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Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Solution Tutorial 4/ ws BDA 3043

Tutorial 4 Solution Refrigeration System Winardi Sani


The pressure in the evaporator of an NH3 refrigerator is 1.902 bar and the pressure in the condenser is 12.38 bar. Calculate the refrigerating effect per unit mass of the refrigerant and the COPref for the following cycles: (a) the ideal reversed Carnot cycle

T2 T T1

s3

s1

Temp. [C] -20 30 T2 35

pressure [bar] 1.902 11.67 p2 = 12.38 13.504

Enthalpy [kJ/kg] hf hg 89.05 1418 322.42 1466.3 h2,f h2,g 346.8 1468.6

Entropy [kJ/kg K] sf sg 0.3657 5.6155 1.2005 4.9738 s2,f s2,g 1.2792 4.9196

The thermodynamic properties at p2 = 12.38 bar are interpolated between p = 11.67 and p = 13.504 bar. Determination of sg,2 :
p 13.504
3

p p 12.38 s s1
3 2

p3 p1 p2 p1 = = tan s3 s1 s2 s1 p2 p1 (s3 s1 ) s2,g = s1,g + p3 p1 = 4.9738 + 12.38 11.67 (4.9196 4.9738) 13.504 11.67

11.67 s1 4.9738

s3 s 4.9196

s2

p p

s1

s2,g = 4.9528 kJ/kg K

Determination of h2,g : p2 p1 (h3 h1 ) p3 p1 12.38 11.67 (1468.6 1466.3) 13.504 11.67

h2,g = h1,g +

= 1466.3 +

h2,g = 1, 467.19 kJ/kg

Solution Tutorial 4/ ws BDA 3043

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

s2,g = s1 , so the value of x at state 1: x= s1 sf 4.9528 0.3657 = = 0.8738 sg sf 5.6155 0.3657

h1 = hf + x (hg hf ) = 89.05 + 0.8738 (1418 89.05) h1 = 1, 250.24 kJ/kg Calculating T2 : p2 p1 (T3 T1 ) p3 p1 12.38 11.67 = 30 + (35 30) 13.504 11.67 T2 = 32 C = 305.15 K T2 = T1 + Determination of h2,f : h2,f = h1,f + p2 p1 (h3,f h,f ) p3 p1 12.38 11.67 (346.8 322.42) 13.504 11.67

= 322.42 +

h2,f = 331.86 kJ/kg = h3 Determination of s2,f : s2,f = s1,f + p2 p1 (s3,f s,f ) p3 p1 12.38 11.67 (1.2792 1.2005) 13.504 11.67

= 1.2005 +

s2,f = 1.2310 kJ/kg K s2,f = s3 , so the value of x at state 4: x= s3 s4,f 1.2310 0.3657 = = 0.1646 s4,g s4,f 5.6155 0.3657

h4 = hf + x (hg hf ) = 89.05 + 0.1646 (1418 89.05) h4 = 307.73 kJ/kg s4 = sf + x (sg sf ) = 0.3657 + 0.1646 (5.6155 0.3657) = 1.2298 kJ/kg K

(i) the refrigerating effect: q41 = h1 h4 q41 = 1, 250.24 307.73 = 942.51 kJ/kg (1) (2)

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia or, we can calculate through T s

Solution Tutorial 4/ ws BDA 3043

q41 = T1 (s1 s4 ) = 253.15 (4.9528 1.2298) = 942.48 kJ/kg (ii) the COP: COPref,Carnot = T1 T2 T1 20 + 273.15 = 32 + 20 = 4.87

COPref,Carnot

(b) dry saturated vapor delivered to the condenser after isentropic compression, and no undercooling of the condensed liquid

T2 T T1

12.38 bar

s3 s4

Temp. [C] -20 30 32 35

pressure [bar] 1.902 11.67 12.38 13.504

Enthalpy [kJ/kg] hf hg 89.05 1418 322.42 1466.3 331.86 1,467.19 346.8 1468.6

(i) the refrigerating effect: At state 4 with h3,f = h4 (isenthalpic process). q41 = h1 h4 q41 = 1, 250.24 331.86 = 918.4 kJ/kg (ii) the COP: COPref,actual = q41 w12

w12 = h2 h1 = 1, 467.19 1, 250.24 = 216.95 kJ/kg 918.4 = = 4.23 216.95

h 3=
4

h4
1.902 bar 1

s1

Entropy [kJ/kg K] sf sg 0.3657 5.6155 1.2005 4.9738 1.2310 4.9528 1.2792 4.9196

COPref,actual

Solution Tutorial 4/ ws BDA 3043

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

(c) dry saturated vapor delivered to the compressor where it is compressed isentropically, and no undercooling of the condensed liquid
2

32

12.38 bar

h 3=

T T1

s3 s4

Isentropic compression 1 2, with s1,g = 5.6155 kJ/kg K = s2 : selected superheated properties of NH3 T ... 100 120 p=1.2 MPa h ... 1658 ... 1708 s ... 5.5325 ... 5.6631 p=1.4 MPa h ... 1651.4 ... 1702.5 s ... 5.443 ... 5.5775

A linear interpolation is also employed to determine the other thermodynamic properties at the pressure 12.38 bar. T ... 100 120 p=1.2 MPa h ... 1658 1708 s ... 5.5325 5.6631 p=1.238 MPa h ... 1,656.75 1,697.25 s ... 5.5155 5.6215 p=1.4 MPa h ... 1651.4 1702.5 s ... 5.443 5.5775

The enthalpy at state 2 is interpolated at pressure 1.238 MPa. h2 = 1, 656.75 + ( 5.6155 5.5155) h2 = 1, 735.46 kJ/kg (i) the refrigerating effect: At state 4 with h3,f = h4 = 331.86 kJ/kg K (isenthalpic process). q41 = h1 h4 q41 = 1418 331.86 = 1, 086.14 kJ/kg 1, 697.25 1, 656.75 5.6215 5.5155

h4
1.902 bar 1

s1

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (ii) the COP: At state 2 with s1,g = s2 (isentropic process). COPref = q41 w12

Solution Tutorial 4/ ws BDA 3043

w12 = h2 h1 = 1, 735.46 1418 = 317.46 kJ/kg 1, 086.14 = = 3.42 317.46

COPref

(d) dry saturated vapor delivered to the compressor, and the liquid after condensation undercooled by 10 K.
2

32 22

12.38 bar
10 K

h 3=

T T1

s3 s4

T3 = 32 10 = 22 C. With an approximation that the cooling process is accompanied by a pressure drop, then the value of h3 can be estimated using the saturated NH3 table as follows: Temp. [C] 20 22 25 pressure [bar] 8.575 10.032 Enthalpy [kJ/kg] hf hg 274.3 1460.2 283.88 1,461.52 298.25 1463.5 Entropy [kJ/kg K] sf sg 1.04 5.09 s2,f s2,g 1.12 5.03

The value of h4 = h3 = 283.88 kJ/kg. (i) the refrigerating effect: q41 = h1 h4 q41 = 1418 283.88 = 1, 134.12 kJ/kg (ii) the COP: COPref = q41 w12

w12 = h2 h1 = 1, 735.46 1418 = 317.46 kJ/kg 1, 134.12 = = 3.6 317.46

h4
1.902 bar 1

s1

COPref

Solution Tutorial 4/ ws BDA 3043

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

A plant using R22 has an evaporator saturation temperature of -1 C and a condenser saturation temperature of 45 C. The vapour is dry saturated at entry to the compressor and is at a temperature of 75 C after compression to the condenser pressure. The compressor is a two-stage centrifugal compressor, each stage having the same pressure ratio and enthalpy rise. Assuming no undercooling in the condenser, axial ow of refrigerant into the compressor, radial ow of refrigerant at the impeller exit, and using the properties of R22, calculate: (a) the COP (b) the power input required for a refrigeration capacity of 2 MW (c) the diameter of the impeller in each stage when the rotational speed is 300 rev/min

17.286

45 oC

75

oC

[bar]

p
i

p1

4.816

1 o C
1

s=

ns co

t.

h3 = h4

h1

h2
Enthalpy [kJ/kg] hf hg 249.58 261.90 Entropy [kJ/kg K] sf 0.1709 0.3624 sg 0.9284 0.8682

selected properties of saturated R22 (liquid vapor) Temp. [C] -1 45 pressure [bar] 4.814 17.286

43.41 100.98

From the table of superheated R22, it doesnt exist the thermodynamic properties at temperature 75 C and pressure 17.298 bar. So we must use interpolation to get the values at this point. p=1.60 MPa (Tsat = 41.73 C) h ... 70 75 80 295.93 0.9762 ... 287.30 s ... 0.9515 p=1.728 MPa (Tsat = 45 C) h ... 285.46 289.89 294.31 s ... 0.9401 0.9528 0.9655 293.40 0.9595 p=1.80 MPa (Tsat = 46.69 C) h ... 284.43 s ... 0.9337

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (a) the COP COPref = q41 w12

Solution Tutorial 4/ ws BDA 3043

q41 = h1 h4 = 249.58 100.98 = 148.60 kJ/kg w12 = h2 h1 = 289.89 249.58 = 40.31 kJ/kg COPref = 148.60 = 3.69 40.31

(b) the power input required for a refrigeration capacity of 2 MW m = = 41 Q q41 2 MW 1 J 1000 k 148.60 kJ/kg Ws 1M

m = 13.46 kg/s 12 = m W wc = m w12 = 13.46 kg/s 40.31 kJ/kg Win = 542.53 kW (c) the diameter of the impeller in each stage when the rotational speed is 300 rev/min Compressor type: Centrifugal compressor with N = 300 rev/min Work input to each stage: w in,each stage = w12 40.31 = = 20.155 kJ/kg 2 2

According to eq. (19) in the lecture note: w c = c W = (N D)2 = 20.155 kJ/kg m

N D = 4.49 4.49 4.49 = 60 = 0.2860 m D= N 3.14 300 D = 286 mm

Solution Tutorial 4/ ws BDA 3043

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Refrigerant R134a enters the compressor of a refrigerator as superheated vapor at 0.14 MPa and -10 C at a rate of 0.05 kg/s and leaves at 0.8 MPa and 50 C. The refrigerant is cooled in the condenser to 26 Cand 0.72 MPa and is throttled to 0.15 MPa. Disregarding any heat transfer and pressure drops in the connecting lines between the components, determine: (a) the rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and the power input to the compressor (b) the isentropic efciency of the compressor (c) the COP of the refrigerator

50

2 2s

0.8 MPa
26

T
0.15 MPa 4 1 0.14 MPa
10 o C

s3 s4 s1 s selected superheated properties of R134a

T -10 40

p=0.14 MPa h 243.4 s 0.96

p=0.8 MPa h -. 273.66 s -. 0.94 0.96

50

284.39

0.97

selected properties of saturated R134a (liquid vapor) Temp. [C] 26 pressure [kPa] 685.84 Enthalpy [kJ/kg] hf 87.83 hg 264.68 Entropy [kJ/kg K] sf 0.32903 sg 0.92018

41 ) from the refrigerated space. Throttling pro(a) the rate of heat removal (Q

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia cess from state 3 to 4 meaning that: h3 = h4 = 87.83 kJ/kg. q41 = h1 h4 q41 = 243.4 87.83 = 155.57 kJ/kg 41 = m Q q41 = 0.05 kg/s 155.57 kJ/kg 41 = 7.7785 kW Q 12 : Power input to the compressor, W 12 = m W wc = m w12 = m (h2 h1 ) = 0.05 kg/s (284.39 243.4) kJ/kg in = 2.05 kW W (b) the isentropic efciency of the compressor c = h2s h1 h2 h1

Solution Tutorial 4/ ws BDA 3043

The enthalpy at stage 2s is determined using the isentropic process: s2s = s1 = 0.96 kJ/kg K. h2s = 273.66 + (0.96 0.94) 280.81 243.4 = 0.913 284.39 243.4 c = 91.3% c = (c) the COP of the refrigerator COPref = 41 q41 Q = 41 w12 W 7.7785 = 3.8 2.05 (284.39 273.66) = 280.81 kJ/kg 0.97 0.94

COPref =

Solution Tutorial 4/ ws BDA 3043

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

A two-stage compression refrigeration system operates between the pressure limits of 0.8 and 0.14 MPa. The working uid is R134a. The refrigerant leaves the condenser as a saturated liquid and is throttled to a ash chamber operating at 0.32 MPa. Part of the refrigerant evaporates during this ashing process, and this vapor is mixed with the refrigerant leaving the low-pressure compressor. The mixture is then compressed to the condenser pressure by the high-pressure compressor. The liquid in the ash chamber is throttled to the evaporator pressure and cools the refrigerated space as it vaporizes in the evaporator. Assuming the refrigerant leaves the evaporator as a saturated vapor and both compressors are isentropic, determine: (a) the fraction of the refrigerant that evaporates as it is throttled to the ash chamber (b) the amount of heat removed from the refrigerated space (c) the compressor work per unit mass of refrigerant owing through the condenser (d) the COP of the cycle.
environment 5 Condenser 4 0.8 MPa w c,HP Expansion m 6

valve 6 vapor x . m 3 3 9 direct contact HE

0.8 MPa 9 2

0.32 MPa Flash chamber m liquid 1x 7 7

6 0.32 MPa 3 0.14 MPa

2 w c,LP 0.14 MPa

Expansion valve

s
1

8 Evaporator refrigerated space

selected saturated R134a Pressure table Enthalpy [kJ/kg] Entropy [kJ/kg K] Pressure [MPa] Temp [C] hf hg sf sg 0.140 0.320 0.800 -18.77 2.46 31.31 27.08 55.16 95.47 239.16 251.88 267.29 0.11087 0.21637 0.35404 0.94456 0.93006 0.91835

(a) the fraction of the refrigerant that evaporates as it is throttled to the ash chamber. With h5 = 95.47 kJ/kg = h6 : x6 = h6 h7 95.47 55.16 = = 0.2049 h3 h7 251.88 55.16

10

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Solution Tutorial 4/ ws BDA 3043

(b) the amount of heat removed from the refrigerated space, q81 : Mass balance at the ash chamber (see lecture note on chapter 1): m 6=m =m 3+m 7 m 3 m 7 m 7 1= + =x+ m m m m 7 =1x m Energy balance at the evaporator: 81 = H 1 H 8 Q m q81 = m 1 h1 + m 8 h8 m 1 m 8 q81 = h1 h8 m m From the gure we see that
m 8 m

m 7 m

m 1 m

= 1 x.

q81 = (1 x)h1 (1 x) h8 q81 = (1 x)(h1 h8 ) Isenthalpic process 7 8 meaning h7 = 55.16 kJ/kg = h8 and x = 0.2049. q81 = (1 0.2049)(239.16 55.16) q81 = 146.3 kJ/kg (c) the compressor work per unit mass of refrigerant owing through the condenser: wc = wc,HP + wc,LP wc,LP = (1 x)(h2 h1 ) wc,HP = h4 h9 The value of h2 is calculated by interpolating in the superheated table of R134a with s1 = 0.94456 kJ/kg = s2 .

selected superheated properties of R134a T 2.46 p=0.32 MPa h 251.88 h2 10 258.69 s 0.9301 0.94456 0.9544 p=0.8 MPa h -. s -.

11

Solution Tutorial 4/ ws BDA 3043

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia 0.94456 0.9301 (258.69 251.88) 0.9544 0.9301

h2 = 251.88 +

h2 = 255.932 kJ/kg Calculation of h9 Mass balance on the Heat Exchanger:


m 9

m 2 =1x m

Energy balance on the Heat Exchanger: 9 = H 2 +H 3 H m 9 h9 = m 2 h2 + m 3 h3 m 2 m 3 h9 = h2 + h3 m m h9 = (1 x)h2 + xh3

3 m 3 x

direct contact HE

m 2

1x 2

With h3 = 251.88 kJ/kg, the value of h9 : h9 = (1 0.2049) 255.932 + 0.2049 251.88 h9 = 255.10 kJ/kg selected superheated properties of R134a T 2.46 p=0.32 MPa h 251.88 255.10 255.932 s 0.9301 s9 0.94456 p=0.8 MPa h -. s -.

s9 = 0.9301 + (255.10 251.88) s9 = 0.94159 = s4

0.94456 0.9301 255.932 251.88

selected superheated properties of R134a T 31.31 p=0.8 MPa h 267.29 h4 40 276.45 s 0.9183 0.94159 0.9480

12

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Through interpolation, we get h4 : h4 = 267.29 + (0.94159 0.9183) h4 = 274.473 kJ/kg

Solution Tutorial 4/ ws BDA 3043

276.45 267.29 0.9480 0.9183

The HP compressor work: wc,HP = h4 h9 = h4 [(1 x)h2 + xh3 ] = 274.473 [(1 0.2049) 255.932 + 0.2049 251.88] wc,HP = 19.37 kJ/kg The LP compressor work: wc,LP = (1 x)(h2 h1 ) = (1 0.2049) (255.932 239.16) wc,LP = 13.34 kJ/kg

The total compressor work: = wc = 32.71 kJ/kg

(d) the COP of the cycle. COPref = COPref q81 wc 146.3 = 4.473 = 32.71

13

Solution Tutorial 4/ ws BDA 3043

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Heat pump system


T = 20 o C 5 p = 1 bar
5

return air from house


3 p = 14 bar
3

V = 0.42 m3 /s 5

T6 = 50 C

heated air

6 to house p = 14 bar
o 2 T2 = 75 C compressor
2

valve

T = 28 o C
3

condenser

W12 p = 3.5 bar T = 5o C 1 1


1

p = 3.5 bar
4

evaporator

air exits oC at 12

outside air enters at 0 oC


8 7

A residental heat pump system operating at steady state is shown schematically in the left side. Refrigerant R22 circulates through the components of the system and property data at the numbered states are given on the gure. The compressor operates adiabatically. Let T0 = 273 K, determine: (a) The power required by the compressor, in kW and the isentropic compressor efciency. (b) the COP

inside air Condenser Valve Evaporator


4

1111111111111 0000000000000 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111

Compressor

1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111

Solution:

selected superheated properties of R22 T -5 60 70 80 p=3.5 bar(Tsat = 10.39C) h 249.75 s 0.9572 p=14 bar (Tsat = 36.29C) h -. 281.53 290.01 298.34 s -. 0.9452 0.9703 0.9942

From the table we conclude that both states 1 and 2 lay on the superheated region!.

selected saturated R22 Pressure table Enthalpy [kJ/kg] Entropy [kJ/kg K] Pressure [bar] Temp [C] hf hg sf sg 3.50 14.0 -10.39 36.29 33.09 89.68 246.00 260.16 0.1328 0.3277 0.9431 0.8786

14

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Solution Tutorial 4/ ws BDA 3043

T2

75 oC 2s

From the superheated table we read off at state 1: h1 = 249.75 kJ/kg. The enthalpy at state 2 is interpolated: h2 = 290.01 + (75 70) h2 = 294.175 kJ/kg 298.34 290.01 80 70

14 bar T3 28 oC 3 T T 5o C 1 4 s4

3.5 bar

The compressor work input per a unit mass: wc = w12 = h2 h1 wc = 44.425 kJ/kg h2s h1 h2 h1

s s1 = s2s Isentropic compressor efciency:


c =

s1 = 0.9572 kJ/kg = s2s . So the value of h2s is determined by interpolation: h2s = 281.53 + (0.9572 0.9452) h2s = 285.58 kJ/kg 285.58 249.75 = 0.81 294.175 249.75 c = 81% c = The compressor power is calculated as follows: 23 = Q air Q air = m Q air hair air = m Q air cp (T6 T5 ) m air = p1 V 1 bar 0.42 m3 /s 105 Pa 1 N/m2 1k = RT1 0.287 kJ/kg K 293 K 1 bar 1 Pa 1000 290.01 281.53 0.9703 0.9452

m air = 0.5 kg/s air = 0.5 kg/s 1.005 kJ/kg K (50 20) K; Q air = 15.08 kW Q 23 = m Q q23 q23 = h3 h2 = 79.05 294.175 = 215.13 kJ/kg m = 23 Q 15.08 = = 0.07 kg/s |q23 | 215.13 cp,air = 1.005 kJ/kg K

So, the compressor power required is: c=m = W wc = 0.07 44.425 = 3.11 kW

15

Solution Tutorial 4/ ws BDA 3043 COP:

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

COPref = q41

q41 w12 = h1 h4 = h1 h3 = 249.75 79.05 = 170.70 kJ/kg

= COPref =

170.70 = 3.84 44.425

Consider a two-stage cascade refrigeration system operating between the pressure limits of 1.2 MPa and 200 kPa with refrigerant R-134a as the working uid. Heat rejection from the lower cycle to the upper cycle takes place in an adiabatic counterow heat exchanger where the pressure in the upper and lower cycles are 0.4 and 0.5 MPa, respectively. In both cycles, the refrigerant is a saturated liquid at the condenser exit and a saturated vapor at the compressor inlet, and the isentropic efciency of the compressor is 80 %. The mass ow rate of the refrigerant through the lower cycle is 0.15 kg/s.
environment 7 High temperature Condenser 1.2 MPa cycle A 6 w c,A

6 6s

T
46.29 7 3 8 B 1.2 MPa A 0.5 MPa 0.4 MPa 200 kPa 5 2s

0.4 MPa Evaporator

15.71 8.91 10.09

Condenser 0.5 MPa 2 cycle B w c,B

200 kPa 4 Low temperature Evaporator refrigerated space 1

Figure 6: Vapor-compression refrigeration system with R134a selected saturated R134a Pressure table Enthalpy [kJ/kg] Entropy [kJ/kg K] Pressure [kPa] Temp [C] hf hg sf sg 200 400 500 1200 -10.09 8.91 15.71 46.29 38.43 63.94 73.33 117.77 244.46 255.55 259.30 273.87 0.15457 0.24761 0.28023 0.42441 0.93773 0.92691 0.92400 0.91303

From the T s graph the state 1 is saturated vapor, so tha thermodynamic properties of the state 1 are read off direct at the table: h1 = 244.46 kJ/kg and

16

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia s1,g = 0.93773 kJ/kg K = s2,s . Determining the value h2,s

Solution Tutorial 4/ ws BDA 3043

selected superheated properties of R134a T 8.91 10 15.71 p=0.4 MPa bar(Tsat = 8.91C) h 255.55 256.58 s 0.9269 0.9305 p= 0.5 MPa (Tsat = 15.71C) h -. 259.30 h2,s 20 265.86 0.9628 263.46 s -. 0.9240 0.93773 0.9383

By interpolation we get the value of h2,s : 263.46 259.30 0.9383 0.9240

h2,s = 259.30 + (0.93773 0.9240) h2,s = 263.294 kJ/kg

Calculation of the value h2 through the LP compressor efciency: h2,s h1 h2 h1 h2,s h1 h2 = h1 + c,B c,B = 263.294 244.46 0.8 h2 = 268.00 kJ/kg = 244.46 + (a) the mass ow rate of the refrigerant through the upper cycle. Energy balance on the heat exchanger:

0.4 MPa H8 H3 3

8 +H 2 = H 3 +H 5 H 8 H 5 = H 3 H 2 H
5 mB

. . m A
8

Evaporator

H5 H2

m A (h8 h5 ) = m B (h3 h2 ) m A = m B h3 h2 h8 h5

Condenser 0.5 MPa

The mass ow rate through the lower cycle is given: m B = 0.15 kg/s.

17

Solution Tutorial 4/ ws BDA 3043

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

State 2 3 5 8

Enthalpy h2 h3 h5 h8

Value [kJ/kg] 268.00 73.33 255.55 117.77

the mass ow rate of the refrigerant through the upper cycle: m A = m B h3 h2 h8 h5 73.33 268.00 117.77 255.55

= 0.15 kg/s m A = 0.2119 kg/s

(b) the rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space (the refrigerating capacity) 41 = m Q B q41 q41 = h1 h4 = h1 h3 = 244.46 73.33 = 171.13 kJ/kg 41 = 0.15 kg/s 171.13 kJ/kg Q 41 = 25.67 kW = Q (c) the COP of this refrigerator. COPref = 41 Q c W

c=m W A wc,A + m B wc,B wc,B = h2 h1 and wc,A = h6 h5

Determining the value h6,s selected superheated properties of R134a T 8.91 10 46.29 50 p=0.4 MPa bar(Tsat = 8.91C) h 255.55 256.58 s 0.9269 0.9305 p= 1.2 MPa (Tsat = 46.29C) h -. 273.87 278.27 h6,s 60 289.64 s -. 0.9130 0.9267 0.9269 0.9614

18

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia By interpolation we get the value of h6,s : h6,s = 278.34 kJ/kg

Solution Tutorial 4/ ws BDA 3043

Calculation of the value h6 through the HP compressor efciency: h6,s h5 h6 h5 h6,s h5 h6 = h5 + c,A c,A = 278.34 255.55 0.8 h6 = 284.03 kJ/kg = 255.55 + Calculation of the compressor works: wc,B = h2 h1 = 268.00 244.46 = 23.54 kJ/kg wc,A = h6 h5 = 284.03 255.55 = 28.48 kJ/kg

Calculation of the total compressor power: c=m W A wc,A + m B wc,B = 0.2119 kg/s 28.48 kJ/kg + 0.15kg/s 23.54 kJ/kg c = 9.566 kW = W COP: COPref = 41 Q c W

= = COPref

25.67 9.566 = 2.68

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Solution Tutorial 4/ ws BDA 3043

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Consider a two-stage cascade refrigeration system operating between the pressure limits of 1.2 MPa and 200 kPa with refrigerant R-134a as the working uid. The refrigerant leaves the condenser as saturated liquid and is throttled to a ash chamber operating at 0.45 MPa. Part of the refrigerant evaporates during this ashing process, and this vapor is mixed with the refrigerant leaving the lowpressure compressor. The mixture is the compressed to the condenser pressure by the high-pressure compressor. The liquid in the ash chamber is throttled to the evaporator pressure and cools the refrigerated space as it vaporizes in the evaporator. The mass ow rate of the refrigerant through the low-pressure compressor is 0.15 kg/s. Assuming the refrigerant leaves the evaporator as a saturated vapor and the isentropic efciency is 80% for both compressors, determine: (a) the mass ow rate of the refrigerant through the high-pressure compressor (b) the rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space (the refrigerating capacity) (c) the COP of this refrigerator. (d) the rate of heat removal and the COP if this refrigerator operates on a single-stage cycle between the same pressure limits with the same compressor efciency and the same ow rate in part (a).
environment 5 Condenser 4 1.2 MPa w c,HP Expansion m 6

valve 6 vapor x . m 3 3 9 direct contact HE

0.45 MPa Flash chamber m liquid 1x 7 7

m = 0.15 kg/s
Expansion valve lower w c,LP

200 kPa 8 Evaporator refrigerated space 1

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