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CHAPTER 7 SITE EXPLORATION

Conceptual Problems
Problem 7-1 Define all the terms in bold contained in the chapter summary.
SOLUTION:
No solution provided.
End

Problem 7-2 A 55-story, residential building will be built at a beach-front, 60 m 40 m


property. The subsurface is typical of barrier island geology in this area: a very loose
sand layer on top of sandstone. Foundations usually consist of piles or piled rafts with
the piles bearing on the sandstone. Develop a site investigation plan for this site.
SOLUTION:

60m
30m
20m
40m

S-Figure 7-1

The site investigation can be started with eight borings as shown in S-Figure 7-1,
six of which would be near the corners of the area. The borings are located schematically,

and corner borings should more properly be enar the corners of the loaded area of the
property. All the borings should extend into the sandstone layer. The termination criteria
should be decided based on the local standard (or based on the RQD and recovery ratio).
Rock cores should be collected and preserved properly for future reference. SPTs and
CPTs are suggested for the sand layer. Some CPTs can be performed next to the borings,
others in between.

If large scatter or unexepected variations are found between any two

borings, additional borings should be done to reduce the uncertainty for that part of the
property.
End

Problem 7-3 A 30-story office building will be built at a 30 m 40 m property. The


geology of the area is residual soil of gneiss extending to depths ranging from 10-20 m
(this depth can vary significantly across short distances because of the nature of the
banding in gneiss). Sound rock (gneiss) is located at that depth. There are occasionally
large boulders found at shallow depths. For large buildings, piles to rock are usually used.
Develop a site investigation plan for this site.
SOLUTION:

20m

20m

15m

15m

S-Figure 7-2
The site investigation can be started with nine borings as shown in the S-Figure
7-2. The borings are located schematically, and corner borings should more properly be
enar the corners of the loaded area of the property. All the borings should extend into the
sound rock (gneiss) layer. Rock cores should be collected to ensure soundness of the rock
if any doubts exist and preserved properly for reference during the pile design stage.
SPTs and CPTs are suggested. The locations of the CPTs should be selected to minimize
the chances of encountering large boulders. If large scatter or unexepected variations are
found between any two borings, additional borings should be done to reduce the
uncertainty for that part of the property.
End

Quantitative Problems
Problem 7-4 A vane shear test was performed at a point within a clay layer. The
maximum moment required to rotate the vane, which had a diameter of 60 mm and a

height of 120 mm, was measured as 70Nm. The vane was fully inserted in the soil.
What is the undrained shear strength of the clay?
SOLUTION:
Vane diameter B = 60mm
Vane height H = 120 mm = 2B
Maximum moment required to rotate the vane T = 70N.m
The undrained shear strength su of the clay from a vane shear test (when H = 2B)
is given by
su =

12T
; n =2, for fully inserted vane
B (12 + n )

su =

12 70 103
kPa = 88.5 88 kPa answer
3.14 (0.06)3 (12 + 2 )

End

Problem 7-5 If a cone penetration test were performed next to the vane shear test of
Problem 7-4, which was performed at a depth of 5 m, what value of cone resistance
would you expect? The water table is at the surface and the clay has a unit weight of 17
kN/m3. Use Nk = 12.
SOLUTION:
From Eq. (7.22), we obtain cone resistance:
qc = N ksu + v
Now, we calculate total vertical stress at a depth of 5m.

v = 17 5 = 85kPa

Using Nk=12 for clay layer and su=88.5kPa from Problem 7-4, we can estimate
cone resistance at a depth of 5m:
q c = 12 88.5 + 85 = 1147kPa 1.15MPa answer
End
Problem 7-6 A CPT was performed in a deposit of soft clay with the water table at a
depth of 1 m. The cone resistance at a depth of 10 m was equal to 0.6 MPa. What is the
minimum and maximum value of su of the clay at what depth would expect based on the
range of values possible for Nk? The unit weight of this clay is 17 kN/m3.
SOLUTION:
We will consider the clay layer to be fully saturated due to capillary rise.
We can calculate the total stress at 10m as:

v = sat z = 17 10 = 170kPa

Nk values range from 10 to no more than 15. We can calculate su from Eq. (7.22):

qc = N k su + v

q v
su = c
Nk

Using Nk = 10 and 15, v = 170kPa and qc = 600kPa in this equation produce


maximum and minimum value of su equal to 43 and 29 kPa.

End

Problem 7-7 The results of SPT tests performed with an automatic trip hammer using the
standard ASTM split spoon sampler with a liner are shown in the following table. The
borehole diameter was within the recommended range. The soil profile consists of a
normally consolidated sand with unit weight equal to 20 kN/m3. The water table is
located at 4.5 m below the ground surface. Estimate the relative density DR and the peak
friction angle p at depths where SPT measurements are available. Use Eq. (7.6) with Eq.
(7.8) to estimate DR, and use Fig. 7-14 to estimate p. You may use the following table to
guide your calculations.

Depth (m)

NSPT

25

30

35

Ch

Cr

N60

v' (kPa)

SOLUTION:
For an automatic trip hammer ERhammer = 80 %
Thus, C h =

ER hammer 80
=
= 1.33
ER safety
60

DR

p (deg)

Following Eq. (7.3), for 4m rod length < 6m, Cr = 0.85; and for rod length = 6m,
Cr = 0.95.
Standard ASTM split spoon sampler with a liner was used and the borehole
diameter was within the recommended range, so Cd = 1 and Cs = 1. Now N60 can be
calculated using Eq. (7.1) as
N 60 = Ch Cd Cr Cs NSPT
at 4m, N60 = (1.33)(1)(0.85)(1)25 = 28.3
at 5m, N60 = (1.33)(1)(0.85)(1)30 = 33.9
at 6m, N60 = (1.33)(1)(0.95)(1)35 = 44.2
Following Eq. (7.6)
DR
=
100%

N 60
A + BC

' v
pA

where, A = 36.5, B = 27, pA = 100 kPa.


Following Eq. (7.8)
C=

K0
; and so for a normally consolidated sand C = 1.
K 0,NC

Unit weight of the sand = 20kN/m3. Water table is at a depth of 4.5m from the
ground surface. Now, the effective vertical stresses at different depths will be
at 4m, v = 4(20) = 80 kPa
at 5m, v = 5(20) 0.5(9.81) = 95.1 kPa
at 6m, v = 6(20) 1.5(9.81) = 105.3 kPa.
From the above mentioned equation, relative densities of the sand deposit at
different depths are calculated as 69.8% (at 4m), 73.8% (at 5m), and 82.5% (at 6m).answer

The peak friction angles at those depths are 45.5, 46, and 47.5

answer

(read from

the chart of Figure 7-13).


S-Table 7-1

Depth
NSPT

Ch

Cr

N60

v (kPa)

DR (%)

p (deg)

25

1.33

0.85

28.3

80

69.8

45.5

30

1.33

0.85

33.9

95.1

73.8

46

35

1.33

0.95

44.2

105.3

82.5

47.5

(m)

End
Problem 7-8 Table 7-8 has SPT blow counts obtained at intervals of 1 m at a sandy site.
A donut hammer and a liner sampler without the liner were used. Every care was taken to
connect the rod segments firmly and to follow standard procedure. The water table is at a
depth of 3 m, and the site is lightly overconsolidated because approximately 2 m of soil
of unit weight approximately equal to 17 kN/m3 were removed before the SPT was
performed. The K0 of this soil in a normally consolidated state would be 0.48. Calculate
the corresponding stress-normalized, energy-corrected blow counts (N1)60.
Table 7-8 SPT blow counts for Problem 7-8.
Depth (m)

SPT blow count

15

18

22

23

25

28

SOLUTION:
For a donut hammer, ERhammer = 45 %
Thus, C h =

ER hammer 45
=
= 0.75
ER safety
60

Following Eq. (7.3), for rod length < 4m, Cr = 0.75; for 4m rod length < 6m, Cr
= 0.85; and for rod length = 6m, Cr = 0.95.
A liner sampler without a liner was used and the borehole diameter was within the
recommended range, so Cd = 1 and Cs = 1.2. Now N60 can be calculated using Eq. (7.1)
as
N 60 = Ch Cd Cr Cs NSPT
at 1m, N60 = (0.75)(1)(0.75)(1.2)15 = 10.1
at 2m, N60 = (0.75)(1)(0.75)(1.2)18 = 12.2
at 3m, N60 = (0.75)(1)(0.75)(1.2)22 = 14.9
at 4m, N60 = (0.75)(1)(0.85)(1.2)23 = 17.6
at 5m, N60 = (0.75)(1)(0.85)(1.2)25 = 19.1
at 6m, N60 = (0.75)(1)(0.95)(1.2)28 = 23.9

Now, we need to normalize these values using (7.5):

( N1 )60 = N 60

p A K 0,NC
'v K 0

For us to do that, we need the K0 value, from which we obtain (4.35):

K 0 = K 0,NC OCR

As an illustrative example, let us calculate (N1)60 at z = 4m.

'v = 17kN / m3 3m + (17 9.81)kN / m 3 1m = 58.2kPa


'v0 = 'v + ' = 58.2kPa + 17kN / m3 2m = 92.2kPa
OCR =

'v0 92.2
=
= 1.58
'v 58.2

K 0 = K 0,NC OCR = 0.48 1.58 = 0.60

( N1 )60 = 17.6

100 0.48
= 20.6
58.2 0.60

Similarly, we obtain the following table.

S-Table 7-2

'v (kPa) 'v0 (kPa)

Depth (m)

NSPT

N60

15

10.1

17

18

12.2

22

OCR

K0

(N1)60

51

0.83

18.6

34

68

0.68

17.6

14.9

51

85

1.67

0.62

18.4

23

17.6

58.2

92.2

1.58

0.60

20.6

25

19.1

65.4

99.4

1.52

0.59

21.3

28

23.9

72.6

106.6

1.47

0.58

25.5

End

Problem 7-9 The cone resistance for a clean sand at 6 m has been measured at 11 MPa.
The average total unit weight of the soil column above 6 m is 21 kN/m3. The water table
is 3 m below the surface. The soil is normally consolidated, with K0 = 0.45. The soil has

c = 30. Estimate the relative density of the sand at 6 m.


SOLUTION:
Following Eq. (7.20)

q
'
ln c 0.4947 0.1041c 0.841ln h
p
pA
DR = A
'

0.0264 0.0002c 0.0047 ln h
pA
Effective vertical stress at depth 6m

v = 6(21)-3(9.81) = 96.6kPa.
h = 0.45(96.6) = 43.5kPa.
pA = reference stress = 100kPa.
Given that, for the clean sand, c = 30 ,

11
43.5
ln
0.4947 0.1041 30 0.841ln

0.1
100 = 73% answer
DR =
43.5
0.0264 0.0002 30 0.0047 ln

100
End

Problem 7-10 For the sand deposit and conditions of Problem 5-12 and Problem 5-13,
estimate and plot the cone resistance qc as a function of depth for the depth range 0-10 m.
Plot also the ratio of the small-strain shear modulus G0 to qc.
SOLUTION:
From the solution of Problem 5-12, we know the variation of relative density
along depth. Now cone resistance values can be related to relative densit according to
'
qc
= 1.64 exp 0.1041c + ( 0.0264 0.0002c ) DR h
pA
pA

0.841 0.0047D R

For example, at a depth of 1m, DR = 61.5%, and vertical stress

'v = 1 22 = 22kPa . Given that K0 = 0.45 for this deposit, the horizontal stress at 1m
'h = 0.45 22 = 9.9kPa . The reference stress is pA = 100kPa. So the cone resistance
value at 1m depth can be calculated as:

0.841 0.004761.5

9.9

q c = 100 1.64 exp 0.1041 30 + ( 0.0264 0.0002 30 ) 61.5

100

= 3645kPa

Now from the solution of Problem 5-13, G0 at a depth of 1m is equal to


40970.8kPa. So

G 0 40971
=
= 11.2 .
qc
3645

The same procedure is repeated for all other depths, and the result is tabulated in
S-Table 7-3.
S-Table 7-3

Depth(z)
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5
10

'v (kPa)
11
22
33
44
55
66
77
88
99
110
121
132
143
154
165
176
187
198
209
220

'h (kPa)
5
9.9
14.9
19.8
24.8
29.7
34.7
39.6
44.6
49.5
54.5
59.4
64.4
69.3
74.3
79.2
84.2
89.1
94.1
99

DR (%)
60.75
61.5
62.25
63
63.75
64.5
65.25
66
66.75
67.5
68.25
69
69.75
70.5
71.25
72
72.75
73.5
74.25
75

qc(kPa)
2436
3644.6
4668.9
5572.5
6428.6
7227.9
8009.8
8756.6
9497.9
10214.5
10931.5
11629.8
12331.8
13019
13711.9
14392.5
15080.2
15757.5
16442.8
17119.2

G0 (kPa)
29918.2
40970.8
49412.1
56593.1
62829.2
68401.7
73755.8
78575.7
83347.2
87744.4
91953
96131.2
100050.9
103998.4
107700.2
111308.3
115049.5
118463.1
122082.7
125377.2

G0/qc
12.3
11.2
10.6
10.2
9.8
9.5
9.2
9
8.8
8.6
8.4
8.3
8.1
8
7.9
7.7
7.6
7.5
7.4
7.3

Depth (m)

10

10
G0/qc

12

14

S-Figure 7-3
End

Problem 7-11 For the sand deposit and conditions of Problem 5-14 and Problem 5-15,
estimate and plot the cone resistance qc as a function of depth for the depth range 0-10 m.
Plot also the ratio of the small-strain shear modulus G0 to qc.

SOLUTION:
This solution will follow the same procedure as that of Problem 7-10. In this case
due to presence of high water table, the effective stresses at different depths will be less,
which in turn will affect the cone resistance values.
For example, at a depth of 1m, the vertical stress 'v = 1 ( 22 9.81) = 12.2kPa .
Given that K0 = 0.45 for this deposit, horizontal stress at 1m 'h = 0.45 12.2 = 5.5kPa .
pA = 100kPa (refernce stress). So the cone resistance value at 1m depth can be calculated
as
0.841 0.004761.5

5.5

q c = 100 1.64 exp 0.1041 30 + ( 0.0264 0.0002 30 ) 61.5

100

= 2634.8kPa

Now, from the solution of Problem 5-15, G0 at a depth of 1m is equal to 31408


kPa. So

G 0 31407.9
=
= 11.9 .
qc
2634.8

The same procedure is repeated for all other depths, and the result is tabulated in
the following table.

S-Table 7-4

Depth(z)
0.5

'v (kPa)
6.1

'h (kPa)
2.7

DR (%)
60.75

qc(kPa)
1729.9

G0 (kPa)
22727.1

G0/qc
13.1

12.2

5.5

61.5

2634.8

31407.9

11.9

1.5

18.3

8.2

62.25

3364.8

37911.8

11.3

24.4

11

63

4045.3

43440.1

10.7

2.5

30.5

13.7

63.75

4662.2

48127.2

10.3

36.6

16.5

64.5

5268.8

52481.6

10

3.5

42.7

19.2

65.25

5838.3

56509.5

9.7

48.8

22

66

6409.7

60274.6

9.4

4.5

54.9

24.7

66.75

6955.2

63948.6

9.2

61

27.5

67.5

7507.9

67334

5.5

67

30.2

68.25

8040.8

70499

8.8

73.1

32.9

69

8570.3

73685.7

8.6

6.5

79.2

35.6

69.75

9097.4

76637.3

8.4

85.3

38.4

70.5

9636.1

79717.1

8.3

7.5

91.4

41.1

71.25

10161.3

82569.5

8.1

97.5

43.9

72

10698.9

85349

8.5

103.6

46.6

72.75

11224.9

88169.5

7.9

109.7

49.4

73.5

11763.9

90832.7

7.7

9.5

115.8

52.1

74.25

12292.7

93562.4

7.6

10

121.9

54.9

75

12835

96132.1

7.5

Depth (m)

10

10
G0/qc

12

14

S-Figure 7-4
End

Design Problems
Problem 7-12 An SPT log is given in Fig. 7-43. The SPT was performed with a safety
hammer using the standard ASTM split spoon sampler with a liner. The borehole

diameter is within the recommended range. The sand is normally consolidated (with a K0
of approximately 0.45) and the water table is very deep. The critical-state friction angle
of this sand is approximately 32. The unit weights of the sandy clay, silty clay and sand
are equal to 17, 15, and 20 kN/m3, respectively. For the sand layer extending from 8.5 to
21 ft:
(a) Estimate the relative density DR and the peak friction angle p that would be
obtained in triaxial compression tests performed on ideal, "undisturbed" samples
recovered from the following depths where SPT measurements are available: 9.3, 11.5,
14, 16.5 and 19 ft. Use Eq. (7.6) to estimate DR and Eqs. (5.8) and (5.16) to estimate p.
Assume that you are estimating the p that would be obtained in the laboratory under
triaxial compression of a sample consolidated isotropically to the in situ mean effective
stress.
(b) Estimate p using Fig. 7-14.
Fig. 7-43 SPT log for Problem 7-12.
SOLUTION:
(a)
From Figure 7-43, the NSPT can be calculated at different depths:
at 9.3ft, NSPT = (6+6) = 12
at 11.5ft, NSPT = (12+14) = 26
at 14ft, NSPT = (7+10) = 17
at 16.5ft, NSPT = (8+12) = 20
at 19ft, NSPT = (6+7) = 13
For a safety hammer ERhammer = 60 %

Thus, C h =

ER hammer 60
=
= 1.0
ER safety
60

Following Eq. (7.3), for rod length < 4m, Cr = 0.75; and for 4m rod length < 6m,
Cr = 0.85. Standard ASTM split spoon sampler with a liner was used and the borehole
diameter was within the recommended range, so Cd = 1 and Cs = 1. Now N60 can be
calculated using Eq. (7.1) as
N 60 = Ch Cd Cr Cs NSPT
at 9.3ft (=2.83m), N60 = (1)(1)(0.75)(1)12=9
at 11.5ft (= 3.5m), N60 = (1)(1)(0.75)(1)26 = 19.5
at 14ft (= 4.3m), N60 = (1)(1)(0.85)(1)17 = 14.5
at 16.5ft (= 5.03m), N60 = (1)(1)(0.85)(1)20 = 17
at 19ft (= 5.79), N60 = (1)(1)(0.85)(1)13 = 11.1
Following Eq. (7.6)
DR
=
100%

N 60
A + BC

' v
pA

where, A = 36.5, B = 27, pA = 100 kPa.


Following Eq. (7.8)
C=

K0
; and so for a normally consolidated sand C = 1.
K 0,NC

The unit weights of the sandy clay, silty clay and sand are equal to 17, 15 and 20
kN/m3, respectively. Water table is very deep. Now, the effective vertical stresses at
different depths will be
at 9.3ft (=2.83m), v = 1.83(17)+0.76(15)+ 0.24(20) = 47.3kPa

at 11.5ft (= 3.5m), v = 1.83(17)+0.76(15)+ 0.91(20) = 60.7kPa


at 14ft (= 4.3m), v = 1.83(17)+0.76(15)+ 1.71(20) = 76.7kPa
at 16.5ft (= 5.03m), v = 1.83(17)+0.76(15)+ 2.44(20) = 91.3kPa
at 19ft (= 5.79m), v = 1.83(17)+0.76(15)+ 3.2(20) = 106.5kPa
From the above equation, relative density DR of the sand deposit at 9.3ft can be
calculated as

D R = 100

9
47.3
36.5 + 27 1
100

= 42.7%

answer to (a)

Similarly, at 11.5, 14, 16.5, and 19 ft, relative densities are


19.5

at 11.5ft (= 3.5m), D R = 100

at 14ft (= 4.3m), D R = 100

60.7
36.5 + 27 1
100
14.5
76.7
36.5 + 27 1
100

at 16.5ft (= 5.03m), D R = 100

at 19ft (= 5.79m), D R = 100

Calculation of peak friction angle p


Following Eq. (5.8),

100'mp
I R = I D Q ln
p
A

R Q

= 60.7%

= 50.3%

17
91.3
36.5 + 27 1
100
11.1

106.5
36.5 + 27 1
100

answer to (a)

answer to (a)

= 52.7%

= 41.2%

answer to (a)

answer to (a)

where Q = 10 and RQ = 1 for clean silica sand


K0 = 0.45 for the sand layer
Sample calculation at 9.3ft (=2.83m)
At 9.3ft (=2.83m), vertical effective stress
v = 1.83(17)+0.76(15)+ 0.24(20) = 47.3kPa
knowing K0 = 0.45, the horizontal effective stress

'h = 0.45 47.3 = 21.3kPa


Thus in situ mean effective stress

'm =

47.3+2 21.3
= 30kPa
3

Assume that we are estimating the p that would be obtained in the laboratory
under triaxial compression of a sample consolidated isotropically to the in-situ mean
effective stress
'
'm = 3p
= 30kPa

Assume P = 37 o .
N=

1 + sin37 o
= 4.02
1 - sin37 o

'
1p
= 30 4.02 = 120.6kPa

'mp =

'1p + 2 '3p
3

120.6 + 2 30
= 60.2kPa
3

100 60.2
I R = 0.427 10 ln
1 = 1.52
100

Following Eq. (5.10), for triaxial condition

P = c + 3I R
Considering c = 32, P = 32o + 3 1.52 = 36.6o . Clearly our assumption of peak
friction angle does not match with the calculated value. Hence we need to iterate again
using the obtained value. Finally the value of peak friction angle at this depth converges
to P = 36.6o answer to (a)
Similarly the peak friction angles at depths 11.5, 14, 16.5, and 19ft can be
calculated as 39.2, 37.2, 37.3 and 35.4 respectively. answer to (a)

(b)
As shown below, the peak friction angle at depths 9.3, 11.5, 14, 16.5, and 19ft
can be obtained from Figure 7-14 as 36, 44, 39, 39.5, and 35 respectively. answer to (b)

0.0

0.5

40
=

1.5

=30

5
=3

'v/pA

45
=

1.0

50

2.0

=25

2.5

3.0

10

20

30

40
N60

S-Figure 7-5

The results are summarized in S-Table 7-5.

50

60

70

80

S-Table 7-5

Depth
(ft)

NSPT

Cr

N60

DR (%)

(kPa)

p, equation

p, chart

(deg)

(deg)

9.3

12

0.75

47.3

42.7

36.6

36

11.5

26

0.75

19.5

60.7

60.7

39.2

44

14

17

0.85

14.5

76.7

50.3

37.2

39

16.5

20

0.85

17

91.3

52.7

37.3

39.5

19

13

0.85

11.1

106.5

41.2

35.4

35

End

Problem 7-13 Redo Problem 7-12, part (a), assuming consolidation of the sample to the
in situ vertical effective stress.
SOLUTION:
From the solution of Problem 7-12, relative densities at depth 9.3, 11.5, 14, 16.5,
and 19ft are 42.7, 60.7, 50.3, 52.7 and 41.2 % respectively. In this problem we are
assuming that the sample has been consolidated to the in-situ vertical effective stress in
the triaxial test. Thus the values of peak friction angles will be different from those
calculated in Problem 7-12. A sample calculation is shown below for depth 9.3 ft.

Calculation of peak friction angle p


Following Eq. (5.8),

100'mp
I R = I D Q ln
p

R Q

where Q = 10 and RQ = 1 for clean silica sand


Sample calculation at 9.3ft (=2.83m)
At 9.3ft (=2.83m), vertical effective stress
v = 1.83(17)+0.76(15)+ 0.24(20) = 47.3kPa
Assume that we are estimating the p that would be obtained in the laboratory
under triaxial compression of a sample consolidated isotropically to the in-situ vertical
effective stress
'
'v = 3p
= 47.3kPa

Assume P = 37 o .
N=

1 + sin37 o
= 4.02
1 - sin37 o

'
1p
= 47.3 4.02 = 190.1kPa

'mp =

'1p + 2 '3p
3

190.1 + 2 47.3
= 94.9kPa
3

100 94.9
I R = 0.427 10 ln
1 = 1.326
100

Following Eq. (5.10), for triaxial condition


P = c + 3I R
Considering c = 32, P = 32o + 3 1.326 = 36o . Clearly our assumption of peak
friction angle does not match with the calculated value. Hence we need to iterate again
using the obtained value. Finally the value of peak friction angle at this depth converges
to P = 36o answer

Similarly the peak friction angles at depths 11.5, 14, 16.5, and 19ft can be
calculated as 38.4, 36.5, 36.6 and 34.8 respectively. answer
End

Problem 7-14 Redo Problem 7-12, part (a), assuming consolidation of the sample to the
in situ horizontal effective stress.
SOLUTION:
From the solution of Problem 7-12, relative densities at depth 9.3, 11.5, 14, 16.5,
and 19ft are 42.7, 60.7, 50.3, 52.7 and 41.2 % respectively. In this problem we are
assuming that the sample has been consolidated to the in-situ horizontal effective stress in
the triaxial test. Thus the values of peak friction angles will be different from those
calculated in Problems 7-12 and 7-13. A sample calculation is shown below for depth
9.3 ft.

Calculation of peak friction angle p


Following Eq. (5.8),

100'mp
I R = I D Q ln
p

R Q

where Q = 10 and RQ = 1 for clean silica sand


K0 = 0.45 for the sand layer

At 9.3ft (=2.83m)
'
3p
= 0.45 47.3 = 21.3kPa

Assume P = 37 o .
N=

1 + sin37 o
= 4.02
1 - sin37 o

'
1p
= 21.3 4.02 = 85.6kPa

'

mp =

'1p + 2 '3p
3

85.6 + 2 21.3
= 42.7kPa
3

100 42.7
I R = 0.427 10 ln
1 = 1.667
100

Following Eq. (5.10), for triaxial condition


P = c + 3I R
Considering c = 32, P = 32o + 3 1.667 = 37.0o . It is same as the assumed value.
Therefore, we need not to iterate any further and at this depth (9.3ft) P = 37.0o answer
Similarly the peak friction angles at depths 11.5, 14, 16.5, and 19ft are 39.8, 37.7,
37.8, and 35.8 respectively. answer
End

Problem 7-15 An SPT log is given in Fig. 7-44 The SPT was performed with a safety
hammer using the standard ASTM split spoon sampler with a liner. The borehole
diameter is within the recommended range. The sand is normally consolidated, and the
water table is very deep. The unit weights of the sandy clay, silty clay, and sand are equal
to 17, 15, and 20 kN/m3, respectively. The sand has c = 30. For the sand layer extending
from 11 to 21 ft:

(a) Estimate the relative density DR and the peak friction angle p that would be
obtained in triaxial compression tests performed on ideal, undisturbed samples recovered
from the following depths where SPT measurements are available: 11.5, 14, 16.5 and 19
ft. Use Eq. (7.6) to estimate DR, and Eqs. (5.8) and (5.16) to estimate p. Assume that you
are estimating the p that would be obtained in the laboratory under triaxial compression
of a sample consolidated isotropically to the in situ mean effective stress.
(b) Estimate p using Fig. 7-14.

Fig. 7-44 SPT log for Problem 7-15


SOLUTION:
NSPT can be calculated at different depths
at 11.5ft, NSPT = (14+16) = 30
at 14ft, NSPT = (17+22) = 39
at 16.5ft, NSPT = (21+29) = 50
at 19ft, NSPT = (25+27) = 52
For a safety hammer, ERhammer = 60 %
Thus, C h =

ER hammer 60
=
= 1.0
ER safety
60

Following Eq. (7.3), for rod length < 4m, Cr = 0.75; and for 4m rod length < 6m,
Cr = 0.85. Standard ASTM split spoon sampler with a liner was used and the borehole
diameter was within the recommended range, so Cd = 1 and Cs = 1. Now N60 can be
calculated using Eq. (7.1) as
N 60 = Ch Cd Cr Cs NSPT

at 11.5ft (= 3.5m), N60 = (1)(1)(0.75)(1)30 = 22.5


at 14ft (= 4.3m), N60 = (1)(1)(0.85)(1)39 = 33.2
at 16.5ft (= 5.03m), N60 = (1)(1)(0.85)(1)50 = 42.5
at 19ft (= 5.79m), N60 = (1)(1)(0.85)(1)52 = 44.2
Following Eq. (7.6)
DR
=
100%

N 60
A + BC

' v
pA

where, A = 36.5, B = 27, pA = 100 kPa.


Following Eq. (7.8)
C=

K0
; and so for a normally consolidated sand C = 1.
K 0,NC

The unit weights of the sandy clay, silty clay and sand are equal to 17, 15 and 20
kN/m3, respectively. Water table is very deep. Now, the effective vertical stresses at
different depths will be
at 11.5ft (= 3.5m), v = 1.07(17)+1.52(20)+0.76(15)+0.15(20) = 63kPa
at 14ft (= 4.3m), v = 1.07(17)+1.52(20)+0.76(15)+0.95(20) = 79kPa
at 16.5ft (= 5.03m), v = 1.07(17)+1.52(20)+0.76(15)+1.68(20) = 93.6kPa
at 19ft (= 5.79m), v = 1.07(17)+1.52(20)+0.76(15)+2.44(20) = 108.8kPa

From the above mentioned equation, relative density DR of the sand deposit at
11.5ft can be calculated as
D R = 100

22.5
63
36.5 + 27 1
100

= 64.8%

answer to 1

Similarly, at 14, 16.5, and 19 ft, relative densities are 75.8%, 82.9%, and 81.9%
respectively. answer to 1

Calculation of peak friction angle p


Following Eq. (5.8)

100'mp
I R = I D Q ln
p
A

R Q

where Q = 10 and RQ = 1 for clean silica sand


Mean stress, 'm =
Considering
' m =

K0

' v + 2'h (1 + 2K 0 )' v


=
3
3
=

0.45

for

the

sand

layer;

at

11.5ft

depth

(1 + 2 0.45) 63
= 39.9kPa
3

Consolidation stress in triaxial test on undisturbed sample c = 39.9kPa = 3


Say p = 36, so

N P = tan 2 45o + P = tan 2 ( 45o + 18o ) = 3.85


2

'1 = N P '3 = 3.85 39.9 = 153.6kPa


'mp =

153.6 + 2 39.9
= 77.8kPa
3

100 77.8
I R ,at11.5ft = 0.648 10 ln
1 = 2.66
100

Following Eq.(5.10), for triaxial condition


P = c + 3I R

For c = 30, P at11.5 ft = 30o + 3 2.66 = 37.98o .


As the calculated value of peak friction angle does not match with the assumed
value we need further iterations.

Iteration 2
p = 37.98, NP = 4.2, mp = 82.5kPa, IR = 2.62, p = 37.86

Iteration 3
p = 37.86, NP = 4.18, mp = 82.2kPa, IR = 2.62, p = 37.86
Thus the peak friction angle at depth 11.5ft is 37.9. Similarly the peak friction
angles at depths 14, 16.5, and 19ft are 39.1, 39.8, and 39.3 respectively.answer to 1
From the chart of Figure 7-14, the peak friction angle at depths 11.5, 14, 16.5, and
19ft are 45, 46, 48, and 47.5 respectively.answer to 2
We

summarize

the

results

in

S-Table 7-6. These results illustrate the potential error in using a chart that makes no
reference to the intrinsic properties of the soil. If the critical-state friction angle of the
soil is low (perhaps because its particles are well rounded and of uniform size), then the
chart could overpredict the friction angle by several degrees.

S-Table 7-6

Depth
(ft)

NSPT

Cr

N60

DR (%)

(kPa)

p, equation

p, chart

(deg)

(deg)

11.5

30

0.75

22.5

63

64.8

37.9

45

14

39

0.85

33.2

79

75.7

39.1

46

16.5

50

0.85

42.5

93.6

82.9

39.8

48

19

52

0.85

44.2

108.8

81.9

39.3

47.5

End

Problem 7-16* Two CPTs and one SPT were performed at close proximity. Results are in
Table 7-9 and Table 7-10.
(a) For the data given, prepare plots of qc, fs and fs/qc vs. depth.
(b) Estimate the relative density DR and the peak friction angle p that would be
obtained in triaxial compression tests performed on ideal, undisturbed samples recovered
from depths equal to 6.1, 7.6, and 9.10 m using CPT-based methods. The coefficient of
lateral earth pressure is equal to 0.4 and the critical-state friction angle is equal to 36.
Use the charts of Fig. 7-26. The sand is normally consolidated and the water table is very
deep.
(c) Estimate the relative density DR and the peak friction angle p of the sand at
depths equal to 6.1, 7.6, and 9.10 m using an SPT-based method. Use Eq. (7.6) to
estimate DR and Eqs. (5.8) and (5.16) to estimate p. The SPT test was performed with a
safety hammer using the standard ASTM split spoon sampler with a liner. The borehole
diameter is within the recommended range.

(d) Compare the results obtained in (b) and (c).

Table 7-9 SPT data for Problem 7-16.


Depth (m)

Soil Type

Unit

Depth

(from borings)

Weight

(m)

NSPT

(kN/m3)
0-1.5

Clayey Silt

14

6.1

27

1.5-4.3

Sand

15

7.6

25

4.3-5.2

Silty Clay

14.5

9.1

40

5.2-14.3

Sand

19

14.3-16.8

Clayey Silt

15.5

Table 7-10 CPT data for Problem 7-16.


depth

qc

fs

fs/qc

qc

fs

fs/qc

(m)

(MPa)

(kPa)

(%)

(MPa)

(kPa)

(%)

0.05

1.29

55.87

4.3

1.5

38.39

2.6

0.1

1.66

60.83

3.7

1.3

51.98

4.0

0.15

1.37

59.92

4.4

1.3

46.35

3.7

0.2

1.37

52.73

3.9

1.3

45.94

3.7

0.25

1.61

53.39

3.3

1.3

46.45

3.5

0.3

1.62

57.92

3.6

1.4

53.51

3.8

0.35

1.86

64.49

3.5

1.4

60.4

4.2

0.4

1.86

70.35

3.8

1.5

64.53

4.3

0.45

1.88

72.81

3.9

1.5

68.28

4.6

0.5

2.14

79.71

3.7

1.6

72.51

4.5

0.55

2.43

87.22

3.6

1.9

95.97

5.1

0.6

2.73

95.76

3.5

2.3

85.23

3.7

0.65

2.94

105.75

3.6

2.1

81.87

3.9

0.7

2.88

113.71

3.9

2.3

83.62

3.7

0.75

2.82

120.79

4.3

2.1

89.88

4.3

0.8

2.67

114.1

4.3

2.0

89.42

4.4

0.85

2.57

108.38

4.2

2.0

89.8

4.5

0.9

2.50

109.09

4.4

2.1

92.35

4.5

0.95

2.57

115.72

4.5

1.9

93.2

4.9

2.51

116.5

4.6

1.9

90.43

4.7

1.05

2.48

114.24

4.6

2.0

96.19

4.9

1.1

2.37

117.15

4.9

2.0

103.78

5.2

1.15

2.40

123.25

5.1

2.0

108.85

5.4

1.2

2.36

137.13

5.8

2.0

114.32

5.8

1.25

2.32

148.17

6.4

2.0

123.76

6.2

1.3

2.37

160.71

6.8

2.2

143.25

6.6

1.35

2.37

165.26

7.0

2.3

155.05

6.8

1.4

2.31

152.95

6.6

2.3

160.34

7.1

1.45

2.32

147.83

6.4

2.4

167.56

7.0

1.5

2.32

145.35

6.3

2.5

162.33

6.5

1.55

2.46

141.5

5.8

2.8

149.58

5.4

1.6

2.83

129.19

4.6

3.3

132.36

4.0

1.65

3.28

87.32

2.7

3.8

107.26

2.8

1.7

3.76

56.72

1.5

3.7

67.42

1.8

1.75

3.51

39.06

1.1

3.5

39.27

1.1

1.8

3.25

41.36

1.3

3.3

24.8

0.7

1.85

3.35

47.63

1.4

3.2

23.44

0.7

1.9

3.33

40.95

1.2

3.5

38.68

1.1

1.95

3.38

43.6

1.3

4.1

34.12

0.8

4.49

33.41

0.7

3.8

29.54

0.8

2.05

4.60

19.17

0.4

3.4

45.43

1.3

2.1

4.55

48.52

1.1

3.3

45.9

1.4

2.15

3.62

51.84

1.4

2.9

58.8

2.1

2.2

1.33

51.23

3.8

1.2

50.82

4.3

2.25

0.89

25.43

2.9

0.9

41.48

4.7

2.3

1.79

18.96

1.1

1.4

40.1

2.9

2.35

1.95

17.92

0.9

1.8

35.54

2.0

2.4

1.93

31.86

1.7

1.8

30.25

1.7

2.45

1.82

25.59

1.4

1.9

43.09

2.2

2.5

1.64

25.76

1.6

1.7

39.29

2.3

2.55

1.37

18.05

1.3

1.6

22.73

1.4

2.6

1.39

12.53

0.9

1.7

25.09

1.5

2.65

1.43

8.02

0.6

2.0

56.54

2.9

2.7

1.85

1.04

0.1

2.6

7.39

0.3

2.75

2.08

22.01

1.1

2.8

65.69

2.4

2.8

2.91

22.89

0.8

2.0

41.71

2.1

2.85

2.25

27.81

1.2

2.8

32.53

1.2

2.9

2.31

26.98

1.2

3.0

6.23

0.2

2.95

3.16

33.59

1.1

3.4

25.43

0.8

4.06

35.36

0.9

4.2

29.46

0.7

3.05

4.22

30.76

0.7

4.2

36.64

0.9

3.1

4.13

21.95

0.5

4.8

32.69

0.7

3.15

3.83

23.21

0.6

4.9

37.05

0.8

3.2

4.15

23.95

0.6

5.0

39.63

0.8

3.25

4.75

27.59

0.6

5.4

37.33

0.7

3.3

5.67

31.23

0.6

6.0

39.37

0.7

3.35

5.70

34.04

0.6

6.4

44.96

0.7

3.4

4.99

28.83

0.6

6.3

50.39

0.8

3.45

4.13

20.18

0.5

5.5

30.07

0.5

3.5

3.45

17.88

0.5

4.2

28.97

0.7

3.55

2.52

19.08

0.8

3.0

18.86

0.6

3.6

1.88

11.21

0.6

2.3

17.44

0.8

3.65

1.43

8.22

0.6

1.9

16.42

0.9

3.7

1.37

7.79

0.6

2.1

20.2

1.0

3.75

1.55

7.95

0.5

3.1

27.22

0.9

3.8

1.97

9.87

0.5

4.5

34.22

0.8

3.85

2.65

12.8

0.5

5.0

32.74

0.7

3.9

3.48

10.62

0.3

4.8

29.58

0.6

3.95

3.51

13.63

0.4

4.3

23.58

0.5

3.02

10.74

0.4

3.4

24.11

0.7

4.05

2.61

12.11

0.5

2.9

21.48

0.7

4.1

2.31

24.01

1.0

2.6

33.37

1.3

4.15

2.38

26.57

1.1

3.7

37.37

1.0

4.2

2.70

25.7

1.0

5.7

38.61

0.7

4.25

5.25

37.92

0.7

6.1

85.16

1.4

4.3

4.06

52.78

1.3

3.2

68.95

2.2

4.35

2.12

45.37

2.1

1.9

44.41

2.3

4.4

1.76

49.74

2.8

1.7

37.11

2.1

4.45

3.07

52.31

1.7

2.4

72

3.0

4.5

2.27

62.89

2.8

2.1

76.5

3.7

4.55

2.19

49.26

2.2

2.4

62.01

2.5

4.6

1.93

50.62

2.6

2.0

51.57

2.6

4.65

2.80

76.29

2.7

5.8

56.99

1.0

4.7

3.96

59.79

1.5

3.8

56.7

1.5

4.75

2.49

55.36

2.2

2.3

45.21

2.0

4.8

1.87

37.82

2.0

2.0

32.53

1.7

4.85

1.85

36.54

2.0

1.9

31.27

1.6

4.9

2.01

35.32

1.8

2.1

36.48

1.7

4.95

2.22

51.11

2.3

2.5

69.11

2.7

3.37

61.63

1.8

3.0

74.36

2.5

5.05

3.50

92.06

2.6

3.6

72.49

2.0

5.1

5.28

74.73

1.4

16.5

78.55

0.5

5.15

14.03

77.09

0.5

21.6

98.08

0.5

5.2

17.80

83.25

0.5

24.6

121.15

0.5

5.25

22.74

139.02

0.6

27.6

157.1

0.6

5.3

24.36

141.93

0.6

29.3

157.23

0.5

5.35

23.90

130.53

0.5

28.7

143.57

0.5

5.4

22.81

111.92

0.5

28.9

150.45

0.5

5.45

22.65

76.4

0.3

27.9

111.37

0.4

5.5

19.51

92.57

0.5

26.8

94.36

0.4

5.55

22.27

79

0.4

22.6

106.73

0.5

5.6

21.65

72.79

0.3

26.1

138.04

0.5

5.65

16.93

102.34

0.6

26.0

168.5

0.6

5.7

17.07

115.93

0.7

23.7

138.04

0.6

5.75

17.80

109.62

0.6

23.1

105.55

0.5

5.8

19.35

95.36

0.5

23.5

94.06

0.4

5.85

18.30

93.97

0.5

24.0

94.97

0.4

5.9

17.72

68.66

0.4

22.5

106.38

0.5

5.95

17.31

64.68

0.4

20.4

48.48

0.2

17.44

70.66

0.4

19.9

65.65

0.3

6.05

17.84

76.01

0.4

19.9

73.28

0.4

6.1

18.68

91.9

0.5

22.2

95.48

0.4

6.15

21.38

113.2

0.5

23.3

112.89

0.5

6.2

21.37

118.71

0.6

23.9

125.65

0.5

6.25

19.14

132.24

0.7

22.7

138.18

0.6

6.3

18.35

112.98

0.6

21.8

146.2

0.7

6.35

17.55

111.63

0.6

21.0

150.07

0.7

6.4

16.97

110.94

0.7

20.6

154.4

0.8

6.45

17.02

110.6

0.6

20.4

-4.29

0.0

6.5

16.92

115.62

0.7

20.3

115.56

0.6

6.55

17.29

97.41

0.6

6.9

139.63

2.0

6.6

17.93

114.6

0.6

19.7

151.12

0.8

6.65

17.65

126.44

0.7

21.3

162.76

0.8

6.7

17.54

123.35

0.7

21.8

167.72

0.8

6.75

16.73

120.34

0.7

21.2

163.98

0.8

6.8

16.06

114.03

0.7

20.6

164.23

0.8

6.85

15.40

106.59

0.7

19.1

148.72

0.8

6.9

14.03

98.82

0.7

16.5

132.57

0.8

6.95

13.00

88.79

0.7

15.9

96.37

0.6

13.64

93.93

0.7

15.9

125.85

0.8

7.05

12.81

158.43

1.2

12.4

228.13

1.8

7.1

7.13

180.16

2.5

7.2

212.36

3.0

7.15

3.87

125.51

3.2

3.6

113.34

3.2

7.2

3.12

59.61

1.9

8.3

102.46

1.2

7.25

9.75

48.26

0.5

15.3

105.39

0.7

7.3

13.79

62.58

0.5

17.4

97.15

0.6

7.35

15.19

65.67

0.4

17.6

107.91

0.6

7.4

15.60

83.15

0.5

20.8

119.47

0.6

7.45

17.91

78.71

0.4

22.3

105.65

0.5

7.5

17.03

82.09

0.5

23.0

135.78

0.6

7.55

16.38

78.23

0.5

25.8

151.27

0.6

7.6

17.67

74.14

0.4

25.2

148.78

0.6

7.65

19.09

98.12

0.5

22.6

193.03

0.9

7.7

15.89

105.08

0.7

19.5

190.37

1.0

7.75

13.73

98.14

0.7

17.2

173.36

1.0

7.8

14.03

93.2

0.7

15.9

182.84

1.2

7.85

12.85

157.33

1.2

16.3

189.98

1.2

7.9

5.97

146.85

2.5

14.2

272.85

1.9

7.95

3.74

97.6

2.6

6.1

247.86

4.1

3.38

58.84

1.7

3.4

164.55

4.9

8.05

3.88

80.91

2.1

3.4

75.85

2.2

8.1

12.28

89.76

0.7

5.0

98.57

2.0

8.15

15.27

83.11

0.5

17.4

106.55

0.6

8.2

15.61

84.84

0.5

17.1

89.09

0.5

8.25

14.78

84.59

0.6

16.4

91.47

0.6

8.3

16.35

91.04

0.6

15.0

88.01

0.6

8.35

17.78

103.6

0.6

14.1

85.21

0.6

8.4

18.35

111.25

0.6

14.0

88.68

0.6

8.45

16.68

120.83

0.7

15.8

62.09

0.4

8.5

16.19

108.05

0.7

17.5

73.95

0.4

8.55

14.91

101.44

0.7

16.0

97.88

0.6

8.6

14.79

136.64

0.9

17.2

115.82

0.7

8.65

13.59

101.58

0.7

17.3

107.89

0.6

8.7

15.29

91.33

0.6

17.7

86.59

0.5

8.75

19.52

105.59

0.5

19.0

92.12

0.5

8.8

22.41

115.62

0.5

21.0

68.01

0.3

8.85

25.06

113.12

0.5

24.6

-4.39

0.0

8.9

28.08

211.2

0.8

8.95

30.45

168.76

0.6

31.94

206.81

0.6

9.05

34.32

187.46

0.5

9.1

34.64

211.51

0.6

9.15

37.37

315.14

0.8

9.2

42.11

344.06

0.8

9.25

38.23

341.31

0.9

9.3

33.55

256.45

0.8

9.35

36.35

195.58

0.5

9.4

34.96

120.52

0.3

9.45

35.90

126.46

0.4

9.5

36.37

124

0.3

9.55

35.85

168.5

0.5

9.6

34.06

293.97

0.9

9.65

34.10

253.82

0.7

9.7

29.22

207.44

0.7

9.75

29.14

145.16

0.5

9.8

32.31

181.05

0.6

9.85

30.29

199.02

0.7

9.9

29.50

-32768

-111.1

9.95

34.62

-32768

-94.6

SOLUTION:
(a) qc vs. depth, fs vs. depth, and qc/fs vs. depth plots are given in S-Figure 7-6.

cone resistance, qc (MPa)


0

10

20

40

CPT 1
CPT 2

depth (m)

30

10

(i)

50

sleeve friction, fs (kPa)


0

100

200

300

CPT 1
CPT 2

depth (m)

400

10

(ii)

friction ratio, fs/qc (%)


0

depth (m)

CPT 1
CPT 2

10

(iii)

S-Figure 7-6

(b) In order for us to use Figure 7-26, we need to calculate lateral effective stress
at each depth.
At z = 6.1m
qc = 18. 68MPa from CPT 1 and qc = 22.2 MPa from CPT 2
qc, avg = (18. 68+22.2)/2 = 20.44MPa = 20440kPa
qc, avg /pA = 20440/100=204.4
'v = 14kN / m3 1.5m + 15kN / m3 (4.3 1.5)m
+14.5kN / m3 (5.2 4.3)m + 19kN / m3 (6.1 5.2)m
= 93.2kPa

'h = 0.4 93.2 = 37.3kPa


h/pA = 37.3/100=0.373
From Figure 7-26(d), we can chart off relative density:
DR = 80% answer
To estimate peak friction angle, let us use Eq. (5.8) and Eq. (5.16). Assuming
p = 42 ,
N=

1 + sin42o
= 5.04
1 - sin42o

'c = 'm =

93.2 + 2 37.3
= 55.9kPa
3

'
1p
= 55.9 5.04 = 281.7 kPa

'mp =

'1p + 2 '3p
3

281.7 + 2 55.9
= 131.2 kPa
3


100 131.2
I R = 0.8 10 ln
1 = 3.099
100

P = c + 3I R
Considering c = 36, P = 36o + 3 3.099 = 45.3o . After iterations, we get

P = 45o answer

At z = 7.6m
qc = 17. 67MPa from CPT 1 and qc = 25.2 MPa from CPT 2
qc, avg = (17. 67+25.2)/2 = 21.435MPa = 21435kPa
qc, avg /pA = 21435/100=214.35
'v = 14kN / m3 1.5m + 15kN / m3 (4.3 1.5)m
+14.5kN / m3 (5.2 4.3)m + 19kN / m3 (7.6 5.2)m
= 121.7kPa

'h = 0.4 121.7 = 48.7 kPa


h/pA = 48.7/100=0.487
From Figure 7-26(d), we can chart off relative density:
DR = 75% answer
To estimate peak friction angle, let us use Eq. (5.8) and Eq. (5.16). Assuming
p = 42 ,
N=

1 + sin42o
= 5.04
1 - sin42o

'c = 'm =

121.7 + 2 48.7
= 73kPa
3

'
1p
= 73 5.04 = 367.9 kPa

'mp =

'1p + 2 '3p
3

367.9 + 2 73
= 171.3kPa
3

100 171.3
I R = 0.75 10 ln
1 = 2.642
100

P = c + 3I R
Considering c = 36, P = 36o + 3 2.642 = 43.9o . After iterations, we get

P = 43.8o answer

At z = 9.1m
qc = 34.64MPa from CPT 1
qc /pA = 34640/100=346.4
'v = 14kN / m3 1.5m + 15kN / m3 (4.3 1.5)m
+14.5kN / m3 (5.2 4.3)m + 19kN / m3 (9.1 5.2)m
= 150.2kPa

'h = 0.4 150.2 = 60.1kPa


h/pA = 60.1/100=0.601
From Figure 7-26(d), we can chart off relative density:
DR = 95% answer
To estimate peak friction angle, let us use Eq. (5.8) and Eq. (5.16). Assuming
p = 47 ,
N=

1 + sin47 o
= 6.44
1 - sin47 o

'c = 'm =

150.2 + 2 60.1
= 90.1kPa
3

'
1p
= 90.1 6.44 = 580.2 kPa

'mp =

'1p + 2 '3p
3

580.2 + 2 90.1
= 253.5 kPa
3

100 253.5
I R = 0.95 10 ln
1 = 3.241
100

P = c + 3I R
Considering c = 36, P = 36o + 3 3.241 = 45.7o . After iterations, we get

P = 45.9o answer

(c) Let us first calculate N60.


For an safety hammer ERhammer = 60 %
Thus, C h =

ER hammer 60
=
= 1.0
ER safety
60

Following Eq. (7.3), for 6m rod length < 10m, Cr = 0.95. Standard ASTM split
spoon sampler with a liner was used and the borehole diameter was within the
recommended range, so Cd = 1 and Cs = 1. Now N60 can be calculated using Eq. (7.1) as
N 60 = Ch Cd Cr Cs NSPT
at 6.1m, N60 = (1)(1)(0.95)(1)27=25.7
at 7.6m, N60 = (1)(1)(0.95)(1)25 = 23.8
at 9.1m, N60 = (1)(1)(0.95)(1)40 = 38

and from (b), vertical effective stress at each depth


at 6.1m, v = 93.2kPa

at 7.6m, v = 121.7kPa
at 9.1m, v = 150.2kPa

Following Eq. (7.6)


DR
=
100%

N 60
A + BC

' v
pA

where, A = 36.5, B = 27, pA = 100 kPa.


Following Eq. (7.8)
C=

K0
; and so for a normally consolidated sand C = 1.
K 0,NC

From the above equations, relative density DR of the sand deposit at 6.1m can be
calculated as
D R = 100

25.7
95.2
36.5 + 27 1
100

= 64.3%

answer

Similarly,
at 7.6m, D R = 100

at 9.1m, D R = 100

23.8
121.7
36.5 + 27 1
100
38
150.2
36.5 + 27 1
100

= 58.6%

answer

= 70.2%

answer

To estimate the peak friction angle, let us assume p = 42 for a sand deposit at a
depth of 6.1m.

At z = 6.1m
N=

1 + sin42o
= 5.04
1 - sin42o

'c = 'm =

93.2 + 2 37.3
= 55.9kPa
3

'
1p
= 55.9 5.04 = 281.7 kPa

'mp =

'1p + 2 '3p
3

281.7 + 2 55.9
= 131.2 kPa
3

100 131.2
I R = 0.643 10 ln
1 = 2.294
100

P = c + 3I R
Considering c = 36, P = 36o + 3 2.294 = 42.9o . After iterations, we get

P = 42.8o answer

At z = 7.6m
Assuming p = 42 ,
N=

1 + sin42o
= 5.04
1 - sin42o

'c = 'm =

121.7 + 2 48.7
= 73kPa
3

'
1p
= 73 5.04 = 367.9 kPa

'

mp =

'1p + 2 '3p
3

367.9 + 2 73
= 171.3kPa
3

100 171.3
I R = 0.586 10 ln
1 = 1.846
100

P = c + 3I R
Considering c = 36, P = 36o + 3 1.846 = 41.5o . After iterations, we get

P = 41.6o answer

At z = 9.1m
Assuming p = 47 ,
N=

1 + sin47 o
= 6.44
1 - sin47 o

'c = 'm =

150.2 + 2 60.1
= 90.1kPa
3

'
1p
= 90.1 6.44 = 580.2 kPa

'mp =

'1p + 2 '3p
3

580.2 + 2 90.1
= 253.5 kPa
3

100 253.5
I R = 0.702 10 ln
1 = 2.134
100

P = c + 3I R
Considering c = 36, P = 36o + 3 2.134 = 42.4o . After iterations, we get

P = 42.7o answer
(d) Summarized results obtained from (b) and (c) are given in S-Table 7-7

S-Table 7-7
From CPT results (b)
Depth (m)

From SPT results (c)

DR (%)

p (degrees)

DR (%)

p (degrees)

6.1

80

45

64.3

42.8

7.6

75

43.8

58.6

41.6

9.1

95

45.8

70.2

42.7

As seen in S-Table 7-7, values estimated from both CPT and SPT logs follow
similar trends. This trend is in good agreement with cone resistance profile in S-Figure
7-6. However, both relative densities and peak friction angles estimated from CPT logs
are larger than those from the SPT logs. This is part a result of the values selected for the
constants A and B in Skempton correlations, about which there is considerable
uncertainty, accounted for to some extent by the use of values that are on the conservative
side.
End

Problem 7-17 To estimate the undrained shear strength of a normally consolidated soft
clay deposit, vane shear tests were performed at four different depths. In these tests, a
rectangular vane with 60 mm diameter and 120 mm height was used. Both ends of the
vane were inserted in the soil. The plasticity index of the clay is equal to 65%. The unit
weight of the clay is 16 kN/m3, and the water table is at the ground surface. The results
are shown in Table 7-11.

Table 7-11 Vane shear test results for Problem 7-17.

DEPTH (m)

Maximum Torque (N.m)

11.1

18.5

10

22.4

(a) Estimate the undrained shear strength for each depth and develop a plot of the
design undrained shear strength vs. depth (depth on the vertical axis and undrained shear
strength on the horizontal axis). To obtain the design undrained shear strength, use Eq.
(7.26).
(b) Estimate the in-situ undrained shear strength using the correlation of Eq.
(6.52).
SOLUTION:
(a)
Vane diameter B = 60mm
Vane height H = 120 mm = 2B
The undrained shear strength (su)FV of the clay from a field vane shear test (when
H = 2B) is given by

( s u )FV =

12T
; n =2, for fully inserted vane
B (12 + n )
3

Maximum moment required to rotate the vane at 3m depth, T = 7N.m

( s u )FV,at3m =

12 7 103
kPa = 8.8 9kPa answer
3.14 (0.06)3 (12 + 2 )

similarly for other depths

( s u )FV,at5m =

12 11.1103
kPa = 14kPa
3.14 (0.06)3 (12 + 2 )

( s u )FV,at8m =

12 18.5 103
kPa = 23.3kPa
3.14 (0.06)3 (12 + 2 )

( s u )FV,at10m =

12 22.4 103
kPa = 28.3kPa
3.14 (0.06)3 (12 + 2 )

Design undrained shear strength s u = ( s u )FV


where, = 1.18 0.0107(PI) + 0.0000513(PI) 2 1 . Thus for PI = 65%, = 0.7.
Design shear strength at depths 3, 5, 8, and 10m are 6.2 ( 6), 9.8 ( 10), 16.3 (1
6), and 19.8 ( 20) kPa respectively. answer to (a)

Design Undrained Shear Strength (kPa)


5

10

Depth (m)

2
4
6
8
10

S-Figure 7-7

15

20

(b)
Using Eq. (6.52), the in-situ undrained shear strength
su
= 0.11 + 0.0037(PI)
' v
su,at 3m = 3(16-9.81)[0.11+0.0037(65)] 7 kPa
su,at 5m = 5(16-9.81)[0.11+0.0037(65)] 11 kPa
su,at 8m = 8(16-9.81)[0.11+0.0037(65)] 17 kPa
su,at 10m = 10(16-9.81)[0.11+0.0037(65)] 22 kPa
End