended to, and that the able$bodied, during their days of leisure, shall culti ate their filial #iety, fraternal duty, faithfulness, and truth, ser ing thereby, at home, their fathers and

elder brothers, and, abroad, their elders and su#eriors, you will then ha e a #eo#le who can be em#loyed with sticks which they ha e #re#ared to o##ose the strong buff$coats and shar# wea#ons of the troo#s of TsCin and TsCoo! PThe rulers of those &tates rob their #eo#le of their time, so that they cannot #lough and weed their fields in order to su##ort their #arents! Parents suffer from cold and hungerR elder and younger brothers, wi es and children, are se#arated and scattered abroad! Those rulers dri e their #eo#le into #itfalls or into the waterR and your 'ajesty will go to #unish them! 9n such a case, who will o##ose your 'ajestyQ 9n accordance with this is the saying, CThe bene olent has no enemyUC 9 beg your 'ajesty not to doubt what 9 said!P 'encius had an inter iew with (ing &Eang418 of LEang! @hen he came out he said to some #ersons, P@hen 9 looked at him from a distance, he did not a##ear like a rulerR when 9 drew near to him, 9 saw nothing enerable about him! Abru#tly he asked me, C+ow can the kingdom, all under the sky, be settledQC 9 re#lied, C9t will be settled by being united under one sway,C PC@ho can so unite itQC he asked! P9 re#lied, C+e who has no #leasure in killing men can so unite it!C PC@ho can gi e it to himQC he asked! P9 re#lied, CAll under hea en will gi e it to him! -oes your 'ajesty know the way of the growing grainQ -uring the se enth and eighth months, when drought #re ails, the #lants become dry! Then the clouds collect densely in the hea ens, and send down torrents of rain, so that the grain erects itself as if by a shoot! @hen it does so, who can kee# it backQ .ow among those who are she#herds of men throughout the kingdom, there is not one who does not find #leasure in killing men! 9f there were one who did not find #leasure in killing men, all the #eo#le under the sky would be looking towards him with outstretched necks! &uch being indeed the case, the #eo#le would go to him as water flows downwards with a rush, which no one can re#ress!P (ing &euen of TsCe asked, saying, P'ay 9 be informed by you of the transactions of +wan of TsCe and @an of TsCinQP 'encius re#lied, PThere were none of the disci#les of Chung$ne who s#oke about the affairs of +wan and @an, and therefore they ha e not been transmitted to these after$agesR your ser ant has not heard of them! 9f you will ha e me s#eak, let it be about the #rinci#les of attaining to the ,oyal sway!P The king said, P:f what kind must his irtue be who can attain to the ,oyal swayQP 'encius said, P9f he lo es and #rotects the #eo#le, it is im#ossible to #re ent him from attaining it!P The king said, P9s such an one as #oor 9 com#etent to lo e and #rotect the #eo#leQP P"es,P was the re#ly! P)rom what do you know that 9 am com#etent to thatQP P9 ha e heard,P said 'encius, Pfrom +oo +eih the following incident%$$CThe king,C said he, Cwas sitting aloft in the hall, when some #eo#le a##eared leading a bull #ast below it! The king saw it, and asked where the bull was going, and being answered that they were going to consecrate a bell with its blood, he said, PLet it go, 9

cannot bear its frightened a##earance$$as if it were an innocent #erson going to the #lace of death!P They asked in re#ly whether, if they did so, they should omit the consecration of the bell, but the king said, P+ow can that be omittedQ Change it for a shee#!PC 9 do not know whether this incident occurred!P P9t did,P said the king, and 'encius re#lied, PThe heart seen in this is sufficient to carry you to the ,oyal sway! The #eo#le all su##osed that your 'ajesty grudged the animal, but your ser ant knows surely that it was your 'ajestyCs not being able to bear the sight of the creatureCs distress which made you do as you did!P The king said, P"ou are rightR and yet there really was an a##earance of what the #eo#le imagined! But though TsCe be narrow and small, how should 9 grudge a bullQ 9ndeed it was because 9 could not bear its frightened a##earance, as if it were an innocent #erson going to the #lace of death, that therefore 9 changed it for a shee#!P 'encius said, PLet not your 'ajesty deem it strange that the #eo#le should think you grudged the animal! @hen you changed a large one for a small, how should they know the true reasonQ 9f you felt #ained by its being led without any guilt to the #lace of death, what was there to choose between a bull and a shee#QP The king laughed and said, P@hat really was my mind in the matterQ 9 did not grudge the alue of the bull, and yet 9 changed it for a shee#U There was reason in the #eo#leCs saying that 9 grudged the creature!P 'encius said, PThere is no harm in their saying so! 9t was an artifice of bene olence! "ou saw the bull, and had not seen the shee#! &o is the su#erior man affected towards animals, that, ha ing seen them ali e, he cannot bear to see them die, and, ha ing heard their dying cries, he cannot bear to eat their flesh! :n this account he kee#s away from his stalls and kitchen!P The king was #leased and said, PThe :de says, C@hat other men ha e in their minds, 9 can measure by reflection,C This might be s#oken of you, my 'aster! 9 indeed did the thing, but when 9 turned my thoughts inward and sought for it, 9 could not disco er my own mind! @hen you, 'aster, s#oke those words, the mo ements of com#assion began to work in my mind! But how is it that this heart has in it what is eJual to the attainment of the ,oyal swayQP 'encius said, P&u##ose a man were to make this statement to your 'ajesty, C'y strength is sufficient to lift three thousand catties, but is not sufficient to lift one featherR my eyesight is shar# enough to eDamine the #oint of an autumn hair, but 9 do not see a wagon$load of fagots,C would your 'ajesty allow what he saidQP P.o,P was the kingCs remark, and 'encius #roceeded, P.ow here is kindness sufficient to reach to animals, and yet no benefits are eDtended from it to the #eo#le$$how is thisQ is an eDce#tion to be made hereQ The truth is, the featherCs not being lifted is because the strength was not usedR the wagon$load of firewoodCs not being seen is because the eyesight was not usedR and the #eo#leCs not being lo ed and #rotected is because the kindness is not used! Therefore your 'ajestyCs not attaining to the ,oyal sway is because you do not do it, and not because you are not able to do it!P

The king asked, P+ow may the difference between him who does not do a thing and him who is not able to do it be gra#hically set forthQP 'encius re#lied, P9n such a thing as taking the TCae mountain under your arm, and lea#ing with it o er the .orth &ea, if you say to #eo#le, C9 am not able to do it,C that is a real case of not being able! 9n such a matter as breaking off a branch from a tree at the order of a su#erior, if you say to #eo#le, C9 am not able to do it,C it is not a case of not being able to do it! And so your 'ajestyCs not attaining to the ,oyal sway is not such a case as that of taking the TCae mountain under your arm and lea#ing o er the .orth &ea with itR but it is a case like that of breaking off a branch from a tree! PTreat with re erence due to age the elders in your own family, so that those in the families of others shall be similarly treatedR treat with the kindness due to youth the young in your own family, so that those in the families of others shall be similarly treated$$do this and the kingdom may be made to go round in your #alm! 9t is said in the CBook of Poetry,C C+is eDam#le acted on his wife, EDtended to his brethren, And was felt by all the clans and &tatesRC Telling us how (ing @an sim#ly took this kindly heart, and eDercised it towards those #arties! Therefore the carrying out of the feeling of kindness by a ruler will suffice for the lo e and #rotection of all within the four seasR and if he do not carry it out, he will not be able to #rotect his wife and children! The way in which the ancients came greatly to sur#ass other men was no other than this, that they carried out well what they did, so as to affect others! .ow your kindness is sufficient to reach to animals, and yet no benefits are eDtended from it to the #eo#le! +ow is thisQ 9s an eDce#tion to be made hereQ PBy weighing we know what things are light, and what hea y! By measuring we know what things are long, and what short! All things are so dealt with, and the mind reJuires s#ecially to be so! 9 beg your 'ajesty to measure it!$$"our 'ajesty collects your eJui#ments of war, endangers your soldiers and officers and eDcites the resentment of the arious #rinces$$do these things cause you #leasure in your mindQP The king said, P.o! +ow should 9 deri e #leasure from these thingsQ 'y object in them is to seek for what 9 greatly desire!P 'encius said, P'ay 9 hear from you what it is that your 'ajesty greatly desiresQP The king laughed, and did not s#eak! 'encius resumed, PAre you led to desire it because you ha e not enough of rich and sweet food for your mouthQ or because you ha e not enough of light and warm clothing for your bodyQ or because you ha e not enough of beautifully colored objects to satisfy your eyesQ or because there are not oices and sounds enough to fill your earsQ or because you ha e not enough of attendants and fa orites to stand before you and recei e your ordersQ "our 'ajestyCs arious officers are sufficient to su##ly you with all these things! +ow can your 'ajesty ha e such a desire on account of themQP P.o,P said the king, Pmy desire is not on account of them!P 'encius obser ed, PThen what your 'ajesty greatly desires can be known! "ou desire to enlarge your territories, to ha e TsCin and TsCoo coming to your court, to rule the 'iddle &tates, and to attract to you the barbarous tribes that surround them! But to do what you do in order to seek for what you desire is like climbing a tree to seek for fish!P

P9s it so bad as thatQP said the king! P9 a##rehend it is worse,P was the re#ly! P9f you climb a tree to seek for fish, although you do not get the fish, you ha e no subseJuent calamity! But if you do what you do in order to seek for what you desire, doing it e en with all your heart, you will assuredly afterwards meet with calamities!P The king said, P'ay 9 hear what they will beQP 'encius re#lied, P9f the #eo#le of Tsow were fighting with the #eo#le of TsCoo, which of them does your 'ajesty think would conJuerQP PThe #eo#le of TsCoo would conJuer,P was the answer, and 'encius #ursued, P&o then, a small &tate cannot contend with a great, few cannot contend with many, nor can the weak contend with the strong! The territory within the seas would embrace nine di isions, each of a thousand li sJuare! All TsCe together is one of them! 9f with one #art you try to subdue the other eight, what is the difference between that and TsowCs contending with TsCooQ @ith the desire which you ha e, you must turn back to the #ro#er course for its attainment! P.ow, if your 'ajesty will institute a go ernment whose action shall all be bene olent, this will cause all the officers in the kingdom to wish to stand in your 'ajestyCs court, the farmers all to wish to #lough in your 'ajestyCs fields, the merchants, both tra elling and stationary, all to wish to store their goods in your 'ajestyCs market$#laces, tra ellers and isitors all to wish to tra el on your 'ajestyCs roads, and all under hea en who feel aggrie ed by their rulers to wish to come and com#lain to your 'ajesty! @hen they are so bent, who will be able to kee# them backQP The king said, P9 am stu#id and cannot ad ance to this! But 9 wish you, my 'aster, to assist my intentions! Teach me clearly, and although 9 am deficient in intelligence and igor, 9 should like to try at least to institute such a go ernment!P 'encius re#lied, PThey are only men of education, who, without a certain li elihood, are able to maintain a fiDed heart! As to the #eo#le, if they ha e not a certain li elihood, they will be found not to ha e a fiDed heart! And if they ha e not a fiDed heart, there is nothing which they will not do in the way of self$abandonment, of moral deflection, of de#ra ity, and of wild license! @hen they ha e thus been in ol ed in crime, to follow them u# and #unish them, is to entra# the #eo#le! +ow can such a thing as entra##ing the #eo#le be done under the rule of a bene olent manQP PTherefore, an intelligent ruler will regulate the li elihood of the #eo#le, so as to make sure that, abo e, they shall ha e sufficient wherewith to ser e their #arents, and below, sufficient wherewith to su##ort their wi es and childrenR that in good years they shall always be abundantly satisfied, and that in bad years they shall not be in danger of #erishing! After this he may urge them, and they will #roceed to what is good, for in this case the #eo#le will follow after that with readiness! PBut now the li elihood of the #eo#le is so regulated, that, abo e, they ha e not sufficient wherewith to ser e their #arents, and, below, they ha e not sufficient wherewith to su##ort their wi es and childrenR e en in good years their li es are always embittered, and in bad years they are in danger of #erishing! 9n such circumstances their only object is to esca#e from death, and they are afraid they will not succeed in doing so$$what leisure ha e they to culti ate #ro#riety and righteousnessQ

P9f your 'ajesty wishes to carry out a bene olent go ernment, why not turn back to what is the essential ste# to its attainmentQ PLet mulberry trees be #lanted about the homesteads with their fi e acres, and #ersons of fifty years will be able to wear silk! 9n kee#ing fowls, #igs, dogs, and swine, let not their times of breeding be neglected, and #ersons of se enty years will be able to eat flesh! Let there not be taken away the time that is #ro#er for the culti ation of the field$allotment of a hundred acres, and the family of eight mouths will not suffer from hunger! Let careful attention be #aid to the teaching in the arious schools, with re#eated inculcation of the filial and fraternal duties, and gray$haired men will not be seen u#on the roads, carrying burdens on their backs or on their heads! 9t has ne er been that the ruler of a &tate, where these results were seen, the old wearing silk and eating flesh, and the black$haired #eo#le suffering neither from hunger nor cold, did not attain to the ,oyal dignity!P 4.:TE% FBooks 99, 999, and 9> are omittedF8 4)ootnote /% The title of this book in Chinese is$$P(ing +wuy of LEangR in cha#ters and sentences!P Like the Books of the Confucian Analects, those of this work are headed by two or three words at or near the commencement of them! Each Book is di ided into two #arts! This arrangement was made by Chaou (Ce, and to him are due also the di isions into cha#ters, and sentences, or #aragra#hs, containing, it may be, many sentences!8 4)ootnote 1% &Eang was the son of (ing +wuy! The first year of his reign is su##osed to be B!C! 3/0! &EangCs name was +ih! As a #osthumous e#ithet, &Eang has arious meanings% PLand$enlarger and >irtuousPR P&uccessful in Arms!P The inter iew here recorded seems to ha e taken #lace immediately after +ihCs accession, and 'encius, it is said, was so disa##ointed by it that he soon after left the country!8 T+E &+9$(9.G 4F'etrical translation by <ames LeggeF8 9.T,:-=CT9:. The wisdom of Confucius as a social reformer, as a teacher and guide of the Chinese #eo#le, is shown in many ways! +e not only ga e them a code of #ersonal de#ortment, #ro iding them with rules for the etiJuette and ceremony of life, but he instilled into them that #rofound s#irit of domestic #iety which is one of the strongest features in the Chinese character! +e took measures to secure also the intellectual culti ation of his followers, and his )i e Canons contain all the most ancient works of Chinese literature, in the de#artments of #oetry, history, #hiloso#hy, and legislation! The &hi$(ing is a collection of Chinese #oetry made by Confucius himself! This great anthology consists of more than three hundred #ieces, co ering the whole range of Chinese lyric

#oetry, the oldest of which dates some eighteen centuries before Christ, while the latest of the selections must ha e been written at the beginning of the siDth century before Christ! These #oems are of the highest interest, and e en nowadays may be read with delight by Euro#eans! The ballad and the hymn are among the earliest forms of national #oetry, and the contents of the &hi$(ing naturally show s#ecimens of lyric #oetry of this sort! @e find there not only hymns, but also ballads of a really fine and s#irited character! &ometimes the #oems celebrate the common #ursuits, occu#ations, and incidents of life! They rise to the eDaltation of the e#ithalamium, or of the intage songR at other times they deal with sentiment and human conduct, being in the highest degree sententious and e#igrammatic! @e must gi e the credit to Confucius of ha ing sa ed for us the literature of China, and of ha ing set his #eo#le an eDam#le in #reser ing the monuments of a remote antiJuity! @hile the literatures of ancient Greece and ,ome ha e largely #erished in the con ulsions that followed the breaking u# of the ,oman em#ire in Euro#e, when the kingdom of China fell into disorder and decre#itude this one great teacher ste##ed forward to sa e the #recious record of historic fact, #hiloso#hical thought, and of legislation as well as #oetry, from being swe#t away by the deluge of re olution! Confucius showed his wisdom by the high alue he set u#on the #oetry of his nati e land, and his name must be set side by side with that of the astute tyrant of Athens who collected the #oems of +omer and #reser ed them as a #recious heritage to the Greek world! Confucius has gi en us his o#inion with regard to the #oems of the &hi$(ing! .o man, he says, is worth s#eaking to who has not mastered the #oems of an anthology, the #erusal of which ele ates the mind and #urifies it from all corru#t thoughts! Thanks to the work of modern scholarshi#, English readers can now erify this dictum for themsel es! E! @! T+E &+9$(9.G FPA,T 9$$LE&&:.& ),:' T+E &TATE&F B::( 9 T+E :-E& :) C+:@ A.- T+E &:=T+ ZCelebrating the >irtue of (ing @anCs BrideZ +arkU from the islet in the stream the oice :f the fish$hawks that oCer their nests rejoiceU )rom them our thoughts to that young lady go, 'odest and irtuous, loth herself to show! @here could be found to share our #rinceCs state, &o fair, so irtuous, and so fit a mateQ &ee how the duckweedCs stalks, or short or long, &way left and right, as mo es the current strongU

&o hard it was for him the maid to findU By day, by night, our #rince with constant mind &ought for her long, but all his search was ain! Awake, aslee#, he e er felt the #ain :f longing thought, as when on restless bed, Tossing about, one turns his fe ered head! +ere long, there short, afloat the duckweed liesR But caught at last, we seiHe the longed$for #riHe! The maiden modest, irtuous, coy, is foundR &trike e ery lute, and joyous welcome sound! :urs now, the duckweed from the stream we bear, And cook to use with other iands rare! +e has the maiden, modest, irtuous, brightR Let bells and drums #roclaim our great delight

ZCelebrating the 9ndustry of (ing @anCs GueenZ &weet was the scene! The s#reading dolichos EDtended far, down to the alleyCs de#ths, @ith lea es luDuriant! The orioles )luttered around, and on the bushy trees 9n throngs collected$$whence their #leasant notes ,esounded far in richest melody! The s#reading dolichos eDtended far, Co ering the alleyCs sides, down to its de#ths, @ith lea es luDuriant and dense! 9 cut 9t down, then boiled, and from the fibres s#un :f cloth, both fine and coarse, large store, To wear, unwearied of such sim#le dress! .ow back to my old home, my #arents dear To see, 9 go! The matron 9 ha e told, @ho will announcement make! 'eanwhile my clothes, 'y #ri ate clothes 9 wash, and rinse my robes! @hich of them need be rinsedQ and which need notQ 'y #arents dear to isit, back 9 go! Z9n Praise of a BrideZ Graceful and young the #each$tree standsR +ow rich its flowers, all gleaming brightU This bride to her new home re#airsR Chamber and house sheCll order right! Graceful and young the #each$tree standsR Large cro#s of fruit it soon will show! This bride to her new home re#airsR Chamber and house her sway shall know! Graceful and young the #each$tree stands, 9ts foliage clustering green and full! This bride to her new home re#airsR +er household will attest her rule!

ZCelebrating TCae$&HeCs )reedom from <ealousyZ 9n the &outh are the trees whose branches are bent, And droo# in such fashion that oCer their eDtent All the dolichosC cree#ers fast cling! &ee our #rincely lady, from whom we ha e got ,ejoicing thatCs endlessU 'ay her ha##y lot And her honors re#ose e er bringU 9n the &outh are the trees whose branches are bent, And droo# in such fashion that oCer their eDtent All the dolichosC cree#ers are s#read! &ee our #rincely lady, from whom we ha e got ,ejoicing thatCs endlessU :f her ha##y lot And her honors the greatness neCer fadeU 9n the &outh are the trees whose branches are bent, And droo# in such fashion that oCer their eDtent All the dolichosC cree#ers entwine! &ee our #rincely lady, from whom we ha e got ,ejoicing thatCs endlessU 'ay her ha##y lot And her honors com#lete e er shineU ZThe )ruitfulness of the LocustZ "e locusts, wing[d tribes, Gather in concord fineR @ell your descendants may 9n numerous bright hosts shineU "e locusts, wing[d tribes, "our wings in flight resoundR @ell your descendants may 9n endless lines be foundU "e locusts, wing[d tribes, Together cluster strongR @ell your descendants may 9n swarms fore er throngU ZLamenting the Absence of a Cherished )riendZ Though small my basket, all my toil )illed it with mouse$ears but in #art! 9 set it on the #ath, and sighed )or the dear master of my heart! 'y steeds, oCer$tasked, their #rogress stayed, @hen midway u# that rocky height! Gi e me a cu# from that gilt ase$$ @hen shall this longing end in sightQ

To mount that lofty ridge 9 dro e, =ntil my steeds all changed their hue! A cu# from that rhinocerosCs horn 'ay hel# my longing to subdue! &tri ing to reach that flat$to##ed hill, 'y steeds, worn out, relaDed their strainR 'y dri er also sank o##ressed%$$ 9Cll ne er see my lord againU

ZCelebrating the Goodness of the -escendants of (ing @anZ As the feet of the FlinF, which a oid each li ing thing, &o our #rinceCs noble sons no harm to men will bring! They are the FlinUF As the front of the FlinF, ne er forward thrust in wrath, &o our #rinceCs noble grandsons of lo e tread the #ath! They are the FlinUF As the horn of the FlinF, flesh$ti##ed, no wound to gi e, &o our #rinceCs noble kindred kindly with all li e! They are the FlinUF 4.:TE!$$The PlinP is the female of P(CeP$$a fabulous animal$$the symbol of all goodness and bene olenceR ha ing the body of a deer, the tail of an oD, the hoofs of a horse, one horn, the scales of a fish, etc! 9ts feet do not tread on any li ing thing$$not e en on li e grassR it does not butt with its foreheadR and the end of its horn is co ered with flesh$$to show that, while able for war, it wills to ha e #eace! The PlinP was su##osed to a##ear inaugurating a golden age, but the #oet finds a better aus#ice of that in the character of @anCs family and kindred!8 ZThe >irtuous 'anners of the "oung @omenZ +igh and com#ressed, the &outhern trees .o shelter from the sun afford! The girls free ramble by the +an, But will not hear enticing word! Like the broad +an are they, Through which one cannot di eR And like the (eangCs long stream, @herewith no raft can stri e! 'any the fagots bound and #iledR The thorns 9Cd hew still more to make! As brides, those girls their new homes seekR Their colts to feed 9Cd undertake! Like the broad +an are they, Through which one cannot di eR And like the (eangCs long stream, @herewith no raft can stri e! 'any the fagots bound and #iledR

ZPraise of a ,abbit$CatcherZ Careful he sets his rabbit$nets all roundR FChang$changF his blows u#on the #egs resound! &talwart the man and boldU his bearing all &hows he might be his #rinceCs shield and wall! Careful he is his rabbit$nets to #lace @here many #aths of rabbitsC feet bear trace! &talwart the man and boldU Ctis #lain to see +e to his #rince com#anion good would be! Careful he is his rabbit$nets to s#read, @here in the forestCs de#th the trees gi e shade! &talwart the man and boldU fit his the #art Guide to his #rince to be, and faithful heart! ZThe &ong of the Plantain$GatherersZ @e gather and gather the #lantainsR Come gather them anyhow! "es, gather and gather the #lantains, And here we ha e got them now! @e gather and gather the #lantainsR .ow off the ears we must tear! "es, gather and gather the #lantains, And now the seeds are laid bare! @e gather and gather the #lantains, The seeds in our skirts are #laced! "es, gather and gather the #lantains! +oU safe in the girdled waistU ZThe Affection of the @i es on the <ooZ Along the raised banks of the <oo, To hew slim stem and branch 9 wrought, 'y lord away, my husband true, Like hunger$#ang my troubled thoughtU Along the raised banks of the <oo, Branch and fresh shoot confessed my art! 9C e seen my lord, my husband true, And still he folds me in his heart!

The &outhern$wood 9Cd cut for more! As brides, those girls their new homes seekR )ood for their colts 9Cd bring large store! Like the broad +an are they, Through which one cannot di eR And like the (eangCs long stream, @herewith no raft can stri e!

B::( 99 T+E :-E& :) &+A:= A.- T+E &:=T+ ZThe 'arriage of a PrincessZ 9n the mag#ieCs nest -wells the do e at rest! This young bride goes to her future homeR To meet her a hundred chariots come! :f the mag#ieCs nest 9s the do e #ossessed! This bride goes to her new home to li eR And escort a hundred chariots gi e! The nest mag#ie wo e .ow filled by the do e! This bride now takes to her home her wayR And these numerous cars her state dis#lay! ZThe 9ndustry and ,e erence of a PrinceCs @ifeZ Around the #ools, the islets oCer, )ast she #lucks white &outhern$wood, To hel# the sacrificial storeR And for our #rince does ser ice good! @here streams among the alleys shine, :f &outhern$woods she #lucks the whiteR And brings it to the sacred shrine, To aid our #rince in solemn rite! 9n head$dress high, most re erent, she The tem#le seeks at early dawn! The ser ice oCer, the head$dress see To her own chamber slow withdrawn! ZThe @ife of &ome Great :fficer Bewails +is AbsenceZ &hrill chir# the insects in the grassR All about the ho##ers s#ring!

As the toiled bream makes red its tail, Toil you, &ir, for the ,oyal +ouseR Amidst its blaHing fires, nor Juail%$$ "our #arents see you #ay your ows!

@hile 9 my husband do not see, &orrow must my bosom wring! : to meet himU : to greet himU Then my heart would rest and sing! Ascending high that &outhern hill, Turtle ferns 9 stro e to get! @hile 9 my husband do not see, &orrow must my heart beset! : to meet himU : to greet himU Then my heart would cease to fret! Ascending high that &outhern hill, &#inous ferns 9 sought to find! @hile 9 my husband do not see, ,ankles sorrow in my mind! : to meet himU : to greet himU 9n my heart would #eace be shrined!

ZThe -iligence of the "oung @ife of an :fficerZ &he gathers fast the large duckweed, )rom alley stream that southward flowsR And for the #ondweed to the #ools Left on the #lains by floods she goes! The #lants, when closed her toil, she #uts 9n baskets round and baskets sJuare! Then home she hies to cook her s#oil, 9n #ans and tri#ods ready there! 9n sacred chamber this she sets, @here the light falls down through the wall! CTis she, our lordCs young re erent wife, @ho manages this ser ice all! ZThe Lo e of the Peo#le for the -uke of &haouZ : fell not that sweet #ear$treeU &ee how its branches s#read! &#oil not its shade, )or &haouCs chief laid Beneath it his weary head! : cli# not that sweet #ear$treeU Each twig and leaflet s#are! CTis sacred now, &ince the lord of &haou, @hen weary, rested him there! : touch not that sweet #ear$treeU Bend not a twig of it now!

ZThe Easy -ignity of the :fficers at &ome CourtZ Arrayed in skins of lamb or shee#, @ith fi e silk braidings all of white, )rom court they go, to take their meal, All self$#ossessed, with s#irits light! +ow on their skins of lamb or shee# The fi e seams wrought with white silk showU @ith easy ste#s, and self$#ossessed, )rom court to take their meal, they go! =#on their skins of lamb or shee# &hines the white silk the seams to link! @ith easy ste#s and self$#ossessed, They go from court to eat and drink! ZAnDiety of a "oung Lady to Get 'arriedZ ,i#e, the #lums fall from the boughR :nly se en$tenths left there nowU "e whose hearts on me are set, .ow the time is fortunateU ,i#e, the #lums fall from the boughR :nly three$tenths left there nowU "e who wish my lo e to gain, @ill not now a##ly in ainU .o more #lums u#on the boughU All are in my basket nowU "e who me with ardor seek, .eed the word but freely s#eakU B::( 999 T+E :-E& :) PCE9 ZAn :fficer Bewails the .eglect with which +e is TreatedZ 9t floats about, that boat of cy#ress wood, .ow here, now there, as by the current borne! .or rest nor slee# comes in my troubled moodR 9 suffer as when #ainful wound has torn The shrinking body! Thus 9 dwell forlorn, And aimless muse, my thoughts of sorrow full!

There long ago, As the stories show, :ft halted the chief of &haou!

9 might with wine refresh my s#irit wornR 9 might go forth, and, sauntering try to cool The fe er of my heartR but grief holds sullen rule! 'y mind resembles not a mirror #late, ,eflecting all the im#ressions it recei es! The good 9 lo e, the bad regard with hateR 9 only cherish whom my heart belie es! Colleagues 9 ha e, but yet my s#irit grie es, That on their honor 9 cannot de#end! 9 s#eak, but my com#laint no influence lea es =#on their heartsR with mine no feelings blendR @ith me in anger they, and fierce disdain contend! 'y mind is fiDed, and cannot, like a stone, Be turned at will indifferently aboutR And what 9 think, to that, and that alone, 9 utterance gi e, alike within, withoutR .or can like mat be rolled and carried out! @ith dignity in #resence of them all, 'y conduct marked, my goodness who shall scoutQ 'y foes 9 boldly challenge, great and small, 9f there be aught in me they can in Juestion call! +ow full of trouble is my anDious heartU @ith hate the blatant herd of creatures mean Ceaseless #ursue! :f their attacks the smart (ee#s my mind in distress! Their enomed s#leen Aye ents itselfR and with insulting mien They eD my soulR and no one on my side A word will s#eak! &ilent, alone, unseen, 9 think of my sad caseR then o#ening wide 'y eyes, as if from slee#, 9 beat my breast, sore$tried! Thy disc, : sun, should e er be com#lete, @hile thine, : changing moon, doth waD and wane! But now our sun hath waned, weak and effete, And moons are e er full! 'y heart with #ain 9s firmly bound, and held in sorrowCs chain, As to the body clea es an unwashed dress! &ilent 9 think of my sad caseR in ain 9 try to find relief from my distress! @ould 9 had wings to fly where ills no longer #ressU

ZA @ife -e#lores the Absence of +er +usbandZ Away the startled #heasant flies, @ith laHy mo ement of his wings! Borne was my heartCs lord from my eyesR$$ @hat #ain the se#aration bringsU The #heasant, though no more in iew, +is cry, below, abo e, forth sends! AlasU my #rincely lord, Ctis you$$ "our absence, that my bosom rends!

At sun and moon 9 sit and gaHe, 9n con erse with my troubled heart! )ar, far from me my husband staysU @hen will he come to heal its smartQ "e #rincely men who with him mate, &ay, mark ye not his irtuous way! +is rule is$$co et nought, none hateR$$ +ow can his ste#s from goodness strayQ

ZThe Plaint of a ,ejected @ifeZ The east wind gently blows, @ith cloudy skies and rain! CTwiDt man and wife should neCer be strife, But harmony obtain! ,adish and mustard #lants Are used, though some be #oorR @hile my good name is free from blame, -onCt thrust me from your door! 9 go along the road, &low, with reluctant heart! "our escort lame to door but came, There glad from me to #art! &ow$thistle, bitter called, As she#herdCs #urse is sweetR @ith your new mate you feast elate, As joyous brothers meet! Part clear, the stream of (ing 9s foul beside the @ei! "ou feast elate with your new mate, And take no heed of me! Loose mate, a oid my dam, .or dare my basket mo eU Person slighted, life all blighted, @hat can the future #ro eQ The water dee#, in boat, :r raft$sustained, 9Cd goR And where the stream did narrow seem, 9 di ed or breasted through! 9 labored to increase :ur means, or great or smallR @hen Cmong friends near death did a##ear, :n knees to hel# 9Cd crawl! .o cherishing you gi e, 9Cm hostile in your eyes! As #edlerCs wares for which none cares, 'y irtues you des#ise! @hen #o erty was nigh, 9 stro e our means to s#areR "ou, now rich grown, me scorn to ownR To #oison me com#are!

Z&oldiers of @ei Bewail &e#aration from Their )amiliesZ List to the thunder and roll of the drumU &ee how we s#ring and brandish the dartU &ome raise TsCaouCs wallsR some do field work at homeR But we to the southward lonely de#art! :ur chief, &un TsHe$chung, agreement has made, :ur forces to join with ChCin and with &ung! @hen shall we back from this ser ice be ledQ :ur hearts are all sad, our courage unstrung! +ere we are halting, and there we delayR Anon we soon lose our high$mettled steeds! The forestCs gloom makes our ste#s go astrayR Each thicket of trees our searching misleads! )or death as for life, at home or abroad, @e #ledged to our wi es our faithfulest word! Their hands clas#ed in ours, together we owed, @eCd li e to old age in sweetest accord! This march to the &outh can end but in illR :hU ne er shall we our wi es again meet! The word that we #ledged we cannot fulfilR =s home returning they ne er will greet! ZAn :fficer Tells of +is 'ean Em#loymentZ @ith mind indifferent, things 9 easy takeR 9n e ery dance 9 #rom#t a##earance make%$$ Then, when the sun is at his to#most height, There, in the #lace that courts the #ublic sight! @ith figure large 9 in the courtyard dance, And the duke smiles, when he beholds me #rance! A tigerCs strength 9 ha eR the steeds swift boundR The reins as ribbons in my hands are found! &ee how 9 hold the flute in my left handR 9n right the #heasantCs #lume, wa ed like a wandR @ith isage red, where rouge you think to trace, @hile the duke #leased, sends down the cu# of graceU +aHel on hillsR the FlingF in meadow dam#R$$

The stores for winter #iled Are all un#riHed in s#ring! &o now, elate with your new mate, 'yself away you fling! "our cool disdain for me A bitter anguish hath! The early time, our lo eCs sweet #rime, 9n you wakes only wrath!

ZAn :fficer &ets )orth +is +ard LotZ 'y way leads forth by the gate on the northR 'y heart is full of woe! 9 ha CnCt a cent, begged, stolen, or lent, And friends forget me so! &o let it beU Ctis +ea enCs decree! @hat can 9 say$$a #oor fellow like meQ The (ing has his throne, sans sorrow or moanR :n me fall all his cares, And when 9 come home, resol ed not to roam, Each one indignant stares! &o let it beU Ctis +ea enCs decree! @hat can 9 say$$a #oor fellow like meQ Each thing of the (ing, and the fate of the &tate, :n me come more and more! And when, sad and worn, 9 come back forlorn, They thrust me from the door! &o let it beU Ctis +ea enCs decree! @hat can 9 say$$a #oor fellow like meQ ZThe Com#laint of a .eglected @ifeZ @hen the u##er robe is green, @ith a yellow lining seen, There we ha e a certain token, ,ight is wronged and order broken! +ow can sorrow from my heart 9n a case like this de#artQ Color green the robe dis#laysR Lower garment yellowCs blaHe! Thus it is that fa orite mean 9n the #lace of wife is seen! >ain the conflict with my griefR 'emory denies relief! "es, Ctwas you the green who dyed, "ou who fed the fa oriteCs #ride! Anger rises in my heart, Pierces it as with a dart! But on ancient rules lean 9, Lest to wrong my thoughts should fly! )ine or coarse, if thin the dress, Cold winds always cause distress! +ard my lot, my sorrow dee#,

Each has its #lace, while 9Cm a slighted scam#! 'y thoughts go back to thC early days of Chow, And muse u#on its chiefs, not eJualled now! : noble chiefs, who then the @est adorned, @ould ye ha e thus neglected me and scornedQ

4.:TE!$$"ellow is one of the fi e PcorrectP colors of the Chinese, while green is one of the PintermediateP colors that are less esteemed! +ere we ha e the yellow used merely as a lining to the green, or em#loyed in the lower, or less honorable, #art of the dressR$$an in ersion of #ro#riety, and intimating how a fa orite had usur#ed the #lace of the rightful wife and thrust her down!8 Z9n Praise of a 'aidenZ : sweet maiden, so fair and retiring, At the corner 9Cm waiting for youR And 9Cm scratching my head, and inJuiring @hat on earth it were best 9 should do! :hU the maiden, so handsome and coy, )or a #ledge ga e a slim rosy reed! Than the reed is she brighter, my joyR :n her lo eliness how my thoughts feedU 9n the #astures a FtCeF blade she sought, And she ga e it, so elegant, rare! :hU the grass does not dwell in my thought, But the donor, more elegant, fair! Z-iscontentZ As when the north winds keenly blow, And all around fast falls the snow, The source of #ain and suffering great, &o now it is in @eiCs #oor state! Let us join hands and haste away, 'y friends and lo ers all! CTis not a time will brook delayR Things for #rom#t action call! As when the north winds whistle shrill, And drifting snows each hollow fill, The source of #ain and suffering great, &o now it is in @eiCs #oor state, Let us join hands, and lea e for aye, 'y friends and lo ers all, CTis not a time will brook delayR Things for #rom#t action call! @e look for red, and foDes meetR )or black, and crows our ision greet! The creatures, both of omen bad, @ell suit the state of @ei so sad!

But my thoughts in check 9 kee#! Ancient story brings to mind &ufferers who were resigned!

ZChwang (eang Bemoans +er +usbandCs CrueltyZ )ierce is the wind and coldR And such is he! &miling he looks, and bold &#eaks mockingly! &cornful and lewd his words, +aughty his smile! Bound is my heart with cords 9n sorrowCs coil! As cloud of dust wind$blown, <ust such is he! ,eady he seems to own, And come to me! But he comes not nor goes, &tands in his #ride! Long, long, with #ainful throes, Grie ed 9 abide! &trong blew the windR the cloud +astened away! &oon dark again, the shroud Co ers the day! 9 wake, and slee# no more >isits my eyes! +is course 9 sad de#lore, @ith hea y sighs! Cloudy the sky, and darkR The thunders roll! &uch outward signs well mark 'y troubled soul! 9 wake, and slee# no more Comes to gi e rest! +is course 9 sad de#lore, 9n anguished breast! 4.:TE% &elections from Books 9>!, >!, and >9!, ha e been omitted!$$E-9T:,!8 B::( >99 T+E :-E& :) C+C9.G

Let us join hands and mount our cars, 'y friends and lo ers all! .o time remains for wordy jarsR Things for #rom#t action call!

ZThe Peo#leCs Admiration for -uke @ooZ The black robes well your form befitR @hen they are worn weCll make you new! .ow for your courtU ohU there weCll sit, And watch how you your duties do! And when we to our homes re#air, @eCll send to you our richest fare, &uch is the lo e to you we bearU Those robes well with your irtue matchR @hen they are worn weCll make you new! .ow for your courtU There will we watch, @ell #leased, how you your duties do! And when we to our homes re#air, @eCll send to you our richest fare, &uch is the lo e to you we bearU Those robes your character beseemR @hen they are worn weCll make you new! .ow for your courtU ohU there we deem 9t #leasure great your form to iew! And when we to our homes re#air, @eCll send to you our richest fare, &uch is the lo e to you we bearU ZA @ife Consoled by +er +usbandCs Arri alZ Cold is the wind, fast falls the rain, The cock aye shrilly crows! But 9 ha e seen my lord againR$$ .ow must my heart re#ose! @histles the wind, #atters the rain, The cockCs crow far resounds! But 9 ha e seen my lord again, And healed are my heartCs wounds! AllCs dark amid the wind and rain, Ceaseless the cockCs clear oiceU But 9 ha e seen my lord againR$$ &hould not my heart rejoiceQ Z9n Praise of &ome LadyZ There by his side in chariot rideth she, As lo ely flower of the hibiscus tree, &o fair her faceR and when about they wheel, +er girdle gems of F(enF themsel es re eal! )or beauty all the +ouse of (Eang ha e fameR 9ts eldest daughter$$she beseems her name! There on the #ath, close by him, walketh she, Bright as the blossom of hibiscus tree, And fair her faceR and when around they flit,

ZA 'anCs Praise of +is @ifeZ 'y #ath forth from the east gate lay, @here cloud$like mo ed the girls at #lay! .umerous are they, as clouds so bright, But not on them my heartCs thoughts light! -ressed in a thin white silk, with coiffure gray 9s she, my wife, my joy in lifeCs low way! )orth by the co ering wallCs high tower, 9 went, and saw, like rush in flower, Each flaunting girl! Brilliant are they, But not with them my heartCs thoughts stay! 9n thin white silk, with head$dress madder$dyed, 9s she, my sole delight, Cforetime my bride! ZAn EntreatyZ Along the great highway, 9 hold you by the cuff! : s#urn me not, 9 #ray, .or break old friendshi# off! Along the highway worn, 9 hold your hand in mine! -o not as ile me scornR "our lo e 9 canCt resign! ZA @oman &corning +er Lo erZ : dearU that artful boy ,efuses me a wordU But, &ir, 9 shall enjoy 'y food, though youCre absurdU : dearU that artful boy 'y table will not shareU But, &ir, 9 shall enjoy 'y rest, though youCre not thereU ZA Lady 'ourns the Absence of +er &tudent Lo erZ "ou student, with the collar blue, Long #ines my heart with anDious #ain! Although 9 do not go to you, @hy from all word do you refrainQ

+er girdle gems a tinkling sound emit! Among the (eang she has distinguished #lace, )or irtuous fame renowned, and #eerless grace!

: you, with girdle strings of blue, 'y thoughts to you fore er roamU Although 9 do not go to you, "et why to me should you not comeQ +ow reckless you, how light and wild, There by the tower u#on the wallU :ne day, from sight of you eDiled, As long as three long months 9 call!

4.:TE% &elections from Books 9>!, >!, and >9!, ha e been omitted!$$E-9T:,!8 B::( >999 T+E :-E& :) T&CE ZA @ife =rging +er +usband to ActionZ +is lady to the marJuis says, PThe cock has crowedR Ctis late! Get u#, my lord, and haste to court! CTis fullR for you they wait!P &he did not hear the cockCs shrill sound, :nly the blueflies buHHing round! Again she wakes him with the words, PThe east, my lord, is bright! A crowded court your #resence seeksR Get u# and hail the light!P CTwas not the dawning light which shone, But that which by the moon was thrown! +e slee#ing still, once more she says, PThe flies are buHHing loud! To lie and dream here by your side @ere #leasant, but the crowd :f officers will soon retireR -raw not on you and me their ireUP ZThe )olly of =seless EffortZ The weeds will but the ranker grow, 9f fields too large you seek to till! To try to gain men far away @ith grief your toiling heart will fill, 9f fields too large you seek to till, The weeds will only rise more strong! To try to gain men far away

@ill but your heartCs distress #rolong! Things grow the best when to themsel es Left, and to natureCs igor rare! +ow young and tender is the child, @ith his twin tufts of falling hairU But when you him ere long behold, That child shall ca# of manhood wearU

ZThe Prince of LooZ A grand man is the #rince of Loo, @ith #erson large and high! Lofty his front and suited to The fine glance of his eyeU &wift are his feet! 9n archery @hat man with him can ieQ @ith all these goodly Jualities, @e see him and we sighU ,enowned through all the land is he, The ne#hew of our lord! @ith clear and lo ely eyes, his grace 'ay not be told by word! All day at target #ractice, +eCll ne er miss the bird! &uch is the #rince of Loo, and yet @ith grief for him weCre stirredU All grace and beauty he dis#lays, +igh forehead and eyes bright! And dancing choiceU +is arrows all The target hit aright! &traight through they go, and e ery one Lights on the self$same s#ot! ,ebellion he could well withstand, And yet we mourn his lotU B::( 9B T+E :-E& :) @E9 Z:n the 'isgo ernment of the &tateZ A fruit, small as the garden #each, 'ay still be used for food! A &tate, though #oor as ours, might thri e, 9f but its rule were good! :ur rule is bad, our &tate is sad, @ith mournful heart 9 grie e! All can from instrument and oice

'y mood of mind #ercei e! @ho know me not, with scornful thought, -eem me a scholar #roud! PThose men are right,P they fiercely say, P@hat mean your words so loudQP -ee# in my heart my sorrows lie, And none the cause may know! +ow should they know who ne er try To learn whence comes our woeQ The garden jujube, although small, 'ay still be used for food! A &tate, though #oor as ours, might thri e, 9f but its rule were good! :ur rule is bad, our &tate is sad, @ith mournful heart 9 grie e! 'ethinks 9Cll wander through the land, 'y misery to relie e! @ho know me not, with scornful thought, -eem that wild iews 9 hold! PThose men are right,P they fiercely say, P@hat mean your words so boldQP -ee# in my heart my sorrows lie, And none the cause may know! +ow can they know, who ne er try To learn whence comes our woeQ

ZThe 'ean +usbandZ Thin cloth of dolichos su##lies the shoes, 9n which some ha e to bra e the frost and cold! A bride, when #oor, her tender hands must use, +er dress to make, and the shar# needle hold! This man is wealthy, yet he makes his bride Collars and waistbands for his robes #ro ide! Conscious of wealth, he mo es with easy mienR Politely on the left he takes his #laceR The i ory #in is at his girdle seen%$$ +is dress and gait show gentlemanly grace! @hy do we brand him in our satire hereQ CTis this$$$his niggard soul #ro okes the sneer! ZA "oung &oldier on &er iceZ To the to# of that tree$clad hill 9 go, And towards my father 9 gaHe, Till with my mindCs eye his form 9 es#y, And my mindCs ear hears how he says%$$ PAlas for my son on ser ice abroadU +e rests not from morning till e e! 'ay he careful be and come back to meU @hile he is away, how 9 grie eUP

To the to# of that barren hill 9 climb, And towards my mother 9 gaHe, Till with my mindCs eye her form 9 es#y, And my mindCs ear hears how she says%$$ PAlas for my child on ser ice abroadU +e ne er in slee# shuts an eye! 'ay he careful be, and come back to meU 9n the wild may his body not lieUP =# the lofty ridge 9, toiling, ascend, And towards my brother 9 gaHe, Till with my mindCs eye his form 9 es#y, And my mindCs ear hears how he says%$$ PAlasU my young brother, ser ing abroad, All day with his comrades must roam! 'ay he careful be, and come back to me, And die not away from his home!P

B::( B T+E :-E& :) TA.G ZThe (ing Goes to @arZ The wild geese fly the bushy oaks around, @ith clamor loud! F&uh$suhF their wings resound, As for their feet #oor resting$#lace is found! The (ingCs affairs admit of no delay! :ur millet still unsown, we haste away! .o food is left our #arents to su##lyR @hen we are gone, on whom can they relyQ : aHure +ea en, that shinest there afar, @hen shall our homes recei e us from the warQ The wild geese on the bushy jujube$trees Attem#t to settle and are ill at easeR$$ F&uh$suhF their wings go fla##ing in the breeHe! The (ingCs affairs admit of no delayR :ur millet still unsown, we haste away! +ow shall our #arents their reJuirements getQ +ow in our absence shall their wants be metQ : aHure +ea en, that shinest there afar, @hen shall our homes recei e us from the warQ The bushy mulberry$trees the geese in rows &eek eager and to rest around them close$$ @ith rustling loud, as disa##ointment grows! The (ingCs affairs admit of no delayR To #lant our rice and maiHe we cannot stay! +ow shall our #arents find their wonted foodQ @hen we are gone, who will to them be goodQ : aHure +ea en, that shinest there afar, @hen shall our homes recei e us from the warQ

ZLament of a Berea ed PersonZ A russet #ear$tree rises all alone, But rich the growth of lea es u#on it shownU 9 walk alone, without one brother left, And thus of natural aid am 9 bereft! Plenty of #eo#le there are all around, But none like my own fatherCs sons are found! "e tra ellers, who fore er hurry by, @hy on me turn the unsym#athiHing eyeQ .o brother li es with whom my cause to #leadR$$ @hy not #erform for me the hel#ing deedQ A russet #ear$tree rises all alone, But rich with erdant foliage oCergrown! 9 walk alone, without one brotherCs care, To whom 9 might, amid my straits re#air! Plenty of #eo#le there are all around, But none like those of my own name are found! "e tra ellers, who fore er hurry by, @hy on me turn the unsym#athiHing eyeQ .o brother li es with whom my cause to #leadR$$ @hy not #erform for me the hel#ing deedQ ZThe -rawbacks of Po ertyZ :n the left of the way, a russet #ear$tree &tands there all alone$$a fit image of me! There is that #rincely manU : that he would come, And in my #oor dwelling with me be at homeU 9n the core of my heart do 9 lo e him, but say, @hence shall 9 #rocure him the wants of the dayQ At the bend in the way a russet #ear$tree &tands there all alone$$a fit image of me! There is that #rincely manU : that he would come, And rambling with me be himself here at homeU 9n the core of my heart 9 lo e him, but say, @hence shall 9 #rocure him the wants of the dayQ ZA @ife 'ourns for +er +usbandZ The dolichos grows and co ers the thorn, :Cer the waste is the dragon$#lant cree#ing! The man of my heart is away and 9 mourn$$ @hat home ha e 9, lonely and wee#ingQ Co ering the jujubes the dolichos grows, The gra es many dragon$#lants co erR But where is the man on whose breast 9Cd re#oseQ .o home ha e 9, ha ing no lo erU

)air to see was the #illow of horn, And fair the bed$chamberCs adorningR But the man of my heart is not here, and 9 mourn All alone, and wait for the morning! @hile the long days of summer #ass o er my head, And long winter nights lea e their traces, 9Cm aloneU Till a hundred of years shall ha e fled, And then 9 shall meet his embraces! Through the long winter nights 9 am burdened with fears, Through the long summer days 9 am lonelyR But when time shall ha e counted its hundreds of years 9 then shall be his$$and his onlyU

B::( B9 T+E :-E& :) T&C9. ZCelebrating the :#ulence of the Lords of TsCinZ :ur ruler to the hunt #roceedsR And black as iron are his steeds That heed the charioteerCs command, @ho holds the siD reins in his hand! +is fa orites follow to the chase, ,ejoicing in his s#ecial grace! The seasonCs males, alarmed, arise$$ The seasonCs males, of wondrous siHe! -ri en by the beaters, forth they s#ring, &oon caught within the huntersC ring! P-ri e on their left,P the ruler criesR And to its mark his arrow flies! The hunting done, northward he goesR And in the #ark the dri er shows The horsesC #oints, and his own skill That rules and guides them at his will! Light cars whose teams small bells dis#lay, The long$and short$mouthed dogs con ey! ZA Com#laintZ +e lodged us in a s#acious house, And #lenteous was our fare! But now at e ery frugal meal ThereCs not a scra# to s#are! AlasU alas that this good man Could not go on as he beganU

ZA @ifeCs Grief Because of +er +usbandCs AbsenceZ The falcon swiftly seeks the north, And forest gloom that sent it forth! &ince 9 no more my husband see, 'y heart from grief is ne er free! : how is it, 9 long to know, That he, my lord, forgets me soQ Bushy oaks on the mountain grow, And siD elms where the ground is low! But 9, my husband seen no more, 'y sad and joyless fate de#lore! : how is it, 9 long to know, That he, my lord, forgets me soQ The hills the bushy wild #lums show, And #ear$trees grace the ground below! But, with my husband from me gone, As drunk with grief, 9 dwell alone! : how is it, 9 long to know, That he, my lord, forgets me soQ

ZLament for Three BrothersZ They flit about, the yellow birds, And rest u#on the jujubes find! @ho buried were in duke 'uhCs gra e, Ali e to awful death consignedQ C'ong brothers three, who met that fate, CTwas sad the first, "en$seih to see! +e stood aloneR a hundred men Could show no other such as he! @hen to the yawning gra e he came, Terror unner ed and shook his frame! @hy thus destroy our noblest men, To thee we cry, : aHure +ea enU To sa e "en$seih from death, we would A hundred li es ha e freely gi en! They flit about, the yellow birds, And on the mulberry$trees rest find! @ho buried were in duke 'uhCs gra e, Ali e to awful death consignedQ C'ong brothers three, who met that fate, CTwas sad the neDt, Chung$hang to see! @hen on him #ressed a hundred men, A match for all of them was he! @hen to the yawning gra e he came, Terror unner ed and shook his frame! @hy thus destroy our noblest men, To thee we cry, : aHure +ea enU

To sa e Chung$hang from death, we would A hundred li es ha e freely gi en! They flit about, the yellow birds, And rest u#on the thorn$trees find! @ho buried were in duke 'uhCs gra e, Ali e to awful death consignedQ C'ong brothers three, who met that fate, CTwas sad the third, (CEen$foo, to see! A hundred men in des#erate fight &uccessfully withstand could he! @hen to the yawning gra e he came, Terror unner ed and shook his frame! @hy thus destroy our noblest men, To thee we cry, : aHure +ea enU To sa e (CEen$foo from death, we would A hundred li es ha e freely gi en!

4.:TE!$$The incident related in this #oem occurred in the year B!C! 712, when the duke of 'uh died after #laying an im#ortant #art in the affairs of .orthwest China! 'uh reJuired the three officers here celebrated, to be buried with him, and according to the P+istorical ,ecordsP this barbarous #ractice began with duke Ching, 'uhCs #redecessor! 9n all, /02 indi iduals were buried with 'uh! The death of the last distinguished man of the TsCin dynasty, the Em#eror 9, was subseJuently celebrated by the entombment with him of all the inmates of his harem!8 Z9n Praise of a ,uler of TsCinZ @hat trees grow on the Chung$nan hillQ The white fir and the #lum! 9n fur of foD, Cneath Cbroidered robe, Thither our #rince is come! +is face glows with ermilion hue! : may he #ro e a ruler trueU @hat find we on the Chung$nan hillQ -ee# nook and o#en glade! :ur #rince shows there the double F(eF :n lower robe dis#layed! +is #endant holds each tinkling gem, Long life be his, and deathless fameU ZThe Generous .e#hewZ 9 escorted my uncle to Tsin, Till the @ei we crossed on the way! Then 9 ga e as 9 left )or his carriage a gift )our steeds, and each steed was a bay! 9 escorted my uncle to Tsin,

B::( B99 T+E :-E& :) C+C9. ZThe Contentment of a Poor ,ecluseZ 'y only door some #ieces of crossed wood, @ithin it 9 can rest enjoy! 9 drink the water wim#ling from the s#ringR .or hunger can my #eace destroy! Purged from ambitionCs aims 9 say, P)or fish! @e need not bream caught in the +oR .or, to #ossess the sweets of lo e, reJuire To TsCe, to find a (eang, to go! PThe man contented with his lot, a meal :f fish without +o car# can makeR .or needs, to rest in his domestic joy, A TsHe of &ung as wife to take!P ZThe -isa##ointed Lo erZ @here grow the willows near the eastern gate, And Cneath their leafy shade we could recline, &he said at e ening she would me await, And brightly now 9 see the day$star shineU +ere where the willows near the eastern gate Grow, and their dense lea es make a shady gloom, &he said at e ening she would me await! &ee now the morning star the sky illumeU ZA Lo e$&ongZ The moon comes forth, bright in the skyR A lo elier sight to draw my eye 9s she, that lady fair! &he round my heart has fiDed lo eCs chain, But all my longings are in ain! CTis hard the grief to bear! The moon comes forth, a s#lendid sightR 'ore winning far that lady bright,

And 9 thought of him much in my heart! Pendent stones, and with them :f fine jas#er a gem, 9 ga e, and then saw him de#art!

:bject of my desireU -ee#$seated is my anDious griefR 9n ain 9 seek to find reliefR @hile glows the secret fire! The rising moon shines mild and fairR 'ore bright is she, whose beauty rare 'y heart with longing fills! @ith eager wish 9 #ine in ainR : for relief from constant #ain, @hich through my bosom thrillsU ZThe Lament of a Lo erZ There where its shores the marsh surround, ,ushes and lotus #lants abound! Their lo eliness brings to my mind The lo elier one that 9 would find! 9n ain 9 try to ease the smart :f wounded lo e that wrings my heart! 9n waking thought and nightly dreams, )rom e ery #ore the water streams! All round the marshCs shores are seen >alerian flowers and rushes green! But lo elier is that Beauty rare, +andsome and large, and tall and fair, 9 wish and long to call her mine, -oomed with the longing still to #ine! .or day nor night eCer brings reliefR 'y inmost heart is full of grief! Around the marsh, in rich dis#lay, Grow rush and lotus flowers, all gay! But not with her do they com#are, &o tall and large, majestic, fair! Both day and night, 9 nothing s#eedR &till clings to me the aching need! :n side, on back, on face, 9 lie, But ain each change of #osture! T+E :-E& :) (@E9 ZThe @ish of an =nha##y 'anZ @here the grounds are wet and low, There the trees of goat$#each grow, @ith their branches small and smooth, Glossy in their tender youth! <oy it were to me, : tree, Consciousness to want like thee! @here the grounds are wet and low, There the trees of goat$#each grow! &oft and fragrant are their flowers,

Glossy from the ernal showers! <oy it were to me, : tree, Ties of home to want like thee! @here the grounds are wet and low, There the trees of goat$#each grow, @hat delicious fruits they bear, Glossy, soft, of beauty rareU <oy it were to me, : tree, +ousehold cares to want like thee!

B::( B9> T+E :-E& :) T&CA:= ZAgainst )ri olous PursuitsZ Like s#lendid robes a##ear the wings :f the e#hemeral flyR And such the #om# of those great men, @hich soon in death shall lieU 9 grie eU @ould they but come to meU To teach them 9 should try! The wings of the e#hemeral fly Are robes of colors gayR And such the glory of those men, &oon crumbling to decayU 9 grie eU @ould they but rest with me, TheyCd learn a better wayU The e#hemeral fly bursts from its hole, @ith gauHy wings like snowR &o Juick the rise, so Juick the fall, :f those great men we knowU 9 grie eU @ould they but lodge with me, )orth they would wiser go! B::( B> T+E :-E& :) P9. ZThe -uke of Chow Tells of +is &oldiersZ To the hills of the east we went, And long had we there to remain! @hen the word of recall was sent, Thick and fast came the driHHling rain! @hen told our return we should take, :ur hearts in the @est were and soreR But there did they clothes for us make%$$

They knew our hard ser ice was oCer! :n the mulberry grounds in our sight The large cater#illars were cree#ingR Lonely and still we #assed the night, All under our carriages slee#ing! To the hills of the East we went, And long had we there to remain! @hen the word of recall was sent, Thick and fast came the driHHling rain! The hea enly gourds rise to the eye, @ith their fruit hanging under the ea e! 9n our chambers the sow$bug we s#yR Their webs on our doors s#iders wea e! :ur #addocks seem crowded with deer, @ith the glow$wormCs light all about! &uch thoughts, while they filled us with fear, @e tried, but in ain, to kee# out! To the hills of the East we went, And long had we there to remain! @hen the word of recall was sent, Thick and fast came the driHHling rain! :n ant$hills screamed cranes with delightR 9n their rooms were our wi es sighing sore! :ur homes they had swe#t and made tight%$$ All at once we arri ed at the door! The bitter gourds hanging are seen, )rom branches of chestnut$trees high! Three years of toil away we had been, &ince such a sight greeted the eye! To the hills of the East we went, And long had we there to remain! @hen the word of recall was sent, Thick and fast came the driHHling rain! @ith its wings now here, and now there, 9s the oriole s#orting in flight! Those brides to their husbands re#air, Their steeds red and bay, flecked with white! Each mother has fitted each sashR Their eJui#ments are full and com#leteR But fresh unions, whate er their dash, Can neCer with reunions com#ete!

ZThere is a Pro#er @ay for -oing E erythingZ 9n hewing an aDe$shaft, how must you actQ Another aDe take, or youCll ne er succeed! 9n taking a wife, be sure Ctis a fact, That with no go$between you ne er can s#eed! 9n hewing an aDe$shaft, hewing a shaft, )or a co#y you ha e the aDe in your hand! 9n choosing a wife, you follow the craft,

And forthwith on the mats the feast$ essels stand! PA,T 99!$$'9.:, :-E& T: T+E (9.G-:' B::( 9 -ECA-E :) L=+ '9.G ZA )estal :deZ @ith sounds of ha##iness the deer Browse on the celery of the meads! A nobler feast is furnished here, @ith guests renowned for noble deeds! The lutes are struckR the organ blows, Till all its tongues in mo ement hea e! Each basket loaded stands, and shows The #recious gifts the guests recei e! They lo e me and my mind will teach, +ow dutyCs highest aim to reach! @ith sounds of ha##iness the deer The southern$wood cro# in the meads, @hat noble guests surround me here, -istinguished for their worthy deedsU )rom them my #eo#le learn to fly @hateCer is meanR to chiefs they gi e A model and a #attern highR$$ They show the life they ought to li e! Then fill their cu#s with s#irits rare, Till each the banJuetCs joy shall share! @ith sounds of ha##iness the deer The salsola cro# in the fields! @hat noble guests surround me hereU Each lute for them its music yields! &ound, sound the lutes, or great or small! The joy harmonious to #rolongR$$ And with my s#irits rich crown all The cu#s to cheer the festi e throng! Let each retire with gladdened heart, 9n his own s#here to #lay his #art! ZA )estal :de Com#limenting an :fficerZ :n dashed my four steeds, without halt, without stay, Though toilsome and winding from Chow was the way! 9 wished to return$$but the monarchCs command )orbade that his business be done with slack handR And my heart was with sadness o##ressed!

:n dashed my four steedsR 9 neCer slackened the reins! They snorted and #anted$$all white, with black manes! 9 wished to return, but our so ereignCs command )orbade that his business be done with slack handR$$ And 9 dared not to #ause or to rest! =nresting the )ilial do es s#eed in their flight, Ascending, then swee#ing swift down from the height, .ow grou#ed on the oaks! The kingCs high command )orbade that his business be done with slack handR$$ And my father 9 left, sore distressed! =nresting the )ilial do es s#eed in their flight, .ow fanning the air and anon they alight :n the medlars thick grou#ed! But our monarchCs command )orbade that his business be done with slack handR$$ :f my mother 9 thought with sad breast! 'y four steeds 9 harnessed, all white and black$maned, @hich straight on their way, fleet and emulous strained! 9 wished to returnR and now enture in song The wish to eD#ress, and announce how 9 long )or my mother my care to attest!

4.:TE!$$Both 'aou and Choo agree that this ode was com#osed in honor of the officer who narrates the story in it, although they say it was not written by the officer himself, but was #ut into his mouth, as it were, to eD#ress the sym#athy of his entertainer with him, and the a##reciation of his de otion to duty!8 ZThe >alue of )riendshi#Z The woodmenCs blows res#onsi e ring, As on the trees they fallR And when the birds their sweet notes sing, They to each other call! )rom the dark alley comes a bird, And seeks the lofty tree! F"ingF goes its oice, and thus it cries, PCom#anion, come to me!P The bird, although a creature small, =#on its mate de#endsR And shall we men, who rank oCer all, .ot seek to ha e our friendsQ All s#irits lo e the friendly man, And hearken to his #rayer! @hat harmony and #eace they can Bestow, his lot shall share! F+oo$hooF the woodmen all unite To shout, as trees they fell! They do their work with all their mightR$$ @hat 9 ha e done 9Cll tell! 9C e strained and made my s#irits clear, The fatted lambs 9C e killed!

@ith friends who my own surname bear, 'y hall 9C e largely filled! &ome may be absent, casually, And lea e a broken lineR But better this than absence by An o ersight of mine! 'y court 9C e s#rinkled and swe#t clean, >iands in order set! Eight dishes loaded stand with grainR ThereCs store of fatted meat! 'y motherCs kith and kin 9Cm sure 9C e widely called by name! That some be hindered better is Than Z9Z gi e cause for blame! :n the hill$side the trees they fell, All working with good$will 9 labor too, with eJual Heal! And the hostCs #art fulfil! &#irits 9C e set in order meet, The dishes stand in rows! The guests are hereR no acant seat A brother absent shows! The loss of kindly feeling oft )rom slightest things shall grow, @here all the fare is dry and s#are, ,esentments fierce may glow! 'y store of s#irits is well strained, 9f short #ro e the su##ly, 'y messengers 9 straightway send, And what is needed buy! 9 beat the drums, and in the dance Lead joyously the train! :hU good it is, when falls the chance The s#arkling cu# to drain!

ZThe ,es#onse to a )estal :deZ +ea en shields and sets thee fast! 9t round thee fair has cast Thy irtue #ure! Thus richest joy is thineR$$ 9ncrease of corn and wine, And e ery gift di ine, Abundant, sure! +ea en shields and sets thee fast! )rom it thou goodness hastR ,ight are thy ways! 9ts choicest gifts Ctwill #our, That last for e ermore, .or time eDhaust the store Through endless days! +ea en shields and sets thee fast, 'akes thine endea or last And #ros#er well!

Like hills and mountains high, @hose masses touch the skyR Like streams aye surging byR Thine increase swellU @ith rite and aus#ice fair, Thine offerings thou dost bear, And son$like gi e, The seasonCs round from s#ring, To olden duke and king, @hose words to thee we bring%$$ P)ore er li e,P The s#irits of thy dead Pour blessings on thy head, =nnumbered sweet! Thy subjects, sim#le, good, Enjoy their drink and food! :ur tribes of e ery blood )ollow thy feet! Like moons that waD in lightR :r suns that scale the heightR :r ageless hillR .or change, nor autumn knowR As #ine and cy#ress growR The sons that from thee flow Be lasting stillU

ZAn :de of CongratulationZ The russet #ear$tree stands there all aloneR +ow bright the growth of fruit u#on it shownU The (ingCs affairs no stinting hands reJuire, And days #rolonged still mock our fond desire! But time has brought the tenth month of the yearR 'y womanCs heart is torn with wound se ere! &urely my warrior lord might now a##earU The russet #ear$tree stands there all aloneR +ow dense the leafy shade all oCer it thrownU The (ingCs affairs reJuire no slackening hand, And our sad hearts their feelings canCt command! The #lants and trees in beauty shineR Ctis s#ring! )rom off my heart its gloom 9 fain would fling! This season well my warrior home may bringU 9 climbed that northern hill, and medlars soughtR The s#ring nigh oCer, to ri#eness they were brought! PThe (ingCs affairs cannot be slackly donePR$$ CTis thus our #arents mourn their absent son! But now his sandal car must broken beR 9 seem his #owerful steeds worn out to see! ,elief has goneU +e canCt be far from meU AlasU they canCt ha e marchedR they donCt arri eU 'ore hard it grows with my distress to stri e!

ZAn :de on the ,eturn of the Troo#sZ )orth from the city in our cars we dro e, =ntil we halted at the #asture ground! The general came, and there with ardor stro e A note of Heal throughout the host to sound! P-irect from court 9 come, by orders bound The march to hastenPR$$it was thus he s#ake! Then with the carriage$officers around, +e strictly charged them Juick des#atch to make%$$ P=rgent the (ingCs affairs, forthwith the field we take!P @hile there we sto##ed, the second cor#s a##eared, And CtwiDt =s and the city took its #lace! The guiding standard was on high u#reared, @here twining snakes the tortoises embrace, @hile oDtails, crest$like, did the staffCs to# grace! @e watched the sheet unfolding grandly wa eR Each flag around showed falcons on its face! @ith anDious care looked on our leader bra eR @atchful the carriage$officers a##eared and gra e! .an Chung, our chief, had heard the royal call To go where inroad by +een$yuns was made, And Ccross the frontier build a barrier wall! .umerous his chariots, s#lendidly arrayedU The standards$$this where dragons were dis#layed, And that where snakes round tortoises were coiled$$ Terrific flew! P.orthward our host,P he said, P+ea enCs son sends forth to tame the +een$yun wild!P &oon by this awful chief would all their tribes be foiled! @hen first we took the field, and northward went, The millet was in flowerR$$a #ros#ect sweet! .ow when our weary ste#s are homeward bent, The snow falls fast, the mire im#edes our feet! 'any the hardshi#s we were called to meet, Ere the (ingCs orders we had all fulfilled! .o rest we hadR often our friends to greet The longing cameR but ain regrets we stilledR By tablets stern our hearts with fresh resol e were thrilled! P9ncessant chir# the insects in the grassR All round about the nimble ho##ers s#ring! )rom them our thoughts Juick to our husbands #assQ Although those thoughts our hearts with anguish wring! :hU could we see them, what relief Ctwould bringU :ur hearts, rejoiced, at once would feel at rest!P Thus did our wi es, their case de#loring, singR The while our leader farther on had #ressed,

The time is #assed, and still he is not hereU 'y sorrows multi#lyR great is my fear! But loU by reeds and shell 9 ha e di ined, That he is near, they both assure my mindR$$ &oon at my side my warrior 9 shall findU

And smitten with his #ower the wild <ung of the west! The s#ring days now are lengthening out their lightR The #lants and trees are dressed in li ing greenR The orioles resting sing, or wing their flightR :ur wi es amid the southern$wood are seen, @hich white they bring, to feed their silkworms keen! :ur host, returned, swee#s onwards to the hall, @here chiefs are Juestioned, shown the ca#ti es mean .an Chung, majestic, draws the gaHe of all, Proud oCer the barbarous foe his ictories to recall!

B::( 99 T+E -ECA-E :) P9+ +C@A ZAn :de A##ro#riate to a )esti ityZ The dew lies hea y all around, .or, till the sun shines, lea es the ground! )ar into night we feasting sitR @e drink, and none his #lace may Juit! The dew lies hea y, and its gems &tud the luDuriant, grassy stems! The ha##y night with wassail ringsR &o feasted here the former kings! The jujube and the willow$tree All fretted with the dew we see! Each guestCs a #rince of noble line, 9n whom the irtues all combine! The FtCungF and FeF their fruits dis#lay, Pendant from e ery graceful s#ray! 'y guests are joyous and serene, .o haggard eye, no ruffled mien! B::( 999 T+E -ECA-E :) T=.G ,=.G ZCelebrating a +unting ED#editionZ :ur chariots were well$built and firm, @ell$matched our steeds, and fleet and strong! )our, sleek and large, each chariot drew,

And eastward thus we dro e along! :ur hunting cars were light and good, Each with its team of noble steeds! &till further east we took the way To )oo$mereCs grassy #lains that leads! Loud$ oiced, the masters of the chase Arranged the huntsmen, high and low! @hile banners streamed, and oD$tails flew, @e sought the #rey on distant Gaou! Each with full team, the #rinces came, A lengthened train in bright array! 9n gold$wrought sli##ers, knee$ca#s red, They looked as on an audience day! Each right thumb wore the metal guardR :n the left arm its shield was bound! 9n unison the arrows flewR The game lay #iled u#on the ground! The leaders of the tawny teams &#ed on their course, direct and true! The dri ers #erfect skill dis#layedR Like blow well aimed each arrow flew! .eighing and #leased, the steeds returnedR The bannered lines back slowly came! .o jostling rude disgraced the crowdR The king declined large share of game!

&o did this famous hunt #roceedU &o free it was from clamorous soundU @ell does our (ing become his #lace, And high the deeds his reign ha e crownedU ZThe (ingCs AnDiety for +is 'orning Le KeZ +ow goes the nightQ )or hea y morning slee# 9ll suits the king who men would loyal kee#! The courtyard, ruddy with the torchCs light, Proclaims uns#ent the dee#est hour of night! Already near the gate my lords a##earR Their tinkling bells salute my wakeful ear! +ow goes the nightQ 9 may not slumber on! Although not yet the night is wholly gone, The #aling torch$light in the court below Gi es token that the hours swift$footed go! Already at the gate my lords a##earR Their tinkling bells with measured sound draw near! +ow goes the nightQ 9 may not slumber now! The darkness smiles with morning on its brow! The courtyard torch no more gi es forth its ray, But heralds with its smoke the coming day!

Z'oral Lessons from .atural )actsZ All true words fly, as from yon reedy marsh The crane rings oCer the wild its screaming harsh! >ainly you try reason in chains to kee#R$$ )reely it mo es as fish swee#s through the dee#! +ate follows lo e, as Cneath those sandal$trees The withered lea es the eager searcher sees! The hurtful neCer without some good was bornR$$ The stones that mar the hill will grind the corn! All true words s#read, as from the marshCs eye The craneCs sonorous note ascends the sky! Goodness throughout the widest s#here abides, As fish round isle and through the ocean glides! And lesser good near greater you shall see, As grows the #a#er shrub Cneath sandal$tree! And good emerges from what man condemnsR$$ Those stones that mar the hill will #olish gems! B::( 9> T+E -ECA-E :) (CE$):: Z:n the Com#letion of a ,oyal PalaceZ :n yonder banks a #alace, loU u#shoots, The tender blue of southern hill behindR )irm$founded, like the bambooCs clam#ing rootsR 9ts roof made #ine$like, to a #oint defined! )raternal lo e here bears its #recious fruits, And unfraternal schemes be neCer designedU Ancestral sway is his! The walls they rear, )i e thousand cubits longR and south and west The doors are #laced! +ere will the king a##ear, +ere laugh, here talk, here sit him down and rest! To mould the walls, the frames they firmly tieR The toiling builders beat the earth and lime! The walls shall ermin, storm, and bird defyR$$ )it dwelling is it for his lordly #rime! Grand is the hall the noble lord ascendsR$$ 9n height, like human form most re erent, grandR And straight, as flies the shaft when bow unbendsR 9ts tints, like hues when #heasantCs wings eD#and!

'y #rinces #ass the gate, and gather thereR 9 see their banners floating in the air!

+igh #illars rise the le el court aroundR The #leasant light the o#en chamber stee#sR And dee# recesses, wide alco es, are found, @here our good king in #erfect Juiet slee#s! Laid is the bamboo mat on rush mat sJuareR$$ +ere shall he slee#, and, waking, say, P-i ine @hat dreams are goodQ )or bear and griHHly bear, And snakes and cobras, haunt this couch of mine!P Then shall the chief di iner glad re#ly, PThe bears foreshow that +ea en will send you sons! The snakes and cobras daughters #ro#hesy! These auguries are all aus#icious ones! P&ons shall be his$$on couches lulled to rest! The little ones, enrobed, with sce#tres #layR Their infant cries are loud as stern behestR Their knees the ermeil co ers shall dis#lay! As king hereafter one shall be addressedR The rest, our #rinces, all the &tates shall sway! PAnd daughters also to him shall be born! They shall be #laced u#on the ground to slee#R Their #laythings tiles, their dress the sim#lest wornR Their #art alike from good and ill to kee#, And neCer their #arentsC hearts to cause to mournR To cook the food, and s#irit$malt to stee#!P

ZThe Condition of (ing &euenCs )locksZ @ho dares to say your shee# are fewQ The flocks are all three hundred strong! @ho dares des#ise your cattle tooQ There ninety, black$li##ed, #ress along! Though horned the shee#, yet #eaceful each a##earsR The cattle come with moist and fla##ing ears! These climb the heights, those drink the #oolR &ome lie at rest, while others roam! @ith rain$coats, and thin s#lint hats cool, And bearing food, your herdsmen come! 9n thirties, ranged by hues, the creatures standR )it ictims they will yield at your command! "our herdsmen twigs and fagots bring, @ith #rey of birds and beasts for food! "our shee#, untouched by e il thing, A##roach, their health and igor good! The herdsmanCs wa ing hand they all behold, And docile come, and #ass into the fold! "our herdsmen dreamR$$fish take the #lace :f menR on banners falcons fly, -is#lacing snakes and tortoises! The augur tells his #ro#hecy%$$

B::( > T+E -ECA-E :) &EA:= '9. ZA Eunuch Com#lains of +is )ateZ A few fine lines, at random drawn, Like the shell$#attern wrought in lawn To hasty glance will seem! 'y tri ial faults base slanderCs slime -istorted into foulest crime, And men me worthless deem! A few small #oints, #ricked down on wood, 'ay be made out a #icture good :f the bright &outhern &ie e! @ho #lanned, and hel#ed those slanderers ile, 'y name with base lies to defileQ =n#itied, here 9 grie e! @ith babbling tongues you go about, And only scheme how to make out The lies you scatter round! +ear me$$Be careful what you sayR Peo#le ere long your words will weigh, And liars youCll be found! Cle er you are with changeful schemesU +ow else could all your e il dreams And slanders work their wayQ 'en now belie e youR by and by, The truth found out, each icious lie @ill ill for ill re#ay! The #roud rejoiceR the sufferer wee#s! : aHure +ea en, from out thy dee#s @hy look in silence downQ Behold those #roud men and rebukeR @ith #ity on the sufferers look, And on the e il frown! Those slanderers 9 would gladly take, @ith all who hel# their schemes to make, And to the tigers throw! 9f wol es and tigers such should s#are, Td hurl them Cmidst the freeHing air, @here the keen north winds blow! And should the .orth com#assion feel 9Cd fling them to great +ea en, to deal :n them its direst woe!

PThe first betoken #lenteous yearsR the change :f banners shows of homes a widening range!P

ZAn :fficer -e#lores the 'isery of the TimeZ 9n the fourth month summer shinesR 9n the siDth the heat declines! .ature thus grants men reliefR Tyranny gi es only grief! @ere not my forefathers menQ Can my suffering Csca#e their kenQ 9n the cold of autumn days Each #lant shri els and decays! .ature then is hard and sternR Li ing things sad lessons learn! )riends dis#ersed, all order gone, Place of refuge ha e 9 none! @inter days are wild and fierceR ,a#id gusts each cre ice #ierce! &uch is my unha##y lot, =nbefriended and forgotU :thers all can ha##y beR 9 from misery neCer am free! :n the mountains are fine treesR Chestnuts, #lum$trees, there one sees! All the year their forms they showR &tately more and more they grow! .oble turned to ra ening thiefU @hat the causeQ This stirs my grief! @aters from that s#ring a##ear &ometimes foul, and sometimes clear, Changing oft as falls the rain, :r the sky grows bright again! .ew misfortunes e ery day &till befall me, miseryCs #rey! Aid from mighty streams obtained, &outhern &tates are sha#ed and drained! Thus the (eang and +an are thanked, And as benefactors ranked! @eary toil my igor drainsR All unnoticed it remainsU +awks and eagles mount the skyR &turgeons in dee# waters lie! :ut of reach, they safely get, Arrow fear not, nor the net! +iding$#lace for me thereCs noneR

As on the sacred heights you dwell, 'y #lace is in the willow dell, :ne is the other near! Before you, officers, 9 s#read These lines by me, #oor eunuch, made! Think not 'ang$tsHe se ere!

+ere 9 stay, and make my moan! )erns u#on the hills aboundR F(eF and FeF in marshy ground! Each can boast its #ro#er #lace, @here it grows for use or grace! 9 can only sing the woe, @hich, ill$starred, 9 undergo!

Z:n the Alienation of a )riendZ Gently and soft the east wind blows, And then there falls the #elting rain! @hen anDious fears #ressed round you close, Then linked together were we twain! .ow ha##y, and your mind at rest, "ou turn and cast me from your breast! Gently and soft the east wind blows, And then there comes the whirlwind wild! @hen anDious fears #ressed round you close, "our bosom held me as a child! .ow ha##y, and in #eaceful state, "ou throw me off and Juite forget! Gently and soft the east wind blows, Then round the rocky height it storms! Each #lant its lea es all dying showsR The trees dis#lay their withered forms! 'y irtues great forgotten all, "ou kee# in mind my faults, though small! B::( >9 T+E -ECA-E :) P9+ &+A. ZA Picture of +usbandryZ >arious the toils which fields so large demandU @e choose the seedR we take our tools in hand! 9n winter for our work we thus #re#areR Then in the s#ring, bearing the shar#ened Cshare, @e to the acres go that south incline, And to the earth the different seeds consign! &oon, straight and large, u#ward each #lant as#iresR$$ All ha##ens as our noble lord desires! The #lants will earR within their sheath confined, The grains will harden, and be good in kind! .or darnel these, nor wolfCs$tail grass infestsR )rom core and leaf we #ick the insect #ests, And #ick we those that eat the joints and roots%$$

&o do we guard from harm the growing fruits! 'ay the great &#irit, whom each farmer names, Those insects take, and cast them to the flamesU The clouds oCers#read the sky in masses dense, And gentle rain down to the earth dis#ense! )irst may the #ublic fields the blessing get, And then with it our #ri ate fields we wetU Patches of unri#e grain the rea#er lea esR And here and there ungathered are the shea es! +andfuls besides we dro# u#on the ground, And ears untouched in numbers lie aroundR$$ These by the #oor and widows shall be found! @hen wi es and children to the toilers come, Bringing #ro isions from each se#arate home, :ur lord of long descent shall oft a##earR The 9ns#ector also, glad the men to cheer! They too shall thank the &#irits of the air, @ith sacrifices #ure for all their careR .ow red, now black, the ictims that they slay, As .orth or &outh the sacrifice they #ayR @hile millet bright the altars always showR$$ And we shall thus still greater blessings know!

ZThe Com#laint of an :fficerZ : +ea en abo e, before whose light ,e ealed is e ery deed and thought, To thee 9 cry! +ither on toilsome ser ice brought, 9n this wild (Cew 9 watch timeCs flight, And sadly sigh! The second month had just begun, @hen from the east we took our way! Through summer hot @e #assed, and many a wintry day! &ummer again its course has run! : bitter lotU There are my com#eers, gay at court, @hile here the tears my face begrime! 9Cd fain return$$ But there is that dread net for crimeU The fear of it the wish cuts short! 9n ain 9 burnU Ere we the royal city left, The sun and moon renewed the year! @e marched in ho#e! .ow to its close this year is near! ,eturn deferred, of ho#e bereft, All mourn and mo#e! 'y lonesome state haunts aye my breast, @hile duties grow, and cares increase, Too hard to bear! Toils that o##ress me ne er ceaseR

.ot for a moment dare 9 rest, .igh to des#air! 9 think with fond regard of those, @ho in their #osts at court remain, 'y friends of old! )ain would 9 be with them again, But fierce re#roof return would cause! This #ost 9 hold! @hen for the @est 9 left my home, The sun and moon both mildly shone, :ur hearts to cheer! @eCd soon be back, our ser ice doneU AlasU affairs more urgent come, And fiD us here! The year is hastening to eD#ire! @e gather now the southern$wood, The beans we rea#R$$ That for its fragrance, these for food! &uch things that constant care reJuire 'e anDious kee#! Thinking of friends still at their #osts, 9 rise and #ass the night outside, &o eDed my mind! But soon what changes may betideQ 9 here will stay, whateCer it costs, And be resigned! 'y honored friends, : do not deem "our rest which seems secure from ill @ill e er lastU "our duties Juietly fulfil, And hold the u#right in esteem, @ith friendshi# fast! &o shall the &#irits hear your cry, "ou irtuous make, and good su##ly, 9n measure ast! 'y honored friends, : do not deem ,e#ose that seems secure from ill @ill lasting #ro e! "our duties Juietly fulfil, And hold the u#right in esteem, @ith earnest lo e! &o shall the &#irits hear your #rayer, And on you ha##iness confer, "our ho#es abo e!

B::( >99 -ECA-E :) &A.G +:: ZThe ,ejoicings of a BridegroomZ

@ith aDle creaking, all on fire 9 went, To fetch my young and lo ely bride! .o thirst or hunger #angs my bosom rent$$ 9 only longed to ha e her by my side! 9 feast with her, whose irtue fame had told, .or need we friends our ra#ture to behold! The long$tailed #heasants surest co ert find, Amid the forest on the #lain! +ere from my irtuous bride, of noble mind, And #erson tall, 9 wisdom gain! 9 #raise her while we feast, and to her say, PThe lo e 9 bear you neCer will know decay! PPoor we may beR s#irits and iands fine 'y humble means will not afford! But what we ha e, weCll taste and not re#ineR )rom us will come no grumbling word! And though to you no irtue 9 can add, "et we will sing and dance, in s#irit glad! P9 oft ascend that lofty ridge with toil, And hew large branches from the oaksR Then of their leafy glory them 9 s#oil, And fagots form with igorous strokes! ,eturning tired, your matchless grace 9 see, And my whole soul dissol es in ecstasy! PTo the high hills 9 looked, and urged each steedR The great road neDt was smooth and #lain! =# hill, oCer dale, 9 ne er slackened s#eedR Like lute$string sounded e ery rein! 9 knew, my journey ended, 9 should come To you, sweet bride, the comfort of my home!P

ZAgainst Listening to &landerersZ Like the blueflies buHHing round, And on the fences lighting, Are the sons of slander found, @ho ne er cease their biting! : thou ha##y, courteous king, To the winds their slanders fling! BuHHing round the blueflies hear, About the jujubes flockingU &o the slanderers a##ear, @hose calumnies are shocking! By no law or order bound, All the kingdom they confound! +ow they buHH, those odious flies, =#on the haHels clustCringU And as odious are the lies :f those slanderers blustCring! +atred stirred between us two

&hows the e il they can do! B::( >999 T+E -ECA-E :) T:: <9. &IE Z9n Praise of By$gone &im#licityZ 9n the old ca#ital they stood, @ith yellow foD$furs #lain, Their manners all correct and good, &#eech free from ulgar stain! Could we go back to ChowCs old days, All would look u# to them with #raise! 9n the old ca#ital they wore FTCaeF hats and black ca#s smallR And ladies, who famed surnames bore, Their own thick hair let fall! &uch sim#le ways are seen no more, And the changed manners 9 de#lore! Ear$rings, made of #lainest gold, 9n the old days were worn! Each lady of a noble line A "in or (eih seemed born! &uch officers and ladies now 9 see not and my sorrows grow! @ith graceful swee# their girdles fell, Then in the days of old! The ladiesC side$hair, with a swell, Like scor#ionCs tail, rose bold! &uch, if 9 saw them in these days, 9Cd follow with admiring gaHe! &o hung their girdles, not for showR$$ To their own length Ctwas due! CTwas not by art their hair curled soR$$ By nature so it grew! 9 seek such manners now in ain, And #ine for them with longing #ain! 4.:TE!$$"in and (eih were clan names of great families, the ladies of which would be leaders of fashion in the ca#ital!8 ZA @ife Bemoans +er +usbandCs AbsenceZ &o full am 9 of anDious thought, Though all the morn king$grass 9C e sought,

To fill my arms 9 fail! Like wis# all$tangled is my hairU To wash it let me home re#air! 'y lord soon may 9 hailU Though Cmong the indigo 9C e wrought The morning longR through anDious thought 'y skirtCs filled but in #art! @ithin fi e days he was to a##earR The siDth has come and heCs not here! :hU how this racks my heartU @hen here we dwelt in union sweet, 9f the hunt called his eager feet, +is bow 9 cased for him! :r if to fish he went away, And would be absent all the day, +is line 9 #ut in trim! @hat in his angling did he catchQ @ell worth the time it was to watch +ow bream and tench he took! 'en thronged u#on the banks and gaHedR At bream and tench they looked amaHed, The trium#hs of his hook!

ZThe Earl of &haouCs @orkZ As the young millet, by the genial rain Enriched, shoots u# luDuriant and tall, &o, when we southward marched with toil and #ain, The Earl of &haou cheered and ins#ired us all! @e #ushed our barrows, and our burdens boreR @e dro e our wagons, and our oDen led! PThe work once done, our labor there is oCer, And home we tra el,P to oursel es we said! Close ke#t our footmen round the chariot trackR :ur eager host in close battalions s#ed! P@hen once our work is done, then we go back, :ur labor o er,P to themsel es they said! +ard was the work we had at &eay to do, But &haouCs great earl the city soon u#reared! The host its ser ice ga e with ardor trueR$$ &uch #ower in all the earlCs commands a##earedU @e did on #lains and low lands what was meetR @e cleared the s#rings and streams, the land to drain! The Earl of &haou announced his work com#lete, And the (ingCs heart re#osed, at rest again! ZThe Plaint of (ing "ewCs )orsaken @ifeZ

The fibres of the white$flowered rush Are with the white grass bound! &o do the two together go, 9n closest union found! And thus should man and wife abide, The twain combined in oneR But this bad man sends me away, And bids me dwell alone! Both rush and grass from the bright clouds The genial dew #artake! (ind and im#artial, natureCs laws .o odious difference make! But #ro idence a##ears unkindR E ents are often hard! This man, to #rinci#le untrue, -enies me his regard! .orthward the #ools their waters send, To flood each #addy fieldR &o get the fields the sa# they need, Their store of rice to yield! But that great man no deed of grace -eigns to bestow on me! 'y songs are sighs! At thought of him 'y heart aches wearily! The mulberry branches they collect, And use their food to cookR But 9 must use a furnace small, That #ot nor #an will brook! &o me that great man badly treats, .or uses as his wife, -egrades me from my #ro#er #lace, And fills with grief my life! The bells and drums inside the court 'en stand without and hearR &o should the feelings in my breast, To him distinct a##ear! All$sorrowful, 9 think of him, Longing to mo e his lo eR But he ouchsafes no kind res#onseR +is thoughts far from me ro e! The marabow stands on the dam, And to re#letion feedsR The crane dee# in the forest cries, .or finds the food it needs! &o in my room the concubine By the great man is #lacedR @hile 9 with cruel banishment Am cast out and disgraced! The yellow ducks sit on the dam, @ith left wing gathered lowR &o on each other do they lean, And their attachment show!

And lo e should thus the man and wife 9n closest concord bindR But that man turns away from me, And shows a fickle mind! @hen one stands on a slab of stone, .o higher than the ground, .othing is added to his heightR$$ Low with the stone heCs found! &o does the fa oriteCs mean estate ,ender that great man mean, @hile 9 by him, to distance sent, Am #ierced with sorrow keen!

Z+os#italityZ A few gourd lea es that wa ed about Cut down and boiledR$$the feast how s#areU But the good host his s#irits takes, Pours out a cu#, and #ro es them rare! A single rabbit on the mat, :r baked, or roast%$$how small the feastU But the good host his s#irits takes, And fills the cu# of e ery guest! A single rabbit on the mat, ,oasted or broiled%$$how #oor the mealU But the guests from the s#irit ase )ill their hostCs cu#, and drink his weal! A single rabbit on the mat, ,oasted or baked%$$no feast we thinkU But from the s#irit ase they take, Both host and guests, and joyous drink! Z:n the 'isery of &oldiersZ "ellow now is all the grassR All the days in marching #ass! :n the mo e is e ery manR +ard work, far and near, they #lan! Black is e ery #lant becomeR E ery man is torn from home! (e#t on foot, our state is sadR$$ As if we no feelings hadU .ot rhinoceroses weU Tigers do we care to beQ )ields like these so desolate Are to us a hateful fate! Long$tailed foDes #leased may hide C'ong the grass, where they abide!

PA,T 999!$$G,EATE, :-E& :) T+E (9.G-:' B::( 9 -ECA-E :) (9.G @A. ZCelebrating (ing @anZ The royal @an now rests on high, Enshrined in brightness of the sky! Chow as a state had long been known, And +ea enCs decree at last was shown! 9ts lords had borne a glorious nameR God kinged them when the season came! (ing @an ruled well when earth he trodR .ow mo es his s#irit near to God! A strong$willed, earnest king was @an, And still his fame rolls widening on! The gifts that God bestowed on Chow Belong to @anCs descendants now! +ea en blesses still with gifts di ine The hundred scions of his lineR And all the officers of Chow )rom age to age more lustrous grow! 'ore lustrous still from age to age, All re erent #lans their Heal engageR And brilliant statesmen owe their birth To this much$fa ored s#ot of earth! They s#ring like #roducts of the land$$ The men by whom the realm doth stand! &uch aid their numerous bands su##ly, That @an rests tranJuilly on high! -ee# were @anCs thoughts, sustained his waysR +is re erence lit its trembling rays! ,esistless came great +ea enCs decreeR The sons of &hang must bend the kneeR$$ The sons of &hang, each one a king, 9n numbers beyond numbering! "et as God s#oke, so must it be%$$ The sons of &hang all bent the knee! .ow each to Chow his homage #ays$$ &o dark and changing are +ea enCs ways! @hen we #our our libations here, The officers of &hang a##ear, Guick and alert to gi e their aid%$$

@e, in boD carts slowly borne, :n the great roads #lod and mourn!

&uch is the ser ice by them #aid, @hile still they do not cast aside The ca# and broidered aDe$$their #ride! "e ser ants of our line of kings, ,emember him from whom it s#rings! ,emember him from whom it s#ringsR$$ Let this gi e to your irtue wings! &eek harmony with +ea enCs great mindR$$ &o shall you surest blessing find! Ere &hang had lost the nationCs heart, 9ts monarchs all with God had #art 9n sacrifice! )rom them you see CTis hard to kee# high +ea enCs decree! CTis hard to kee# high +ea enCs decreeU : sin not, or you cease to be! To add true lustre to your name, &ee &hang eD#ire in +ea enCs dread flame! )or +ea enCs high dealings are #rofound, And far transcend all sense and sound! )rom @an your #attern you must draw, And all the &tates will own your law!

4Book 99! is omitted8 B::( 999 4;8 -ECA-E :) TA.G Z(ing &euen on the :ccasion of a Great -roughtZ Grand shone the 'ilky @ay on high, @ith brilliant s#an athwart the sky, .or #romise ga e of rain! (ing &euen long gaHedR then from him broke, 9n anguished tones the words he s#oke! @ell might he thus com#lainU P: +ea en, what crimes ha e we to own, That death and ruin still come downQ ,elentless famine fills our gra es! Pity the king who humbly cra esU :ur miseries ne er cease! To e ery &#irit 9 ha e owedR The choicest ictimCs blood has flowed! As offerings 9 ha e freely #aid 'y store of gems and #urest jade! +ear me, and gi e releaseU PThe drought consumes us! As on wing 9ts fer ors fly, and torment bring! @ith #urest mind and ceaseless care 'y sacrifices 9 #re#are!

At thine own border altars, +ea en, And in my fatherCs fane, 9C e gi en @hat might relief ha e found! @hat Powers abo e, below, ha e sway, To all my #recious gifts 9 #ay, Then bury in the ground! "es, e ery &#irit has recei ed -ue honor, and, still unrelie ed, :ur sufferings greater grow! +ow$tseih canCt gi e the needed aid, And hel# from God is still delayedU The country lies a ruined waste! : would that 9 alone might taste This bitter cu# of woeU PThe drought consumes us! .or do 9 To fiD the blame on others try! 9 Juake with dreadR the risk 9 feel, As when 9 hear the thunders #eal, :r fear its sudden crash! :ur black$haired race, a remnant now, @ill e ery one be swe#t from Chow, As by the lightningCs flash! .or 9 myself will li e alone! God from his great and hea enly throne @ill not s#are e en me! : friends and officers, come, blend "our #rayers with mineR come, lowly bend! ChowCs dynasty will #ass awayR 9ts altars at no distant day 9n ruins all shall beU PThe drought consumes us! 9t kee#s on 9ts fatal course! All ho#e is gone! The air more fierce and fiery glows! @here can 9 flyQ @here seek re#oseQ -eath marks me for its #rey! Abo e, no sa ing handU Around, .o ho#e, no comfort, can be found! The dukes and ministers of old Gi e us no hel#! Can ye withhold "our sym#athy, who lately reignedQ And #arents, how are you restrained, 9n this so dreadful dayQ PThe drought consumes us! There on high The hills are #arched! The streams are dry! -roughtCs demon stalks abroad in ire, And scatters wide his flames and fire! Alas, my woful heartU The fires within its strength consumeR The heat without creates a gloom That from it will not #art! The dukes and ministers by$gone ,es#ond not to my #rayer and moan! God in great +ea en, #ermission gi e That 9 may in retirement li e, And try to heal my smartU

PThe drought consumes us! &till 9 stri e, And will not lea e while 9 sur i e! -uty to shun 9 fear! @hy u#on me has come this droughtQ >ainly 9 try to search it out, >ainly, with Juest se ere! )or a good har est soon 9 #rayed, .or late the rites 9 duly #aid, To &#irits of the air and land! There wanted nought they could demand, Their fa or to secure! God in great hea en, be just, be kindU Thou dost not bear me in Thy mind! 'y cry, ye wisest &#irits, hearU "e whom 9 constantly re ere, @hy do 9 this endureQ PThe drought consumes us! Peo#le fly, And lea e their homes! Each social tie And bond of rule is sna#t! The +eads of Boards are all #er#leDedR 'y #remierCs mind is sorely eDedR 9n trouble all are wra#t! The 'asters of my +orse and GuardsR 'y cook, and men of different wards%$$ .ot one has from the struggle shrunk! Though feeling weak, they ha e not sunk, But done their best to aid! To the great sky 9 look with #ainR$$ @hy do these grie ous sorrows rain :n my de oted headQ P"es, at the mighty sky 9 gaHe, And loU the stars #ursue their maHe, And s#arkle clear and bright! AhU +ea en nor hel#s, nor seems to ken! Great officers and noble men, @ith all your #owers ye well ha e stri en, And re erently ha e sought from +ea en 9ts aid in our great fight! 'y death is nearR but ohU kee# on, And do as thus far you ha e done! ,egard you only meQ .o, for yoursel es and all your friends, :n whom for rule the land de#ends, "ou seek security! 9 turn my gaHe to the great skyR$$ @hen shall this drought be done, and 9 Guiet and restful beQP

4.:TE ;% &elections from Book 99! are omitted!$$E-9T:,!8 PA,T 9>!$$:-E& :) T+E TE'PLE A.- ALTA,

B::( 9 &AC,9)9C9AL :-E& :) C+:@ ZA##ro#riate to a &acrifice to (ing @anZ 'y offerings here are gi en, A ram, a bull! Acce#t them, mighty +ea en, All$bountiful! Thy statutes, : great king, 9 kee#, 9 lo eR &o on the realm to bring Peace from abo e! )rom @an comes blessing richR .ow on the right +e owns those gifts to which +im 9 in ite! -o 9 not night and day, ,e ere great +ea en, That thus its fa or may To Chow be gi enQ Z:n &acrificing to the (ings @oo, Ching, and (CangZ The arm of @oo was full of mightR .one could his fire withstandR And Ching and (Cang stood forth to sight, As kinged by GodCs own hand! @e err not when we call them sage! +ow grandly they maintained Their hold of all the heritage That @an and @oo had gainedU As here we worshi#, they descend, @hile bells and drums resound, And stones and lutes their music blend! @ith blessings we are crowned! The rites correctly we dischargeR The feast we freely share! Those &ires ChowCs glory will enlarge, And e er for it care! T+E T,A>EL& :) )?$+9E.

4Translation by <ames Legge8 T,A.&LAT:,C& 9.T,:-=CT9:. .othing of great im#ortance is known about )*$hien in addition to what may be gathered from his own record of his tra els! 9 ha e read the accounts of him in the P'emoirs of Eminent 'onks,P com#iled in A!-! 6/A, and a later work, the P'emoirs of 'ar ellous 'onks,P by the third em#eror of the 'ing dynasty MA!-! /S23$/S1SN, which, howe er, is nearly all borrowed from the otherR and all in them that has an a##earance of erisimilitude can be brought within brief com#ass! +is surname, they tell us, was (ung, and he was a nati e of @u$yang in PCing$yang, which is still the name of a large de#artment in &han$hs\! +e had three brothers older than himselfR but when they all died before shedding their first teeth, his father de oted him to the ser ice of the Buddhist society, and had him entered as a &r*manera, still kee#ing him at home in the family! The little fellow fell dangerously ill, and the father sent him to the monastery, where he soon got well and refused to return to his #arents! @hen he was ten years old, his father diedR and an uncle, considering the widowed solitariness and hel#lessness of the mother, urged him to renounce the monastic life, and return to her, but the boy re#lied, P9 did not Juit the family in com#liance with my fatherCs wishes, but because 9 wished to be far from the dust and ulgar ways of life! This is why 9 choose monkhood!P The uncle a##ro ed of his words and ga e o er urging him! @hen his mother also died, it a##eared how great had been the affection for her of his fine natureR but after her burial he returned to the monastery! :n one occasion he was cutting rice with a score or two of his fellow$disci#les, when some hungry thie es came u#on them to take away their grain by force! The other &r*maneras all fled, but our young hero stood his ground, and said to the thie es, P9f you must ha e the grain, take what you #lease! But, sirs, it was your former neglect of charity which brought you to your #resent state of destitutionR and now, again, you wish to rob others! 9 am afraid that in the coming ages you will ha e still greater #o erty and distressR 9 am sorry for you beforehand!P @ith these words he followed his com#anions to the monastery, while the thie es left the grain and went away, all the monks, of whom there were se eral hundred, doing homage to his conduct and courage! @hen he had finished his no itiate and taken on him the obligations of the full Buddhist orders, his earnest courage, clear intelligence, and strict regulation of his demeanor, were cons#icuousR and soon after, he undertook his journey to 9ndia in search of com#lete co#ies of the >inaya$#itaka! @hat follows this is merely an account of his tra els in 9ndia and return to China by sea, condensed from his own narrati e, with the addition of some mar ellous incidents that ha##ened to him, on his isit to the >ulture Peak near ,*jagriha! 9t is said in the end that after his return to China, he went to the ca#ital Me idently .ankingN, and there, along with the 9ndian &ramana Buddha$bhadra, eDecuted translations of some of the works which he had obtained in 9ndiaR and that before he had done all that he wished to do

in this way, he remo ed to (ing$chow Min the #resent +oo$#ihN, and died in the monastery of &in, at the age of eighty$eight, to the great sorrow of all who knew him! 9t is added that there is another larger work gi ing an account of his tra els in arious countries! &uch is all the information gi en about our author, beyond what he has himself told us! )*$hien was his clerical name, and means P9llustrious in the Law,P or P9llustrious master of the Law!P The &hih which often #recedes it is an abbre iation of the name of Buddha as &*kyamuni, Pthe &*kya, mighty in Lo e, dwelling in &eclusion and &ilence,P and may be taken as eJui alent to Buddhist! +e is sometimes said to ha e belonged to Pthe eastern Tsin dynastyP MA!-! 3/0$S/AN, and sometimes to Pthe &ung,P that is, the &ung dynasty of the +ouse of Li] MA!-! S12$S0TN! 9f he became a full monk at the age of twenty, and went to 9ndia when he was twenty$fi e, his long life may ha e been di ided #retty eJually between the two dynasties! 9f there were e er another and larger account of )*$hienCs tra els than the narrati e of which a translation is now gi en, it has long ceased to be in eDistence! 9n the catalogue of the im#erial library of the &uy dynasty MA!-! 6TA$7/TN, the name )*$hien occurs four times! Towards the end of the last section of it, after a reference to his tra els, his labors in translation at (in$ling Manother name for .ankingN, in conjunction with Buddha$bhadra, are described! 9n the second section we find PA ,ecord of Buddhistic (ingdomsP$$with a note, saying that it was the work of Pthe &ramana, )*$hienPR and again, we ha e P.arrati e of )*$hien in two Books,P and P.arrati e of )*$hienCs Tra els in one Book!P But all these three entries may #ossibly belong to different co#ies of the same work, the first and the other two being in se#arate subdi isions of the catalogue! 9n the two Chinese co#ies of the narrati e in my #ossession the title is P,ecord of Buddhistic (ingdoms!P 9n the <a#anese or Corean recension the title is twofoldR first, P.arrati e of the -istinguished 'onk, )*$hienPR and then, more at large, P9ncidents of Tra els in 9ndia, by the &ramana of the Eastern Ts\n, )*$hien, recorded by himself!P There is still earlier attestation of the eDistence of our little work than the &uy catalogue! The PCatalogue ,aisonnKP of the im#erial library of the #resent dynasty mentions two Juotations from it by Le T*o$yXen, a geogra#hical writer of the dynasty of the .orthern @ei MA!-! 3T7$6TSN, one of them containing eighty$nine characters, and the other two hundred and se enty$siDR both of them gi en as from the P.arrati e of )*$hien!P 9n all catalogues subseJuent to that of &uy our work a##ears! The e idence for its authenticity and genuineness is all that could be reJuired! 9t is clear to myself that the P,ecord of Buddhistic (ingdomsP and the P.arrati e of his Tra els by )*$hienP were designations of one and the same work, and that it is doubtful whether any larger work on the same subject was e er current! @ith regard to the teDt subjoined to my translation, it was #ublished in <a#an in /00A! The editor had before him four recensions of the narrati eR those of the &ung and 'ing dynasties, with a##endices on the names of certain characters in themR that of <a#anR and that of Corea! +e wisely ado#ted the Corean teDt, #ublished in accordance with a royal rescri#t in /017, so far as 9 can make outR but the different readings of the other teDts are all gi en in to#$notes, instead of foot$notes as with us, this being one of the

#oints in which customs in the East and @est go by contraries! >ery occasionally, the editor indicates by a single character, eJui alent to PrightP or Pwrong,P which reading in his o#inion is to be #referred! The editors of the PCatalogue ,aisonnKP intimate their doubts of the good taste and reliability of all )*$hienCs statements! 9t offends them that he should call central 9ndia the P'iddle (ingdom,P and China, which to them was the true and only 'iddle (ingdom, but Pa Border$landP$$it offends them as the aunting language of a Buddhist writer, whereas the reader will see in the eD#ressions only an instance of what )*$hien calls his Psim#le straightforwardness!P As an instance of his unreliability they refer to his account of the Buddhism of (hoten, whereas it is well$known, they say, that the (hoteners from ancient times till now ha e been 'ohammedansR$$as if they could ha e been so one hundred and se enty years before 'ohammed was born, and two hundred twenty$two years before the year of the +egiraU And this is criticism in China! The catalogue was ordered by the (Cien$lung em#eror in /011! Between three and four hundred of the PGreat &cholarsP of the em#ire were engaged on it in arious de#artments, and thus egregiously ignorant did they show themsel es of all beyond the limits of their own country, and e en of the literature of that country itself! 'uch of what )*$hien tells his readers of Buddhist miracles and legends is indeed unreliable and grotesJueR but we ha e from him the truth as to what he saw and heard! 9n concluding this introduction 9 wish to call attention to some estimates of the number of Buddhists in the world which ha e become current, belie ing, as 9 do, that the smallest of them is much abo e what is correct! 9n a note on the first #age of his work on the Bhilsa To#es M/T6SN, General Cunningham says% PThe Christians number about two hundred and se enty millionsR the Buddhists about two hundred and twenty$two millions, who are distributed as follows% China one hundred and se enty millions, <a#an twenty$fi e millions, Anam fourteen millions, &iam three millions, A a eight millions, .e#Vl one million, and Ceylon one million!P 9n his article on '!<! BarthKlemy &aint$+ilaireCs PLe Bouddha et sa ,eligion,P re#ublished in his PChi#s from a German worksho#,P ol! i! M/T7TN, Professor 'aD 'Xller says, PThe young #rince became the founder of a religion which, after more than two thousand years, is still #rofessed by four hundred and fifty$fi e millions of human beings,P and he a##ends the following note% PThough truth is not settled by majorities, it would be interesting to know which religion counts at the #resent moment the largest numbers of belie ers! Berghaus, in his CPhysical Atlas,C gi es the following di ision of the human race according to religion% CBuddhists 3/!1 #er cent!, Christians 32!0, 'ohammedans /6!0, Brahmanists /3!S, +eathens T!0, and <ews :!3!C As Berghaus does not distinguish the Buddhists in China from the followers of Confucius and Laotse, the first #lace on the scale belongs really to Christianity! 9t is difficult in China to say to what religion a man belongs, as the same #erson may #rofess two or three! The em#eror himself, after sacrificing according to the ritual of Confucius, isits a Tao$tsK tem#le, and afterwards bows before an image of )o in a Buddhist cha#el!P MP'Klanges AsiatiJues de &t! PKtersbourg,P ol! ii! #! 30S!N

Both these estimates are eDceeded by -r! T!@! ,hys -a ids Mintimating also the uncertainty of the statements, and that numbers are no e idence of truthN in the introduction to his P'anual of Buddhism!P The Buddhists there a##ear as amounting in all to fi e hundred millions%$$thirty millions of &outhern Buddhists, in Ceylon, Burma, &iam, Anam, and 9ndia M<ainsNR and four hundred and se enty millions of .orthern Buddhists, of whom nearly thirty$three millions are assigned to <a#an, and S/S,7T7,A0S to the eighteen #ro inces of China #ro#er! According to him, Christians amount to about 17 #er cent, of mankind, +indus to about /3, 'ohammedans to about /1$/^1, Buddhists to about S2, and <ews to about one$half of one #er cent! 9n regard to all these estimates, it will be obser ed that the immense numbers assigned to Buddhism are made out by the multitude of Chinese with which it is credited! &ubtract CunninghamCs one hundred and se enty millions of Chinese from his total of two hundred and twenty$two millions, and there remain only fifty$two millions of Buddhists! &ubtract -a idsCs four hundred fourteen and one$half millions of Chinese from his total of fi e hundred millions, and there remain only eighty$fi e and one$half millions for Buddhism! :f the numbers assigned to other countries, as well as of their whole #o#ulations, 9 am in considerable doubt, eDce#ting in the cases of Ceylon and 9ndiaR but the greatness of the estimates turns u#on the immense multitudes said to be in China! 9 do not know what total #o#ulation Cunningham allowed for that country, nor on what #rinci#le he allotted one hundred and se enty millions of it to BuddhismR #erha#s he hal ed his estimate of the whole, whereas Berghaus and -a ids allotted to it the highest estimates that ha e been gi en of the #eo#le! But we ha e no certain information of the #o#ulation of China! At an inter iew with the former Chinese ambassador, (wo &ung$t*o, in Paris, in /T0T, 9 begged him to write out for me the amount, with the authority for it, and he assured me that it could not be done! 9 ha e read #robably almost e erything that has been #ublished on the subject, and endea ored by methods of my own to arri e at a satisfactory conclusionR$$without reaching a result which 9 can enture to lay before the #ublic! 'y im#ression has been that four hundred millions is hardly an eDaggeration! But su##osing that we had reliable returns of the whole #o#ulation, how shall we #roceed to a##ortion that among Confucianists, T*oists, and BuddhistsQ Confucianism is the orthodoDy of China! The common name for it is <] Chi*o, Pthe -octrines held by the Learned Class,P entrance into the circle of which is, with a few insignificant eDce#tions, o#en to all the #eo#le! The mass of them and the masses under their influence are #re#onderatingly ConfucianR and in the obser ance of ancestral worshi#, the most remarkable feature of the religion #ro#er of China from the earliest times, of which Confucius was not the author but the #ro#het, an o erwhelming majority are regular and assiduous! Among Pthe strange #rinci#lesP which the em#eror of the (Cang$hs\ #eriod, in one of his famous &iDteen Prece#ts, eDhorted his #eo#le to Pdiscountenance and #ut away, in order to eDalt the correct doctrine,P Buddhism and T*oism were both included! 9f, as stated in the note Juoted from Professor 'Xller, the em#eror countenances both the T*oist worshi# and the Buddhist, he does so for reasons of stateR to #lease es#ecially his Buddhistic subjects in Thibet and 'ongolia, and not to offend the many whose su#erstitious fancies incline to T*oism!

@hen 9 went out and in as a missionary among the Chinese #eo#le for about thirty years, it sometimes occurred to me that only the inmates of their monasteries and the recluses of both systems should be enumerated as Buddhists and TaoistsR but 9 was in the end constrained to widen that judgment, and to admit a considerable following of both among the #eo#le, who ha e neither recei ed the tonsure nor assumed the yellow to#! -r! Eitel, in concluding his discussion of this #oint in his PLecture on Buddhism, an E ent in +istory,P says% P9t is not too much to say that most Chinese are theoretically Confucianists, but emotionally Buddhists or Taoists! But fairness reJuires us to add that, though the mass of the #eo#le are more or less influenced by Buddhist doctrines, yet the #eo#le, as a whole, ha e no res#ect for the Buddhist church, and habitually sneer at Buddhist #riests!P )or the PmostP in the former of these two sentences 9 would substitute Pnearly allRP and between my friendCs PbutP and PemotionallyP 9 would introduce Pmany are,P and would not care to contest his conclusion further! 9t does seem to me #re#osterous to credit Buddhism with the whole of the ast #o#ulation of China, the great majority of whom are Confucianists! 'y own o#inion is that its adherents are not so many as those e en of 'ohammedanism, and that instead of being the most numerous of the religions Mso$calledN of the world, it is only entitled to occu#y the fifth #lace, ranking below Christianity, Confucianism, Brahmanism, and 'ohammedanism, and followed, some distance off, by T*oism! To make a table of #ercentages of mankind, and to assign to each system its #ro#ortion, are to seem to be wise where we are de#lorably ignorantR and, moreo er, if our means of information were much better than they are, our figures would merely show the outward adherence! A fractional #ercentage might tell more for one system than a ery large integral one for another! <A'E& LEGGE! T+E T,A>EL& :) )?$+9E. C+APTE, 9 Z)rom ChCang$gan to the &andy -esertZ )*$+ien had been li ing in ChCang$gan! 4/8 -e#loring the mutilated and im#erfect state of the collection of the Books of -isci#line, in the second year of the #eriod +wang$che, being the (e$h*e year of the cycle, 418 he entered into an engagement with +wuy$king, T*o$ching, +wuy$ying, and +wuy$wei, that they should go to 9ndia and seek for the -isci#linary ,ules! After starting from ChCang$gan, they #assed through Lung, 438 and came to the kingdom of (Ceen$kwei,4S8 where they sto##ed for the summer retreat! @hen that was o er, they went forward to the kingdom of .ow$tCan, crossed the mountain of "ang$low, and reached the em#orium of Chang$yih!468 There they found the country so much disturbed that tra elling on the roads was im#ossible for them! 9ts king, howe er, was ery attenti e to them, ke#t them in his ca#ital, and acted the #art of their d*na#ati!478 +ere they met with Che$yen, +wuy$keen, &ang$sh*o, P*o$yun, and

&ang$kingR and in #leasant association with them, as bound on the same journey with themsel es, they #assed the summer retreat of that year 408 together, resuming after it their tra elling, and going on to TCun$hwang, 4T8 the chief town in the frontier territory of defence eDtending for about eighty li from east to west, and about forty from north to south! Their com#any, increased as it had been, halted there for some days more than a month, after which )*$hien and his four friends started first in the suite of an en oy, ha ing se#arated for a time from P*o$yun and his associates! Le +*o, the #refect of Tun$hwang, had su##lied them with the means of crossing the desert before them, in which there are many e il demons and hot winds! Tra ellers who encounter them #erish all to a man! There is not a bird to be seen in the air abo e, nor an animal on the ground below! Though you look all round most earnestly to find where you can cross, you know not where to make your choice, the only mark and indication being the dry bones of the dead left u#on the sand! 4)ootnote /% ChCang$gan is still the name of the #rinci#al district Mand its cityN in the de#artment of &e$gan, &hen$se! 9t had been the ca#ital of the first em#ire of +an MB!C! 121 A!-! 1SN, as it subseJuently was that of &uy MA!-! 6TA$7/TN!8 4)ootnote 1% The #eriod +wang$che embraced from A!-! 3AA to S/S, being the greater #ortion of the reign of "*o +ing of the After TsCin, a #owerful #rince! +e ado#ted +wang$che for the style of his reign in 3AA, and the cyclical name of that year was (ang$tsHe! 9t is not #ossible at this distance of time to eD#lain, if it could be eD#lained, how )*$hien came to say that (e$h*e was the second year of the #eriod! 9t seems most reasonable to su##ose that he set out on his #ilgrimage in A!-! 3AA, the cycle name of which was (e$h*e! 9n the P'emoirs of Eminent 'onksP it is said that our author started in the third year of the #eriod Lung$gan of the Eastern TsCin, which was A!-! 3AA!8 4)ootnote 3% Lung embraced the western #art of &hen$se and the eastern #art of (an$suh! The name remains in Lung Chow, in the eDtreme west of &hen$se!8 4)ootnote S% (Ceen$kwei was the second king of Pthe @estern TsCin!P )*$hien would find him at his ca#ital, somewhere in the #resent de#artment of Lan$chow, (an$suh!8 4)ootnote 6% Chang$yih is still the name of a district in (an$chow de#artment, (an$suh! 9t is a long way north and west from Lan$chow, and not far from the Great @all! 9ts king at this time was, #robably, Twan$yeh of Pthe northern LEang!P8 4)ootnote 7% -*na is the name for religious charity, the first of the siD #*ramit*s, or means of attaining to nir *naR and a d*na#ati is Pone who #ractises d*na and thereby crosses the sea of misery!P8 4)ootnote 0% This was the second summer since the #ilgrims left ChCang$gan! @e are now, therefore, #robably, in A!-! S22!8 4)ootnote T% TCun$hwang is still the name of one of the two districts constituting the de#artment of Gan$se, the most western of the #refectures of (an$suhR beyond the termination of the Great @all!8

C+APTE, 99 Z:n to &hen$shen and thence to (hotenZ After tra elling for se enteen days, a distance we may calculate of about /622 li, the #ilgrims reached the kingdom of &hen$shen, a country rugged and hilly, with a thin and barren soil! The clothes of the common #eo#le are coarse, and like those worn in our land of +an, 4/8 some wearing felt and others coarse serge or cloth of hairR this was the only difference seen among them! The king #rofessed our Law, and there might be in the country more than four thousand monks, who were all students of the h\nay*na! 418 The common #eo#le of this and other kingdoms in that region, as well as the &ramans, 438 all #ractise the rules of 9ndia, only that the latter do so more eDactly, and the former more loosely! &o the tra ellers found it in all the kingdoms through which they went on their way from this to the west, only that each had its own #eculiar barbarous s#eech! The monks, howe er, who had gi en u# the worldly life and Juitted their families, were all students of 9ndian books and the 9ndian language! +ere they stayed for about a month, and then #roceeded on their journey, fifteen daysC walking to the northwest bringing them to the country of @oo$e! 9n this also there were more than four thousand monks, all students of the h\nay*na! They were ery strict in their rules, so that &ramans from the territory of TsCin were all un#re#ared for their regulations! )*$hien, through the management of )oo (ung$sun, Fma\tre dChotellerieF, was able to remain with his com#any in the monastery where they were recei ed for more than two months, and here they were rejoined by P*o$yun and his friends! At the end of that time the #eo#le of @oo$e neglected the duties of #ro#riety and righteousness, and treated the strangers in so niggardly a manner that Che$yen, +wuy$keen, and +wuy$wei went back towards (*o$chCang, ho#ing to obtain there the means of continuing their journey! )*$hien and the rest, howe er, through the liberality of )oo (ung$sun, managed to go straight forward in a southwest direction! They found the country uninhabited as they went along! The difficulties which they encountered in crossing the streams and on their route, and the sufferings which they endured, were un#aralleled in human eD#erience, but in the course of a month and fi e days they succeeded in reaching "u$teen! 4)ootnote /% This is the name which )*$hien always uses when he would s#eak of China, his nati e country, as a whole, calling it from the great dynasty which had ruled it, first and last, for between four and fi e centuries! :ccasionally, as we shall immediately see, he s#eaks of Pthe territory of TsCin or ChCin,P but intending thereby only the kingdom of TsCin, ha ing its ca#ital in ChCang$gan!8 4)ootnote 1% 'eaning the Psmall ehicle, or con eyance!P There are in Buddhism the triy*na, or Pthree different means of sal ation, i!e! of con eyance across the sams*ra, or sea of transmigration, to the shores of nir *na! Afterwards the term was used to designate the different #hases of de elo#ment through which the Buddhist dogma #assed, known as the mah*y*na, h\nay*na, and madhyamay*na!P PThe h\nay*na is the sim#lest ehicle of sal ation, corres#onding to the first of the three degrees of saintshi#!P E!+!, ##! /6/$1, S6, and //0!8 4)ootnote 3% P&ramanP may in English take the #lace of &ramana, the name

for Buddhist monks, as those who ha e se#arated themsel es from MleftN their families, and Juieted their hearts from all intrusion of desire and lust!8 C+APTE, 999 Z(hoten$$Processions of 9magesZ "u$Teen is a #leasant and #ros#erous kingdom, with a numerous and flourishing #o#ulation! The inhabitants all #rofess our Law, and join together in its religious music for their enjoyment! The monks amount to se eral myriads, most of whom are students of the mah*y*na! 4/8 They all recei e their food from the common store! Throughout the country the houses of the #eo#le stand a#art like se#arate stars, and each family has a small to#e 418 reared in front of its door! The smallest of these may be twenty cubits high, or rather more! They make in the monasteries rooms for monks from all Juarters, the use of which is gi en to tra elling monks who may arri e, and who are #ro ided with whate er else they reJuire! The lord of the country lodged )*$hien and the others comfortably, and su##lied their wants, in a monastery called Gomati, of the mah*y*na school! Attached to it there are three thousand monks, who are called to their meals by the sound of a bell! @hen they enter the refectory, their demeanor is marked by a re erent gra ity, and they take their seats in regular order, all maintaining a #erfect silence! .o sound is heard from their alms$bowls and other utensils! @hen any of these #ure men reJuire food, they are not allowed to call out to the attendants for it, but only make signs with their hands! +wuy$king, T*o$ching, and +wuy$tah set out in ad ance towards the country of (Ceeh$chC*R but )*$hien and the others, wishing to see the #rocession of images, remained behind for three months! There are in this country four great monasteries, not counting the smaller ones! Beginning on the first day of the fourth month, they swee# and water the streets inside the city, making a grand dis#lay in the lanes and byways! : er the city gate they #itch a large tent, grandly adorned in all #ossible ways, in which the king and Jueen, with their ladies brilliantly arrayed, take u# their residence for the time! The monks of the Gomati monastery, being mah*y*na students, and held in greatest re erence by the king, took #recedence of all the others in the #rocession! At a distance of three or four li from the city, they made a four$wheeled image car, more than thirty cubits high, which looked like the great hall of a monastery mo ing along! The se en #recious substances 438 were grandly dis#layed about it, with silken streamers and cano#ies hanging all around! The chief image stood in the middle of the car, with two Bodhisatt as 4S8 in attendance on it, while de as were made to follow in waiting, all brilliantly car ed in gold and sil er, and hanging in the air! @hen the car was a hundred #aces from the gate, the king #ut off his crown of state, changed his dress for a fresh suit, and with bare feet, carrying in his hands flowers and incense, and with two rows of attending followers, went out at the gate to meet the imageR and, with his head and face bowed to the ground, he did homage at its feet, and then scattered the flowers and burnt the incense! @hen the image was entering the gate, the Jueen and the brilliant ladies with her

in the gallery abo e scattered far and wide all kinds of flowers, which floated about and fell #romiscuously to the ground! 9n this way e erything was done to #romote the dignity of the occasion! The carriages of the monasteries were all different, and each one had its own day for the #rocession! The ceremony began on the first day of the fourth month, and ended on the fourteenth, after which the king and Jueen returned to the #alace! &e en or eight li to the west of the city there is what is called the (ingCs new monastery, the building of which took eighty years, and eDtended o er three reigns! 9t may be two hundred and fifty cubits in height, rich in elegant car ing and inlaid work, co ered abo e with gold and sil er, and finished throughout with a combination of all the #recious substances! Behind the to#e there has been built a +all of Buddha, of the utmost magnificence and beauty, the beams, #illars, enetianed doors and windows, being all o erlaid with gold$leaf! Besides this, the a#artments for the monks are im#osingly and elegantly decorated, beyond the #ower of words to eD#ress! :f whate er things of highest alue and #reciousness the kings in the siD countries on the east of the TsCung range of mountains are #ossessed, they contribute the greater #ortion to this monastery, using but a small #ortion of them themsel es! 4)ootnote /% 'ah*y*na is a later form of the Buddhist doctrine, the second #hase of its de elo#ment corres#onding to the state of a Bodhisatt a, who, being able to trans#ort himself and all mankind to nir *na, may be com#ared to a huge ehicle!8 4)ootnote 1% A worshi##ing #lace, an altar, or tem#le!8 4)ootnote 3% The &a#ta$ratna, gold, sil er, la#is laHuli, rock crystal, rubies, diamonds or emeralds, and agate!8 4)ootnote S% A Bodhisatt a is one whose essence has become intelligenceR a Being who will in some future birth as a man Mnot necessarily or usually the neDtN attain to Buddhahood! The name does not include those Buddhas who ha e not yet attained to #arinir *na! The symbol of the state is an ele#hant fording a ri er!8 C+APTE, 9> ZThrough the TsCung 'ountains to (Ceech$chCaZ @hen the #rocessions of images in the fourth month were o er, &ang$sh*o, by himself alone, followed a Tartar who was an earnest follower of the Law, and #roceeded towards (o$#hene! )*$hien and the others went forward to the kingdom of TsHe$hoh, which it took them twenty$fi e days to reach! 9ts king was a strenuous follower of our Law, and had around him more than a thousand monks, mostly students of the mah*y*na! +ere the tra ellers abode fifteen days, and then went south for four days, when they found themsel es among the TsCung$ling mountains, and reached the country of "u$hwuy, where they halted and ke#t their retreat! 4/8 @hen this was o er, they went on among the hills for twenty$fi e days, and got to (Ceeh$chCa, there rejoining +wuy$king and his two com#anions!

4)ootnote /% This was the retreat already twice mentioned as ke#t by the #ilgrims in the summer, the different #hraseology, PJuiet rest,P without any mention of the season, indicating their a##roach to 9ndia! Two, if not three, years had ela#sed since they left ChCang$gan! Are we now with them in S21Q8 C+APTE, > ZGreat GuinJuennial Assembly of 'onksZ 9t ha##ened that the king of the country was then holding the #a_cha #arishadR that is, in Chinese, the great JuinJuennial assembly! @hen this is to be held, the king reJuests the #resence of the &ramans from all Juarters of his kingdom! They come as if in cloudsR and when they are all assembled, their #lace of session is grandly decorated! &ilken streamers and cano#ies are hung out in it, and water$lilies in gold and sil er are made and fiDed u# behind the #laces where the chief of them are to sit! @hen clean mats ha e been s#read, and they are all seated, the king and his ministers #resent their offerings according to rule and law! The assembly takes #lace in the first, second, or third month, for the most #art in the s#ring! After the king has held the assembly, he further eDhorts the ministers to make other and s#ecial offerings! The doing of this eDtends o er one, two, three, fi e, or e en se en daysR and when all is finished, he takes his own riding$horse, saddles, bridles, and waits on him himself, while he makes the noblest and most im#ortant minister of the kingdom mount him! Then, taking fine white woollen cloth, all sorts of #recious things, and articles which the &ramans reJuire, he distributes them among them, uttering ows at the same time along with all his ministersR and when this distribution has taken #lace, he again redeems whate er he wishes from the monks! The country, being among the hills and cold, does not #roduce the other cereals, and only the wheat gets ri#e! After the monks ha e recei ed their annual #ortion of this, the mornings suddenly show the hoar$frost, and on this account the king always begs the monks to make the wheat ri#en 4/8 before they recei e their #ortion! There is in the country a s#ittoon which belonged to Buddha, made of stone, and in color like his alms$bowl! There is also a tooth of Buddha, for which the #eo#le ha e reared a to#e, connected with which there are more than a thousand monks and their disci#les, all students of the h\nay*na! To the east of these hills the dress of the common #eo#le is of coarse materials, as in our country of TsCin, but here also there were among them the differences of fine woollen cloth and of serge or haircloth! The rules obser ed by the &ramans are remarkable, and too numerous to be mentioned in detail! The country is in the midst of the :nion range! As you go forward from these mountains, the #lants, trees, and fruits are all different from those of the land of +an, eDce#ting only the bamboo, #omegranate, and sugarcane! 4)ootnote /% @atters calls attention to this as showing that the monks of (Ceeh$chC* had the credit of #ossessing weather$controlling #owers!8

C+APTE, >9 Z.orth 9ndia$$9mage of 'aitreya Bodhisatt aZ )rom this the tra ellers went westward towards .orth 9ndia, and after being on the way for a month, they succeeded in getting across and through the range of the :nion mountains! The snow rests on them both winter and summer! There are also among them enomous dragons, which, when #ro oked, s#it forth #oisonous winds, and cause showers of snow and storms of sand and gra el! .ot one in ten thousand of those who encounter these dangers esca#es with his life! The #eo#le of the country call the range by the name of PThe &now mountains!P @hen the tra ellers had got through them, they were in .orth 9ndia, and immediately on entering its borders, found themsel es in a small kingdom called TColeih, where also there were many monks, all students of the h\nay*na! 9n this kingdom there was formerly an Arhan, 4/8 who by his su#ernatural #ower took a cle er artificer u# to the Tushita 418 hea en, to see the height, com#leDion, and a##earance of 'aitreya Bodhisatt a, 438 and then return and make an image of him in wood! )irst and last, this was done three times, and then the image was com#leted, eighty cubits in height, and eight cubits at the base from knee to knee of the crossed legs! :n fast$days it emits an effulgent light! The kings of the surrounding countries ie with one another in #resenting offerings to it! +ere it is$$to be seen now as of old! 4)ootnote /% Lo$han, Arhat, Arahat are all designations of the #erfected ?rya, the disci#le who has #assed the different stages of the .oble Path, or eightfold eDcellent way, who has conJuered all #assions, and is not to be reborn again! Arhatshi# im#lies #ossession of certain su#ernatural #owers, and is not to be succeeded by Buddhashi#, but im#lies the fact of the saint ha ing already attained .ir *na!8 4)ootnote 1% Tushita is the fourth -e aloka, where all Bodhisatt as are reborn before finally a##earing on earth as Buddha! Life lasts in Tushita four thousand years, but twenty$four hours there are eJual to four hundred years on earth!8 4)ootnote 3% 'aitreya was a Bodhisatt a, the #rinci#al one, indeed, of &*kyamuniCs retinue, but is not counted among the ordinary disci#les, nor is anything told of his antecedents! 9t was in the Tushita hea en that &*kyamuni met him and a##ointed him as his successor, to a##ear as Buddha after the la#se of fi e thousand years! 'aitreya is therefore the eD#ected 'essiah of the Buddhists, residing at #resent in Tushita!8 C+APTE, >99 ZThe Perilous Crossing of the 9ndusZ The tra ellers went on to the southwest for fifteen days at the foot of the mountains, and following the course of their range! The way was difficult and rugged, running along a bank eDceedingly #reci#itous, which rose u# there, a hill$like wall of rock, ten thousand cubits from the base! @hen one a##roached the edge of it, his eyes became unsteadyR

and if he wished to go forward in the same direction, there was no #lace on which he could #lace his footR and beneath were the waters of the ri er called the 9ndus! 9n former times men had chiselled #aths along the rocks, and distributed ladders on the face of them, to the number altogether of se en hundred, at the bottom of which there was a sus#ension bridge of ro#es, by which the ri er was crossed, its banks being there eighty #aces a#art! The #lace and arrangements are to be found in the ,ecords of the .ine 9nter#reters, but neither Chang (Ceen 4/8 nor (an "ing 418 had reached the s#ot! The monks asked )*$hien if it could be known when the Law of Buddha first went to the east! +e re#lied, P@hen 9 asked the #eo#le of those countries about it, they all said that it had been handed down by their fathers from of old that, after the setting u# of the image of 'aitreya Bodhisatt a, there were &ramans of 9ndia who crossed this ri er, carrying with them &Wtras and Books of -isci#line! .ow the image was set u# rather more than three hundred years after the .ir *na of Buddha, which may be referred to the reign of king PCing of the Chow dynasty! According to this account we may say that the diffusion of our great doctrines in the East began from the setting u# of this image! 9f it had not been through that 'aitreya, the great s#iritual master who is to be the successor of the &*kya, who could ha e caused the CThree Precious :nes,C 438 to be #roclaimed so far, and the #eo#le of those border lands to know our LawQ @e know of a truth that the o#ening of the way for such a mysterious #ro#agation is not the work of manR and so the dream of the em#eror 'ing of +an had its #ro#er cause!P 4)ootnote /% Chang (Ceen, a minister of the em#eror @oo of +an MB!C! /S2$T0N, is celebrated as the first Chinese who P#ierced the oid,P and #enetrated to Pthe regions of the west,P corres#onding ery much to the #resent Turkestan! Through him, by B!C! //6, a regular intercourse was established between China and the thirty$siD kingdoms or states of that Juarter!8 4)ootnote 1% Less is known of (an "ing than of Chang (Ceen! Being sent in A!-! TT by his #atron Pan Ch*o on an embassy to the ,oman em#ire, he only got as far as the Cas#ian sea, and returned to China! +e eDtended, howe er, the knowledge of his countrymen with regard to the western regions!8 4)ootnote 3% PThe #recious Buddha,P Pthe #recious Law,P and Pthe #recious 'onkhoodPR Buddha, -harma, and &anghaR the whole being eJui alent to Buddhism!8 C+APTE, >999 Z@oo$chang, or =dy*na$$Traces of BuddhaZ After crossing the ri er, the tra ellers immediately came to the kingdom of @oo$chang, which is indeed a #art of .orth 9ndia! The #eo#le all use the language of Central 9ndia, PCentral 9ndiaP being what we should call the P'iddle (ingdom!P The food and clothes of the common #eo#le are the same as in that Central (ingdom! The Law of Buddha is ery flourishing in @oo$chang! They call the #laces where the monks stay for a time or reside #ermanently &angh*r*masR and of these there are in all fi e

hundred, the monks being all students of the h\nay*na! @hen stranger bhikshus 4/8 arri e at one of them, their wants are su##lied for three days, after which they are told to find a resting$#lace for themsel es! There is a tradition that when Buddha came to .orth 9ndia, he came at once to this country, and that here he left a #rint of his foot, which is long or short according to the ideas of the beholder on the subject! 9t eDists, and the same thing is true about it, at the #resent day! +ere also are still to be seen the rock on which he dried his clothes, and the #lace where he con erted the wicked dragon! The rock is fourteen cubits high, and more than twenty broad, with one side of it smooth! +wuy$king, +wuy$tah, and T*o$ching went on ahead towards the #lace of BuddhaCs shadow in the country of .*garaR but )*$hien and the others remained in @oo$chang, and ke#t the summer retreat! That o er, they descended south, and arri ed in the country of &oo$ho$to! 4)ootnote /% Bhikshu is the name for a monk as Pli ing by alms,P a mendicant! All bhikshus call themsel es &ramans! &ometimes the two names are used together by our author!8 C+APTE, 9B Z&oo$ho$to$$Legends of BuddhaZ 9n that country also Buddhism is flourishing! There is in it the #lace where &akra, 4/8 ,uler of -e as, in a former age, tried the Bodhisatt a, by #roducing a hawk in #ursuit of a do e, when the Bodhisatt a cut off a #iece of his own flesh, and with it ransomed the do e! After Buddha had attained to #erfect wisdom, and in tra elling about with his disci#les arri ed at this s#ot, he informed them that this was the #lace where he ransomed the do e with a #iece of his own flesh! 9n this way the #eo#le of the country became aware of the fact, and on the s#ot reared a to#e, adorned with layers of gold and sil er #lates! 4)ootnote /% &akra is a common name for the Brahmanic 9ndra, ado#ted by Buddhism into the circle of its own great adherentsR$$it has been said, Pbecause of his #o#ularity!P +e is now the re#resentati e of the secular #ower, the aliant #rotector of the Buddhist body, but is looked u#on as inferior to &*kyamuni, and e ery Buddhist saint!8 C+APTE, B ZGandh*ra$$Legends of BuddhaZ The tra ellers, going downwards from this towards the east, in fi e days came to the country of Gandh*ra, the #lace where -harma$ i ardhana, the son of Asoka, 4/8 ruled! @hen Buddha was a Bodhisatt a, he ga e his eyes also for another man hereR and at the s#ot they ha e also reared a large to#e, adorned with layers of gold and sil er #lates! The #eo#le of the country were mostly students of the h\nay*na!

4)ootnote /% Asoka is here mentioned for the first time$$the Constantine of the Buddhist society, and famous for the number of ih*ras and to#es which he erected! +e was the grandson of Chandragu#ta, a rude ad enturer, who at one time was a refugee in the cam# of AleDander the GreatR and within about twenty years afterwards dro e the Greeks out of 9ndia, ha ing defeated &eleucus, the Greek ruler of the 9ndus #ro inces! +is grandson was con erted to Buddhism by the bold and #atient demeanor of an Arhat whom he had ordered to be buried ali e, and became a most Healous su##orter of the new faith!8 C+APTE, B9 ZTakshasil*$$Legends$$The )our Great To#esZ &e en daysC journey from this to the east brought the tra ellers to the kingdom of Takshasil*, which means Pthe se ered headP in the language of China! +ere, when Buddha was a Bodhisatt a, he ga e away his head to a manR and from this circumstance the kingdom got its name! Going on further for two days to the east, they came to the #lace where the Bodhisatt a threw down his body to feed a star ing tigress! 9n these two #laces also large to#es ha e been built, both adorned with layers of all the #recious substances! The kings, ministers, and #eo#les of the kingdoms around ie with one another in making offerings at them! The trains of those who come to scatter flowers and light lam#s at them ne er cease! The nations of those Juarters call those and the other two mentioned before Pthe four great to#es!P C+APTE, B99 ZBuddhaCs Alms$bowl$$-eath of +wuy$kingZ Going southwards from G*ndh*ra, the tra ellers in four days arri ed at the kingdom of Purusha#ura! 4/8 )ormerly, when Buddha was tra elling in this country with his disci#les, he said to ?nanda, 418 PAfter my #ari$nir *na, 438 there will be a king named (anishka, who shall on this s#ot build a to#e!P This (anishka was afterwards born into the worldR and once, when he had gone forth to look about him, &akra, ,uler of -e as, wishing to eDcite the idea in his mind, assumed the a##earance of a little herd$boy, and was making a to#e right in the way of the king, who asked what sort of a thing he was making! The boy said, P9 am making a to#e for Buddha!P The king said, P>ery goodRP and immediately, right o er the boyCs to#e, he #roceeded to rear another, which was more than four hundred cubits high, and adorned with layers of all the #recious substances! :f all the to#es and tem#les which the tra ellers saw in their journeyings, there was not one com#arable to this in solemn beauty and majestic grandeur! There is a current saying that this is the finest to#e in <ambud \#a 4S8! @hen the kingCs to#e was com#leted, the little to#e of the boy came out from its side on the south, rather more than three cubits in height!

BuddhaCs alms$bowl is in this country! )ormerly, a king of "Xeh$she raised a large force and in aded this country, wishing to carry the bowl away! +a ing subdued the kingdom, as he and his ca#tains were sincere belie ers in the Law of Buddha, and wished to carry off the bowl, they #roceeded to #resent their offerings on a great scale! @hen they had done so to the Three Precious :nes, he made a large ele#hant be grandly ca#arisoned, and #laced the bowl u#on it! But the ele#hant knelt down on the ground, and was unable to go forward! Again he caused a four$wheeled wagon to be #re#ared in which the bowl was #ut to be con eyed away! Eight ele#hants were then yoked to it, and dragged it with their united strengthR but neither were they able to go forward! The king knew that the time for an association between himself and the bowl had not yet arri ed, and was sad and dee#ly ashamed of himself! )orthwith he built a to#e at the #lace and a monastery, and left a guard to watch the bowl, making all sorts of contributions! There may be there more than se en hundred monks! @hen it is near mid$day, they bring out the bowl, and, along with the common #eo#le, make their arious offerings to it, after which they take their mid$day meal! 9n the e ening, at the time of incense, they bring the bowl out again! 9t may contain rather more than two #ecks, and is of arious colors, black #redominating, with the seams that show its fourfold com#osition distinctly marked! 9ts thickness is about the fifth of an inch, and it has a bright and glossy lustre! @hen #oor #eo#le throw into it a few flowers, it becomes immediately full, while some ery rich #eo#le, wishing to make offering of many flowers, might not sto# till they had thrown in hundreds, thousands, and myriads of bushels, and yet would not be able to fill it!468 P*o$yun and &ang$king here merely made their offerings to the alms$bowl, and then resol ed to go back! +wuy$king, +wuy$tah, and T*o$ching had gone on before the rest to .ag*ra, to make their offerings at the #laces of BuddhaCs shadow, tooth, and the flat$bone of his skull! There +wuy$king fell ill, and T*o$ching remained to look after him, while +wuy$tah came alone to Purusha#ura, and saw the others, and then he with P*o$yun and &ang$king took their way back to the land of TsCin! +wuy$king came to his end in the monastery of BuddhaCs alms$bowl, and on this )*$hien went forward alone towards the #lace of the flat$bone of BuddhaCs skull!478 4)ootnote /% The modern Pesh*wur!8 4)ootnote 1% A first cousin of &*kyamuni, and born at the moment when he attained to Buddhashi#! =nder BuddhaCs teaching, ?nanda became an Arhat, and is famous for his strong and accurate memoryR and he #layed an im#ortant #art at the first council for the formation of the Buddhist canon! The friendshi# between &*kyamuni and ?nanda was ery close and tenderR and it is im#ossible to read much of what the dying Buddha said to him and of him, as related in the 'ah*#ari$nir *na &]tra, without being mo ed almost to tears! ?nanda is to rea##ear on earth as Buddha in another (al#a!8 4)ootnote 3% :n his attaining to nir *na, &*kyamuni became the Buddha, and had no longer to mourn his being within the circle of transmigration, and could rejoice in an absolute freedom from #assion, and a #erfect #urity! &till he continued to li e on for forty$fi e years, till he attained to #ari$nir *na, and had done with all the life

of sense and society, and had no more eDercise of thought! +e diedR but whether he absolutely and entirely ceased to be, in any sense of the word being, it would be difficult to say! Probably he himself would not and could not ha e s#oken definitely on the #oint! &o far as our use of language is concerned, a#art from any assured faith in and ho#e of immortality, his #ari$nir *na was his death!8 4)ootnote S% <ambud \#a is one of the four great continents of the uni erse, re#resenting the inhabited world as fancied by the Buddhists, and so$called because it resembles in sha#e the lea es of the jambu tree!8 4)ootnote 6% Com#are the narrati e in LukeCs Gos#el, DDi! /$S!8 4)ootnote 7% This story of +wuy$kingCs death differs from the account gi en in cha#ter Di !$$E-9T:,!8 C+APTE, B999 Z)esti al of BuddhaCs &kull$boneZ Going west for siDteen yojanas, 4/8 he came to the city +e$lo 418 in the borders of the country of .ag*ra, where there is the flat$bone of BuddhaCs skull, de#osited in a ih*ra 438 adorned all o er with gold$leaf and the se en sacred substances! The king of the country, re ering and honoring the bone, and anDious lest it should be stolen away, has selected eight indi iduals, re#resenting the great families in the kingdom, and committed to each a seal, with which he should seal its shrine and guard the relic! At early dawn these eight men come, and after each has ins#ected his seal, they o#en the door! This done, they wash their hands with scented water and bring out the bone, which they #lace outside the ih*ra, on a lofty #latform, where it is su##orted on a round #edestal of the se en #recious substances, and co ered with a bell of la#is laHuli, both adorned with rows of #earls! 9ts color is of a yellowish white, and it forms an im#erfect circle twel e inches round, cur ing u#wards to the centre! E ery day, after it has been brought forth, the kee#ers of the ih*ra ascend a high gallery, where they beat great drums, blow conches, and clash their co##er cymbals! @hen the king hears them, he goes to the ih*ra, and makes his offerings of flowers and incense! @hen he has done this, he and his attendants in order, one after another, raise the bone, #lace it for a moment on the to# of their heads, and then de#art, going out by the door on the west as they had entered by that on the east! The king e ery morning makes his offerings and #erforms his worshi#, and afterwards gi es audience on the business of his go ernment! The chiefs of the >aisyas 4S8 also make their offerings before they attend to their family affairs! E ery day it is so, and there is no remissness in the obser ance of the custom! @hen all of the offerings are o er, they re#lace the bone in the ih*ra, where there is a imoksha to#e, of the se en #recious substances, and rather more than fi e cubits high, sometimes o#en, sometimes shut, to contain it! 9n front of the door of the ih*ra, there are #arties who e ery morning sell flowers and incense, and those who wish to make offerings buy some of all kinds! The kings of arious countries are also constantly sending messengers with offerings! The ih*ra stands in a sJuare of thirty #aces, and though hea en should shake and earth be rent, this #lace would not mo e!

Going on, north from this, for a yojana, )*$hien arri ed at the ca#ital of .ag*ra, the #lace where the Bodhisatt a once #urchased with money fi e stalks of flowers, as an offering to the -i#*nkara Buddha! 9n the midst of the city there is also the to#e of BuddhaCs tooth, where offerings are made in the same way as to the flat$bone of his skull! A yojana to the northeast of the city brought him to the mouth of a alley, where there is BuddhaCs #ewter staffR and a ih*ra also has been built at which offerings are made! The staff is made of Gosirsha Chandana, and is Juite siDteen or se enteen cubits long! 9t is contained in a wooden tube, and though a hundred or a thousand men were to try to lift it, they could not mo e it! Entering the mouth of the alley, and going west, he found BuddhaCs &angh*li, 468 where also there is reared a ih*ra, and offerings are made! 9t is a custom of the country when there is a great drought, for the #eo#le to collect in crowds, bring out the robe, #ay worshi# to it, and make offerings, on which there is immediately a great rain from the sky! &outh of the city, half a yojana, there is a rock$ca ern, in a great hill fronting the southwestR and here it was that Buddha left his shadow! Looking at it from a distance of more than ten #aces, you seem to see BuddhaCs real form, with his com#leDion of gold, and his characteristic marks in their nicety, clearly and brightly dis#layed! The nearer you a##roach, howe er, the fainter it becomes, as if it were only in your fancy! @hen the kings from the regions all around ha e sent skilful artists to take a co#y, none of them ha e been able to do so! Among the #eo#le of the country there is a saying current that Pthe thousand Buddhas must all lea e their shadows here!P ,ather more than four hundred #aces west from the shadow, when Buddha was at the s#ot, he sha ed off his hair and cli##ed his nails, and #roceeded, along with his disci#les, to build a to#e se enty or eighty cubits high, to be a model for all future to#esR and it is still eDisting! By the side of it there is a monastery, with more than se en hundred monks in it! At this #lace there are as many as a thousand to#es of Arhans and Pratyeka Buddhas! 4)ootnote /% .ow in 9ndia, )*$hien used the 9ndian measure of distanceR but it is not #ossible to determine eDactly what its length then was! The estimates of it are ery different, and ary from four and a half or fi e miles to se en, and sometimes more!8 4)ootnote 1% The #resent +idda, west of Pesh*wur, and fi e miles south of <ellalabad!8 4)ootnote 3% PThe ihara,P says +ardy, Pis the residence of a recluse or #riestRP and so -a ids$$Pthe clean little hut where the mendicant li es!P8 4)ootnote S% The >aisyas, or the bourgeois caste of +indu society, are described here as President scholars!P8 4)ootnote 6% :r &angh*ti, the double or com#osite robe, #art of a monkCs attire, reaching from the shoulders to the knees, and fastened round the waist!8

C+APTE, B9> ZCrossing the 9ndus to the EastZ +a ing stayed there till the third month of winter, )*$hien and the two others, #roceeding southwards, crossed the Little &nowy mountains! :n them the snow lies accumulated both winter and summer! :n the north side of the mountains, in the shade, they suddenly encountered a cold wind which made them shi er and become unable to s#eak! +wuy$king could not go any farther! A white froth came from his mouth, and he said to )*$hien, P9 cannot li e any longer! -o you immediately go away, that we do not all die herePR and with these words he died! )*$hien stroked the cor#se, and cried out #iteously, P:ur original #lan has failedR it is fate! @hat can we doQP +e then again eDerted himself, and they succeeded in crossing to the south of the range, and arri ed in the kingdom of Lo$e, 4/8 where there were nearly three thousand monks, students of both the mah*y*na and h\nay*na! +ere they stayed for the summer retreat, 418 and when that was o er, they went on to the south, and ten daysC journey brought them to the kingdom of Poh$n*, where there are also more than three thousand monks, all students of the h\nay*na! Proceeding from this #lace for three days, they again crossed the 9ndus, where the country on each side was low and le el! 4)ootnote /% Lo$e, or ,ohi, or AfghanistanR only a #ortion of it can be intended!8 4)ootnote 1% @e are now therefore in A!-! S2S!8 C+APTE, B> Z&ym#athy of 'onks with the PilgrimsZ After they had crossed the ri er, there was a country named Pe$tCoo, where Buddhism was ery flourishing, and the monks studied both the mah*y*na and h\nay*na! @hen they saw their fellow$disci#les from TsCin #assing along, they were mo ed with great #ity and sym#athy, and eD#ressed themsel es thus% P+ow is it that these men from a border$land should ha e learned to become monks, and come for the sake of our doctrines from such a distance in search of the Law of BuddhaQP They su##lied them with what they needed, and treated them in accordance with the rules of the Law! C+APTE, B>9 ZCondition and Customs of Central 9ndiaZ )rom this #lace they tra elled southeast, #assing by a succession of ery many monasteries, with a multitude of monks, who might be counted

by myriads! After #assing all these #laces, they came to a country named 'a$tC*ou$lo! They still followed the course of the PCoo$na ri er, on the banks of which, left and right, there were twenty monasteries, which might contain three thousand monksR and here the Law of Buddha was still more flourishing! E erywhere, from the &andy -esert, in all the countries of 9ndia, the kings had been firm belie ers in that Law! @hen they make their offerings to a community of monks, they take off their royal ca#s, and along with their relati es and ministers, su##ly them with food with their own hands! That done, the king has a car#et s#read for himself on the ground, and sits down on it in front of the chairmanR$$they dare not #resume to sit on couches in front of the community! The laws and ways, according to which the kings #resented their offerings when Buddha was in the world, ha e been handed down to the #resent day! All south from this is named the 'iddle (ingdom! 9n it the cold and heat are finely tem#ered, and there is neither hoarfrost nor snow! The #eo#le are numerous and ha##yR they ha e not to register their households, or attend to any magistrates and their rulesR only those who culti ate the royal land ha e to #ay a #ortion of the gain from it! 9f they want to go they goR if they want to stay on, they stay! The king go erns without deca#itation or other cor#oral #unishments! Criminals are sim#ly fined, lightly or hea ily, according to the circumstances of each case! E en in cases of re#eated attem#ts at wicked rebellion, they only ha e their right hands cut off! The kingCs body$guards and attendants all ha e salaries! Throughout the whole country the #eo#le do not kill any li ing creature, nor drink intoDicating liJuor, nor eat onions or garlic! The only eDce#tion is that of the Chand*las! That is the name for those who are held to be wicked men, and li e a#art from others! @hen they enter the gate of a city or a market$#lace, they strike a #iece of wood to make themsel es known, so that men know and a oid them, and do not come into contact with them! 9n that country they do not kee# #igs and fowls, and do not sell li e cattleR in the markets there are no butchersC sho#s and no dealers in intoDicating drink! 9n buying and selling commodities they use cowries! :nly the Chand*las are fishermen and hunters, and sell flesh meat! After Buddha attained to #ari$nir *na the kings of the arious countries and the heads of the >aisyas built ih*ras for the #riests, and endowed them with fields, houses, gardens, and orchards, along with the resident #o#ulations and their cattle, the grants being engra ed on #lates of metal, so that afterwards they were handed down from king to king, without any one daring to annul them, and they remain e en to the #resent time! The regular business of the monks is to #erform acts of meritorious irtue, and to recite their &]tras and sit wra##ed in meditation! @hen stranger monks arri e at any monastery, the old residents meet and recei e them, carry for them their clothes and alms$bowl, gi e them water to wash their feet, oil with which to anoint them, and the liJuid food #ermitted out of the regular hours! 4/8 @hen the stranger has enjoyed a ery brief rest, they further ask the number of years that he has been a monk, after which he recei es a slee#ing a#artment with its a##urtenances, according to his regular order, and e erything is done for him which the rules #rescribe! @here a community of monks resides, they erect to#es to &*ri#uttra, 418 to 'ah*$maudgaly*yana, 438 and to ?nanda, and also to#es in honor of the Abhidharma, 4S8 the >inaya, 4S8 and the &]tras! 4S8 A month after the

annual season of rest, the families which are looking out for blessing stimulate one another to make offerings to the monks, and send round to them the liJuid food which may be taken out of the ordinary hours! All the monks come together in a great assembly, and #reach the LawR after which offerings are #resented at the to#e of &*ri#uttra, with all kinds of flowers and incense! All through the night lam#s are ke#t burning, and skilful musicians are em#loyed to #erform! @hen &*ri#uttra was a great Brahman, he went to Buddha, and begged to be #ermitted to Juit his family and become a monk! The great 'ugalan and the great (asCya#a also did the same! The bhikshunis 468 for the most #art make their offerings at the to#e of `nanda, because it was he who reJuested the @orld$honored one to allow females to Juit their families and become nuns! The &r*maneras 478 mostly make their offerings to ,ahula! 408 The #rofessors of the Abhidharma make their offerings to itR those of the >inaya to it! E ery year there is one such offering, and each class has its own day for it! &tudents of the mah*y*na #resent offerings to the Praj_a$#*ramit*, to 'a_jusCri, and to (wan$she$yin! @hen the monks ha e done recei ing their annual tribute from the har ests, the +eads of the >aisyas and all the Brahmans bring clothes and such other articles as the monks reJuire for use, and distribute among them! The monks, ha ing recei ed them, also #roceed to gi e #ortions to one another! )rom the nir *na of Buddha, the forms of ceremony, laws, and rules, #ractised by the sacred communities, ha e been handed down from one generation to another without interru#tion! )rom the #lace where the tra ellers crossed the 9ndus to &outh 9ndia, and on to the &outhern &ea, a distance of forty or fifty thousand li, all is le el #lain! There are no large hills with streams among themR there are sim#ly the waters of the ri ers! 4)ootnote /% .o monk can eat solid food eDce#t between sunrise and noon, and total abstinence from intoDicating drinks is obligatory! )ood eaten at any other #art of the day is called ik*la, and forbiddenR but a weary tra eller might recei e unseasonable refreshment, consisting of honey, butter, treacle, and sesamum oil!8 4)ootnote 1% &*ri#uttra was one of the #rinci#al disci#les of Buddha, and indeed the most learned and ingenious of them all!8 4)ootnote 3% 'ugalan, the &inghalese name of this disci#le, is more #ronounceable! +e also was one of the #rinci#al disci#les, called BuddhaCs Pleft$hand attendant!P +e was distinguished for his #ower of ision, and his magic #owers!8 4)ootnote S% The different #arts of the tri#itaka!8 4)ootnote 6% The bhikshunis are the female monks or nuns, subject to the same rules as the bhikshus, and also to s#ecial ordinances of restraint!8 4)ootnote 7% The &r*maneras are the no ices, male or female, who ha e owed to obser e the &hiksh*#ada, or ten commandments!8 4)ootnote 0% The eldest son of &*kyamuni by "asodhar*! Con erted to Buddhism, he followed his father as an attendantR and after BuddhaCs death became the founder of a #hiloso#hical realistic school M aibh*shikaN! +e is now re ered as the #atron saint of all no ices, and

is to be reborn as the eldest son of e ery future Buddha!8 C+APTE, B>99 ZLegend of the Trayastrimsas +ea enZ )rom this they #roceeded southeast for eighteen yojanas, and found themsel es in a kingdom called &ank*sCya, at the #lace where Buddha came down, after ascending to the TrayastrimsCas hea en 4/8, and there #reaching for three months his Law for the benefit of his mother 418! Buddha had gone u# to this hea en by his su#ernatural #ower, without letting his disci#les knowR but se en days before the com#letion of the three months he laid aside his in isibility, and Anuruddha 438, with his hea enly eyes, saw the @orld$honored one, and immediately said to the honored one, the great 'ugalan, P-o you go and salute the @orld$honored one,P 'ugalan forthwith went, and with head and face did homage at BuddhaCs feet! They then saluted and Juestioned each other, and when this was o er, Buddha said to 'ugalan, P&e en days after this 9 will go down to <ambud \#aPR and thereu#on 'ugalan returned! At this time the great kings of eight countries with their ministers and #eo#le, not ha ing seen Buddha for a long time, were all thirstily looking u# for him, and had collected in clouds in this kingdom to wait for the @orld$honored one! Then the bhikshun\ =t#ala thought in her heart, PTo$day the kings, with their ministers and #eo#le, will all be meeting and welcoming Buddha! 9 am but a womanR how shall 9 succeed in being the first to see himQP Buddha immediately, by his s#irit$like #ower, changed her into the a##earance of a holy Chakra artti king, and she was the foremost of all in doing re erence to him! As Buddha descended from his #osition aloft in the TrayastrimsCas hea en, when he was coming down, there were made to a##ear three flights of #recious ste#s! Buddha was on the middle flight, the ste#s of which were com#osed of the se en #recious substances! The king of Brahma$loka 4S8 also made a flight of sil er ste#s a##ear on the right side, where he was seen attending with a white chowry in his hand! &akra, ,uler of -e as, made a flight of ste#s of #ur#le gold on the left side, where he was seen attending and holding an umbrella of the se en #recious substances! An innumerable multitude of the de as followed Buddha in his descent! @hen he was come down, the three flights all disa##eared in the ground, eDce#ting se en ste#s, which continued to be isible! Afterwards king AsCoka, wishing to know where their ends rested, sent men to dig and see! They went down to the yellow s#rings without reaching the bottom of the ste#s, and from this the king recei ed an increase to his re erence and faith, and built a ih*ra o er the ste#s, with a standing image, siDteen cubits in height, right o er the middle flight! Behind the ih*ra he erected a stone #illar, about fifty cubits high, with a lion on the to# of it! 468 Let into the #illar, on each of its four sides, there is an image of Buddha, inside and out shining and trans#arent, and #ure as it were of la#is laHuli! &ome teachers of another doctrine once dis#uted with the &Cramanas about the right to this as a #lace of residence, and the latter were ha ing the worst of the argument, when they took an oath on both sides on the condition that, if the #lace did indeed belong to the &Cramanas, there should be some mar ellous attestation of it! @hen these words had been s#oken, the

lion on the to# ga e a great roar, thus gi ing the #roofR on which their o##onents were frightened, bowed to the decision, and withdrew! Through Buddha ha ing for three months #artaken of the food of hea en, his body emitted a hea enly fragrance, unlike that of an ordinary man! +e went immediately and bathedR and afterwards, at the s#ot where he did so, a bathing$house was built, which is still eDisting! At the #lace where the bhikshuni =t#ala was the first to do re erence to Buddha, a to#e has now been built! At the #laces where Buddha, when he was in the world, cut his hair and nails, to#es are erectedR and where the three Buddhas 478 that #receded &C*kyamuni Buddha and he himself satR where they walked, and where images of their #ersons were made! At all these #laces to#es were made, and are still eDisting! At the #lace where &Cakra, ,uler of the -e as, and the king of the Brahma$loka followed Buddha down from the Trayastrimsas hea en they ha e also raised a to#e! At this #lace the monks and nuns may be a thousand, who all recei e their food from the common store, and #ursue their studies, some of the mahayana and some of the h\nay*na! @here they li e, there is a white$eared dragon, which acts the #art of dana#ati to the community of these monks, causing abundant har ests in the country, and the enriching rains to come in season, without the occurrence of any calamities, so that the monks enjoy their re#ose and ease! 9n gratitude for its kindness, they ha e made for it a dragon$house, with a car#et for it to sit on, and a##ointed for it a diet of blessing, which they #resent for its nourishment! E ery day they set a#art three of their number to go to its house, and eat there! @hene er the summer retreat is ended, the dragon straightway changes its form, and a##ears as a small snake, with white s#ots at the side of its ears! As soon as the monks recogniHe it, they fill a co##er essel with cream, into which they #ut the creature, and then carry it round from the one who has the highest seat at their tables to him who has the lowest, when it a##ears as if saluting them! @hen it has been taken round, immediately it disa##earsR and e ery year it thus comes forth once! The country is ery #roducti e, and the #eo#le are #ros#erous, and ha##y beyond com#arison! @hen #eo#le of other countries come to it, they are eDceedingly attenti e to them all, and su##ly them with what they need! )ifty yojanas northwest from the monastery there is another, called PThe Great +ea#!P Great +ea# was the name of a wicked demon, who was con erted by Buddha, and men subseJuently at this #lace reared a ih*ra! @hen it was being made o er to an Arhat by #ouring water on his hands, some dro#s fell on the ground! They are still on the s#ot, and howe er they may be brushed away and remo ed, they continue to be isible, and cannot be made to disa##ear! At this #lace there is also a to#e to Buddha, where a good s#irit constantly kee#s all about it swe#t and watered, without any labor of man being reJuired! A king of corru#t iews once said, P&ince you are able to do this, 9 will lead a multitude of troo#s and reside there till the dirt and filth has increased and accumulated, and see whether you can cleanse it away or not!P The s#irit thereu#on raised a great wind, which blew the filth away, and made the #lace #ure! At this #lace there are many small to#es, at which a man may kee# counting a whole day without being able to know their eDact number! 9f he be firmly bent on knowing it, he will #lace a man by the side of each

to#e! @hen this is done, #roceeding to count the number of the men, whether they be many or few, he will not get to know the number! 408 There is a monastery, containing #erha#s siD hundred or se en hundred monks, in which there is a #lace where a Pratyeka Buddha used to take his food! The nir *na ground where he was burned after death is as large as a carriage wheelR and while grass grows all around, on this s#ot there is none! The ground also where he dried his clothes #roduces no grass, but the im#ression of them, where they lay on it, continues to the #resent day! 4)ootnote /% The hea en of 9ndra or &*kya, meaning Pthe hea en of thirty$three classes,P a name which has been eD#lained both historically and mythologically! PThe descri#tion of it,P says Eitel, Ptallies in all res#ects with the & arga of Brahmanic mythology! 9t is situated between the four #eaks of the 'eru, and consists of thirty$two cities of de as, eight on each of the four corners of the mountain! 9ndraCs ca#ital of Belle ue is in the centre! There he is enthroned, with a thousand heads and a thousand eyes, and four arms gras#ing the ajra, with his wife and //A,222 concubines! There he recei es the monthly re#orts of the four 'ah*r*jas, concerning the #rogress of good and e il in the world,P etc!, etc!8 4)ootnote 1% BuddhaCs mother, '*y* and 'ah*$m*y*, died se en days after his birth!8 4)ootnote 3% Anuruddha was a first cousin of &*kyamuni, being the son of his uncle Amritodana! +e is often mentioned in the account we ha e of BuddhaCs last moments! +is s#ecial gift was the Phea enly eye,P the first of the siD Psu#ernatural talents,P the faculty of com#rehending in one instantaneous iew, or by intuition, all beings in all worlds!8 4)ootnote S% This was Brahma, the first #erson of the Brahmanical Trimurti, ado#ted by Buddhism, but #laced in an inferior #osition, and sur#assed by e ery Buddhist saint who attains to bodhi!8 4)ootnote 6% A note of 'r! Beal says on this%$$PGeneral Cunningham, who isited the s#ot M/T71N, found a #illar, e idently of the age of Asoka, with a well$car ed ele#hant on the to#, which, howe er, was minus trunk and tail! +e su##oses this to be the #illar seen by )*$hien, who mistook the to# of it for a lion! 9t is #ossible such a mistake may ha e been made, as in the account of one of the #illars at &r* asti, )*$hien says an oD formed the ca#ital, whilst +sXan$chwang calls it an ele#hant!P8 4)ootnote 7% These three #redecessors of &akya$muni were the three Buddhas of the #resent or 'ah*$bhadra (al#a, of which he was the fourth, and 'aitreya is to be the fifth and last! They were% MiN (ra$kuchanda, Phe who readily sol es all doubtsPR a scion of the (asya#a family! +uman life reached in his time forty thousand years, and so many #ersons were con erted by him! M1N (anakamuni, Pbody radiant with the color of #ure goldPR of the same family! +uman life reached in his time thirty thousand years, and so many #ersons were con erted by him! M3N (asya#a, Pswallower of light!P +uman life reached in his time twenty thousand years, and so many #ersons were con erted by him!8 4)ootnote 0% This would seem to be absurdR but the writer e idently intended to con ey the idea that there was something mysterious about the number of the to#es!8

C+APTE, B>999 ZBuddhaCs &ubjects of -iscourseZ )*$+ien stayed at the -ragon ihara till after the summer retreat, 4/8 and then, tra elling to the southeast for se en yojanas, he arri ed at the city of (anyakubja, lying along the Ganges! There are two monasteries in it, the inmates of which are students of the hinay*na! At a distance from the city of siD or se en li, on the west, on the northern bank of the Ganges, is a #lace where Buddha #reached the Law to his disci#les! 9t has been handed down that his subjects of discourse were such as PThe bitterness and anity of life as im#ermanent and uncertain,P and that PThe body is as a bubble or foam on the water!P At this s#ot a to#e was erected, and still eDists! +a ing crossed the Ganges, and gone south for three yojanas, the tra ellers arri ed at a illage named A$le, containing #laces where Buddha #reached the Law, where he sat, and where he walked, at all of which to#es ha e been built! 4)ootnote /% This was, #robably, in A!-! S26!8 C+APTE, B9B ZLegend of BuddhaCs -anta$k*shthaZ Going on from this to the southeast for three yojanas, they came to the great kingdom of &h*$che! As you go out of the city of &h*$che by the southern gate, on the east of the road is the #lace where Buddha, after he had chewed his willow branch, stuck it in the ground, when it forthwith grew u# se en cubits, at which height it remained, neither increasing nor diminishing! The Brahmans, with their contrary doctrines, became angry and jealous! &ometimes they cut the tree down, sometimes they #lucked it u#, and cast it to a distance, but it grew again on the same s#ot as at first! +ere also is the #lace where the four Buddhas walked and sat, and at which a to#e was built that is still eDisting! C+APTE, BB ZThe <eta ana >ih*ra$$Legends of BuddhaZ Going on from this to the south, for eight yojanas, the tra ellers came to the city of &ra asti in the kingdom of (osala, in which the inhabitants were few and far between, amounting in all only to a few more than two hundred familiesR the city where king Prasenajit ruled, and the #lace of the old ih*ra of 'aha$#raj*#atiR 4/8 of the well and walls of the house of the >aisya head &udattaR 418 and where the Angulim*lya 438 became an Arhat, and his body was afterwards burned on

his attaining to #ari$nir *na! At all these #laces to#es were subseJuently erected, which are still eDisting in the city! The Brahmans, with their contrary doctrine, became full of hatred and en y in their hearts, and wished to destroy them, but there came from the hea ens such a storm of crashing thunder and flashing lightning that they were not able in the end to effect their #ur#ose! As you go out from the city by the south gate, and one thousand two hundred #aces from it, the >aisCya head &udatta built a ih*ra, facing the southR and when the door was o#en, on each side of it there was a stone #illar, with the figure of a wheel on the to# of that on the left, and the figure of an oD on the to# of that on the right! :n the left and right of the building the #onds of water clear and #ure, the thickets of trees always luDuriant, and the numerous flowers of arious hues, constituted a lo ely scene, the whole forming what is called the <eta ana ih*ra! @hen Buddha went u# to the Trayastrimsas hea en, and #reached the Law for the benefit of his mother, after he had been absent for ninety days, Prasenajit, longing to see him, caused an image of him to be car ed in Gosirsha Chandana wood, and #ut in the #lace where he usually sat! @hen Buddha, on his return entered the ihara, this image immediately left its #lace, and came forth to meet him! Buddha said to it, P,eturn to your seat! After 9 ha e attained to #ari$nir *na, you will ser e as a #attern to the four classes of my disci#les,P 4S8 and on this the image returned to its seat! This was the ery first of all the images of Buddha, and that which men subseJuently co#ied! Buddha then remo ed, and dwelt in a small ihara on the south side of the other, a different #lace from that containing the image, and twenty #aces distant from it! The <eta ana ih*ra was originally of se en stories! The kings and #eo#le of the countries around ied with one another in their offerings, hanging u# about it silken streamers and cano#ies, scattering flowers, burning incense, and lighting lam#s, so as to make the night as bright as the day! This they did day after day without ceasing! 9t ha##ened that a rat, carrying in its mouth the wick of a lam#, set one of the streamers or cano#ies on fire, which caught the ih*ra, and the se en stories were all consumed! The kings, with their officers and #eo#le, were all ery sad and distressed, su##osing that the sandalwood image had been burnedR but loU after four or fi e days, when the door of a small ih*ra on the east was o#ened, there was immediately seen the original image! They were all greatly rejoiced, and coo#erated in restoring the ih*ra! @hen they had succeeded in com#leting two stories, they remo ed the image back to its former #lace! @hen )*$hien and T*o$ching first arri ed at the <eta ana monastery, and thought how the @orld$honored one had formerly resided there for twenty$fi e years, #ainful reflections arose in their minds! Born in a border$land, along with their like$minded friends, they had tra elled through so many kingdomsR some of those friends had returned to their own land, and some had died, #ro ing the im#ermanence and uncertainty of lifeR and today they saw the #lace where Buddha had li ed now unoccu#ied by him! They were melancholy through their #ain of heart, and the crowd of monks came out, and asked them from what kingdom they were come! P@e are come,P they re#lied, Pfrom the land of +an!P P&trange,P said the monks with a sigh, Pthat men of a border country should be able to come here in search of our LawUP Then they said to one another, P-uring all the time that we, #rece#tors and monks, ha e succeeded to one another, we ha e ne er seen men of +an, followers of our system, arri e here!P

)our li to the northwest of the ih*ra there is a gro e called PThe Getting of Eyes!P )ormerly there were fi e hundred blind men, who li ed here in order that they might be near the ih*ra! Buddha #reached his Law to them, and they all got their eyesight! )ull of joy, they stuck their sta es in the earth, and with their heads and faces on the ground, did re erence! The sta es immediately began to grow, and they grew to be great! Peo#le made much of them, and no one dared to cut them down, so that they came to form a gro e! 9t was in this way that it got its name, and most of the <eta ana monks, after they had taken their mid$day meal, went to the gro e, and sat there in meditation! &iD or se en li northeast from the <eta ana, mother >aisakha built another ih*ra, to which she in ited Buddha and his monks, and which is still eDisting! To each of the great residences for the monks at the <eta ana ih*ra there were two gates, one facing the east and the other facing the north! The #ark containing the whole was the s#ace of ground which the >aisaya head, &udatta, #urchased by co ering it with gold coins! The ih*ra was eDactly in the centre! +ere Buddha li ed for a longer time than at any other #lace, #reaching his Law and con erting men! At the #laces where he walked and sat they also subseJuently reared to#es, each ha ing its #articular nameR and here was the #lace where &undari 468 murdered a #erson and then falsely charged Buddha with the crime! :utside the east gate of the <eta ana, at a distance of se enty #aces to the north, on the west of the road, Buddha held a discussion with the ad ocates of the ninety$siD schemes of erroneous doctrine, when the king and his great officers, the householders, and #eo#le were all assembled in crowds to hear it! Then a woman belonging to one of the erroneous systems, by name Cha_chamana, #rom#ted by the en ious hatred in her heart, and ha ing #ut on eDtra clothes in front of her #erson, so as to gi e her the a##earance of being with child, falsely accused Buddha before all the assembly of ha ing acted unlawfully towards her! :n this, &akra, ,uler of -e as, changed himself and some de as into white mice, which bit through the strings about her waistR and when this was done, the eDtra clothes which she wore dro##ed down on the ground! The earth at the same time was rent, and she went down ali e into hell! This also is the #lace where -e adatta, trying with em#oisoned claws to injure Buddha, went down ali e into hell! 'en subseJuently set u# marks to distinguish where both these e ents took #lace! )urther, at the #lace where the discussion took #lace, they reared a ih*ra rather more than siDty cubits high, ha ing in it an image of Buddha in a sitting #osture! :n the east of the road there was a de *laya 478 of one of the contrary systems, called PThe &hadow Co ered,P right o##osite the ih*ra on the #lace of discussion, with only the road between them, and also rather more than siDty cubits high! The reason why it was called PThe &hadow Co eredP was this% @hen the sun was in the west, the shadow of the ih*ra of the @orld$honored one fell on the de *laya of a contrary systemR but when the sun was in the east, the shadow of that de *laya was di erted to the north, and ne er fell on the ih*ra of Buddha! The malbelie ers regularly em#loyed men to watch their de *laya, to swee# and water all about it, to burn incense, light the lam#s, and #resent offeringsR but in the morning the lam#s were found to ha e been suddenly remo ed, and in the ih*ra of Buddha! The Brahmans were indignant, and said, PThose &ramanas take our lam#s and use them for their own ser ice of Buddha, but we will not sto# our ser ice for youUP 408 :n that night the Brahmans themsel es ke#t watch,

when they saw the de a s#irits which they ser ed take the lam#s and go three times round the ih*ra of Buddha and #resent offerings! After this administration to Buddha they suddenly disa##eared! The Brahmans thereu#on knowing how great was the s#iritual #ower of Buddha, forthwith left their families, and became monks! 9t has been handed down, that, near the time when these things occurred, around the <eta ana ih*ra there were ninety$eight monasteries, in all of which there were monks residing, eDce#ting only in one #lace which was acant! 9n this 'iddle (ingdom there are ninety$siD sorts of iews, erroneous and different from our system, all of which recogniHe this world and the future world and the connection between them! Each has its multitude of followers, and they all beg their food% only they do not carry the alms$bowl! They also, moreo er, seek to acJuire the blessing of good deeds on unfreJuented ways, setting u# on the roadside houses of charity, where rooms, couches, beds, and food and drink are su##lied to tra ellers, and also to monks, coming and going as guests, the only difference being in the time for which those #arties remain! There are also com#anies of the followers of -e adatta still eDisting! They regularly make offerings to the three #re ious Buddhas, but not to &*kyamuni Buddha! )our li southeast from the city of &r* ast\, a to#e has been erected at the #lace where the @orld$honored one encountered king >ir]dhaha, when he wished to attack the kingdom of &hay$e, and took his stand before him at the side of the road! 4)ootnote /% ED#lained by PPath of Lo e,P and PLord of Life!P Praj*#ati was aunt and nurse of &*kyamuni, the first woman admitted to the monkhood, and the first su#erior of the first Buddhistic con ent! &he is yet to become a Buddha!8 4)ootnote 1% &udatta, meaning Palmsgi er,P was the original name of An*tha$#indika, a wealthy householder, or >aisya head, of &r* asti, famous for his liberality! :f his old house, only the well and walls remained at the time of )*$hienCs isit to &r* asti!8 4)ootnote 3% The Angulim*lya were a sect or set of &i aitic fanatics, who made assassination a religious act! The one of them here mentioned had joined them by the force of circumstances! Being con erted by Buddha, he became a monk!8 4)ootnote S% ?rya, meaning Phonorable,P P enerable,P is a title gi en only to those who ha e mastered the four s#iritual truths%$$MiN that PmiseryP is a necessary condition of all sentient eDistenceR this is duhka% MiiN that the PaccumulationP of misery is caused by the #assionsR this is samudaya% MiiiN that the PeDtinctionP of #assion is #ossibleR this is nirodha% and Mi N that the P#athP leads to the eDtinction of #assionR which is marga! According to their attainment of these truths, the Aryas, or followers of Buddha, are distinguished into four classes$$&rot*#annas, &akrid*gamins, An*g*mins, and Arhats!8 4)ootnote 6% +sXan$chwang does not gi e the name of this murdererR see in <ulienCs P>ie et >oyages de +iouen$thsang P$$Pa heretical Brahman killed a woman and calumniated Buddha!P &ee also the fuller account in BealCs P,ecords of @estern Countries,P where the murder is committed by se eral Brahmacharins! 9n this #assage Beal makes &undari to be the name of the murdered #erson! But the teDt cannot be so construed!8

4)ootnote 7% A de *laya is a #lace in which a de a is worshi##ed$$a general name for all Brahmanical tem#les!8 4)ootnote 0% Their s#eech was somewhat unconnected, but natural enough in the circumstances! Com#are the whole account with the narrati e in / &amuel ! about the Ark and -agon, that Ptwice$battered god of Palestine!P8 C+APTE, BB9 ZThe Three Predecessors of &*kyamuniZ )ifty li to the west of the city brings the tra eller to a town named Too$wei, the birth#lace of (*sya#a Buddha! At the #lace where he and his father met, and at that where he attained to #ari$nir *na, to#es were erected! : er the entire relic of the whole body of him, the (*sya#a Tath*gata, a great to#e was also erected! Going on southeast from the city of &r* asti for twel e yojanas, the tra ellers came to a town named .a$#ei$ke*, the birth#lace of (rakuchanda Buddha! At the #lace where he and his father met, and at that where he attained to #ari$nir *na, to#es were erected! Going north from here less than a yojana, they came to a town which had been the birth#lace of (anakamuni Buddha! At the #lace where he and his father met, and where he attained to #ari$nir *na, to#es were erected! C+APTE, BB99 ZLegends of BuddhaCs BirthZ Less than a yojana to the east from this brought them to the city of (a#ila astuR but in it there was neither king nor #eo#le! All was mound and desolation! :f inhabitants there were only some monks and a score or two of families of the common #eo#le! At the s#ot where stood the old #alace of king &uddhodana there ha e been made images of his eldest son and his motherR and at the #laces where that son a##eared mounted on a white ele#hant when he entered his motherCs womb, and where he turned his carriage round on seeing the sick man after he had gone out of the city by the eastern gate, to#es ha e been erected! The #laces were also #ointed out where the rishi ?$e ins#ected the marks of Buddhashi# on the body of the heir$a##arent when an infantR where, when he was in com#any with .anda and others, on the ele#hant being struck down and drawn on one side, he tossed it awayR 4/8 where he shot an arrow to the southeast, and it went a distance of thirty li, then entering the ground and making a s#ring to come forth, which men subseJuently fashioned into a well from which tra ellers might drinkR where, after he had attained to @isdom, Buddha returned and saw the king, his fatherR where fi e hundred &*kyas Juitted their families and did re erence to =#*li 418 while the earth shook and mo ed in siD different waysR where Buddha #reached his Law to the de as, and the four de a kings and others ke#t

the four doors of the hall, so that e en the king, his father, could not enterR where Buddha sat under a nyagrodha tree, which is still standing, with his face to the east, and his aunt 'ah*$#raj*#ati #resented him with a &angh*liR and where king >aid]rya slew the seed of &*kya, and they all in dying became &rot*#annas! 438 A to#e was erected at this last #lace, which is still eDisting! &e eral li northeast from the city was the kingCs field, where the heir$a##arent sat under a tree, and looked at the #loughers! )ifty li east from the city was a garden, named Lumbin\, where the Jueen entered the #ond and bathed! +a ing come forth from the #ond on the northern bank, after walking twenty #aces, she lifted u# her hand, laid hold of a branch of a tree, and, with her face to the east, ga e birth to the heir$a##arent! @hen he fell to the ground, he immediately walked se en #aces! Two dragon$kings a##eared and washed his body! At the #lace where they did so, there was immediately formed a well, and from it, as well as from the abo e #ond, where the Jueen bathed, the monks e en now constantly take the water, and drink it! There are four #laces of regular and fiDed occurrence in the history of all Buddhas% first, the #lace where they attained to #erfect @isdom and became BuddhaR second, the #lace where they turned the wheel of the LawR third, the #lace where they #reached the Law, discoursed of righteousness, and discomfited the ad ocates of erroneous doctrinesR and fourth, the #lace where they came down, after going u# to the Trayastrimsas hea en to #reach the Law for the benefit of their mothers! :ther #laces in connection with them became remarkable, according to the manifestations which were made at them at #articular times! The country of (a#ila astu is a great scene of em#ty desolation! The inhabitants are few and far between! :n the roads #eo#le ha e to be on their guard against white ele#hants 4S8 and lions, and should not tra el incautiously! 4)ootnote /% The Lichchha is of >ais*l\ had sent to the young #rince a ery fine ele#hantR but when it was near (a#ila astu, -e a$datta, out of en y, killed it with a blow of his fist! .anda Mnot ?nanda, but a half$brother of &iddharthaN, coming that way, saw the carcass lying on the road, and #ulled it on one sideR but the Bodhisatt a, seeing it there, took it by the tail, and tossed it o er se en fences and ditches, when the force of its fall made a great ditch!8 4)ootnote 1% They did this, #robably, to show their humility, for =#*li was only a &]dra by birth, and had been a barberR so from the first did Buddhism assert its su#eriority to the conditions of rank and caste! =#*li was distinguished by his knowledge of the rules of disci#line, and #raised on that account by Buddha! +e was one of the three leaders of the first synod, and the #rinci#al com#iler of the original >inaya books!8 4)ootnote 3% The &rot*#annas are the first class of saints, who are not to be reborn in a lower s#here, but attain to nir ana after ha ing been reborn se en times consecuti ely as men or de as! The Chinese editions state there were one thousand of the &bkya seed! The general account is that they were fi e hundred, all maidens, who refused to take their #lace in king >aiduryaCs harem, and were in conseJuence taken to a #ond,

and had their hands and feet cut off! There Buddha came to them, had their wounds dressed, and #reached to them the Law! They died in the faith, and were reborn in the region of the four Great (ings! Thence they came back and isited Buddha at <eta ana in the night, and there they obtained the reward of &rot*#anna!8 4)ootnote S% )*$hien does not say that he himself saw any of these white ele#hants, nor does he s#eak of the lions as of any #articular color! @e shall find by and by, in a note further on, that, to make them a##ear more terrible, they are s#oken of as Pblack!P8 C+APTE, BB999 ZLegends of ,*ma and its To#eZ East from BuddhaCs birth#lace, and at a distance of fi e yojanas, there is a kingdom called ,*ma! The king of this country, ha ing obtained one #ortion of the relics of BuddhaCs body, returned with it and built o er it a to#e, named the ,*ma to#e! By the side of it there was a #ool, and in the #ool a dragon, which constantly ke#t watch o er the to#e, and #resented offerings at it day and night! @hen king Asoka came forth into the world, he wished to destroy the eight to#es o er the relics, and to build instead of them eighty$four thousand to#es! 4/8 After he had thrown down the se en others, he wished neDt to destroy this to#e! But then the dragon showed itself, and took the king into its #alaceR when he had seen all the things #ro ided for offerings, it said to him, P9f you are able with your offerings to eDceed these, you can destroy the to#e, and take it all away! 9 will not contend with you!P The king, howe er, knew that such a##liances for offerings were not to be had anywhere in the world, and thereu#on returned without carrying out his #ur#ose! Afterwards, the ground all about became o ergrown with egetation, and there was nobody to s#rinkle and swee# about the to#eR but a herd of ele#hants came regularly, which brought water with their trunks to water the ground, and arious kinds of flowers and incense, which they #resented at the to#e! :nce there came from one of the kingdoms a de otee to worshi# at the to#e! @hen he encountered the ele#hants he was greatly alarmed, and screened himself among the treesR but when he saw them go through with the offerings in the most #ro#er manner, the thought filled him with great sadness$$that there should be no monastery here, the inmates of which might ser e the to#e, but the ele#hants ha e to do the watering and swee#ing! )orthwith he ga e u# the great #rohibitions by which he was bound, and resumed the status of a &r*manera! @ith his own hands he cleared away the grass and trees, #ut the #lace in good order, and made it #ure and clean! By the #ower of his eDhortations, he #re ailed on the king of the country to form a residence for monksR and when that was done, he became head of the monastery! At the #resent day there are monks residing in it! This e ent is of recent occurrenceR but in all the succession from that time till now, there has always been a &r*manera head of the establishment! 4)ootnote /% The bones of the human body are su##osed to consist of TS,222 atoms, and hence the legend of AsokaCs wish to build TS,222 to#es, one o er each atom of &akyamuniCs skeleton!8

C+APTE, BB9> Z@here Buddha ,enounced the @orldZ East from here four yojanas, there is the #lace where the heir$a##arent sent back Chandaka, with his white horseR and there also a to#e was erected! )our yojanas to the east from this, the tra ellers came to the Charcoal to#e, where there is also a monastery! Going on twel e yojanas, still to the east, they came to the city of (usanagara, on the north of which, between two trees, on the bank of the .aira_jan* ri er, is the #lace where the @orld$honored one, with his head to the north, attained to #an$nir *na and died! There also are the #laces where &ubhadra, 4/8 the last of his con erts, attained to @isdom and became an ArhatR where in his coffin of gold they made offerings to the @orld$honored one for se en days, where the >ajra#*ni laid aside his golden club, and where the eight kings di ided the relics of the burnt body% at all these #laces were built to#es and monasteries, all of which are now eDisting! 9n the city the inhabitants are few and far between, com#rising only the families belonging to the different societies of monks! Going from this to the southeast for twel e yojanas, they came to the #lace where the Lichchha is wished to follow Buddha to the #lace of his #ari$nir *na, and where, when he would not listen to them and they ke#t clea ing to him, unwilling to go away, he made to a##ear a large and dee# ditch which they could not cross o er, and ga e them his alms$bowl, as a #ledge of his regard, thus sending them back to their families! There a stone #illar was erected with an account of this e ent engra ed u#on it! 4)ootnote /% A Brahman of Ben*res, said to ha e been one hundred and twenty years old, who came to learn from Buddha the ery night he died! ?nanda would ha e re#ulsed himR but Buddha ordered him to be introducedR and then #utting aside the ingenious but unim#ortant Juestion which he #ro#ounded, #reached to him the Law! The Brahman was con erted and attained at once to Arhatshi#!8 C+APTE, BB> ZThe (ingdom of >ais*l\Z East from this city ten yojanas, the tra ellers came to the kingdom of >ais*l\! .orth of the city so named is a large forest, ha ing in it the double$galleried ih*ra where Buddha dwelt, and the to#e o er half the body of ?nanda! 9nside the city the woman ?mba#*l\ 4/8 built a ih*ra in honor of Buddha, which is now standing as it was at first! Three li south of the city, on the west of the road, is the garden which the same ?mba#*l\ #resented to Buddha, in which he might reside! @hen Buddha was

about to attain to his #ari$nir *na, as he was Juitting the city by the west gate, he turned round, and, beholding the city on his right, said to them, P+ere 9 ha e taken my last walk!P 'en subseJuently built a to#e at this s#ot! Three li northwest of the city there is a to#e called, PBows and wea#ons laid down!P The reason why it got that name was this% The inferior wife of a king, whose country lay along the ri er Ganges, brought forth from her womb a ball of flesh! The su#erior wife, jealous of the other, said, P"ou ha e brought forth a thing of e il omen,P and immediately it was #ut into a boD of wood and thrown into the ri er! )arther down the stream another king was walking and looking about, when he saw the wooden boD floating in the water! +e had it brought to him, o#ened it, and found a thousand little boys, u#right and com#lete, and each one different from the others! +e took them and had them brought u#! They grew tall and large, and ery daring and strong, crushing all o##osition in e ery eD#edition which they undertook! By and by they attacked the kingdom of their real father, who became in conseJuence greatly distressed and sad! +is inferior wife asked what it was that made him so, and he re#lied, PThat king has a thousand sons, daring and strong beyond com#are, and he wishes with them to attack my kingdomR this is what makes me sad!P The wife said, P"ou need not be sad and sorrowful! :nly make a high gallery on the wall of the city on the eastR and when the thie es come, 9 shall be able to make them retire!P The king did as she saidR and when the enemies came, she said to them from the tower, P"ou are my sonsR why are you acting so unnaturally and rebelliouslyQP They re#lied, P@ho are you that say you are our motherQP P9f you do not belie e me,P she said, Plook, all of you, towards me, and o#en your mouths!P &he then #ressed her breasts with her two hands, and each sent forth fi e hundred jets of milk, which fell into the mouths of the thousand sons! The thie es thus knew that she was their mother, and laid down their bows and wea#ons! The two kings, the fathers, hereu#on fell into reflection, and both got to be Pratyeka Buddhas! The to#e of the two Pratyeka Buddhas is still eDisting! 9n a subseJuent age, when the @orld$honored one had attained to #erfect @isdom and become Buddha, he said to his disci#les, PThis is the #lace where 9 in a former age laid down my bow and wea#ons!P 418 9t was thus that subseJuently men got to know the fact, and raised the to#e on this s#ot, which in this way recei ed its name! The thousand little boys were the thousand Buddhas of this Bhadra$kal#a! 438 9t was by the side of the P@ea#ons$laid$downP to#e that Buddha, ha ing gi en u# the idea of li ing longer, said to ?nanda, P9n three months from this 9 will attain to #ari$nir *naPR and king '*ra 4S8 had so fascinated and stu#efied ?nanda, that he was not able to ask Buddha to remain longer in this world! Three or four li east from this #lace there is a to#e commemorating the following occurrence% A hundred years after the #ari$nir *na of Buddha, some Bhikshus of >ais*l\ went wrong in the matter of the disci#linary rules in ten #articulars, and a##ealed for their justification to what they said were the words of Buddha! +ereu#on the Arhats and Bhikshus obser ant of the rules, to the number in all of se en hundred monks, eDamined afresh and collated the collection of disci#linary books 468! &ubseJuently men built at this #lace the to#e in Juestion, which is still eDisting!

4)ootnote /% ?mba#*l\, ?mra#*l\, or ?mradarik*, Pthe guardian of the ?mra M#robably the mangoN tree,P is famous in Buddhist annals! &he was a courtesan! &he had been in many n*rakas or hells, was one hundred thousand times a female beggar, and ten thousand times a #rostituteR but maintaining #erfect continence during the #eriod of (*syana Buddha, &akyamuniCs #redecessor, she had been born a de \, and finally a##eared in earth under an ?mra tree in >ais*l\! There again she fell into her old ways, and had a son by king Bimbis*raR but she was won o er by Buddha to irtue and chastity, renounced the world, and attained to the state of an Arhat!8 4)ootnote 1% Thus &*kyamuni had been one of the thousand little boys who floated in the boD in the Ganges! +ow long back the former age was we cannot tell! 9 su##ose the to#e of the two fathers who became Pratyeka Buddhas had been built like the one commemorating the laying down of wea#ons after Buddha had told his disci#les of the strange e ents in the #ast!8 4)ootnote 3% Bhadra$kal#a, Pthe (al#a of worthies or sages!P PThis,P says Eitel, Pis a designation for a (al#a of stability, so$called because one thousand Buddhas a##ear in the course of it! :ur #resent #eriod is a Bhadra$kal#a, and four Buddhas ha e already a##eared! 9t is to last two hundred and thirty$siD millions of years, but o er one hundred and fifty$one millions ha e already ela#sed!P8 4)ootnote S% PThe king of demons!P The name 'ara is eD#lained by Pthe murderer,P Pthe destroyer of irtue,P and similar a##ellations! P+e is,P says Eitel, Pthe #ersonification of lust, the god of lo e, sin, and death, the arch$enemy of goodness, residing in the hea en Paranirmita >asa artin on the to# of the (amadhatu! +e assumes different forms, es#ecially monstrous ones, to tem#t or frighten the saints, or sends his daughters, or ins#ires wicked men like -e adatta or the .irgranthas to do his work! +e is often re#resented with /22 arms, and riding on an ele#hant!P8 4)ootnote 6% :r the >inaya$#itaka! The meeting referred to was an im#ortant one, and is generally s#oken of as the second Great Council of the Buddhist Church! The first Council was that held at ,*jagriha, shortly after BuddhaCs death, under the #residency of (*sya#a$$say about B!C! S/2! The second was that s#oken of here$$say about B!C! 322!8 C+APTE, BB>9 Z,emarkable -eath of ?nandaZ )our yojanas on from this #lace to the east brought the tra ellers to the confluence of the fi e ri ers! @hen ?nanda was going from 'agadha to >ais*l\, wishing his #ari$nir *na to take #lace there, the de as informed king Aj*tasatru 4/8 of it, and the king immediately #ursued him, in his own grand carriage, with a body of soldiers, and had reached the ri er! :n the other hand, the Lichchha is of >ais*l\ had heard that ?nanda was coming to their city, and they on their #art came to meet him! 9n this way, they all arri ed together at the ri er, and ?nanda considered that, if he went forward, king Aj*tasatru would be ery angry, while, if he went back, the Lichchha is would resent his conduct! +e thereu#on in the ery middle of the ri er burnt his body in a fiery

ecstasy of &am*dhi 418, and his #ari$nir *na was attained! +e di ided his body into two #arts, lea ing one #art on each bankR so that each of the two kings got one #art as a sacred relic, and took it back to his own ca#ital, and there raised a to#e o er it! 4)ootnote /% +e was the son of king Bimbis*ra, who was one of the first royal con erts to Buddhism! Ajasat murdered his father, or at least wrought his deathR and was at first o##osed to &akyamuni, and a fa orer of -e adotta! @hen con erted, he became famous for his liberality in almsgi ing!8 4)ootnote 1% P&am*dhi,P says Eitel, Psignifies the highest #itch of abstract, ecstatic meditationR a state of absolute indifference to all influences from within or withoutR a state of tor#or of both the material and s#iritual forces of italityR a sort of terrestrial .ir *na, consistently culminating in total destruction of life!P8 C+APTE, BB>99 Z(ing AsokaCs &#irit$built Palace and +allsZ +a ing crossed the ri er, and descended south for a yojana, the tra ellers came to the town of P*tali#uttra 4/8, in the kingdom of 'agadha, the city where king Asoka ruled! The royal #alace and halls in the midst of the city, which eDist now as of old, were all made by s#irits which he em#loyed, and which #iled u# the stones, reared the walls and gates, and eDecuted the elegant car ing and inlaid scul#ture$work$$in a way which no human hands of this world could accom#lish! (ing Asoka had a younger brother who had attained to be an Arhat, and resided on Gridhra$k]ta hill, finding his delight in solitude and Juiet! The king, who sincerely re erenced him, wished and begged him to come and li e in his family, where he could su##ly all his wants! The other, howe er, through his delight in the stillness of the mountain, was unwilling to acce#t the in itation, on which the king said to him, P:nly acce#t my in itation, and 9 will make a hill for you inside the city!P Accordingly, he #ro ided the materials of a feast, called to him the s#irits, and announced to them, PTomorrow you will all recei e my in itationR but as there are no mats for you to sit on, let each one bring his own seat!P .eDt day the s#irits came, each one bringing with him a great rock, like a wall, four or fi e #aces sJuare, for a seat! @hen their sitting was o er, the king made them form a hill with the large stones #iled on one another, and also at the foot of the hill, with fi e large sJuare stones, to make an a#artment, which might be more than thirty cubits long, twenty cubits wide, and more than ten cubits high! 9n this city there had resided a great Brahman, named ,*dha$s*mi, a #rofessor of the mah*y*na, of clear discernment and much wisdom, who understood e erything, li ing by himself in s#otless #urity! The king of the country honored and re erenced him, and ser ed him as his teacher! 9f he went to inJuire for and greet him, the king did not #resume to sit down alongside of himR and if, in his lo e and re erence, he took hold of his hand, as soon as he let it go, the Brahman made haste to #our

water on it and wash it! +e might be more than fifty years old, and all the kingdom looked u# to him! By means of this one man, the Law of Buddha was widely made$known, and the followers of other doctrines did not find it in their #ower to #ersecute the body of monks in any way! By the side of the to#e of Asoka, there has been made a mah*y*na monastery, ery grand and beautifulR there is also a h\nay*na oneR the two together containing siD hundred or se en hundred monks! The rules of demeanor and the scholastic arrangements in them are worthy of obser ation! &hamans of the highest irtue from all Juarters, and students, inJuirers wishing to find out truth and the grounds of it, all resort to these monasteries! There also resides in this monastery a Brahman teacher, whose name also is 'a_jusr\, whom the &hamans of greatest irtue in the kingdom, and the mah*y*na Bhikshus honor and look u# to! The cities and towns of this country are the greatest of all in the 'iddle (ingdom! The inhabitants are rich and #ros#erous, and ie with one another in the #ractice of bene olence and righteousness! E ery year on the eighth day of the second month they celebrate a #rocession of images! They make a four$wheeled car, and on it erect a structure of fi e stories by means of bamboos tied together! This is su##orted by a king$#ost, with #oles and lances slanting from it, and is rather more than twenty cubits high, ha ing the sha#e of a to#e! @hite and silk$like cloth of hair is wra##ed all round it, which is then #ainted in arious colors! They make figures of de as, with gold, sil er, and la#is laHuli grandly blended and ha ing silken streamers and cano#ies hung out o er them! :n the four sides are niches, with a Buddha seated in each, and a Bodhisatt a standing in attendance on him! There may be twenty cars, all grand and im#osing, but each one different from the others! :n the day mentioned, the monks and laity within the borders all come togetherR they ha e singers and skilful musicians% they say their de otions with flowers and incense! The Brahmans come and in ite the Buddhas to enter the city! These do so in order, and remain two nights in it! All through the night they kee# lam#s burning, ha e skilful music, and #resent offerings! This is the #ractice in all the other kingdoms as well! The +eads of the >aisya families in them establish in the cities houses for dis#ensing charity and medicines! All the #oor and destitute in the country, or#hans, widowers, and childless men, maimed #eo#le and cri##les, and all who are diseased, go to those houses, and are #ro ided with e ery kind of hel#, and doctors eDamine their diseases! They get the food and medicines which their cases reJuire, and are made to feel at easeR and when they are better, they go away of themsel es! @hen king Asoka destroyed the se en to#es, intending to make eighty$four thousand, the first which he made was the great to#e, more than three li to the south of this city! 9n front of this there is a foot#rint of Buddha, where a ihara has been built! The door of it faces the north, and on the south of it there is a stone #illar, fourteen or fifteen cubits in circumference, and more than thirty cubits high, on which there is an inscri#tion, saying, PAsoka ga e the <ambud i#a to the general body of all the monks, and then redeemed it from them with money! This he did three times!P .orth from the to#e three hundred or four hundred #aces, king Asoka built the city of .e$le! 9n it there is a stone #illar, which also is more than thirty feet high, with a lion on the to# of it! :n the #illar there is an inscri#tion recording the things which led to the building of .e$le, with the number of the year, the day, and the month!

4)ootnote /% The modern Patna! The &anscrit name means PThe city of flowers!P 9t is the 9ndian )lorence!8 C+APTE, BB>999 Z,*jagriha, .ew and :ld$$Legends Connected with 9tZ The tra ellers went on from this to the southeast for nine yojanas, and came to a small solitary rocky hill, at the head or end of which was an a#artment of stone, facing the south$$the #lace where Buddha sat, when &akra, ,uler of -e as, brought the de a$musician, Pa_chasikha, to gi e #leasure to him by #laying on his lute! &akra then asked Buddha about forty$two subjects, tracing the Juestions out with his finger one by one on the rock! The #rints of his tracing are still thereR and here also there is a monastery! A yojana southwest from this #lace brought them to the illage of .*la, where &*ri#uttra was born, and to which also he returned, and attained here his #ari$nir *na! : er the s#ot where his body was burned there was built a to#e, which is still in eDistence! Another yojana to the west brought them to .ew ,*jagriha$$the new city which was built by king Aj*tasatru! There were two monasteries in it! Three hundred #aces outside the west gate, king Aj*tasatru, ha ing obtained one #ortion of the relics of Buddha, built o er them a to#e, high, large, grand, and beautiful! Lea ing the city by the south gate, and #roceeding south four li, one enters a alley, and comes to a circular s#ace formed by fi e hills, which stand all round it, and ha e the a##earance of the suburban wall of a city! +ere was the old city of king Bimbis*raR from east to west about fi e or siD li, and from north to south se en or eight! 9t was here that &*ri#uttra and 'audgaly*yana first saw =#asena 4/8R that the .irgrantha made a #it of fire and #oisoned the rice, and then in ited Buddha to eat with himR that king Aj*tasatru made a black ele#hant intoDicated with liJuor, wishing him to injure BuddhaR and that at the northeast corner of the city in a large cur ing s#ace <\ aka built a ih*ra in the garden of ?mba#*l\, and in ited Buddha with his one thousand two hundred and fifty disci#les to it, that he might there make his offerings to su##ort them! These #laces are still there as of old, but inside the city all is em#tiness and desolationR no man dwells in it! 4)ootnote /% :ne of the fi e first followers of &akyamuni! +e is also called As ajitR in Pali AssajiR but As ajit seems to be a military title, P'aster or trainer of horses!P The two more famous disci#les met him, not to lead him, but to be directed by him, to Buddha!8 C+APTE, BB9B Z)*$+ien Passes a .ight on Gridhra$k]ta +illZ Entering the alley, and kee#ing along the mountains on the southeast,

after ascending fifteen li, the tra ellers came to mount Gridhra$k]ta! Three li before you reach the to#, there is a ca ern in the rocks, facing the south, in which Buddha sat in meditation! Thirty #aces to the northwest there is another, where ?nanda was sitting in meditation, when the de a '*ra Pisuna, ha ing assumed the form of a large ulture, took his #lace in front of the ca ern, and frightened the disci#le! Then Buddha, by his mysterious, su#ernatural #ower, made a cleft in the rock, introduced his hand, and stroked ?nandaCs shoulder, so that his fear immediately #assed away! The foot#rints of the bird and the cleft for BuddhaCs hand are still there, and hence comes the name of PThe +ill of the >ulture Ca ern!P 9n front of the ca ern there are the #laces where the four Buddhas sat! There are ca erns also of the Arhats, one where each sat and meditated, amounting to se eral hundred in all! At the #lace where in front of his rocky a#artment Buddha was walking from east to west in meditation, and -e adatta, from among the beetling cliffs on the north of the mountain, threw a rock across, and hurt BuddhaCs toes, the rock is still there! The hall where Buddha #reached his Law has been destroyed, and only the foundations of the brick walls remain! :n this hill the #eak is beautifully green, and rises grandly u#R it is the highest of all the fi e hills! 9n the .ew City )*$hien bought incense$sticks, flowers, oil and lam#s, and hired two bhikshus, long resident at the #lace, to carry them to the #eak! @hen he himself got to it, he made his offerings with the flowers and incense, and lighted the lam#s when the darkness began to come on! +e felt melancholy, but restrained his tears and said, P+ere Buddha deli ered the &]r*ngama &]tra! 9, )*$hien, was born when 9 could not meet with BuddhaR and now 9 only see the foot#rints which he has left, and the #lace where he li ed, and nothing more!P @ith this, in front of the rock ca ern, he chanted the &]r*ngama &]tra, remained there o er the night, and then returned towards the .ew City! C+APTE, BBB Z&rata#arna Ca e, or Ca e of the )irst CouncilZ :ut from the old city, after walking o er three hundred #aces, on the west of the road, the tra ellers found the (aranda Bamboo garden, where the old ih*ra is still in eDistence, with a com#any of monks, who kee# the ground about it swe#t and watered! .orth of the ih*ra two or three li there was the &mas*nam, which name means in Chinese Pthe field of gra es into which the dead are thrown!P As they ke#t along the mountain on the south, and went west for three hundred #aces, they found a dwelling among the rocks, named the Pi##ala ca e, in which Buddha regularly sat in meditation after taking his mid$day meal! Going on still to the west for fi e or siD li, on the north of the hill, in the shade, they found the ca ern called &rata#arna, 4/8 the #lace where, after the nir *na of Buddha, fi e hundred Arhats collected the &]tras! @hen they brought the &]tras forth, three lofty seats had been #re#ared and grandly ornamented! &*ri#uttra occu#ied the one on the left, and 'audgaly*yana that on the right! :f the number of fi e hundred

one was wanting! 'ah*kasya#a was #resident on the middle seat! ?nanda was then outside the door, and could not get in! At the #lace there was subseJuently raised a to#e, which is still eDisting! Along the sides of the hill, there are also a ery great many cells among the rocks, where the arious Arhans sat and meditated! As you lea e the old city on the north, and go down east for three li, there is the rock dwelling of -e adatta, and at a distance of fifty #aces from it there is a large, sJuare, black rock! )ormerly there was a bhikshu, who, as he walked backwards and forwards u#on it, thought with himself%$$PThis body is im#ermanent, a thing of bitterness and anity, and which cannot be looked on as #ure! 9 am weary of this body, and troubled by it as an e il!P @ith this he gras#ed a knife, and was about to kill himself! But he thought again%$$PThe @orld$honored one laid down a #rohibition against oneCs killing himself!P 418 )urther it occurred to him%$$P"es, he didR but 9 now only wish to kill three #oisonous thie es!P 9mmediately with the knife he cut his throat! @ith the first gash into the flesh he attained the state of a &rot*#annaR when he had gone half through, he attained to be an An*g*minR and when he had cut right through, he was an Arhat, and attained to #ari$nir *na, and died! 4)ootnote /% A ery great #lace in the annals of Buddhism! The Council in the &rata#arna ca e did not come together fortuitously, but a##ears to ha e been con oked by the older members to settle the rules and doctrines of the order! The ca e was #re#ared for the occasion by king Aj*tasatru!8 4)ootnote 1% Buddha made a law forbidding the monks to commit suicide! +e #rohibited any one from discoursing on the miseries of life in such a manner as to cause des#eration!8 C+APTE, BBB9 Z&*kyamuniCs Attaining to the Buddhashi#Z )rom this #lace, after tra elling to the west for four yojanas, the #ilgrims came to the city of Gay*R but inside the city all was em#tiness and desolation! Going on again to the south for twenty li, they arri ed at the #lace where the Bodhisatt a for siD years #ractised with himself #ainful austerities! All around was forest! Three li west from here they came to the #lace where, when Buddha had gone into the water to bathe, a de a bent down the branch of a tree, by means of which he succeeded in getting out of the #ool! Two li north from this was the #lace where the Gr*mika girls #resented to Buddha the rice$gruel made with milkR and two li north from this was the #lace where, seated on a rock under a great tree, and facing the east, he ate the gruel! The tree and the rock are there at the #resent day! The rock may be siD cubits in breadth and length, and rather more than two cubits in height! 9n Central 9ndia the cold and heat are so eJually tem#ered that trees li e for se eral thousand and e en for ten thousand years! +alf a yojana from this #lace to the northeast there was a ca ern in the

rocks, into which the Bodhisatt a entered, and sat cross$legged with his face to the west! As he did so, he said to himself, P9f 9 am to attain to #erfect wisdom and become Buddha, let there be a su#ernatural attestation of it!P :n the wall of the rock there a##eared immediately the shadow of a Buddha, rather more than three feet in length, which is still bright at the #resent day! At this moment hea en and earth were greatly mo ed, and de as in the air s#oke #lainly, PThis is not the #lace where any Buddha of the #ast, or he that is to come, has attained, or will attain, to #erfect @isdom! Less than half a yojana from this to the southwest will bring you to the #atra tree, where all #ast Buddhas ha e attained, and all to come must attain, to #erfect @isdom!P @hen they had s#oken these words, they immediately led the way forward to the #lace, singing as they did so! As they thus went away, the Bodhisatt a arose and walked after them! At a distance of thirty #aces from the tree, a de a ga e him the grass of lucky omen, which he recei ed and went on! After he had #roceeded fifteen #aces, fi e hundred green birds came flying towards him, went round him thrice, and disa##eared! The Bodhisatt a went forward to the #atra tree, #laced the kusa grass at the foot of it, and sat down with his face to the east! Then king '*ra sent three beautiful young ladies, who came from the north, to tem#t him, while he himself came from the south to do the same! The Bodhisatt a #ut his toes down on the ground, and the demon soldiers retired and dis#ersed, and the three young ladies were changed into old grandmothers! At the #lace mentioned abo e of the siD yearsC #ainful austerities, and at all these other #laces, men subseJuently reared to#es and set u# images, which all eDist at the #resent day! @here Buddha, after attaining to #erfect @isdom, for se en days contem#lated the tree, and eD#erienced the joy of imuktiR where, under the #atra tree, he walked to and fro from west to east for se en daysR where the de as made a hall a##ear, com#osed of the se en #recious substances, and #resented offerings to him for se en daysR where the blind dragon 'uchilinda 4/8 encircled him for se en daysR where he sat under the nyagrodha tree, on a sJuare rock, with his face to the east, and Brahma$de a came and made his reJuest to himR where the four de a kings brought to him their alms$bowlsR where the fi e hundred merchants #resented to him the roasted flour and honeyR and where he con erted the brothers (asya#a and their thousand disci#lesR$$at all these #laces to#es were reared! At the #lace where Buddha attained to #erfect @isdom, there are three monasteries, in all of which there are monks residing! The families of their #eo#le around su##ly the societies of these monks with an abundant sufficiency of what they reJuire, so that there is no lack or stint! The disci#linary rules are strictly obser ed by them! The laws regulating their demeanor in sitting, rising, and entering when the others are assembled, are those which ha e been #ractised by all the saints since Buddha was in the world down to the #resent day! The #laces of the four great to#es ha e been fiDed, and handed down without break, since Buddha attained to nir *na! Those four great to#es are those at the #laces where Buddha was bornR where he attained to @isdomR where he began to mo e the wheel of his LawR and where he attained to #ari$nir *na! 4)ootnote /% Called also 'aha, or the Great 'uchilinda! Eitel says% PA naga king, the tutelary deity of a lake near which &akyamuni once sat for se en days absorbed in meditation, whilst the king guarded him!P The

account in PThe Life of the BuddhaP is%$$PBuddha went to where li ed the naga king 'uchilinda, and he, wishing to #reser e him from the sun and rain, wra##ed his body se en times round him, and s#read out his hood o er his headR and there he remained se en days in thought!P8 C+APTE, BBB99 ZLegend of (ing Asoka in a )ormer BirthZ @hen king Asoka, in a former birth, was a little boy and #laying on the road, he met (asya#a Buddha walking! The stranger begged food, and the boy #leasantly took a handful of earth and ga e it to him! The Buddha took the earth, and returned it to the ground on which he was walkingR but because of this the boy recei ed the recom#ense of becoming a king of the iron wheel, to rule o er <ambud \#a! :nce when he was making a judicial tour of ins#ection through <ambud \#a, he saw, between the iron circuit of the two hills, a naraka for the #unishment of wicked men! +a ing thereu#on asked his ministers what sort of a thing it was, they re#lied, P9t belongs to "ama, 4/8 king of demons, for #unishing wicked #eo#le!P The king thought within himself%$$PE en the king of demons is able to make a naraka in which to deal with wicked menR why should not 9, who am the lord of men, make a naraka in which to deal with wicked menQP +e forthwith asked his ministers who could make for him a naraka and #reside o er the #unishment of wicked #eo#le in it! They re#lied that it was only a man of eDtreme wickedness who could make itR and the king thereu#on sent officers to seek e erywhere for such a bad manR and they saw by the side of a #ond a man tall and strong, with a black countenance, yellow hair, and green eyes, hooking u# the fish with his feet, while he called to him birds and beasts, and, when they came, then shot and killed them, so that not one esca#ed! +a ing got this man, they took him to the king, who secretly charged him, P"ou must make a sJuare enclosure with high walls! Plant in it all kinds of flowers and fruitsR make good #onds in it for bathingR make it grand and im#osing in e ery way, so that men shall look to it with thirsting desireR make its gates strong and sureR and when any one enters, instantly seiHe him and #unish him as a sinner, not allowing him to get out! E en if 9 should enter, #unish me as a sinner in the same way, and do not let me go! 9 now a##oint you master of that naraka!P &oon after this a bhikshu, #ursuing his regular course of begging his food, entered the gate of the #lace! @hen the lictors of the naraka saw him, they were about to subject him to their torturesR but he, frightened, begged them to allow him a moment in which to eat his mid$day meal! 9mmediately after, there came in another man, whom they thrust into a mortar and #ounded till a red froth o erflowed! As the bhikshu looked on, there came to him the thought of the im#ermanence, the #ainful suffering and inanity of this body, and how it is but as a bubble and as foamR and instantly he attained to Arhatshi#! 9mmediately after, the lictors seiHed him, and threw him into a caldron of boiling water! There was a look of joyful satisfaction, howe er, in the bhikshuCs countenance! The fire was eDtinguished, and the water became cold! 9n the middle of the caldron there rose u# a lotus flower, with the bhikshu seated on it! The lictors at once went and re#orted to the king that there was a mar ellous occurrence in the naraka, and wished him to go and see itR but the king said, P9 formerly made such an agreement that now 9 dare not go to the #lace!P The lictors said, PThis

is not a small matter! "our 'ajesty ought to go Juickly! Let your former agreement be altered!P The king thereu#on followed them, and entered the naraka, when the bhikshu #reached the Law to him, and he belie ed, and was made free! )orthwith he demolished the naraka, and re#ented of all the e il which he had formerly done! )rom this time he belie ed in and honored the Three Precious :nes, and constantly went to a #atra tree, re#enting under it, with self$re#roach, of his errors, and acce#ting the eight rules of abstinence! The Jueen asked where the king was constantly going to, and the ministers re#lied that he was constantly to be seen under such and such a #atra tree! &he watched for a time when the king was not there, and then sent men to cut the tree down! @hen the king came, and saw what had been done, he swooned away with sorrow, and fell to the ground! +is ministers s#rinkled water on his face, and after a considerable time he re i ed! +e then built all round the stum# with bricks, and #oured a hundred #itchers of cowsC milk on the rootsR and as he lay with his four limbs s#read out on the ground, he took this oath, P9f the tree do not li e, 9 will ne er rise from this!P @hen he had uttered this oath, the tree immediately began to grow from the roots, and it has continued to grow till now, when it is nearly one hundred cubits in height! 4)ootnote /% "ama was originally the ?ryan god of the dead, li ing in a hea en abo e the world, the regent of the southR but Brahmanism transferred his abode to hell! Both iews ha e been retained by Buddhism! The "ama of the teDt is the Pregent of the narakas, residing south of <ambud \#a, outside the Chakra *las Mthe double circuit of mountains abo eN, in a #alace built of brass and iron! +e has a sister who controls all the female cul#rits, as he eDclusi ely deals with the male seD! Three times, howe er, in e ery twenty$four hours, a demon #ours boiling co##er into "amaCs mouth, and sJueeHes it down his throat, causing him uns#eakable #ain!P &uch, howe er, is the wonderful Ptransrotation of births,P that when "amaCs sins ha e been eD#iated, he is to be reborn as Buddha, under the name of PThe =ni ersal (ing!P8 C+APTE, BBB999 Z(asya#a BuddhaCs &keleton on 'ount Guru#adaZ The tra ellers, going on from this three li to the south, came to a mountain named Guru#ada, inside which 'ah*kasya#a e en now is! +e made a cleft, and went down into it, though the #lace where he entered would not now admit a man! +a ing gone down ery far, there was a hole on one side, and there the com#lete body of (asya#a still abides! :utside the hole at which he entered is the earth with which he had washed his hands! 9f the #eo#le li ing thereabouts ha e a sore on their heads, they #laster on it some of the earth from this, and feel immediately easier! :n this mountain, now as of old, there are Arhats abiding! -e otees of our Law from the arious countries in that Juarter go year by year to the mountain, and #resent offerings to (asya#aR and to those whose hearts are strong in faith there come Arhats at night, and talk with them, discussing and eD#laining their doubts, and disa##earing suddenly afterwards! :n this hill haHels grow luDuriantlyR and there are many lions, tigers,

and wol es, so that #eo#le should not tra el incautiously! C+APTE, BBB9> Z:n the @ay ,eturning to PatnaZ )*$+ien returned from here towards P*tali#uttra, kee#ing along the course of the Ganges and descending in the direction of the west! After going ten yojanas he found a ih*ra, named PThe @ildernessP$$a #lace where Buddha had dwelt, and where there are monks now! Pursuing the same course, and going still to the west, he arri ed, after twel e yojanas, at the city of >*r*nas\ in the kingdom of (*s\! ,ather more than ten li to the northeast of the city, he found the ih*ra in the #ark of PThe rishiCs -eer$wild!P 4/8 9n this #ark there formerly resided a Pratyeka Buddha, with whom the deer were regularly in the habit of sto##ing for the night! @hen the @orld$honored one was about to attain to #erfect @isdom, the de as sang in the sky, PThe son of king &uddhodana, ha ing Juitted his family and studied the Path of @isdom, will now in se en days become Buddha!P The Pratyeka Buddha heard their words, and immediately attained to nir *naR and hence this #lace was named PThe Park of the rishiCs -eer$wild!P After the @orld$honored one had attained to #erfect @isdom, men built the ih*ra in it! Buddha wished to con ert (aundinya and his four com#anionsR but they, being aware of his intention, said to one another, PThis &ramana Gotama 418 for siD years continued in the #ractice of #ainful austerities, eating daily only a single hem#$seed, and one grain of rice, without attaining to the Path of @isdomR how much less will he do so now that he has entered again among men, and is gi ing the reins to the indulgence of his body, his s#eech, and his thoughtsU @hat has he to do with the Path of @isdomQ To$day, when he comes to us, let us be on our guard not to s#eak with him!P At the #laces where the fi e men all rose u#, and res#ectfully saluted Buddha, when he came to themR where, siDty #aces north from this, he sat with his face to the east, and first turned the wheel of the Law, con erting (aundinya and the four othersR where, twenty #aces further to the north, he deli ered his #ro#hecy concerning 'aitreyaR and where, at a distance of fifty #aces to the south, the dragon El*#attra asked him, P@hen shall 9 get free from this n*ga bodyQP$$at all these #laces to#es were reared, and are still eDisting! 9n the #ark there are two monasteries, in both of which there are monks residing! @hen you go northwest from the ih*ra of the -eer$wild #ark for thirteen yojanas, there is a kingdom named (aus*mbi! 9ts ih*ra is named Ghochira ana$$a #lace where Buddha formerly resided! .ow, as of old, there is a com#any of monks there, most of whom are students of the h\nay*na! East from this, when you ha e tra elled eight yojanas, is the #lace where Buddha con erted the e il demon! There, and where he walked in meditation and sat at the #lace which was his regular abode, there ha e been to#es erected! There is also a monastery, which may contain more than a hundred monks!

4)ootnote /% PThe rishi,P says Eitel, Pis a man whose bodily frame has undergone a certain transformation by dint of meditation and asceticism, so that he is, for an indefinite #eriod, eDem#t from decre#itude, age, and death! As this #eriod is belie ed to eDtend far beyond the usual duration of human life, such #ersons are called, and #o#ularly belie ed to be, immortals!P ,ishis are di ided into arious classesR and rishi$ism is s#oken of as a se enth #ath of transrotation, and rishis are referred to as the se enth class of sentient beings!8 4)ootnote 1% This is the only instance in )*$hienCs teDt where the Bodhisatt a or Buddha is called by the surname PGotama!P )or the most #art our tra eller uses Buddha as a #ro#er name, though it #ro#erly means PThe Enlightened!P +e uses also the combinations P&*kya Buddha,P which means PThe Buddha of the &*kya tribe,P and P&*kyamuni,P which means PThe &*kya sage!P This last is the most common designation of the Buddha in China! Among other Buddhistic #eo#les PGotamaP and PGotama BuddhaP are the more freJuent designations!8 C+APTE, BBB> Z-akshina, and the Pigeon 'onasteryZ &outh from this two hundred yojanas, there is a country named -akshina, where there is a monastery dedicated to the by$gone (asya#a Buddha, and which has been hewn out from a large hill of rock! 9t consists in all of fi e storiesR$$the lowest, ha ing the form of an ele#hant, with fi e hundred a#artments in the rockR the second, ha ing the form of a lion, with four hundred a#artmentsR the third, ha ing the form of a horse, with three hundred a#artmentsR the fourth, ha ing the form of an oD, with two hundred a#artmentsR and the fifth, ha ing the form of a #igeon, with one hundred a#artments! At the ery to# there is a s#ring, the water of which, always in front of the a#artments in the rock, goes round among the rooms, now circling, now cur ing, till in this way it arri es at the lowest story, ha ing followed the sha#e of the structure, and flows out there at the door! E erywhere in the a#artments of the monks, the rock has been #ierced so as to form windows for the admission of light, so that they are all bright, without any being left in darkness! At the four corners of the tiers of a#artments, the rock has been hewn so as to form ste#s for ascending to the to# of each! The men of the #resent day, being of small siHe, and going u# ste# by ste#, manage to get to the to#R but in a former age they did so at one ste#! Because of this, the monastery is called Para ata, that being the 9ndian name for a #igeon! There are always Arhats residing in it! The country about is a tract of unculti ated hillocks, without inhabitants! At a ery long distance from the hill there are illages, where the #eo#le all ha e bad and erroneous iews, and do not know the &ramanas of the Law of Buddha, Brahmanas, or de otees of any of the other and different schools! The #eo#le of that country are constantly seeing men on the wing, who come and enter this monastery! :n one occasion, when de otees of arious countries came to #erform their worshi# at it, the #eo#le of those illages said to them, P@hy do you not flyQ The de otees whom we ha e seen hereabouts all flyPR and the strangers answered, on the s#ur of the moment, P:ur wings are not yet fully formed!P

The kingdom of -akshina is out of the way, and #erilous to tra erse! There are difficulties in connection with the roadsR but those who know how to manage such difficulties and wish to #roceed should bring with them money and arious articles, and gi e them to the king! +e will then send men to escort them! These will, at different stages, #ass them o er to others, who will show them the shortest routes! )*$hien, howe er, was after all unable to go thereR but ha ing recei ed the abo e accounts from men of the country, he has narrated them! C+APTE, BBB>9 Z)*$+ienCs 9ndian &tudiesZ )rom >*r*nas\ the tra ellers went back east to P*tali#uttra! )*$hienCs original object had been to search for co#ies of the >inaya! 9n the arious kingdoms of .orth 9ndia, howe er, he had found one master transmitting orally the rules to another, but no written co#ies which he could transcribe! +e had therefore tra elled far and come on to Central 9ndia! +ere, in the mah*y*na monastery, he found a co#y of the >inaya, containing the 'ah*s*nghik* 4/8 rules$$those which were obser ed in the first Great Council, while Buddha was still in the world! The original co#y was handed down in the <eta ana ih*ra! As to the other eighteen schools, each one has the iews and decisions of its own masters! Those agree with this in the general meaning, but they ha e small and tri ial differences, as when one o#ens and another shuts! This co#y of the rules, howe er, is the most com#lete, with the fullest eD#lanations! 418 +e further got a transcri#t of the rules in siD or se en thousand g*thas, 438 being the sar *sti *d*h 4S8 rules$$those which are obser ed by the communities of monks in the land of TsCinR which also ha e all been handed down orally from master to master without being committed to writing! 9n the community here, moreo er, he got the &amyukt*bhi$dharma$hridaya$s*stra, containing about siD or se en thousand g*thasR he also got a &]tra of two thousand fi e hundred g*thasR one cha#ter of the Pari$nir *na$ ai#ulya &]tra, of about fi e thousand g*thasR and the 'ah*s*nghik* Abhidharma! 9n conseJuence of this success in his Juest )*$hien stayed here for three years, learning &anscrit books and the &anscrit s#eech, and writing out, the >inaya rules! @hen T*o$ching arri ed in the Central (ingdom, and saw the rules obser ed by the &ramanas, and the dignified demeanor in their societies which he remarked under all occurring circumstances, he sadly called to mind in what a mutilated and im#erfect condition the rules were among the monkish communities in the land of TsCin, and made the following as#iration% P)rom this time forth till 9 come to the state of Buddha, let me not be born in a frontier$land!P +e remained accordingly in 9ndia, and did not return to the land of +an! )*$hien, howe er, whose original #ur#ose had been to secure the introduction of the com#lete >inaya rules into the land of +an, returned there alone! 4)ootnote /% 'ah*s*nghik* sim#ly means Pthe Great Assembly,P that is, of monks!8 4)ootnote 1% 9t was afterwards translated by )*$hien into Chinese!8

4)ootnote 3% A g*tha is a stanHa, generally consisting of a few, commonly of two, lines somewhat metrically arranged!8 4)ootnote S% PA branch,P says Eitel, Pof the great aibh*shika school, asserting the reality of all isible #henomena, and claiming the authority of ,*hula!P8 C+APTE, BBB>99 Z)*$hienCs &tay in Cham#* and T*mali#t\Z )ollowing the course of the Ganges, and descending eastward for eighteen yojanas, he found on the southern bank the great kingdom of Cham#*, with to#es reared at the #laces where Buddha walked in meditation by his ih*ra, and where he and the three Buddhas, his #redecessors, sat! There were monks residing at them all! Continuing his journey east for nearly fifty yojanas, he came to the country of T*mali#t\, the ca#ital of which is a sea#ort! 9n the country there are twenty$two monasteries, at all of which there are monks residing! The Law of Buddha is also flourishing in it! +ere )*$hien stayed two years, writing out his &]tras, and drawing #ictures of images! After this he embarked in a large merchant$ essel, and went floating o er the sea to the southwest! 9t was the beginning of winter, and the wind was fa orableR and, after fourteen days, sailing day and night, they came to the country of &inghala! The #eo#le said that it was distant from T*mali#t\ about se en hundred yojanas! The kingdom is on a large island, eDtending from east to west fifty yojanas, and from north to south thirty! Left and right from it there are as many as one hundred small islands, distant from one another ten, twenty, or e en two hundred liR but all subject to the large island! 'ost of them #roduce #earls and #recious stones of arious kindsR there is one which #roduces the #ure and brilliant #earl$$an island which would form a sJuare of about ten li! The king em#loys men to watch and #rotect it, and reJuires three out of e ery ten #earls which the collectors find! C+APTE, BBB>999 ZAt Ceylon$$)eats of Buddha$$+is &tatue in <adeZ The country originally had no human inhabitants, but was occu#ied only by s#irits and n*gas, with which merchants of arious countries carried on a trade! @hen the trafficking was taking #lace, the s#irits did not show themsel es! They sim#ly set forth their #recious commodities, with labels of the #rice attached to themR while the merchants made their #urchases according to the #riceR and took the things away! Through the coming and going of the merchants in this way, when they went away, the #eo#le of their arious countries heard how #leasant the land was, and flocked to it in numbers till it became a great nation!

The climate is tem#erate and attracti e, without any difference of summer and winter! The egetation is always luDuriant! Culti ation #roceeds whene er men think fit% there are no fiDed seasons for it! @hen Buddha came to this country, wishing to transform the wicked n*gas by his su#ernatural #ower, he #lanted one foot at the north of the royal city, and the other on the to# of a mountain, 4/8 the two being fifteen yojanas a#art! : er the foot#rint at the north of the city the king built a large to#e, four hundred cubits high, grandly adorned with gold and sil er, and finished with a combination of all the #recious substances! By the side of the to#e he further built a monastery, called the Abhayagiri, where there are now fi e thousand monks! There is in it a hall of Buddha, adorned with car ed and inlaid work of gold and sil er, and rich in the se en #recious substances, in which there is an image of Buddha in green jade, more than twenty cubits in height, glittering all o er with those substances, and ha ing an a##earance of solemn dignity which words cannot eD#ress! 9n the #alm of the right hand there is a #riceless #earl! &e eral years had now ela#sed since )*$hien left the land of +anR the men with whom he had been in intercourse had all been of regions strange to himR his eyes had not rested on an old and familiar hill or ri er, #lant or tree% his fellow$tra ellers, moreo er, had been se#arated from him, some by death, and others flowing off in different directionsR no face or shadow was now with him but his own, and a constant sadness was in his heart! &uddenly one day, when by the side of this image of jade, he saw a merchant #resenting as his offering a fan of white silkR 418 and the tears of sorrow in oluntarily filled his eyes and fell down! A former king of the country had sent to Central 9ndia and got a sli# of the #atra tree, which he #lanted by the side of the hall of Buddha, where a tree grew u# to the height of about two hundred cubits! As it bent on one side towards the southeast, the king, fearing it would fall, #ro##ed it with a #ost eight or nine s#ans around! The tree began to grow at the ery heart of the #ro#, where it met the trunkR a shoot #ierced through the #ost, and went down to the ground, where it entered and formed roots, that rose to the surface and were about four s#ans round! Although the #ost was s#lit in the middle, the outer #ortions ke#t hold of the shoot, and #eo#le did not remo e them! Beneath the tree there has been built a ih*ra, in which there is an image of Buddha seated, which the monks and commonalty re erence and look u# to without e er becoming wearied! 9n the city there has been reared also the ih*ra of BuddhaCs tooth, in which, as well as on the other, the se en #recious substances ha e been em#loyed! The king #ractises the Brahmanical #urifications, and the sincerity of the faith and re erence of the #o#ulation inside the city are also great! &ince the establishment of go ernment in the kingdom there has been no famine or scarcity, no re olution or disorder! 9n the treasuries of the monkish communities there are many #recious stones, and the #riceless manis! :ne of the kings once entered one of those treasuries, and when he looked all round and saw the #riceless #earls, his co etous greed was eDcited, and he wished to take them to himself by force! 9n three days, howe er, he came to himself, and immediately went and bowed his head to the ground in the midst of the monks, to show his re#entance of the e il thought! As a seJuel to this, he informed the monks of what had been in his mind, and desired them to make a regulation that from that day forth the king should not be allowed to enter the treasury and see what it contained, and that no bhikshu should enter it till after he had been in orders for a #eriod of full forty years!

9n the city there are many >aisya elders and &abaean merchants, whose houses are stately and beautiful! The lanes and #assages are ke#t in good order! At the heads of the four #rinci#al streets there ha e been built #reaching halls, where, on the eighth, fourteenth, and fifteenth days of the month, they s#read car#ets, and set forth a #ul#it, while the monks and commonalty from all Juarters come together to hear the Law! The #eo#le say that in the kingdom there may be altogether siDty thousand monks, who get their food from their common stores! The king, besides, #re#ares elsewhere in the city a common su##ly of food for fi e or siD thousand more! @hen any want, they take their great bowls, and go to the #lace of distribution, and take as much as the essels will hold, all returning with them full! The tooth of Buddha is always brought forth in the middle of the third month! Ten days beforehand the king grandly ca#arisons a large ele#hant, on which he mounts a man who can s#eak distinctly, and is dressed in royal robes, to beat a large drum, and make the following #roclamation% PThe Bodhisatt a, during three Asankhyeya$kal#as, 438 manifested his acti ity, and did not s#are his own life! +e ga e u# kingdom, city, wife, and sonR he #lucked out his eyes and ga e them to anotherR he cut off a #iece of his flesh to ransom the life of a do eR he cut off his head and ga e it as an almsR he ga e his body to feed a star ing tigressR he grudged not his marrow and brains! 9n many such ways as these did he undergo #ain for the sake of all li ing! And so it was, that, ha ing become Buddha, he continued in the world for forty$fi e years, #reaching his Law, teaching and transforming, so that those who had no rest found rest, and the uncon erted were con erted! @hen his connection with the li ing was com#leted, he attained to #ari$nir ana and died! &ince that e ent, for one thousand four hundred and ninety$se en years, the light of the world has gone out, and all li ing things ha e had long$continued sadness! BeholdU ten days after this, BuddhaCs tooth will be brought forth, and taken to the Abhayagiri $ ih*ra! Let all and each, whether monks or laics, who wish to amass merit for themsel es, make the roads smooth and in good condition, grandly adorn the lanes and by$ways, and #ro ide abundant store of flowers and incense to be used as offerings to it!P @hen this #roclamation is o er, the king eDhibits, so as to line both sides of the road, the fi e hundred different bodily forms in which the Bodhisatt a has in the course of his history a##eared%$$here as &ud*na, there as &*maR now as the king of ele#hants, and then as a stag or a horse! All these figures are brightly colored and grandly eDecuted, looking as if they were ali e! After this the tooth of Buddha is brought forth, and is carried along in the middle of the road! E erywhere on the way offerings are #resented to it, and thus it arri es at the hall of Buddha in the Abhayagiri$ ih*ra! There monks and laics are collected in crowds! They burn incense, light lam#s, and #erform all the #rescribed ser ices, day and night without ceasing, till ninety days ha e been com#leted, when the tooth is returned to the ih*ra within the city! :n fast$days the door of that ih*ra is o#ened, and the forms of ceremonial re erence are obser ed according to the rules! )orty li to the east of the Abhayagiri$ ih*ra there is a hill, with a ih*ra on it, called the Chaitya, where there may be two thousand monks! Among them there is a &ramana of great irtue, named -harma$gu#ta, honored and looked u# to by all the kingdom! +e has li ed for more than forty years in an a#artment of stone, constantly showing such gentleness of heart, that he has brought snakes and rats to sto# together in the

same room, without doing one another any harm! 4)ootnote /% This would be what is known as PAdamCs #eak,P ha ing, according to +ardy, the three names of &elesumano, &amastak]ta, and &amanila! There is an indentation on the to# of it, a su#erficial hollow, 6 feet 3 3^S inches long, and 1 /^1 feet wide! The +indus regard it as the foot#rint of &i aR the 'ohammedans, as that of AdamR and the Buddhists, as in the teDt$$as ha ing been, made by Buddha!8 4)ootnote 1% @e naturally su##ose that the merchant$offerer was a Chinese, as indeed the Chinese teDts say, and the fan such as )*$hien had seen and used in his nati e land!8 4)ootnote 3% A (al#a, we ha e seen, denotes a great #eriod of timeR a #eriod during which a #hysical uni erse is formed and destroyed! Asankhyeya denotes the highest sum for which a con entional term eDists$$according to Chinese calculations eJual to one followed by se enteen ci#hersR according to Thibetan and &inghalese, eJual to one followed by ninety$se en ci#hers! E ery 'aha$kal#a consists of four Asankhye$yakal#as!8 C+APTE, BBB9B ZCremation of an Arhat$$&ermon of a -e oteeZ &outh of the city se en li there is a ih*ra, called the 'ah*$ ih*ra, where three thousand monks reside! There had been among them a &ramana, of such lofty irtue, and so holy and #ure in his obser ance of the disci#linary rules, that the #eo#le all surmised that he was an Arhat! @hen he drew near his end, the king came to eDamine into the #ointR and ha ing assembled the monks according to rule, asked whether the bhikshu had attained to the full degree of @isdom! They answered in the affirmati e, saying that he was an Arhat! The king accordingly, when he died, buried him after the fashion of an Arhat, as the regular rules #rescribed! )our or fi e li east from the ih*ra there was reared a great #ile of firewood, which might be more than thirty cubits sJuare, and the same in height! .ear the to# were laid sandal, aloe, and other kinds of fragrant wood! :n the four sides of the #ile they made ste#s by which to ascend it! @ith clean white hair$cloth, almost like silk, they wra##ed the body round and round! They made a large carriage$frame, in form like our funeral car, but without the dragons and fishes! At the time of the cremation, the king and the #eo#le, in multitudes from all Juarters, collected together, and #resented offerings of flowers and incense! @hile they were following the car to the burial$ground, the king himself #resented flowers and incense! @hen this was finished, the car was lifted on the #ile, all o er which oil of sweet basil was #oured, and then a light was a##lied! @hile the fire was blaHing, e ery one, with a re erent heart, #ulled off his u##er garment, and threw it, with his feather$fan and umbrella, from a distance into the midst of the flames, to assist the burning! @hen the cremation was o er, they collected and #reser ed the bones, and #roceeded to erect a to#e! )*$hien had not arri ed in time to see the distinguished &haman

ali e, and only saw his burial! At that time the king, who was a sincere belie er in the Law of Buddha and wished to build a new ih*ra for the monks, first con oked a great assembly! After gi ing the monks a meal of rice, and #resenting his offerings on the occasion, he selected a #air of first$rate oDen, the horns of which were grandly decorated with gold, sil er, and the #recious substances! A golden #lough had been #ro ided, and the king himself turned u# a furrow on the four sides of the ground within which the building was to be! +e then endowed the community of the monks with the #o#ulation, fields, and houses, writing the grant on #lates of metal, to the effect that from that time onwards, from generation to generation, no one should enture to annul or alter it! 9n this country )*$hien heard an 9ndian de otee, who was reciting a &]tra from the #ul#it, say% PBuddhaCs alms$bowl was at first in >ais*l\, and now it is in Gandh*ra! After so many hundred years Mhe ga e, when )*$hien heard him, the eDact number of years, but he has forgotten itN, it will go to @estern Tukh*raR after so many hundred years, to (hotenR after so many hundred years, to (haracharR after so many hundred years, to the land of +anR after so many hundred years, it will come to &inhalaR and after so many hundred years, it will return to Central 9ndia! After that, it will ascend to the Tushita hea enR and when the Bodhisatt a 'aitreya sees it, he will say with a sigh, CThe alms$bowl of &*kyamuni Buddha is comeCR and with all the de as he will #resent to it flowers and incense for se en days! @hen these ha e eD#ired, it will return to <ambud \#a, where it will be recei ed by the king of the sea n*gas, and taken into his n*ga #alace! @hen 'aitreya shall be about to attain to #erfect @isdom and become Buddha, it will again se#arate into four bowls, which will return to the to# of mount Anna, whence they came! After 'aitreya has become Buddha, the four de a kings will again think of the Buddha with their bowls as they did in the case of the #re ious Buddha! The thousand Buddhas of this Bhadra$kal#a, indeed, will all use the same alms$bowlR and when the bowl has disa##eared, the Law of Buddha will go on gradually to be eDtinguished! After that eDtinction has taken #lace, the life of man will be shortened, till it is only a #eriod of fi e years! -uring this #eriod of a fi e yearsC life, rice, butter, and oil will all anish away, and men will become eDceedingly wicked! The grass and trees which they lay hold of will change into swords and clubs, with which they will hurt, cut, and kill one another! Those among them on whom there is blessing will withdraw from society among the hillsR and when the wicked ha e eDterminated one another, they will again come forth, and say among themsel es, CThe men of former times enjoyed a ery great longe ityR but through becoming eDceedingly wicked, and doing all lawless things, the length of our life has been shortened and reduced e en to fi e years! Let us now unite together in the #ractice of what is good, cherishing a gentle and sym#athiHing heart, and carefully culti ating good faith and righteousness! @hen each one in this way #ractises that faith and righteousness, life will go on to double its length till it reaches eighty thousand years! @hen 'aitreya a##ears in the world, and begins to turn the wheel of this Law, he will in the first #lace sa e those among the disci#les of the Law left by the &*kya who ha e Juitted their families, and those who ha e acce#ted the three ,efuges, undertaken the fi e Prohibitions and the eight Abstinences, and gi en offerings to the Three Precious :nesR secondly and thirdly, he will sa e those between whom and con ersion there is a connection transmitted from the #ast!CP 4/8 &uch was the discourse, and )*$hien wished to write it down as a #ortion

of doctrineR but the man said, PThis is taken from no &]tra, it is only the utterance of my own mind!P 4)ootnote /% That is, those whose (arma in the #ast should be rewarded by such con ersion in the #resent!8 C+APTE, BL ZAfter Two "ears )*$hien Takes &hi# for ChinaZ )*$hien abode in this country two yearsR and, in addition to his acJuisitions in Patna, succeeded in getting a co#y of the >inaya$#itaka of the 'ah\s*sak*h schoolR the -\rgh*gama and &amyukt*gama &]trasR and also the &amyukta$sa_chaya$#itakaR$$all being works unknown in the land of +an! +a ing obtained these &anscrit works, he took #assage in a large merchantman, on board of which there were more than two hundred men, and to which was attached by a ro#e a smaller essel, as a #ro ision against damage or injury to the large one from the #erils of the na igation! @ith a fa orable wind, they #roceeded eastward for three days, and then they encountered a great wind! The essel s#rang a leak and the water came in! The merchants wished to go to the smaller esselR but the men on board it, fearing that too many would come, cut the connecting ro#e! The merchants were greatly alarmed, feeling their risk of instant death! Afraid that the essel would fill, they took their bulky goods and threw them into the water! )*$hien also took his #itcher and washing$basin, with some other articles, and cast them into the seaR but fearing that the merchants would cast o erboard his books and images, he could only think with all his heart of (wan$she$yin, and commit his life to the #rotection of the church of the land of +an, saying in effect, P9 ha e tra elled far in search of our Law! Let me, by your dread and su#ernatural #ower, return from my wanderings, and reach my resting$#laceUP 9n this way the tem#est continued day and night, till on the thirteenth day the shi# was carried to the side of an island, where, on the ebbing of the tide, the #lace of the leak was disco ered, and it was sto##ed, on which the oyage was resumed! :n the sea hereabouts there are many #irates, to meet with whom is s#eedy death! The great ocean s#reads out, a boundless eD#anse! There is no knowing east or westR only by obser ing the sun, moon, and stars was it #ossible to go forward! 9f the weather were dark and rainy, the shi# went as she was carried by the wind, without any definite course! 9n the darkness of the night, only the great wa es were to be seen, breaking on one another, and emitting a brightness like that of fire, with huge turtles and other monsters of the dee# all about! The merchants were full of terror, not knowing where they were going! The sea was dee# and bottomless, and there was no #lace where they could dro# anchor and sto#! But when the sky became clear, they could tell east and west, and the shi# again went forward in the right direction! 9f she had come on any hidden rock, there would ha e been no way of esca#e! After #roceeding in this way for rather more than ninety days, they arri ed at a country called <a a$d i#a, where arious forms of error and Brahmanism are flourishing, while Buddhism in it is not worth s#eaking of! After staying there for fi e months, )*$hien again embarked in

another large merchantman, which also had on board more than two hundred men! They carried #ro isions for fifty days, and commenced the oyage on the siDteenth day of the fourth month! )*$hien ke#t his retreat on board the shi#! They took a course to the northeast, intending to fetch (wang$chow! After more than a month, when the night$drum had sounded the second watch, they encountered a black wind and tem#estuous rain, which threw the merchants and #assengers into consternation! )*$hien again, with all his heart, directed his thoughts to (wan$she$yin and the monkish communities of the land of +anR and, through their dread and mysterious #rotection, was #reser ed to daybreak! After daybreak, the Brahmans deliberated together and said, P9t is ha ing this &ramana on board which has occasioned our misfortune and brought us this great and bitter suffering! Let us land the bhikshu and #lace him on some island$shore! @e must not for the sake of one man allow oursel es to be eD#osed to such imminent #eril!P A #atron of )*$hien, howe er, said to them, P9f you land the bhikshu, you must at the same time land meR and if you do not, then you must kill me! 9f you land this &ramana, when 9 get to the land of +an, 9 will go to the king, and inform against you! The king also re eres and belie es the Law of Buddha, and honors the bhikshus!P The merchants hereu#on were #er#leDed, and did not dare immediately to land )*$hien! At this time the sky continued ery dark and gloomy, and the sailing$masters looked at one another and made mistakes! 'ore than se enty days #assed from their lea ing <a a, and the #ro isions and water were nearly eDhausted! They used the salt$water of the sea for cooking, and carefully di ided the fresh water, each man getting two #ints! &oon the whole was nearly gone, and the merchants took counsel and said, PAt the ordinary rate of sailing we ought to ha e reached (wang$chow, and now the time is #assed by many daysR$$must we not ha e held a wrong courseQP 9mmediately they directed the shi# to the northwest, looking out for landR and after sailing day and night for twel e days, they reached the shore on the south of mount Lao, on the borders of the #refecture of ChCang$kwang, and immediately got good water and egetables! They had #assed through many #erils and hardshi#s, and had been in a state of anDious a##rehension for many days togetherR and now suddenly arri ing at this shore, and seeing those well$known egetables, the lei and kwoh, 4/8 they knew indeed that it was the land of +an! .ot seeing, howe er, any inhabitants nor any traces of them, they did not know whereabouts they were! &ome said that they had not yet got to (wang$chow, and others that they had #assed it! =nable to come to a definite conclusion, some of them got into a small boat and entered a creek, to look for someone of whom they might ask what the #lace was! They found two hunters, whom they brought back with them, and then called on )*$hien to act as inter#reter and Juestion them! )*$hien first s#oke assuringly to them, and then slowly and distinctly asked them, P@ho are youQP They re#lied, P@e are disci#les of Buddha!P +e then asked, P@hat are you looking for among these hillsQP They began to lie,418 and said, PTo$morrow is the fifteenth day of the se enth month! @e wanted to get some #eaches to #resent to Buddha!P +e asked further, P@hat country is thisQP They re#lied, PThis is the border of the #refecture of ChCang$kwang, a #art of TsCing$chow under the ruling +ouse of TsCin!P @hen they heard this, the merchants were glad, immediately asked for a #ortion of their money and goods, and sent men to ChCang$kwang city! The #refect Le E was a re erent belie er in the Law of Buddha! @hen he heard that a &ramana had arri ed in a shi# across the sea, bringing with

him books and images, he immediately came to the sea$shore with an escort to meet the tra eller, and recei e the books and images, and took them back with him to the seat of his go ernment! :n this the merchants went back in the direction of "ang$chowR but when )*$hien arri ed at TsCing$chow, the #refect there begged him to remain with him for a winter and a summer! After the summer retreat was ended, )*$hien, ha ing been se#arated for a long time from his fellows, wished to hurry to ChCang$ganR but as the business which he had in hand was im#ortant, he went south to the Ca#italR and at an inter iew with the masters there eDhibited the &]tras and the collection of the >inaya which he had #rocured! After )*$hien set out from ChCang$gan, it took him siD years to reach Central 9ndiaR sto##ages there eDtended o er siD yearsR and on his return it took him three years to reach TsCing$chow! The countries through which he #assed were a few under thirty! )rom the sandy desert westwards on to 9ndia, the beauty of the dignified demeanor of the monkhood and of the transforming influence of the Law was beyond the #ower of language fully to describeR and reflecting how our masters had not heard any com#lete account of them, he therefore went on without regarding his own #oor life, or the dangers to be encountered on the sea u#on his return, thus incurring hardshi#s and difficulties in a double form! +e was fortunate enough, through the dread #ower of the three +onored :nes, to recei e hel# and #rotection in his #erilsR and therefore he wrote out an account of his eD#eriences, that worthy readers might share with him in what he had heard and said! 4)ootnote /% @hat these egetables eDactly were it is difficult to sayR and there are different readings of the characters for kwoh, brings the two names together in a #hrase, but the rendering of it is sim#ly Pa sou# of sim#les!P8 4)ootnote 1% 9t is likely that these men were really huntersR and, when brought before )*$hien, because he was a &ramana, they thought they would #lease him by saying they were disci#les of Buddha! But what had disci#les of Buddha to do with hunting and taking lifeQ They were caught in their own tra#, and said they were looking for #eaches!8 ZT+E &:,,:@& :) +A.Z 4Translated into English by <ohn )rancis -a is8 9.T,:-=CT9:. PThe &orrows of +anP is considered by Chinese scholars to be one of the largest tragedies in the whole range of the Chinese drama, which is ery oluminous! Although, #ro#erly s#eaking, there are no theatres in China, the Chinese are #assionately fond of dramatic re#resentations! Chinese acting is much admired and #raised by tra ellers who are com#etent to follow the dialogue! The stage is generally a tem#orary erection

im#ro ised in a market$#lace, and the stage arrangements are of the most #rimiti e characterR no scenery is em#loyed, and the actors introduce themsel es in a sort of #rologue, in which they state the name and character they re#resent in the drama! They also indicate the #lace where they are in the story, or the house which they ha e entered! "et the Chinese stage has many #oints in common with that of Ancient Greece! 9t is su##orted and controlled by go ernment, and has something of a religious and national character, being #articularly em#loyed for #o#ular amusement in the celebration of religious festi als! :nly two actors are allowed to occu#y the stage at the same time, and this is another #oint in common with the early Greek drama! The #lots or stories of the Chinese #lays are sim#le and effecti e, and >oltaire is known to ha e taken the #lot of a Chinese drama, as 'oli[re took a comedy of Plautus, and a##lied it in writing a drama for the modern )rench stage! PThe &orrows of +anP belongs to the famous collection entitled PThe +undred Plays of the "uen -ynasty!P 9t is di ided into acts and is made u# of alternate #rose and erse! The mo ement of the drama is good, and the dKnouement arranged with considerable skill! E!@! T,A.&LAT:,C& P,E)ACE The following drama was selected from the P+undred Plays of "uen,P which has already su##lied to Euro#e two s#ecimens of the Chinese stage$$the first, called the P:r#han of Chaou,P translated by P[re PremareR and the second, entitled an P+eir in :ld Age,P by the author of the #resent ersion! PThe &orrows of +anP is historical, and relates to one of the most interesting #eriods of the Chinese annals, when the growing effeminacy of the court, and conseJuent weakness of the go ernment, emboldened the Tartars in their aggressions, and first ga e rise to the tem#oriHing and im#olitic system of #ro#itiating those barbarians by tribute, which long after #roduced the downfall of the em#ire and the establishment of the 'ongol dominion! The moral of the #iece is e idently to eD#ose the e il conseJuences of luDury, effeminacy, and su#ineness in the so ereign! P@hen lo e was all an easy monarchCs care, &eldom at council$$ne er in a war!P The hero, or rather the chief #ersonage, of the drama, came to the throne ery near the beginning of the Christian era, about B!C! S1! The fate of the Lady Chaoukeun is a fa orite incident in history, of which #ainters, #oets, and romancers freJuently a ail themsel esR her P>erdant LambP is said to eDist at the #resent day, and to remain green all the year round, while the egetation of the desert in which it stands is #arched by the summer sun! 9n selecting this single s#ecimen from among so many, the translator was influenced by the consideration of its remarkable accordance with our own canons of criticism! The Chinese themsel es make no regular classification of comedy and tragedyR but we are Juite at liberty to gi e the latter title to a #lay which so com#letely answers to the Euro#ean definition! The unity of action is com#lete, and the unities of

time and #lace much less iolated than they freJuently are on our own stage! The grandeur and gra ity of the subject, the rank and dignity of the #ersonages, the tragical catastro#he, and the strict award of #oetical justice, might satisfy the most rigid admirer of Grecian rules! The translator has thought it necessary to adhere to the original by distinguishing the first act Mor ProEmN from the four which follow it% but the distinction is #urely nominal, and the #iece consists, to all intents and #ur#oses, of fi e acts! 9t is remarkable that this #eculiar di ision holds true with regard to a large number of the P+undred Plays of "uen!P The reader will doubtless be struck by the a##arent shortness of the drama which is here #resented to himR but the original is eked out, in common with all Chinese #lays, by an irregular o#eratic s#ecies of song, which the #rinci#al character occasionally chants forth in unison with a louder or a softer accom#animent of music, as may best suit the sentiment or action of the moment! &ome #assages ha e been embodied in our ersion% but the translator did not gi e all, for the same reasons that #rom#ted P[re Premare to gi e none$$Pthey are full of allusions to things unfamiliar to us, and figures of s#eech ery difficult for us to obser e!P They are freJuently, moreo er, mere re#etitions or am#lifications of the #rose #artsR and being intended more for the ear than the eye, are rather ada#ted to the stage than to the closet! +is judgment may #erha#s be swayed by #artiality towards the subject of his own laborsR but the translator cannot hel# thinking the #lot and incidents of PThe &orrows of +anP su#erior to those of the P:r#han of ChaouP$$though the genius of >oltaire contri ed to make the last the ground$work of an eDcellent )rench tragedy! )ar is he, howe er, from entertaining the #resum#tuous eD#ectation that a destiny of eJual s#lendor awaits the #resent dramaR and he will be Juite satisfied if the reader has #atience to read it to the end, and then #ronounces it to be a somewhat curious sam#le of a ery foreign literature! <:+. ),A.C9& -A>9&! -,A'AT9& PE,&:.AE "=E.TE, Em#eror of China of the -ynasty +an! +A.C+E."=, (Chan of the Tartars! 'A:="E.&+:@, a worthless 'inister of the Em#eror! &+A.G&+:: Ma titleN, President of the 9m#erial Council! C+A.G&+EE Ma titleN, :fficer in waiting! )A.&+E Ma titleN, En oy of the (Chan! C+A:=(E=., Lady, raised to be Princess of +an! Tartar &oldiers, )emale Attendants, Eunuchs! The &cene is laid in the Tartar Cam# on the )rontiersR and in the Palace of +an! ZT+E &:,,:@& :) +A.Z 4/8

ZP,:L:G=EZ FEnter +anchenyu, (Chan 418 of the Tartars, reciting four ersesF! (C+A.! The autumnal gale blows wildly through the grass, amidst our woolen tents! And the moon of night, shining on the rude huts, hears the lament of the mournful #i#e% The countless hosts, with their bended horns, obey me as their leader! :ur tribes are ten distinguished friends of the family of +an! 9 am +anchenyu, the old inhabitant of the sandy wasteR the sole ruler of the northern regions! The wild chase is our tradeR battle and conJuest our chief occu#ation! The Em#eror @unwong retired before our Eastern tribesR @eikeang trembled at us, and sued for our friendshi#! The ancient title of our chiefs has in the course of time been changed to that which 9 now bear! @hen the two races of Tsin and +an contended in battle, and filled the em#ire with tumult, our tribes were in full #ower% numberless was the host of armed warriors with their bended horns! )or se en days my ancestor hemmed in with his forces the Em#eror (aouteR until, by the contri ance of the minister, a treaty was concluded, and the Princesses of China were yielded in marriage to our (Chans! &ince the time of +oeyte and the Em#ress Leuhow, 438 each successi e generation has adhered to the established rule, and sought our alliance with its daughters! 9n the reign of the late Em#eror &euente, my brothers contended with myself for the rule of our nation, and its #ower was weakened until the tribes elected me as their chief! 9 am a real descendant of the em#ire of +an! 9 command a hundred thousand armed warriors! @e ha e mo ed to the &outh, and a##roached the border, claiming an alliance with the 9m#erial race! "esterday 9 des#atched an en oy with tributary #resents to demand a #rincess in marriageR but know not if the Em#eror will ratify the engagement with the customary oaths! The fineness of the season has drawn away our chiefs on a hunting eDcursion amidst the sandy ste##es! 'ay they meet with success, for we Tartars ha e no fields$$our bows and arrows are our sole means of subsistence! FEnter 'inister of +an, reciting ersesF! '9.9&TE,! Let a man ha e the heart of a kite, and the talons of an eagle! Let him decei e his su#eriors, and o##ress those below himR Let him enlist flattery, insinuation, #rofligacy, and a arice on his side, And he will find them a lasting assistance through life! 9 am no other than 'aouyenshow, a minister of the so ereign of +an! By a hundred arts of s#ecious flattery and address 9 ha e decei ed the Em#eror, until he #laces his whole delight in me alone! 'y words he listens toR and he follows my counsel! @ithin the #recincts of the #alace, as without them, who is there but bows before me$$who is there but trembles at my a##roachQ But obser e the chief art which 9 ha e learned% 9t is this% to #ersuade the Em#eror to kee# aloof from

FEnter Em#eror "uente, attended by Eunuchs and @omenF! E'PE,:, 4Frecites erses8F! -uring the ten generations that ha e succeeded our acJuisition of Em#ire, my race has alone #ossessed the four hundred districts of the world! Long ha e the frontiers been bound in tranJuillity by the ties of mutual oaths! And our #illow has been undisturbed by grief or anDiety! Behold in us the Em#eror "uente, of the race of +an! :ur ancestor (aoute emerged from a #ri ate station, and raised his family by eDtinguishing the dynasty of Tsin, and slaughtering their race! Ten generations ha e #assed away since he left this inheritance to us! The four boundaries of the em#ire ha e been tranJuilR the eight regions at restU But not through our #ersonal meritsR we ha e wholly de#ended on the eDertions of our ci il and military rulers! :n the demise of our late father, the female inmates of the #alace were all dis#ersed, and our harem is now solitary and untenantedR but how shall this be enduredU '9.9&TE,! Consider, sir, that e en the thri ing husbandman may desire to change his #artnerR then why not your 'ajesty, whose title is the Law of +ea en, whose #ossessions are the whole worldU 'ay 9 ad ise that commissioners be des#atched to search throughout the em#ire for all of whate er rank that is most beautiful between the ages of fifteen and twenty, for the #eo#ling of the inner #alace! E'PE,:,! "ou say well! @e a##oint you at once our minister of selection, and will in est you with a written authority! &earch diligently through our realmsR and when you ha e selected the most worthy, let us be #ro ided with #ortraits of each, as a means of fiDing our choice! By the merits of your ser ices, you may su##ly us with an occasion of rewarding you on your return! 4FEDeuntF! 4)ootnote /% +an (oong Tsew, literally PAutumn in the Palace of +anPR but in Chinese, Autumn is emblematic of &orrow, as &#ring is of <oy, and may therefore be rendered by what it re#resents!8 4)ootnote 1% 9n Chinese, (o$ban!8 4)ootnote 3% The mother of +oeyte, a bold and able woman, who ruled for her son, the second em#eror of +an!8 ZACT )9,&TZ '9.9&TE, 4Fre#eats ersesF8! The huge ingots of yellow gold 9 a##ro#riate to myself! 9 heed not the seas of blood which flow by #er erting the laws!

his wise counsellors, and seek all his #leasures amidst the women of his #alace! Thus it is that 9 strengthen my #ower and greatness! But, in the midst of my lucubrations$$+ere comes the Em#eror!

F.ightF!$$FEnter the Lady Chaoukeun, with two female attendantsF! C+A:=(E=. 4Frecites ersesF8! Though raised to be an inhabitant of the im#erial dwelling 9 ha e long been here without the good fortune to see my #rince! This beautiful night must 9 #ass in lonely solitude, with no com#anion but my lute to solace my retirement! 9 am a nati e of Chingtoo cityR and my fatherCs occu#ation is husbandry! 'y mother dreamed on the day 9 was born that the light of the moon shone on her bosom, but was soon cast low to the earth!4/8 9 was just eighteen years of age when chosen as an inhabitant of the im#erial #alaceR but the minister 'aouyenshow, disa##ointed in the treasure which he demanded on my account, disfigured my #ortrait in such a manner as to kee# me out of the Em#erorCs #resenceR and now 9 li e in neglected solitude! @hile at home, 9 learned a little music, and could #lay a few airs on the lute! Thus sorrowing in the stillness of midnight, let me #ractise one of my songs to dis#el my griefs! 4FBegins to #lay on the luteF! FEnter Em#eror, attended by a Eunuch, carrying a lightF! E'PE,:,! &ince the beauties were selected to grace our #alace, we ha e not yet disco ered a worthy object on whom to fiD our #reference! >eDed and disa##ointed, we #ass this day of leisure roaming in search of her who may be destined for our im#erial choice! 4F+ears the lute!F8 9s not that some ladyCs luteQ ATTE.-A.T! 9t is!$$9 hasten to ad ise her of your 'ajestyCs a##roach! E'PE,:,! .o, holdU (ee#er of the yellow gate, disco er to what #art of our #alace that lady #ertainsR and bid her a##roach our #resenceR but beware lest you alarm her!

-uring life 9 am determined to ha e abundance of richesR what care 9 for the curses of mankind after my deathQ +a ing recei ed the Em#erorCs commission to search far and wide for the most beautiful damsels, 9 ha e fiDed u#on ninety and nine! Their families were glad to in ite my selection by rich gifts, and the treasure that 9 ha e amassed is not small! :n arri ing yesterday at a district #ertaining to Chingtoo city, 9 met with a maiden, daughter of one @ongchang! The brightness of her charms was #iercing as an arrow! &he was #erfectly beautiful$$and doubtless un#aralleled in the whole em#ire! But, unfortunately, her father is a culti ator of the land, not #ossessed of much wealth! @hen 9 insisted on a hundred ounces of gold to secure her being the chief object of the im#erial choice, they first #leaded their #o erty$$and then, relying on her eDtraordinary beauty, rejected my offers altogether! 9 therefore left them! 4FConsiders awhileF!8 But noU$$$$9 ha e a better #lan! 4F+e knits his brows and matures his schemeF!8 9 will disfigure her #ortrait in such a manner that when it reaches the Em#eror it shall secure her being doomed to neglected seclusion! Thus 9 shall contri e to make her unha##y for life$$Base is the man who delights not in re engeU 4FEDit!F

ATTE.-A.T 4Fa##roaches in the direction of the sound, and s#eaksF8! @hat lady #lays thereQ The Em#eror comesU a##roach to meet him! 4FLady ad ancesF! E'PE,:,! (ee#er of the yellow gate, see that the light burns brightly within your gauHe 418 lam#, and hold it nearer to us! LA-" F4a##roachingF8! +ad your handmaid but known it was your 'ajesty, she would ha e been less tardyR forgi e, then, this delay! E'PE,:,! Truly this is a ery #erfect beautyU )rom what Juarter come such su#erior charmsQ LA-"! 'y name is Chaoukeun% my father culti ates at Chingtoo the fields which he has deri ed from his family! Born in an humble station, 9 am ignorant of the manners that befit a #alace! E'PE,:,! But with such uncommon attractions, what chance has ke#t you from our sightQ LA-"! @hen 9 was chosen by the minister 'aouyenshow, he demanded of my father an amount of treasure which our #o erty could not su##lyR he therefore disfigured my #ortrait, by re#resenting a scar under the eyes, and caused me to be consigned to seclusion and neglect! E'PE,:,! (ee#er of the yellow gate, bring us that #icture, that we may iew it! 4F&ees the #ictureF!8 Ah, how has he dimmed the #urity of the gem, bright as the wa es in autumn! 4FTo the attendantF8 Transmit our #leasure to the officer of the guard, to behead 'aouyenshow and re#ort to us his eDecution! LA-"! 'y #arents, sir, are subject to the taD 438 in our nati e district! Let me entreat your 'ajesty to remit their contributions and eDtend fa or towards themU E'PE,:,! That shall readily be done! A##roach and hear our im#erial #leasure! @e create you a Princess of our #alace! LA-"! +ow unworthy is your handmaid of such gracious distinctionU 4FGoes through the form of returning thanksF!8 Early to$morrow 9 attend your 'ajestyCs commands in this #lace! The Em#eror is gone% let the attendants close the doors%$$9 will retire to rest! F4EDit!F 4)ootnote /% Boding a short but fatal distinction to her offs#ring!8 4)ootnote 1% 9nstead of glass, to defend it from the wind!8 4)ootnote 3% The #rinci#al taDes in China are the land$taD, customs, salt mono#oly, and #ersonal ser iceR which last is the source of much o##ression to the lowest orders, who ha e nothing but their labor to contribute!8 ZACT &EC:.-Z

FEnter (Chan of the Tartars, at the head of his TribesF! (C+A.! 9 lately sent an en oy to the so ereign of +an, with the demand of a #rincess in marriageR but the Em#eror has returned a refusal, under the #lea that the #rincess is yet too young! This answer gi es me great trouble! +ad he not #lenty of ladies in his #alace, of whom he might ha e sent me oneQ The difference was of little conseJuence! 4/8 Let me recall my en oy with all s#eed, for 9 must in ade the &outh with out forces! And yet 9 am unwilling to break a truce of so many yearsC standingU @e must see how matters turn out, and be guided by the e ent! FEnter 'inister of +anF! '9.9&TE,! The se erity with which 9 eDtorted money, in the selection of beauties for the #alace, led me to disfigure the #icture of Chaoukeun, and consign her to neglected seclusion! But the Em#eror fell in with her, obtained the truth, and condemned me to lose my head! 9 contri ed to make my esca#e$$though 9 ha e no home to recei e me! 9 will take this true #ortrait of Chaoukeun and show it to the Tartar (Chan, #ersuading him to demand her from the Em#eror, who will no doubt be obliged to yield her u#! A long journey has brought me to this s#ot, and from the troo#s of men and horses 9 conclude 9 ha e reached the Tartar cam#! 4FAddresses himself to somebodyF8 Leader, inform (ing +anchenyu that a great minister of the em#ire of +an is come to wait on him! (C+A. 4Fon being informedF8! Command him to a##roach! 4F&eeing 'aouyenshowF8 @hat #erson are youQ '9.9&TE,! 9 am a minister of +an! 9n the western #alace of the Em#eror is a lady, named Chaoukeun, of rare and sur#assing charms! @hen your en oy, great king, came to demand a #rincess, this lady would ha e answered the summons, but the Em#eror of +an could not bring himself to #art with her, and refused to yield her u#! 9 re#eatedly renewed my bitter re#roaches, and asked how he could bear, for the sake of a womanCs beauty, to im#licate the welfare of two nations! )or this the Em#eror would ha e beheaded meR and 9 therefore esca#ed with the #ortrait of the lady, which 9 #resent, great king, to yourself! &hould you send away an en oy with the #icture to demand her, she must certainly be deli ered u#! +ere is the #ortrait! 4F+ands it u#F! (C+A.! @hence could so beautiful a female ha e a##eared in the worldU 9f 9 can only obtain her, my wishes are com#lete! 9mmediately shall an en oy be des#atched, and my ministers #re#are a letter to the Em#eror of +an, demanding her in marriage as the condition of #eace! &hould he refuse, 9 will #resently in ade the &outh% his hills and ri ers shall be eD#osed to ra age! :ur warriors will commence by hunting, as they #roceed on their wayR and thus gradually entering the frontiers, 9 shall be ready to act as may best suit the occasion! 4FEDit!F FThe Palace of +an! Enter Lady, attended by femalesF! P,9.CE&&! A long #eriod has ela#sed since 9 had to thank his

FEnter Em#erorF! E'PE,:,! &ince we first met with Chaoukeun in the western #alace, we ha e been as it were deranged and intoDicatedR a long inter al has ela#sed since we held a courtR and on entering the hall of audience this day, we waited not until the assembly had dis#ersed, but returned hither to obtain a sight of her! 4FPercei ing the PrincessF!8 Let us not alarm her, but obser e in secret what she is doing! 4FComes close behind and looks o er her!F8 ,eflected in that round mirror, she resembles the Lady in the 'oon! 418 FEnter President, and an :fficer in waitingF! P,E&9-E.T 4Frecites erses!F8 'inisters should de ote themsel es to the regulation of the em#ireR They should be occu#ied with #ublic cares in the hall of go ernment! But they do nought but attend at the banJuets in the #alace! @hen ha e they em#loyed a single day in the ser ice of their #rinceQ This day, when the audience was concluded, an en oy arri ed from the Tartars to demand Chaoukeun in marriage, as the only condition of #eace! 9t is my duty to re#ort this to his 'ajesty, who has retired to his western #alace! +ere 9 must enter! 4FPercei ing the Em#eror!F8 9 re#ort to your 'ajesty that +anchenyu, the leader of the northern foreigners, sends an en oy to declare that 'aouyenshow has #resented to him the #ortrait of the #rincess, and that he demands her in marriage as the only condition of #eace! 9f refused, he will in ade the &outh with a great #ower, and our ri ers and hills will be eD#osed to ra#ine! E'PE,:,! 9n ain do we maintain and send forth armiesR ain are the crowds of ci il and military officers about our #alaceU @hich of them will dri e back for us these foreign troo#sQ They are all afraid of the Tartar swords and arrowsU But if they cannot eDert themsel es to eD#el the barbarians, why call for the #rincess to #ro#itiate themQ P,E&9-E.T! The foreigners say that through your 'ajestyCs de oted fondness for the #rincess, the affairs of your em#ire are falling into ruin! They declare that if the go ernment does not yield her u#, they will #ut their army in motion, and subdue the country! "our ser ant reflects, that Chow$wong 438 who lost his em#ire and life entirely through his blind de otion to Takee, is a fit eDam#le to warn your 'ajesty! :ur army is weak, and needs the talents of a fit general! &hould we o##ose the Tartars, and be defeated, what will remain to usQ Let your 'ajesty gi e u# your fondness for the #rincess, to sa e your #eo#le! :))9CE,! The en oy waits without for an audience! E'PE,:,! @ellR command that he a##roach us!

'ajesty for his choice! The Em#erorCs fondness for me is so great, that he has still neglected to hold a court! 9 hear he is now gone to the hall of audience, and will therefore ornament myself at my toilet and be ready to wait on him at his return! 4F&tands o##osite a mirrorF!

FEnter En oyF! E.>:"! +anchenyu, (Chan of the Tartars, sends me, his minister, to state before the great &o ereign of +an, that the .orthern tribes and the &outhern em#ire ha e long been bound in #eace by mutual alliancesR but that en oys being twice sent to demand a #rincess, his reJuisitions ha e been refused! The late minister, 'aouyenshow, took with him the #ortrait of a beautiful lady, and #resented it to the (Cban, who now sends me, his en oy, on #ur#ose to demand the Lady Chaoukeun, and no other, as the only condition of #eace between the two nations! &hould your 'ajesty refuse, the (Chan has a countless army of bra e warriors, and will forthwith in ade the &outh to try the chances of war! 9 trust your 'ajesty will not err in your decision! E'PE,:,! The en oy may retire to re#ose himself in his lodging! 4FEDit the En oyF!8 Let our ci il and military officers consult, and re#ort to us the best mode of causing the foreign troo#s to retire, without yielding u# the #rincess to #ro#itiate them! They take ad antage of the com#liant softness of her tem#er! @ere the Em#ress Leuhow ali e$$let her utter a word$$which of them would dare to be of a different o#inionQ 9t would seem that, for the future, instead of men for ministers, we need only ha e fair women to kee# our em#ire in #eace! P,9.CE&&! 9n return for your 'ajestyCs bounties, it is your handmaidCs duty to bra e death to ser e you! 9 can cheerfully enter into this foreign alliance, for the sake of #roducing #eace, and shall lea e behind me a name still green in history!$$But my affection for your 'ajesty, how am 9 to lay asideU E'PE,:,! Alas, 9 4S8 know too well that 9 can do no more than yourselfU P,E&9-E.T! 9 entreat your 'ajesty to sacrifice your lo e, and think of the security of your -ynasty! +asten, sir, to send the #rincess on her wayU E'PE,:,! Let her this day ad ance a stage on her journey, and be #resented to the en oy!$$To$morrow we will re#air as far as the bridge of Pahling, and gi e her a #arting feast! P,E&9-E.T! AlasU &ir, this may not beU 9t will draw on us the contem#t of these barbarians! E'PE,:,! @e ha e com#lied with all our ministerCs #ro#ositions$$shall they not, then, accede to oursQ Be it as it may, we will witness her de#arture$$and then return home to hate the traitor 'aouyenshowU P,E&9-E.T! =nwillingly we ad ise that the #rincess be sacrificed for the sake of #eaceR but the en oy is instructed to insist u#on her alone$$and from ancient times, how often hath a nation suffered for a womanCs beautyU P,9.CE&&! Though 9 go into eDile for the nationCs good, yet ill can 9 bear to #art from your 'ajestyU F4EDeunt!F 4)ootnote /% The honor of the im#erial alliance being the chief object!8

4)ootnote 1% Changngo, the goddess of the moon, gi es her name to the finely cur ed eyebrows of the Chinese ladies, which are com#ared to the lunar crescent when only a day or two old!8 4)ootnote 3% Chow$wong was the last of the &hang dynasty, and infamous by his debaucheries and cruelties, in concert with his em#ress Takee, the Theodora of Chinese history!8 4)ootnote S% The im#erial #ronoun PTchin,P FmeF, is with ery good taste su##lied by F9F in these im#assioned #assages!8 ZACT T+9,-Z FEnter En oy, escorting the Princess, with a band of musicF! P,9.CE&&! Thus was 9, in s#ite of the treachery of 'aouyenshow, who disfigured my #ortrait, seen and eDalted by his 'ajestyR but the traitor #resented a truer likeness to the Tartar king, who comes at the head of an army to demand me, with a threat of seiHing the country! There is no remedy$$9 must be yielded u# to #ro#itiate the in adersU +ow shall 9 bear the rigors$$the winds and frosts of that foreign landU 9t has been said of old, that Psur#assing beauty is often cou#led with an unha##y fate!P Let me grie e, then, without entertaining fruitless resentment at the effects of my own attractions! FEnter Em#eror, attended by his se eral officersF! E'PE,:,! This day we take lea e of the #rincess at Pahling bridgeU 4FTo his ministersF!8 Can ye not de ise a way to send out these foreign troo#s, without yielding u# the #rincess for the sake of #eaceQ 4F-escends from his horse and seems to grie e with ChaoukeunF!8 Let our attendants delay awhile, till we ha e conferred the #arting cu#! E.>:"! Lady, let us urge you to #roceed on your way$$the sky darkens, and night is coming on! P,9.CE&&! AlasU when shall 9 again behold your 'ajestyQ 9 will take off my robes of distinction and lea e them behind me! To$day in the #alace of +an$$to$morrow 9 shall be es#oused to a stranger! 9 cease to wear these s#lendid estments$$they shall no longer adorn my beauty in the eyes of men! E.>:"! Again let us urge you, #rincess, to de#artR we ha e delayed but too long alreadyU E'PE,:,! CTis doneU$$Princess, when you are gone, let your thoughts forbear to dwell with sorrow and resentment u#on usU 4FThey #artF!8 And am 9 the great 'onarch of the line of +anQ P,E&9-E.T! Let your 'ajesty cease to dwell with such grief u#on this subjectU

E'PE,:,! &he is goneU 9n ain ha e we maintained those armed heroes on the frontier! 4/8 'ention but swords and s#ears, and they tremble at their hearts like a young deer! The #rincess has this day #erformed what belonged to themsel es% and yet they affect the semblance of menU P,E&9-E.T! "our 'ajesty is entreated to return to the #alace% dwell not so bitterly, &ir, on her memory%$$allow her to de#artU E'PE,:,! -id 9 not think of her, 9 had a heart of iron$$a heart of ironU The tears of my grief stream in thousand channels$$this e ening shall her likeness be sus#ended in the #alace, where 9 will sacrifice to it$$and ta#ers with their sil er lights shall illuminate her chamber! P,E&9-E.T! Let your 'ajesty return to the #alace$$the #rincess is already far distantU 4FEDeuntF! FThe Tartar Cam#! Enter (Chan at the head of his tribes, leading in the PrincessF! (C+A.! The Em#eror of +an ha ing now, in obser ance of old treaties, yielded u# to me the Lady Chaoukeun in marriage, 9 take her as my rightful Jueen! The two nations shall enjoy the benefits of #eace! 4FTo his generalsF8 Leaders, transmit my commands to the army to strike our encam#ment, and #roceed to the north! 4FThey marchF! FThe ri er Amoor! 418 Tartar army on its marchF! P,9.CE&&! @hat #lace is thisQ E.>:"! 9t is the ,i er of the Black -ragon, the frontier of the Tartar territories and those of China! This southern shore is the Em#erorCsR on the northern side commences our Tartar dominion! P,9.CE&& 4Fto the (ChanF8! Great (ing, 9 take a cu# of wine, and #our a libation towards the &outh$$my last farewell to the Em#eror$$4F#ours the libationF8 of +an, this life is finished! 9 await thee in the neDtU 4FThrows herself into the ri er! The (Chan, in great consternation, endea ors to sa e her, but in ainF! (C+A.! AlasU alasU$$so determined was her #ur#ose against this foreign alliance$$she has thrown herself into the stream, and #erishedU Tis done, and remedilessU Let her se#ulchre be on this ri erCs bank, and be it called Pthe erdant tomb,P 438 &he is no moreR and ain has been our enmity with the dynasty of +anU The traitor 'aouyenshow was the author of all this misery! 4FTo an officerF8 Take 'aouyenshow and let him be deli ered o er to the Em#eror for #unishment! 9 will return to our former friendshi# with the dynasty of +an! @e will renew and long #reser e the sentiments of relationshi#! The traitor disfigured the #ortrait to injure Chaoukeun$$then deserted his so ereign, and stole o er to me, whom

4)ootnote /% 9t may be obser ed that the great wall is ne er once eD#ressly mentioned through this drama! The eD#ression used is PEensih, the border, or frontier! The wall had eDisted two hundred years at this time, but the real frontier was beyond it!8 4)ootnote 1% :r &aghalien, which falls into the sea of :chotsk!8 4)ootnote 3% &aid to eDist now and to be green all the year!8 ZACT ):=,T+Z FEnter Em#eror, with an attendantF! E'PE,:,! &ince the #rincess was yielded to the Tartars, we ha e not held an audience! The lonely silence of night but increases our melancholyU @e take the #icture of that fair one and sus#end it here, as some small solace to our griefs, 4FTo the attendantF8 (ee#er of the yellow gate, behold, the incense in yonder ase is burnt out% hasten then to add some more! Though we cannot see her, we may at least retain this shadowR and, while life remains, betoken our regard! But o##ressed and weary, we would fain take a little re#ose! 4FLies down to slee#! The Princess a##ears before him in a isionF!8 4/8 P,9.CE&&! -eli ered o er as a ca#ti e to a##ease the barbarians, they would ha e con eyed me to their .orthern country% but 9 took an occasion to elude them and ha e esca#ed back! 9s not this the Em#eror, my so ereignQ &ir, behold me again restored! 4FA Tartar soldier a##ears in the isionF!8 &:L-9E,! @hile 9 chanced to slee#, the lady, our ca#ti e, has made her esca#e, and returned home! 9n eager #ursuit of her, 9 ha e reached the im#erial #alace!$$9s not this sheQ 4FCarries her off! The Em#eror starts from his slee#F!8 E'PE,:,! @e just saw the Princess returned$$but alas, how Juickly has she anishedU 9n bright day she answered not to our call$$but when morning dawned on our troubled slee#, a ision #resented her in this s#ot! 4F+ears the wild fowlCs 418 cryF8 +ark, the #assing fowl screamed twice or thriceU$$Can it know there is no one so desolate as 9Q 4FCries re#eatedF8 Perha#s worn out and weak,

he #re ailed on to demand the lady in marriage! +ow little did 9 think that she would thus #reci#itate herself into the stream, and #erishU$$9n ain did my s#irit melt at the sight of herU But if 9 detained this #rofligate and traitorous rebel, he would certainly #ro e to us a root of misfortune% it is better to deli er him for his reward to the Em#eror of +an, with whom 9 will renew, and long retain, our old feelings of friendshi# and amity! F4EDeunt!F

ATTE.-A.T! Let your 'ajesty cease this sorrow, and ha e some regard to your sacred 438 #erson! E'PE,:,! 'y sorrows are beyond control! Cease to u#braid this eDcess of feeling, since ye are all subject to the same! "on doleful cry is not the note of the swallow on the car ed rafters, nor the song of the ariegated bird u#on the blossoming tree! The #rincess has abandoned her homeU (now ye in what #lace she grie es, listening like me to the screams of the wild birdQ FEnter PresidentF! P,E&9-E.T! This day after the close of the morning council, a foreign en oy a##eared, bringing with him the fettered traitor 'aouyenshow! +e announces that the renegade, by deserting his allegiance, led to the breach of truce, and occasioned all these calamities! The #rincess is no moreU and the (Chan wishes for #eace and friendshi# between the two nations! The en oy attends, with re erence, your im#erial decision! E'PE,:,! Then strike off the traitorCs head, and be it #resented as an offering to the shade of the #rincessU Let a fit banJuet be got ready for the en oy, #re#aratory to his return! F4,ecites these ersesF! At the fall of the leaf, when the wild$fowlCs cry was heard in the recesses of the #alace! &ad dreams returned to our lonely #illowR we thought of her through the night% +er erdant tomb remains$$but where shall we seek her selfQ The #erfidious #ainterCs head shall atone for the beauty which he wronged! 4)ootnote /% There is nothing in this more eDtra agant than the similar ision in the tragedy of ,ichard 999!8 4)ootnote 1% "engo, a s#ecies of wild goose, is the emblem in China of interseDual attachment and fidelity, being said ne er to #air again after the loss of its mate! An image of it is worshi##ed by newly married cou#les!8 4)ootnote 3% Literally, Pdragon #erson!P The em#erorCs throne is often called the Pdragon seat!P8

hungry and emaciated, they bewail at once the broad nets of the &outh and the tough bows of the .orth! 4FCries re#eatedF8 The screams of those water$birds but increase our melancholy!

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