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Lecturer:

The discipline

Principles: Fluid mechanics and Thermodynamics Contrast

Flow process inevitably result from pressure gradients within the fluid. Moreover, temperature, velocity, and even concentration gradients may exist within the flowing fluid. Uniform conditions that prevail at equilibrium in closed system.

Local state

An equation of state applied locally and instantaneously at any point in a fluid system, and that one may invoke a concept of local state, independent of the concept of equilibrium.

Equations interrelate the changes occurring in pressure, velocity, cross-sectional area, enthalpy, entropy, and specific volume of the flowing system. Consider an adiabatic, steady-state, one dimensional flow of a compressible fluid:

u 2 H + =0 2

dH = udu

d (uA / V ) = 0

dV du dA =0 V u A

V V + dV = dS dP S P P S

V V = c2 P S

2

V V T = S P T P S P

2 2 u 2 u u 1 VdP + 1 + TdS dA = 0 c CP A

dV T V = dS 2 dP V CP c

u 2 u2 1 M VdP + 1 + C TdS A dA = 0 P

2

dH = TdS + VdP

Relates du to dS and dA

u 2 + M2 2 CP 1 u udu TdS + dA = 0 2 2 1 M 1 M A

Pipe flow

u 2 + M2 2 CP 1 u udu TdS + dA = 0 2 2 1 M 1 M A u 2 2 +M du CP dS u = T 1 M 2 dx dx

dP du <0 >0 dx dx

u 2 u2 1 M VdP + 1 + C TdS A dA = 0 P

2

u 2 1+ dP T CP = dx V 1 M2

dS dx

For subsonic flow, M2 < 1, , the pressure decreases and the velocity increases in the direction of flow. For subsonic flow, the maximum fluid velocity obtained in a pipe of constant cross section is the speed of sound, and this value is reached at the exit of the pipe.

Consider the steady-state, adiabatic, irreversible flow of an incompressible liquid in a horizontal pipe of constant cross-sectional area. Show that (a) the velocity is constant. (b) the temperature increases in the direction of flow. (c) the pressure decreases in the direction of flow. Control volume: a finite length of horizontal pipe, with entrance (1) and exit (2) incompressible V1 = V2 u1 A1 u2 A2 = The continuity equation: u1 = u 2 V1 V2 const. cross-sectional area A = A 1 2 Entropy balance (irreversible): S G = S 2 S1 > 0 incompressible liquid with heat capacity C

S G = S 2 S1 = C

T1

T2

dT >0 T

T2 T1

T2 > T1

H 2 H 1 = CdT + V ( P2 P 1) = 0

T2 > T1

P2 < P 1 If reversible adiabatic: T2 = T1; P2 = P1. The temperature and pressure change originates from flow irreversibility.

Nozzles:

u 2 + M2 2 CP 1 u udu TdS + dA = 0 2 M A 1 M2 1

2 2 u u 1 M 2 VdP + TdS A dA = 0 1 + C P

Reversible flow

Reversible flow

du 1 u dA u + =0 dx 1 M 2 A dx

2

dP u 2 dA 1 M V =0 dx A dx

2

dA dx dP dx du dx

+ + -

+ -

+ +

For subsonic flow in a converging nozzle, the velocity increases as the cross-sectional area diminishes. The maximum value is the speed of sound, reached at the throat.

du 1 u 2 dA + u =0 dx 1 M 2 A dx

u dA (1 M )V dP =0 dx A dx

2 2

isentropic

udu = VdP

u u = 2 VdP

2 2 2 1 P 1

P2

PV = const.

1 2 P V P 2 1 1 2 u12 = u2 1 1 1 P

u2 = c c 2 = V 2

u1 = 0

P V S

PV = const.

P P = V V S

P2 2 = +1 P 1

A high-velocity nozzle is designed to operate with steam at 700 kPa and 300C. At the nozzle inlet the velocity is 30 m/s. Calculate values of the ratio A/A1 (where A1 is the cross-sectional area of the nozzle inlet) for the sections where the pressure is 600, 500, 400, 300, and 200 kPa. Assume the nozzle operates isentropically.

kJ kJ cm 3 H 1 = 3059.8 Initial values from the steam table: S1 = 7.2997 V = 371.39 kg K kg 1 g

A u1V = A1 V1u

A 30 V = A1 371.39 u

A = 0.120 A1

3 kJ kJ cm 600 kPa: S = 7.2997 H = 3020.4 V = 418.25 kg K kg g

m u = 282.3 s

A/A1 1.0 0.120 0.095 0.088 0.091 0.104

P (kPa) V (cm3/g) U (m/s) 700 371.39 30 600 418.25 282.3 500 481.26 411.2 400 571.23 523.0 300 711.93 633.0 200 970.04 752.2

Consider again the nozzle of the previous example, assuming now that steam behaves as an ideal gas. Calculate (a) the critical pressure ratio and the velocity at the throat. (b) the discharge pressure if a Mach number of 2.0 is required at the nozzle exhaust. (a) The ratio of specific heats for steam, = 1.3

P2 2 = P +1 1

1

= 1 .3

P2 = 0.55 P 1

1 2 P V P 2 1 1 2 u2 1 u12 = 1 1 P (b)

u 2 = 544.35

m s

M=2

u 2 = 2 544.35 = 1088.7

m s

1 2P V P 2 2 1 1 2 u 2 u1 = 1 1 P1

P2 = 30.0 kPa

Throttling Process: When a fluid flows through a restriction, such as an orifice, a partly closed valve, or a porous plug, without any appreciable change in kinetic or potential energy, the primary result of the process is a pressure drop in the fluid.

& =0 Q d ( mU ) cv 1 2 & +W & & =Q + H + u + zg m dt 2 & =0 fs W

For ideal gas: H = 0

H = 0

Constant enthalpy

H 2 = H1

T2 = T1

For most real gas at moderate conditions of temperature and pressure, a reduction in pressure at constant enthalpy results in a decrease in temperature. If a saturated liquid is throttled to a lower pressure, some of the liquid vaporizes or flashes, producing a mixture of saturated liquid and saturated vapor at the lower pressure. The large temperature drop results from evaporation of liquid. Throttling processes find frequent application in refrigeration.

Propane gas at 20 bar and 400 K is throttled in a steady-state flow process to 1 bar. Estimate the final temperature of the propane and its entropy change. Properties of propane can be found from suitable generalized correlations. Constant enthalpy process:

ig H = C P H

(T2 T1 ) + H 2R H1R = 0

R Final state at 1 bar: assumed to be ideal gas and H 2 = S 2R = 0

H1R T2 = ig CP

ig CP H

H

= ??

( )

( )

T2 = 385.2 K

T = 400 K

ig CP = 94.07

J mol K

???

H

1

ig CP

ig CP = 92.73

J mol K

ig S = C P

ln

T2 P R ln 2 S1R P T1 1

= SRB(1.082,0.471,0.152) = 0.2934

ig CP S ig CP

S = 23.80

H

J mol K

Throttling a real gas from conditions of moderate temperature and pressure usually results in a temperature decrease. Under what conditions would an increase in temperature be expected.

1 H T H T = = C P P T H P P T P H Always negative

V H =V T P T T P

ZRT P

H ??? Sign of P T

V=

RT 2 Z H = P P T T P

RT 2 Z = C P P T P

Always positive

Z =0 T P

Z T P

Same sign

The condition may obtain locally for real gases. Such points define the Joule/Thomson inversion curve.

Fig 7.2

Turbine (Expanders)

A turbine (or expander):

Consists of alternate sets of nozzles and rotating blades Vapor or gas flows in a steady-state expansion process and overall effect is the efficient conversion of the internal energy of a highpressure stream into shaft work.

Turbine

& W S

WS = H = H 2 H 1

WS (isentropic ) = ( H ) S

WS H = WS (isentropic ) (H ) S Values for properly designed turbines: 0.7~ 0.8

A steam turbine with rated capacity of 56400 kW operates with steam at inlet conditions of 8600 kPa and 500C, and discharge into a condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa. Assuming a turbine efficiency of 0.75, determine the state of the steam at discharge and the mass rate of flow of the steam.

P T1 = 500 o C 1 = 8600 kPa H 1 = 3391.6 kJ kg S1 = 6.6858 kJ kg K

(H )S = H 2 H1 = 1274.2 kJ kg

H = (H )S = 955.6 kJ kg

Turbine

& W S

H 2 = H 1 + H = 2436.0 kJ

v

kg

l 2

l v = (1 x v ) H 2 + xv H 2

P2 = 10kPa kg K

= 6.6858 kJ S2

x = 0.9378 S 2 = (1 x ) S + x S = 7.6846 kJ

v v v 2

kg K

& = 59.02 kg m

l v = (1 x v ) H 2 H2 + xv H 2 = 2117.4 kJ

kg

x v = 0.8047

A stream of ethylene gas at 300C and 45 bar is expanded adiabatically in a turbine to 2 bar. Calculate the isentropic work produced. Find the properties of ethylene by: (a) equations for an ideal gas (b)appropriate generalized correlations.

P 1 = 45 bar

ig H = C P

P2 = 2 bar T1 = 573.15 K

ig (T2 T1 ) + H 2R H1R S = C P H S

ln

T2 P R ln 2 + S 2R S1R T1 P 1

H

S = 0

S = C

ig P S

T P ln 2 R ln 2 P T1 1

ig WS (isentropic ) = ( H ) S = C P

ig CP

(T2 T1 )

S = 0

= 7.224 3 . 1135 + 6.3511 T2 = exp ig J CP W isentropic ( ) = 7 . 224 8 . 314 ( 370 . 8 573 . 15 ) = 12153 S S mol R

iteration

ig CP

T2 = 370.8 K

based on 2nd virial coefficients correlation

0 1 S1R H1R H1R H1R = + = HRB(2.030,0.893,0.087) = 0.234 R = SRB(2.030,0.893,0.087) = 0.097 RTc RTc RTc

( )

( )

S 2R = SRB(1.314,0.040,0.087) = 0.0139 R

iteration

ig S = C P

ln

T2 = 365.8 K

Tr 2 = 1.296 Pr 2 = 0.040

H 2R = HRB(1.296,0.040,0.087) = 0.20262 RTc

Ws (isentropic ) = (H )S

ig = CP H

J mol

Compression process

compressor

& W S

Pressure increases: compressors, pumps, fans, blowers, and vacuum pumps. Interested in the energy requirement

d ( mU ) cv 1 2 & +W & & =Q + H + u + zg m S 2 dt fs

& =m & H = m & ( H 2 H1 ) W S

WS = H = H 2 H 1

WS (isentropic ) = (H ) S

WS (isentropic ) (H ) S = WS H

Saturated-vapor steam at 100 kPa (tsat = 99.63 C ) is compressed adiabatically to 300 kPa. If the compressor efficiency is 0.75, what is the work required and what are the properties of the discharge stream?

kJ kJ H1 = 2675.4 kg K kg

= S1 = 7.3598 S2

kJ 300 kPa kg K

= 2888.8 H2

kJ kg

(H )S = 213.4 kJ

( H )S H =

kg

= 284.5 kJ kg

T2 = 246.1o C

kJ S 2 = 7.5019 kg K

WS = H = 284.5

kJ kg

If methane (assumed to be an ideal gas) is compressed adiabatically from 20C and 140 kPa to 560 kPa, estimate the work requirement and the discharge temperature of the methane. The compressor efficiency is 0.75.

ig S = C P S

ln

T2 P R ln 2 + S 2R S1R T1 P 1

R

T2 = 428.65 K

S = 0

ig CP

ig CP

S

P2 T2 = T1 P 2

iteration

P2 P 1

ig CP

Ws = H

H

(T2 T1 )

= 4 T1 = 293.15 K

Ws (isentropic ) = (H )S

ig = CP H

Ws =

Ws (isentropic )

= 5288.3

J mol

T2 = 397.37 K

Ws (isentropic ) = 3966.2

J mol

(T2 T1 ) + H 2R H 1R

Pumps

Liquids are usually moved by pumps. The same equations apply to adiabatic pumps as to adiabatic compressors. P For an isentropic process: Ws (isentropic ) = (H )S = P VdP

2 1

H = C P T + V (1 T ) P

S = C P ln T2 V P T1

dS = C P

dT VdP T

Water at 45C and 10 kPa enters an adiabatic pump and is discharged at a pressure of 8600 kPa. Assume the pump efficiency to be 0.75. Calculate the work of the pump, the temperature change of the water, and the entropy change of water.

kJ cm3 6 1 C = 4 . 178 = 425 10 The saturated liquid water at 45C: V = 1010 P kg K kg K

Ws (isentropic ) = (H )S = V ( P2 P 1)

kPa cm 3 kJ = 8.676 Ws (isentropic ) = 1010 (8600 10) = 8.676 10 kg kg

6

Ws =

Ws (isentropic )

= H = 11.57

kJ kg

H = C P T + V (1 T )P

T = 0.97 K

S = C P ln T2 V P T1

S = 0.0090 kJ kg K

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