in#ention of concrete" The physical sciences underlying structural engineering began to be understood in the 9enaissance and ha#e been de#eloping e#er since" . km& that also spread to other cultures ha#ing had contact with the Persian" The history of building is marked by a number of trends" /ne is the increasing durability of the materials used" +arly building materials were perishable! such as lea#es! branches! and animal hides" 0ater! more durable natural materials such as clay! stone! and timber! and! finally! synthetic materials! such as brick! concrete! metals! and plastics were used" 'nother is a (uest for buildings of e#er greater height and span1 this was made possible by the de#elopment of stronger materials and by knowledge of how materials beha#e and how to e2ploit them to greater ad#antage" ' third major trend in#ol#es the degree of control e2ercised o#er the interior en#ironment of buildings3 increasingly precise regulation of air temperature! light and sound le#els! humidity! odours! air speed! and other factors that affect human comfort has been possible" 4et another trend is the change in energy a#ailable to the construction process! starting with human muscle power and de#eloping toward the powerful machinery used today" Throughout ancient and medie#al history most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans! such as stone masons and carpenters! rising to the role of master builder" 5o theory of structures e2isted and understanding of how structures stood up was e2tremely limited! and based almost entirely on empirical e#idence of 6what had worked before6" 7nowledge was retained by guilds and seldom supplanted by ad#ances" 8tructures were repetiti#e! and increases in scale were incremental" 5o record e2ists of the first calculations of the strength of structural members or the beha#iour of structural material! but the profession of structural engineer only really took shape with the industrial re#olution and the re. day ran which has the oldest and longest )anat %older than -000 years and longer than 7.PUNEET ARORA BEM 585 The history of structural engineering dates back to at least 2700 BC when the step pyramid for Pharaoh Djoser was built by mhotep! the first engineer in history known by name" Pyramids were the most common major structures built by ancient ci#ili$ations because it is a structural form which is inherently stable and can be almost infinitely scaled %as opposed to most other structural forms! which cannot be linearly increased in si$e in proportion to increased loads& People ha#e constructed buildings and other structures since prehistory! including bridges! amphitheaters! dams! roads and canals" Building materials in present use ha#e a long history and some of the structures built thousands of years ago are regarded as remarkable" The history of construction o#erlaps that of structural engineering and many other fields" To understand why things were constructed the way they were in prehistory! we also need to rely on archaeology to record the form of the parts that sur#i#e and the tools used! and other branches of history and architecture to in#estigate how the builders li#ed and recorded their accomplishments" 'nother notable engineering feat from anti(uity stiil in use today is the (anat water management system" )anat technology de#eloped in the time of the *edes! the predecessors of the Persian +mpire %modern.

<th century 'D" The understanding of the physical laws that underpin structural engineering in the =estern world dates back to the -rd century BC! when 'rchimedes published his work /n the +(uilibrium of Planes in two #olumes! in which he sets out the 0aw of the 0e#er! stating3 >+(ual weights at e(ual distances are in e(uilibrium! and e(ual weights at une(ual distances are not in e(uilibrium but incline towards the weight which is at the greater distance"? 'rchimedes used the principles deri#ed to calculate the areas and centers of gra#ity of #arious geometric figures including triangles! paraboloids! and hemispheres" 'rchimedes6s work on this and his work on calculus and geometry! together with +uclidean geometry! underpin much of the mathematics and understanding of structures in modern structural engineering" The ancient 9omans made great bounds in structural engineering! pioneering large structures in masonry and concrete! many of which are still standing today" They include a(ueducts! thermae! columns! .reat Pyramid of .made structure for millennia and was considered an unsurpassed feat in architecture until the .EARLY DEVELOPMENTS IN STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS The recorded history of structural engineering starts with the ancient +gyptians" n the 27th century BC! mhotep was the first structural engineer known by name and constructed the first known step pyramid in +gypt" n the 2:th century BC! the .i$a was constructed in +gypt" t remained the largest man.

reek Parthenon! masonry has helped build some of the world6s most iconic structures" =hile the ad#ent of wood.0!000 years ago! and includes the de#elopment of the Certile Crescent from <!000 to 7!000 BC" During this time! the process of using fire to craft mortar or plaster was disco#ered" This mortar was combined with stone! mud or straw to build the world6s first permanent man.olden Born" Though dismissed at the time! the design has since been judged to be both feasible and structurally #alid" *asonry construction is one of the oldest building techni(ues known to man" +#er since humans began domesticating animals and establishing century! masonry remains popular" *asonry is the choice of many architects! de#elopers and homeowners because of its beauty! durability and endless possibilities" .roma and Chorobates" Centuries later! in the . a Roman era aqueduct c rca !" #C$ /ne reason for their success is their accurate sur#eying techni(ues based on the Dioptra! .Ath and .lighthouses! defensi#e walls and harbours" Their methods are recorded by @itru#ius in his De 'rchitectura written in 2A BC! a manual of ci#il and structural engineering with e2tensi#e sections on materials and machines used in construction" Pont du Gard.term dwellings! masonry has been there to pro#ide protection from the elements" Despite the simplicity and ancient history of this process! masonry continues to be a widely popular construction techni(ue in modern society as well" The birth of masonry dates back to the first agricultural age %known as the 5eolithic 9e#olution&" This time period began appro2imately .century! there ha#e been many contributions to masonry construction" These include the de#elopment of techni(ues for steel reinforced masonry! high.based construction would e#entually eclipse the popularity of stonemasonry! the craft is still used e2tensi#ely in both commercial and residential structures" /#er the twentieth.made structures" Crom this time onward! masonry would become the building method of choice for ci#ili$ation" Crom the pyramids of +gypt to the . France.:th centuries and despite lacking beam theory and calculus! 0eonardo da @inci produced many engineering designs based on scientific obser#ations and rigour! including a design for a bridge to span the .strength mortars! masonry units %both bricks and concrete masonry units& that are higher in structural strength and masonry units of many types that reduce the amount of labor re(uired for masonry construction" 's we enter the 2.

72: Daniel Bernoulli wrote of the Hcomposition of forcesH" n .7.700E.The foundations of modern structural engineering were laid in the .Dth century when 0eonhard +uler pioneered much of the mathematics and many of the methods which allow structural engineers to model and analyse structures" 8pecifically! he de#eloped the +uler.7GD&! is also credited with formulating the theory of #irtual work! pro#iding a tool using e(uilibrium of forces and compatibility of geometry to sol#e structural problems" n .7th century! 8ir saac 5ewton and .7A0 .alilei! 9obert Booke and saac 5ewton with the publication of three great scientific works" n .7th century by .:-D .:7: by 9obert Booke6s first statement of Booke6s 0aw! pro#iding a scientific understanding of elasticity of materials and their beha#iour under load" +le#en years later! in .::7E.7th century came in the .<th and early 20th centuries! materials science and structural analysis underwent de#elopment at a tremendous pace" .alileo .7 Fean Bernoulli wrote to Pierre @arignon e2plaining the principle of #irtual work! while in .7A7 0eonhard +uler went on to deri#e the +uler buckling formula! greatly ad#ancing the ability of engineers to design compression elements" Modern de%e&o'ment( n (tructura& S)(tem( Throughout the late . the fundamental theory underlying most structural engineering design" Daniel Bernoulli! with Fohann %Fean& Bernoulli %.7D2& circa .:D7! 8ir saac 5ewton published Philosophiae 5aturalis Principia *athematica! setting out his 0aws of *otion! pro#iding for the first time an understanding of the fundamental laws go#erning structures" 'lso in the .ottfried 0eibni$ both independently de#eloped the Cundamental theorem of calculus! pro#iding one of the most important mathematical tools in engineering" Curther ad#ances in the mathematics needed to allow structural engineers to apply the understanding of structures gained through the work of . Bernoulli beam e(uation with Daniel Bernoulli %.alileo! Booke and 5ewton during the .alileo published Dialogues 9elating to Two 5ew 8ciences! outlining the sciences of the strength of materials and the motion of objects %essentially defining gra#ity as a force gi#ing rise to a constant acceleration&" t was the first establishment of a scientific approach to structural engineering! including the first attempts to de#elop a theory for beams" This is also regarded as the beginning of structural analysis! the mathematical representation and design of building structures" This was followed in .

reek and Chinese ci#ili$ations& and were in common usage in +urope from the .D2: he also established the elastic modulus as a property of materials independent of the second moment of area! allowing engineers for the first time to both understand structural beha#iour and structural materials" Towards the end of the .<th century! in . that Claude.D2.DA0s when Benry Bessemer de#eloped the Bessemer process to produce steel" Be gained patents for the process in .DGD of a rowing boat built of Cerro cement . the forerunner of modern reinforced concrete .Though elasticity was understood in theory well before the .0ouis 0ambot" Be patented his system of mesh reinforcement and concrete in .0ouis 5a#ier formulated the general theory of elasticity in a mathematically usable form" n his leIons of .D:7 when a reinforced concrete planting tub was patented by Foseph *onier in Paris! using steel mesh reinforcement similar to that used by 0ambot and =ilkinson" *onier took the idea forward! filing se#eral patents for tubs! slabs and beams! leading e#entually to the *onier system of reinforced structures! the first use of steel reinforcement bars located in areas of tension in the structure" 8teel construction was first made possible in the .DAA and .DAD"+#entually mild steel would replace both wrought iron and cast iron as the preferred metal for construction" .00 B"C" and e#en earlier by the ancient .<th century! it was not until .DA: and successfully completed the con#ersion of cast iron into cast steel in .7A0s! the disco#ery made by 'spdin used commonly a#ailable! cheap materials! making concrete construction an economical possibility" De#elopments in concrete continued with the construction in .D2G! Portland cement was patented by the engineer Foseph 'spdin as Ha superior cement resembling Portland 8toneH! British Patent no" A022" 'lthough different forms of cement already e2isted %Po$$olanic cement was used by the 9omans as early as .D7-! Carlo 'lberto Castigliano presented his dissertation H ntorno ai sistemi elasticiH! which contains his theorem for computing displacement as partial deri#ati#e of the strain energy" n .D2: he e2plored a great range of different structural theory! and was the first to highlight that the role of a structural engineer is not to understand the final! failed state of a structure! but to pre#ent that failure in the first place" n . by Foseph.DAA! one year after ="B" =ilkinson also patented a similar system" This was followed in .

correctly belie#ing that if the concrete was cracked! it was not contributing to the strength" This resulted in the re#olutionary 8alginatobel Bridge design" =ilhelm 9itter formulated the truss theory for the shear .<th century! 9ussian structural engineer @ladimir 8hukho# de#eloped analysis methods for tensile structures! thin.DD<! using steel! after the original design for the bridge by Thomas Bouch was rejected following the collapse of his Tay 9ail Bridge" The Corth Bridge was one of the first major uses of steel! and a landmark in bridge design" 'lso in .7<2 =illiam 8trutt had attempted to build a fireproof mill at Belper in Derby %Belper =est *ill&! using cast iron columns and timber beams within the depths of brick arches that formed the floors" The e2posed beam soffits were protected against fire by plaster" This mill at Belper was the world6s first attempt to construct fireproof buildings! and is the first e2ample of fire engineering" This was later impro#ed upon with the construction of Belper 5orth *ill! a collaboration between 8trutt and Bage! which by using a full cast iron frame represented the world6s first Hfire proofedH building" The Corth Bridge The +iffel Construction& Tower%during The Corth Bridge was built by Benjamin Baker! 8ir Fohn Cowler and =illiam 'rrol in .During the late . fLr *onierbauten constructed 200 reinforced concrete bridges in .D<7" The great pioneering uses of reinforced concrete howe#er came during the first third of the 20th century! with 9obert *aillart and others furthering of the understanding of its beha#iour" *aillart noticed that many concrete bridge structures were significantly cracked! and as a result left the cracked areas out of his ne2t bridge design .7<7" n .D<2 onwards CranIois Bennebi(ue6s firm used his patented reinforced concrete system to build thousands of structures throughout +urope" Thaddeus Byatt in the J8 and =ayss K Creitag in .<th century" 'gain taking reinforced concrete design forwards! from .usta#e +iffel and *aurice 7oechlin! demonstrating the potential of construction using iron! despite the fact that steel construction was already being used elsewhere" During the late .shell structures! lattice shell structures and new structural geometries such as hyperboloid structures" Pipeline transport was pioneered by @ladimir 8hukho# and the Branobel company in the late .DD<! the wrought.<th century! great ad#ancements were made in the use of cast iron! gradually replacing wrought iron as a material of choice" Ditherington Cla2 *ill in 8hrewsbury! designed by Charles Bage! was the first building in the world with an interior iron frame" t was built in .D<0 and .ermany also patented systems" The firm '.ermany between .iron +iffel Tower was built by .

elastic material was a conser#ati#e appro2imation of its beha#iour" Concrete design and analysis has been progressing e#er since! with the de#elopment of analysis methods such as yield line theory! based on plastic analysis of concrete %as opposed to linear.<2D! ga#e a no#el approach in o#ercoming the weakness of concrete structures in tension" Creyssinet constructed an e2perimental prestressed arch in .Chestnut 'partment Building which 7han designed in Chicago" This laid the foundations for the tube structures used in later skyscraper constructions! including the construction of the =orld Trade Center" 'nother inno#ation that Ca$lur 7han de#eloped was the concept of O.<7-" 7han6s central inno#ation in skyscraper design and construction was the idea of the HtubeH and Hbundled tubeH structural systems for tall buildings" Be defined the framed tube structure as Ha three dimensional space structure composed of three! four! or possibly more frames! braced frames! or shear walls! joined at or near their edges to form a #ertical tube.<02" Be went on to demonstrate that treating concrete in compression as a structural system capable of resisting lateral forces in any direction by cantile#ering from the foundation"H Closely spaced interconnected e2terior columns form the tube" Bori$ontal loads! for e2ample wind! are supported by the structure as a whole" 'bout half the e2terior surface is a#ailable for windows" Cramed tubes allow fewer interior columns! and so create more usable floor space" =here larger openings like garage doors are re(uired! the tube frame must be interrupted! with transfer girders used to maintain structural integrity" The first building to apply the tube.bracing! which reduced the lateral load on the building by transferring the load into the e2terior columns" This allowed for a reduced need for interior columns thus creating more floor space! and can be seen in the Fohn Bancock Center" The first sky lobby was also designed by 7han for the Fohn Bancock Center in .rise construction! though possible from the late .frame construction was in the De=itt.20th century Fohn Cleetwood Baker went on to de#elop the plasticity theory of structures! pro#iding a powerful tool for the safe design of steel structures" Bigh.<th century onwards! was greatly ad#anced during the second half of the 20th century" Ca$lur 7han designed structural systems that remain fundamental to many modern high rise constructions and which he employed in his structural designs for the Fohn Bancock Center in ." .<:<" 0ater buildings with sky lobbies include the =orld Trade Center! P+T9/5'8 Twin Towers and Taipei .<0D and later used the technology in a limited form in the Plougastel Bridge in Crance in .<-0 when Professor Bardy Cross de#eloped his *oment distribution method! allowing the real stresses of many comple2 structures to be appro2imated (uickly and accurately" n the of reinforced concrete beams in .elastic&! and many different #ariations on the model for stress distributions in concrete in compression" Prestressed concrete! pioneered by +ugNne Creyssinet with a patent in .<:< and 8ears Tower in .0.<-0" Be went on to build si2 prestressed concrete bridges across the *arne 9i#er! firmly establishing the technology" 8tructural engineering theory was again ad#anced in .D<<! and +mil *Mrsch impro#ed this in .

T*e Petrona( To+er Ta 'e !. a tool to design structures with discontinuities such as corners and joints! pro#iding another powerful tool for the analysis of comple2 concrete geometries" n the late 20th and early centuries the de#elopment of powerful computers has allowed finite element analysis to become a significant tool for structural analysis and design" The de#elopment of finite element programs has led to the ability to accurately predict the stresses in comple2 structures! and allowed great ad#ances in structural engineering design and architecture" n the .! -or&d Trade Center n .<D7 FMrg 8chlaich and 7urt 8chafer published the culmination of almost ten years of work on the strut and tie method for concrete analysis .<:0s and 70s computational analysis was used in a significant way for the first time on the design of the 8ydney /pera Bouse roof" *any modern structures could not be understood and designed without the use of computational analysis" De#elopments in the understanding of materials and structural beha#iour in the latter part of the 20th century ha#e been significant! with detailed understanding being de#eloped of topics such as fracture mechanics! earth(uake engineering! composite materials! temperature effects on materials! dynamics and #ibration control! fatigue! creep and others" The depth and breadth of knowledge now a#ailable in structural engineering! and the increasing range of different structures and the increasing comple2ity of those structures has led to increasing specialisation of structural engineers" Concrete! unlike any other structural building material! allows the architects and engineers to choose not only its mode of production! but its material properties as well" =hen architects and engineers call for a concrete structural system! they must also specify a multitude of #ariables! such as its strength! durability! forming techni(ues! hardening characteristics! nature and e2tent of reinforcement! aesthetics and much more" 's a result! the field of concrete tall building construction is rapidly changing and its limits are constantly being tested and stretched" The introduction of composite construction to tall tubular buildings! first concei#ed and used by Ca$lur 7han of 8kidmore! /wings K *errill %8/*& in the .

200 BC ha#e been found with polished! lime.Q" Current frame of reference tends toward a comparison between the history of concrete and its use in tall buildings and that of the 9oman6s of primiti#e concrete buildings" n the early centuries as now! time! money and human ability were important factors in choosing building materials P2Q" 8kill was re(uired for building that may ha#e been difficult to identify within large groups of sla#e laborers" Projects in#ol#ing elaborate arches and utilitarian structures were supplemented in their strength by bricks and left.rises" 8teel rolling mills were then establishing their standard shapes! which were later to become the foundation of the skeleton steel design for skyscrapers" Disco#ery in a modern sense of reinforced concrete actually occurred during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries" =ilkinson of 5ew Castle! +ngland! CranIois Bennebi(ue of Crance! and Thaddeus Byatt of 'merica are some who greatly contributed to its de#elopment in the .twentieth centuries with men like *onier! Bennebi(ue! 9ansome and Talbot" Techni(ues of concrete for the design and construction of buildings ha#e been used by architects and engineers like Crank 0loyd =right! Pier 0uigi 5er#i! 9obert *aillart and! more recently! Ca$lur 7han" /f course! application with regard to high.DDG! +" 0" 9ansome6s patented twisted bars for greater bond is the precursor for our current deformed bars" .<:0s! has pa#ed the way for supertall composite buildings like the Petronas Towers and the Fin *ao building in the present era" Tra#elling through time! one learns that the art of proportioning of concrete was known to the 9oman builders and the Pharaohs of +gypt in a primiti#e way" *ost current research and de#elopment occurred in the mid.<th century" n .D7: Centennial +2position in Philadelphia" =hile there were no skyscrapers or e#en structures that resembled them at the e2position! there were in the construction of the buildings and in the e2hibitions many of the seeds that germinated and took roots under the (uickening impulse that the e2position furnished" Portland cement! while known for some time and used in concrete and in mortar for brickwork below grade! was imported from +ngland! but was hardly employed in the masonry walls of the superstructure" 8pecimens of reinforced concrete were e2hibited at the Centennial as a usual curiosity in the field of specific possibilities! but as yet unrecogni$ed for any general use! although a few obscure but ad#enturous leaders had begun to catch the #ision" This was! howe#er! the era of bridge building! not high.concrete floors and surfaces of hard! colored plaster" +#en earlier during the 5eolithic period! builders knew Hburning of limestone! slaking the lime! mi2ing the mortar! spreading the concrete! and finishing the surfaceH forms as they attempted to economi$e and conser#e skilled labor P-Q" =ith the decline of the 9oman +mpire! society lost the ability to mold the ingredients into cementitious materials" /nly ruins e2ist as a testament to 9oman ingenuity and the history of concrete" The use of concrete was lost for centuries until disco#ered again in the nineteenth century and put to work as a workhorse for large warehouses! apartment buildings and factories" The baseline from which to measure the history and de#elopment of the skyscraper is the ..rise structures is the most recent! and each of these people had a hand in the de#elopment and use of concrete as it e2ists today in #arious forms" . to late.$ Ear&) * (tor) 8upertall buildings are a relati#ely recent addition to the history of the cities around the world" Technology of the nineteenth century made their de#elopment possible" 8teel! concrete and masonry materials ha#e e2isted for a long time in the history of ci#ili$ation but not in such a configuration" *asonry is the oldest material" Concrete in its present form is the youngest of these three basic structural materials of construction" 9esearch shows that early societies used lime as a binding element in mortar" These included the Phoenicians and their colonies! Cyprus in *ycaenae! *inoan Crete! +gypt and *esopotamia" 8tructures from as early as .nineteenth and early..

rise apartment buildings were considered appropriate uses of concrete" 't first! e2terior walls were load bearing with beams! columns and floor systems built to imitate those of steel and wood! two popular systems of the time" These applications did not! howe#er! utili$e concrete to its fullest potential" Between . resistant material through its use in factories and pro#iding sustenance during fires in those facilities" '" /" +l$ner! in a .no steel" t consists merely of bars embedded in concrete! with the ends interlaced! making actually a complete concrete monolith of the entire building! co#ered on the e2terior with a #eneer from four to si2 inches thick of white marble for the lower three stories! gla$ed gray brick for the ne2t ele#en! and gla$ed white terra cotta for the top story and cornice " " " There are no shrinkage cracks and the building %has sustained& the highest winds! there is not e#en a perceptible tremor! and that too with concrete walls only eight inches thick in unbroken slabs si2teen feet s(uare! a portion of which on the second floor carries a bank #ault weighing nearly a hundred tons"H 1$ Inno%at on n Con(truct on Tec*no&o2) .< '" /" +l$ner" nitial speculation by the news media and many skeptics in the construction profession predicted that once shoring was remo#ed! the building would crack and crumble under its own weight or through shrinkage during curing" /ne news reporter stayed awake all night waiting for the e#ent in order to be the first to pro#ide news co#erage of such a catastrophe" Cortunately! they were pro#en wrong for the building remained standing" =hen first designed! tremendous city fires around the world had destroyed numerous steel tall buildings" The steel literally became ribbons when subjected to high heat! which concerned many at the time" Concrete was pro#ing itself to be an e2cellent fire.rise apartment buildings" 0ike steel! it could also soar toward the sky" /$ F r(t Concrete S0)(cra'er The history of concrete high.story concrete HskyscraperH built in .<0G article! mentioned the additional benefits of concrete o#er steel3 concrete His considerably cheaper" 8teel re(uires a great amount of capital and e(uipment and money to operate a steel plant" 0ong hauls and hea#y freight bills are also in#ol#edH PGQ" n addition! the schedule for completion was tight and concrete construction could begin well in ad#ance of deli#ery of steel to the site" +l$ner PGQ further wrote about the building3 HThe structure is a concrete bo2 of DH walls! with concrete floors and roof! concrete beams! concrete columns! concrete stairs.n .rise truly belongs to the realm of the twentieth century" +" 0" 9ansome6s system of casting s(uare! twisted! steel bars with concrete as a frame with slabs and concrete e2terior walls was used in the ngalls Building in Cincinnati! /hio! the first . and .in.<0G! the first technical bulletin! HTests of 9einforced Concrete Beams!H was published by 9obert Talbot of the Jni#ersity of llinois at Jrbana.Champaign following his testing of concrete in its ci#il engineering laboratories" 's materials testing continued to impro#e! built forms of reinforced concrete systems were witnessed both in +urope and the Jnited 8tates" Cactories! warehouses! residential houses and floors and columns" Precast systems were initially popular making erection (uicker and more efficient as well as a#oiding cold weather problems" These two inno#ations changed the e2terior walls from ones that carried their own loads to ones that bore integrally with the rest of the system" This created an ability to use concrete as the framing with a curtain wall sealing the building from e2ternal forces P-Q" 'nother inno#ation! which led the construction industry away from its traditional construction techni(ues of imitating steel and wood! was 9obert *aillart6s use of the floor slab instead of beams and girders to carry loads" These breakthroughs! along with concrete6s ability to resist fire! carry hea#y loads! and dampen noise! made it a good choice for factory and apartment buildings at the turn of the century" The difficulty for in#entors was then to con#ince the public that its uses went beyond low.<0.A.<02! 9ansome first patented a system with an e2terior belt course to hold up walls from stories abo#e" Be also de#eloped the first precast wall units that were placed integrally with cast.

site mi2ers! which had been de#eloped in the ..*uch of the technological change in concrete construction was in the first half of the 20th century" 'd#ances in formwork! mi2ing of concrete! techni(ues for pumping! and types of admi2tures to impro#e (uality ha#e all contributed to the ease of working with concrete in high.-! it was e2ecuted using open trucks" 8ince segregation occurred on the way to the site! remi2ing was always necessary" 'ctual means of transporting the (uantities needed for such an enormous job as a high.hand with this concern came the challenge of material placement in large (uantities" Technology remained primiti#e and stagnant in this area until the project entails by a transit.200 ft %-:: m&" Pumping is limited by the plastic (ualities of concrete! the type of pump a#ailable and the piping needed to carry the product up to the desired le#el" Cor such great heights! a high.<:0s when hydraulically powered and controlled pumps were first de#eloped and mounted on a truck for mobile ser#ice" Crom here! techni(ues impro#ed continually till now when pumping of concrete is considered e#en for small jobs" n recent years! concrete pumping has reached new heights" The builders for the Fin *ao Building in 8hanghai! China! boast of pumping high strength concrete as high as .mi2 #ehicle was not a#ailable until after .reat thought must be gi#en to the properties of concrete and how it will react when pressure is applied in a pipe" 'll these factors demanded inno#ations in concrete technology" 3$ Ad%ance( n Structura& S)(tem( .<G7! the first Hhydraulically dri#en truck.dri#en! on.hollow screw jack! hydraulic jack and pneumatic jack.are used worldwide to HslipH formwork for a wall section to higher le#els as the concrete cures" The screw jack is manually operated and used in areas of the world where mechani$ation is limited" The hydraulic and pneumatic jacks are fully automated mo#ing continuously as concrete is pumped into place" Fump forms are another type of concrete formwork! which mo#es as concrete cures to create a reusable! economic system" Fump forms also ha#e a lifting mechanism but it is used differently from that of the continuous pours made with slip.forms! slip forms! and jump forms" Clying forms or table forms are rental items" They are built in HtypicalH span lengths in order to pro#ide continual reuse in a #ariety of jobs" The assemblage is made of fiberglass pan forms! steel trusses and purlins! and plywood! which are mo#ed as a unit pro#iding the base for a floor slab" 'fter concrete placement and when it is determined that the strength of concrete has reached an appropriate maturity! the forms are remo#ed! cleaned and HflownH with a crane to the ne2t le#el of a building for reuse" 8lip forms are another type of early remo#al system using materials! which are continuously reemployed" Three types of jacks.pressure unit is needed" .rise construction" Formwork: The most efficient construction coordination plan for a tall building is one that allows formwork to be reused multiple times" Traditionally! formwork was made of wood but as technology has ad#anced! the forms ha#e become a combination of wood! steel! aluminium! fiberglass and plastic! to name only a few materials" +ach set may be self.<20" n .forming" These are designed to swing away from the structure %like a door opening& for cleaning and oiling with subse(uent reattaching to the wall as it increases in height" Delivery Systems: =hile the history of concrete as a material is long! its use in tall buildings was partially curtailed because of difficult deli#ery systems" Cor the construction of the ngalls Building! the ingredients of concrete were brought to the site and stored on the basement floor" Blending of materials was accomplished mechanically by power.mi2ersH were introduced in the scene" Deli#ery of concrete had been an issue for tall buildings and other large projects" Band.<.supporting with trusses attached to the e2terior or may need additional shoring to support it in appropriate locations" 5ew additions to the family of forms include flying.DD0s" =hen transport began in .

<G0! may be described as #ertical! cantile#ered beams! which resist lateral wind and seismic loads acting on a building transmitted to them by the floor diaphragms" 9einforced concrete6s ability to dampen #ibration and pro#ide mass to a building makes it a good choice of materials" These elements are a #ariety of shapes such as! circular! cur#ilinear! o#al!! triangular or rectilinear" *any times! a shear wall e2ists as a core..load bearing system" Concrete6s (uality of sound absorption makes it suitable for use in hotels and apartment buildings to reduce the transfer of noises from unit to unit" . and a holding internal ser#ices like ele#ators! janitor6s closets! stairwells and storage areas" 8ometimes they ser#e e2ternal functions as a diagonal bracing system" =hen carefully planned! these walls may be used as partitions in a structure ser#ing as both a gra#ity.uses as limited natural resources! the e2pense! time and stresses of commuting draw people back into the city center" Bence! architects and engineers are returning to the challenges of structural design to accommodate people6s total daily life" n addition to the past needs of storefronts! offices and apartments! parking is a major consideration in any new structure within the city" Considering structure alone! there are two main categories for high." 8hear walls! first used in .use issues and allowed new forms of tall buildings! which could accommodate wider column spacing desired by businessmen PAQ" n recent years! the trend is returning to mi2ed.structures that resist gra#ity and lateral loads and those that carry primarily gra#ity loads" 8ince skyscrapers ha#e the largest needs for resisting high magnitudes of wind! the lateral load resisting system becomes the most important" =hen reinforced concrete was first introduced as a building material! there were limitations on the heights that those buildings could reach" 8tructural engineers ha#e gradually learned more about the properties of concrete and the structural systems" Ca$lur 7han re#olutioni$ed the design of tall buildings in both steel and concrete when he proposed his well.rise buildings.known system charts for tall buildings P:!7Q" The concrete systems that are suitable for different ranges of number of stories are shown in Cig".floor heights in the apartment areas were possible since they could be accommodated by a flat plate design" /ffices needed grid or pan systems co#ered by drop ceilings to allow B@'C and electrical systems to be deli#ered to desired locations within each s(uare" 's the automobile became a transportation reality! people mo#ed to the suburban areas and commuted to the city for work" This eliminated most mi2ed.The issues in#ol#ed with structural design and technology are ones of both natural and human implications" ' structure must be designed to carry gra#ity! wind! e(uipment and snow1 resist high or low temperatures and #ibrations1 protect against e2plosions1 and absorb noises" 'dding to this the human factor means considering rentable spaces! owner needs! aesthetics! cost! safety and comfort" 'lthough one set is not mutually e2clusi#e of the other! careful planning and consideration are essential in an attempt to satisfy and integrate both" /#er the history of tall building structures! the changes in technology ha#e been tremendous" Part of this comes from the daily strategies of human li#ing" n the early years of skyscrapers! urban centers included mostly structures with a storefront ne2t to the street! offices in the stories immediately abo#e! and! finally in the upper le#els! apartments for city dwellers" These types of buildings were difficult to arrange to take total ad#antage of structural and mechanical systems" /ffices needed large open spaces with large loads from mechanical and electrical systems" The li#ing (uarters! with their more intimate spaces! needed closer column spacing! and had fewer #ents and wires re(uired to meet needs of comfort" 8hallow floor.

column framing" They carry the gra#ity loads that are imposed on the floor system" The floors also function as hori$ontal diaphragm elements that transfer lateral forces to the girders and columns" n addition! the girders resist high moments and shears at the ends of their lengths! which are! in turn! transferred to the column system" 's a result! columns and beams can become (uite large" ' combined system called shear wall.dimensional structural space" =indow openings usually co#er about A0R of e2terior wall surface" 0arger openings such as retail store and garage entries are accommodated by large transfer girders! albeit disrupting the tubular beha#ior of the structure locally at that location" The tubular concept is both structurally and architecturally applicable to concrete buildings as is e#ident from the De=itt.F 2$ ! 4 Concrete systems that are suitable for different ranges of number of stories *oment.column or slab.column framing in the building #ia rigid floor diaphragms" ' framed tube structure is a new addition to the structural systems" 7han is generally credited with its in#ention in the .like structural system capable of resisting lateral forces in any direction by cantile#ering from the foundation"H The tubular structure operates as an inherently stiffened three.frame interaction system first seriously studied by Ca$lur 7han PDQ was a milestone in the de#elopment of taller concrete buildings" n this system! a central core or dispersed shear walls interact with the remaining beam.resisting frames are structures ha#ing the traditional beam.<:0s" t is defined as P<Q3 Ha three dimensional space structure composed of three! four! or possibly more frames! braced frames! or shear walls! joined at or near their edges to form a #ertical tube.Chestnut 'partment building %Cig" 2& in Chicago completed in .<:A! the first known building engineered as a tube by 7han" .dimensional framework where the entire building works to resist o#erturning moments" Tubes can encompass shear walls! columns and beams attempting to make them act as one unit" The main feature of a tube is closely spaced e2terior columns connected by deep spandrels that form a spatial skeleton and are ad#antageous for resisting lateral loads in a three. interaction principle" and bundled tubes" The framed or bo2ed tube is the one most likely associated with the initial definition gi#en abo#e" The De=itt.0Q" .Chestnut 'partment building in Chicago is a framed tube" ' braced tube is three dimensionally braced or a trussed system" ts uni(ue feature is that members ha#e a2ial but little or no fle2ural deformation" The /nterie Center %Cig"-& in Chicago is an e2ample of such a system in concrete" The Fohn Bancock Center in Chicago! on the other hand! is a remarkable e2ample of this system in steel" Tubular core walls could either carry full lateral load or they may interact with frames" The Brunswick Building %Cig" G& in Chicago is an e2ample where the core walls interact with the e2terior frame comprising closely spaced columns" This gi#es the building a tube.F 2$ .tube building" Bundled tubes are used in #ery large structures as a way of decreasing the surface area for wind resistance and creating intimate spaces for apartment rentals" *ultiple tubes share internal and adjoining columns depending on their adjacencies" /ne Peachtree Center in 'tlanta is an e2ample of a concrete bundled tube design" 8imilarly! the /ne *agnificent *ile building %Cig" :& in Chicago is another e2ample" The 8ears Tower is one of steel but probably the most well known in this category of tubular configuration" Details of these and other concrete tall buildings designed by 7han can be seen in 'li appearance although it was designed using the shear is a system with framed tube! an e2ternal and internal shear wall core! which act together in resisting the lateral resisting loads" /ne 8hell Pla$a %Cig" A& in Bouston is a tube.Chestnut 'partment building in Chicago F 2$ / 4 The /nterie Center in Chicago 8e#eral configurations of tubes e2ist3 framed! braced! solid core. 4 tubes! tube.

F 2$ 1 4 The Brunswick Building in Chicago F 2$ 5 4 /ne 8hell Pla$a in Bouston F 2$ 3 4 /ne *agnificent *ile building in Chicago Choosing a structural system is #ery comple2 in today6s market" n the years of the ngall6s Building! one system of post.and.<:0 ha#e been mostly in new systems such as the tubes and composite construction" The challenge for engineers and architects today is to make all the systems work together to their ma2imum capacity and create a habitable en#ironment for the people within the built structure" .beam construction e2isted" Concrete6s formwork was comple2 but putting the building together was not as comple2 as today6s systems" De#elopments in the world of concrete since .

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