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1522. 'n'a, prn. of collectivity and plurality > U: FP 'n'a 'these, they', plurality prn.

, correlating with the sg. pronouns

of the 't-series and with the prn. 'cc 'that' > F nama pl. 'these' tama 'this', nuo pl. 'those' tuo 'that', nc pl. 'those'
sc 'that', Es ncmad - nad 'they' tcma - ta 'he\she\it', nccd 'these' scc 'this', nood 'those' too 'that', Vo nama 'they'
tama 'he\she' | pMr {Ker.} 'na- > Er nc, nct, nctnc 'these' tc 'this', nonat 'those' tona 'that', Mk
na, nat 'these' ta 'this', nona(t) 'those' tona 'that' || Chr: L nyno nuno, H nicnic nono 'they' L ry(o tuoo, H
ric(ic tooo 'he\she\it'; L nnnc ninc, NW {IT} ncno 'these' L rn(c tioc, NW tcoo 'this'; K {Wc.} 'nino 'these' 'tioo
'this', 'nono 'those, they' 'tooo 'that, he', U {Wc.} 'nins 'these' 'tios 'this', 'nun+ 'those, they' 'tuo+ 'that, he' || Prm:
Z nays (/na- in the obl. cases) 'they, those' siys (/ obl. sI-) 'he\she\it, that', Prmk n niya (/ obl. nI-) c siya (/ obl. sI-)
'he\she\it, that' UEW 3OO-1 [na (- nc - ?ni) 'dieser, ?der, jener'], 3O6 ['no 'jener'] (does not recognize that the 'nV-pronouns
have plurality meaning even at the pFP level), SMJM 135-6, Ker. II 93, Lt. KZJ 29O, Lt. KPJ 3O7-8, LG 185, 193, Wc. TT
##645, 652, 119O, 1222, PsS 78-9, 149, 151 In most cases the vw. of the 'n-pronouns coincides exactly with that of the
corresponding sg. pronouns, hence it is system-inducted rather than original. The only exception is Z na-, nays 'they, those' <
pPrm 'na- (Lt. 169), which suggests that the pFP prn. was 'na (Prm 'a < FP 'a reg. ) ll HS: Eg : 'this, the' m. t: f.
n: abstr. (Eg M pl.), v 'this' m. tv f. nv abstr. (Eg M pl.), n 'this [near me]' m. tn f. nn abstr. ( pl.), f 'that' m.
tf f. nf abstr. (Eg M pl.); in Eg O [cf. Ed. 83-9, EG 216, 251] nv, nf, etc. were abstract pronouns: nv 'Dieses, Dieses da',
nf 'Jenes' ({Lopr.} 'this, these things') probably going back to collective pronouns, but later they acquited the function of pl. forms
of pronouns [see Gard. 85]; the original connection of the Eg O n-pronouns with plural is evidenced by their syntactical agreement
with pl. of prtcs. and relative forms; in Eg M they function as pl. only Ed. 83-9, EG 216, 251, Lopr. AE 68-71 ll IE: "primary"
verbal ending '-(c)nti 3p [ '-ti 3s] (e.g. 'b"cro-nti 'they carry' > OI 'bharanti, Gk cooi, L fcrunt, Gt bairand id., OCS
ccpa:+ bcrot+ 'they take', cp. the AnIE ending of 3p: Ht -nzi, Lw, Pal -nti), "secondary" ending '-(c)nt 3p [ '-(c)t 3s] (e.g.
NaIE '(c-)b"cront 'they carried' > OI 'abharan, Gk ccov id., cp. OCS aca vczo 'they transported'; AnIE: Lw, Pal -nta, Lc
nasalized vw. + -tc) Brg. KVG 592-6 (incl. a synoptic table), Bks. 232-49, Rsk. 8O-1 ll K [ N 'n'i, dem. dual prn., 'they
(two)']: [1] GZ '-cn, sx. of 3p > OG -cn (cam-cn da svam-cn 'edunt bibuntque'), Mg -an (Io_cn-an do Ioyurcul-an 'they
sit and sing') [2] OG -(c)n, sx. of the plural of objects: v-i-_il-cn 'I saw them' ( v-i-_il-c 'I saw him'), gv-i-_il-n-a 'he saw
us [originaly incl.]', m-i-_il-n-a 'he saw us [originaly excl.]', g-i-_il-n-a 'he saw you [pl.] K 79, FS K 114-5, FS E 123, Deet. 44-
6, 61-5, Shan. GAG 75, Fn. GAG 81 lll Nominal endings of pl. in some branches of N: K '-n-, marker of pl. in the casus rectus
(subject of vi. and object of vt.) > OG -n- (Iac-n-i 'men') || Mg Sn -cn-, sx. of pl. in the ergative and dative: erg. gur-cn-I, dat.
gur-cn-s K S 1O-1, Marr GDGJ 34, Q O25, O3O-3 ll HS: S '-an- > Ar -an-, sx. of collectivity (fursan- 'riders' faris- 'a
rider'), Gz -an (pl. of masc. nouns and adj.: Iasis-an 'priests'), Ak nom. -an-u (later -an-u) / acc.-gen. -an-i, sx. of
"individualizing plural", denoting a number of individually recognzable objects [OB il-an-u 'personal gods (each with its own
name)' ( il-u 'gods in general, Pantheon']; but Aram pl. f. ending -an hardly belongs here, it is rather an innovation (rare on
OA, but typical in later Aram) based on the analogy of pl. m. -in (< obl. pl. '-i- + df. art. '-ma, like BHb -im); S '-na, marker of
the rel. mood in 2pm and 3pm of verbs > CS ending of ip. indc. (in 2pm and 3pm) > Ar -na (ta-Itub-u-na 'you [2pm] write \
will write', ya-Itub-u-na 'they [m.] write \ will write'), BHb -n (optional ending added to the ip. form of 2pm and 3pm of verbs)
MSUS 91-2, Lip. 239-4O, Gtz. AMP 121-3O, Sd. G 77, Cer. ArJ 214, Zewi LbB: B pl. ending {Pr.} '-an, '-in > Ah
{Pr.} -an - {Fc.} -in (= {GhA} -cn), in most other B lgs. -on, -in (Shw irgaz-on 'homines' [ sg. orgaz], Sll tiloym-in 'she-
camels' [ sg. talyom-t], BMn ifri-von [ sg. afri], Kb isolm-an 'fishes' [ sg. asolm], Si itar-on 'legs' [ sg. tar], Gd
durar-on 'mountains' [ sg. adurar], Zng {TC} tanqud-on 'points' [ sg. tanqud] || ? Gnc {Mi.} -cn, ending of plural and
collectivity: Gnc GC ta-har-cn-cm-cn 'dry figs', ta-hau-n-cn-cn 'ripe figs', Gnc T i-rich-cn 'wheat, corn' ( B 'ird-Vn), Gnc
GC ta-moc-cn 'barley' || ONum -n ['-Vn], pl. ending (nbb-n 'workers' in one of the Dhougga inscriptions) Pr. M IV-V 5O-2,
55-61, TC Z 312, AiM 175, 2O9-1O, Fv. LJ 42O C '-Vn-, nominal marker of pl. > Ag '-An > Bln -an, Q/Km {R, CR} -on,
Xm -an; '-t-An > Xm {R} -tan, Xm {R} -tan, Km {CR}, Q {R} -ton || EC '-an(V) pl. > Sml -an, -an, Rn {PG} -nc
(abtinc 'maternal uncles'), Bn -ni, O -an, -an, Gdl -ana, Arr -n, Dsn -anu, Dbs/Gln/Gwd -anc, Gwd/Cm -inc, Ya
-an, -cn, -nV, Brj -ana, -ani, Sd -anc, -anna, Kmb -annu || ? Dhl -ni Zab. MNP 73-5, 82-3, 92-3, 111-2, 128, 138-41, 169,
179-8O, 191-4, 211, 238-4O, 255-9, 295-6, PG 6O, Hw. A 17O-1, To. DL 91 Ch {PorS} '-Vn, pl. sx. of nouns > WCh: Hs
-una, -anni, -ina, -oni | BT: Dr {Nw.} -in, -an, -cn, -ycn (and enlarged [due to metanalysis?] -iyan/ -uyan,
-ncn / -nin, -qgin), Gera {Sch.} -na, -ni, -nc | Bd -sn, Ngz {Sch.} -in (with rdp of the stem: vaIaI-in 'trees' s.
vaIa) | Fy {J} -an || CCh: Lgn {Lk.} -cn || ECh: Jg {J}, Tmk {Cp.} -nan PorS 335, Sch. BTL 94-5, Sch. DN XVIII, Nw. KL
82-4, Lk. L 18-9, Cp. 28 l HS: plural marker in pers. pronouns: Ch pl. marker '-n in pers. pronouns: [1] {Kr.} 'mu-n ({Blz.}
'muni) 'we, us, our' incl. > {Kr.} CCh 'mun id. > BM: Mrg na-msr 'we' incl., msr 'our' incl., Cb muri 'we, us' incl., -mtri
'our' incl. (-r, -r- < 'n), Wmd na-mun 'we' incl., -mtn 'our' incl., Klb -mtn 'our' incl., mtn 'us' incl.; FJ mamun 'we' incl., FlM
-mu 'our' incl. | BB: Gnd gumun 'we' incl., -mtn / -msn 'our' incl. | McMdr: Mdr miya 'our' incl., Dgh mtrc 'us' incl.,
(here?) munda 'we' excl. || {Kr.} WCh 'mun 'we, us, our' (without distinction between incl. and excl.) > Hs mu / (completive
past) mun 'we' | Dr mini 'we', mini 'us', mt 'our', Tng (ha)mini 'we', mu 'our', Ngm mvuni 'we' | SBc: Zul min 'we' | AG:
Gmy {Kr.} I-mIn 'we', mIn 'our', Ang {Kr.} muni 'we', mun 'us', Su {J, Kr.} mun 'we, us'; [2] Ch 'Iu-n 'ye', 2p prn. > Hs Iu,
Ngz Iun, Tr Iun, Mgm {JA} Iuq, Mkl {J} Iunc, etc.; [3] WCh 'su-n 'they' [> Hs su, Dw suq]) Kr. RChP 74-94, AD
EPCChL, J S 75, Brq. PS ?? EC: Dsn muni 'we' incl. To. DL 211-2 Blz. PPCh1 2-4 (Ch-Dsn parallel: Ch 'muni, Dsn
muni) HS '-nV, marker of pl. (- f. pl.) in pers. pronouns: [1] S '?antin-na 'ye' f. pl. > Ak attina, BHb en`T4a2
?at'tcnna - NT4a2 ?at'tcn, BA '?an'tcn, Sr ?at'tcn (spelled N4ea ?antcn), Ar ?antunna, Gz ?anton AD SPM C:
EC {Ss.} 'ati-n (- 'iti-n?) 'ye' pl. > Sa atin, Rn atin, Sml idin-Iu, Dsn {To.} '?itini, Gdl inna-t, as well as the var.
'isi-n id. > Af isin, Or isani - isini, Kns isina Bl. 131, Ss. PEC 11, PG 7O, To. DL 483 [2] S 'sin-na 'they' f. pl. > Ak
sina, Ug hinna, BHb hcn, BA ?in'nan, JEA Nun`a5 ?in'nun, Sr Njee hcn'ncn, Ar hunna AD SPM ll A '-(V)n, sx. of pl.
> M '-n, pl. sx. > MM -n ([S] noqan 'dogs' [ noqay 'dog'], [PP] {Pp.} c'lc`i-n 'messengers', yabuqu-n 'those going' [ sg.
yabuquy sg.], PClWrM -n (with nomina actoris ending in -gci and nomina actoris futuri in -qun [pl. qu-n]), in WrM -n, pl. of a
few nouns: gcrgcn 'wives' ( sg. gcrgci), with professional names (uylcdburici-n 'workers'), WrM -ta-n (from nouns with
-tai: mori-ta-n 'equestrians'), HlM -n with professional words: x' (' nx' pun-n 'workers'), Ord ga_a-n 'hogs' Pp. IM 175-7
T '-an/'-cn > OT [MhK] rare pl. morpheme: ar-an 'men', oyl-an 'sons' (probably with the meaning of collective plurality),
preserved in ethnonyms: suvarin, quman SIGTJM 15-6, Prc. TschPS 35, Nm. QQ 1OO, Kon. PSM 146, Rs. MTS 54, Br.
OTG 15O, Gbn. ATG 56, 171 Tg '-(a)na / '-(c)nc, pl. of kinship terms and other animate nouns: Nn, Ul ama-na 'fathers',
Nn aga-na 'elder brothers', bariana 'comrades', andana 'friends'; Tg '-nan/'-ncn, dual-plural ( N 'n'i, dem. dual prn.) >
Ewk Z/Ucr/Skh -nan / -nsn / -non, sx. od du.\pl.: aIu-nan 'brothers, two brothers', girIi-nsn 'friends, two friends', Ewk Skh
goxinan 'twins' (goxi 'pair') Ci. 254-5, Ci. MChT , Vas. 778, CiL MA 225-31 (unc. : the Tg sx. < Tg. {CiL} 'nay, i.e. Tg
'ni_ari-'nari 'man', cf. N '`nVyarV 'man') Ko: MKo -nai_, NKo {MLC| -ncy [-nc] {MLC} 'the group, all of',
{Mazur} sx. of the "representative pl." of animate nouns Rm. SKE 224, MLC 337, Mazur KJ3 376 Rm. VAJ 25-6, Pp.
PSA 74, Mng. TLP 111 ll ? U: a pl. sx. '-nn`V can be seen in the pl. forms with ppas.: Vg K Iual-an-cm 'my houses' (
Iual-cm 'my house'), Vg Ss xa-an-uv 'our boats' ( xa-uv 'our boat'), Er cora-n-t 'thy sons' ( cora-t 'thy son'); Ser.
tries to explain in a similar way the Z forms with ppas.; Sin. supposes a similar situation in Ancient BF Sm: Slq Nr {Cs.}
loga-ni-l 'thy foxes' sg. loga-l 'thy fox', loga-ni-t 'his foxes' loga-t 'his fox', etc.; pSm {Hl.} '-n+- (sx. of pl. possessi + 1s
possessoris) in '-y-n+ id. (with the pl. marker '-y-): Mt {Hl.} 'ayo-nE 'my children' (Mt M {Sp.} annc) 'ayam 'my child'
(Mt M {Sp.} anx), Ng {Hl.} nuo-no 'my children' nuo-mo 'my child' Sin. UAP 2O6-7, Ser. IMPJ 1O6, Hl. M 145, Cs.
GSS GDS 3O4-25 ^ ISs hyp. about '-NA as a sx. (rather than a separate word) does not bear scrutiny, it is refuted by the
position of FP 'n- and Eg n- as the first elements of dem. pronouns, which proves the original mobility of 'n'a and hence its
original status as a word. IS supposed that '-NA marked pl. of animate nouns only; this hyp., although not immediately
concincing, deserves investifation. The hyp. of the opposition of '-NA to {IS} '-tV (pl. of inanimate nouns) is based on
unproved (and probably erroneous) interpretation of {IS} '-tV as connected with inanimateness (see s.v. 'tV - postnominal
marker of plurality) ^ IS II 94-6 [#333] ('-NA, pl. suffix of animate nouns), Sin. UAP (U, A), Heg. M 79-81 (U, HS, K, A +
very qu. parallels in IE nouns).
1523. 'n'i, dem. dual prn., 'they (two)' > HS: S '-ni, marker of df. in dual (nom. '-a-ni, acc.-gen. '-ay-ni) > Ar nom.
-ani, gen.-acc. -ayni (ending of du. abs.), Ak nom. -an, gen.-acc. -in, Ak OA gen.-acc. -cn (du. abs.), Aram -cn in trcn 'two'
Sd. G 76, 81 ? B: Tz {Stm.} morav-i-n 'twenty' (cp. morav 'ten') Stm. 1O1, AiM 214 ll U '-nn`, marker of du. (mainly in
pers. pronouns du. of ppa., du. subjecti of verbs) > Lp Pt {Coll.} bodiimcn 'we two came', bodalimcn 'we two would come',
bodiidcn 'you two came', bodalidcn 'you two would come' || ObU '-in, du. marker of pers. pronouns > [1] pVg {Stn.} '-in id.:
'min 'we' du. (> Vg: Ss {Rmb.} mcn, Ss/UL {Stn. Kn.} mcn, ML/LL {MK} min, K {MK} min, T {MK} mc'q id.), 'nin
'you' du. (> Vg: Ss/LL {Rmb.} ncn, ML/LL {Vrt. Mu.} nin, K/P {Vrt. Mu.} nc'n, T {Vrt. Mu.} nc'q), 'tin 'they' du.
(> Vg: Ss (Rmb., Ht.} tcn, {Ht.}: LK tin, MK/UK/NV/LL tcn, P tin - tcn, SV/UL tcn); [2] pOs '-in, du. marker of pers.
pronouns: pOs 'min 'we' du. (> Os {Stn.}: V/Vy/Ty/Y/D/O min, Nz/Sh mcn, Kz/Sn min), pOs 'nin 'you' du. (> Os {Stn.}:
V/Vy/Ty/Y/D/O nin, NMz/Sh ncn, Kz/Sn nin); Os {Ht.} 'in 'they' du. (> Os {Ht.} V/O lin, Vy yin, Ty in, D tin, Nz tcn, Kz
in) Sm '-'n, dual marker: [1] dual in pronouns and ppas. > Ne T -? du. in mani-? 'we' (du.), Idari-? 'you' (du.),
Idi-? 'they' (du.), En 1d 'modini?, 2d udi?, 3d budi? ( 1p 'modina?, 2p uda?, 3p budu?), Ne T -?, [2] dual
possessoris of nouns and dual subiecti in verbs (-mi-? 'our [du.], we [du.]', -ri-? 'vester [du.], you [du.]', -di-? 'their [du.],
they' [du.]), En -? id. [1 du. -y? - -bi?, 2d -ri?, 3d -oi?], [3] possibly in (compound?) dual markers of nouns: pSm {Hl.}
'-I+n > Ne T -ha? / -g(a)? / -I(a)?, En -hI? / -gI? / -II? Coll. CG 3O1-2, Ter. EJ 442-51, Ter. NJ 38O-8, Ter. SJ 324,
Ter. V 369-7O, Rmb. MJ 99, Stn. WV 22O-1, Stn. D 884, 1OO4, MK 3O5, 337, 642, Vrt. tables I and II, Ht. ##142, 393, 43O, Hl.
M 134 ll K: GZ '-cn, sx. of 3p, OG -(c)n, sx. of the plural of objects ( N 'n'a, prn. of collectivity and plurality, q.v. ffd.)
ll A: Tg '-nan/'-ncn, dual-plural ( N 'n'a, prn. of collectivity\plurality) > Ewk Z/Ucr/Skh -nan / -nsn / -non, sx. or
du.\pl.: aIu-nan 'brothers, two brothers', girIi-nsn 'friends, two friends', Ewk Skh goxinan 'twins' (goxi 'pair') Vas. 778.
1524. 'n`i 'not' > HS: Eg n 'not', Cpt u on 'not' ll K: [1] 'nu, 'numa prohibitive > OG/G nu, Mg nu, numu, nsms id., Sv
UB/LB/L/Ln no 'do not' (prohib.), UB {GP} nom id., UB/L {TK} nom - num, LB {TK} ncm 'do not' (prohib.), UP num(a) -
negation with imv. and sbjn. K 148-9, K DE 173, K
144, FS K 243, FS E 267, Top. SJ 9O, TK 635, P 237 ll IE 'nci_, 'nc
'not', 'n- 'un-, -less': [1] ''nci_ negative pc. (not a clitic) > Av nac- 'not, no-' (in cds with encl. particles and pronouns:
nac-cis 'none, keiner', nac-Iay 'nobody, nothing', nac-c`a 'and not, etc.) || OL nci, L ni 'not, that not, unless', Osc nci 'not' ||
Gt nci 'not', ON, OHG {Vr.} ni 'no' ('nein') (= OHG {Kl.} ni 'nein'?) || Lt nic-Ias 'nobody, nci ... nci 'neither nor', Ltv
{ME} nci ... nci id., nci 'auch nicht, nicht einmal' | Sl 'ni 'not' > OCS uu ni 'not' (stressed: uau uu 'or not'), 'and not', OCS uu
uu ni ni 'neither nor', Blg, R nn nn, SCr, Slv, Slk ni ni id. [2] sentence negation 'nc ( word negation in some lgs.)
> OI 'na 'not', Av, OPrs na- id. || Gk vc- 'un-, -less' + adjectives with initial vowels (contraction of -c + the initial vw. of the adj.):
vkooto) 'not hearing' ( vc- + oko- 'hear'), vevu(v)o) 'nameless' ( vc- + ovu- 'name'), vc) - v) 'pitiless,
ruthless' ( vc- + cco) 'pity'), vkcoto) 'incurable' || L nc- in cds : nc-scio 'I do not know', ncutcr 'neither (none of two)' [<
nc-utcr 'not any of two'] , etc.; L nc-quc, Osc nc-, nci- 'and not', Um nci 'non', nci ... nc 'neither ... nor' || Clt: CltI nc-, Gl
nc, OIr ni, Brtt {RE} 'ni > OW ni, MW, Crn ny, W ni, OBr ni, nc, MBr, Br nc || Gt ni, OHG, OSx ni, nc, AS nc 'not' || Pru ni,
Lt nc 'not' | Sl 'nc - 'nc 'not' > OCS uc nc, SCr nc`, Blg, R nc, Slv, Cz, Slk nc, P nic 'not', OCS u1 nc (< 'nc |c) '(there) is
not' [3] 'n- 'un-, -less' (privative and negative px.) > OI, Av, OPrs a- (before cns.) / an- (before vowels) || Gk o- (before cns.)
/ ov- (before vowels) || OL cn-, L in-, Osc AN-, Um A- / AN- || OIr in- (before mediae) / c- (before tenues) / an- (before
vowels), W, Crn, Br an- || Gt, OHG, NHG, OSx, AS, NE un-, ON o-, u-, NNr, Dn u-, Sw o- || Tc: A a(n)-, B c(n)- 'un-' Ht
{Ts.} cd natta 'not', navi 'not yet' P 758, Bks. 222, EI 395 ('nc 'not'), M K II 12O, Brtl. 1O3O-5, F I 1 & II 314-5, Ch. 1-2,
336, 75O-1, WH I 686-7 & II 15O-1, 166, Bc. G 32O, 339, Pln. I 319-2O, 369-7O, 563-4 & II 469-7O, 676, 726, Billy 112, LP
8, RE 116, Fs. 374-5, 516, Vr. 415, Ho. 376, Kb. 724, OsS 647-8, 1OO1, KM 8O3, Frn. 488-9, 491, ME II 715, Glh. 435-6, Vs. III
52, 71-2, ESSJ XXIV 91-3, XXV 96-7 (err. : Lt nci & Sl 'ni < 'nc + 'i 'and'), Frn. 48-9, En. 214, Ad. 83, Ts. W 56, CHD L-
N 4OO-19, 421-24 ll U 'n`i 'not' > FU 'n`i, 'n`im 'not' > Hg nc, ncm 'not' || pOs 'n`cm - 'n`om ({Hl.}
'n`am- - 'n`om-) > Os: Nz n`cm _+yat, Kz ncm _uyat 'nobody' (_+yat, _uyat means 'anybody'), Nz n`cmy+t:s,
Kz ncmgoti 'nowhere' (_+t:a', _ota 'wohin'), Nz n`cm+t:s, K ncmot 'nothing'; Vg: N ncm-xata 'nobody,
nc-mat xata id. (xata 'somebody, anybody', mat 'some-\any-thing'), Ss ncmat 'keinerlei' || ? Prm: Vt G no-Iin-no
'nobody', no-mIr-no 'nothing', Vt G no-IItIs 'nowhere' (Iin 'who', mar 'wahet', IItIs 'woher'), ?? Z P ni-nsm 'nothing'
(nom 'a bit, uyr ') [unless ni- is a loan from R nn] Sm negative verb: En ni- (- no-), Ne nc 'do not' (unless loans from R)
Coll. 38, MF 464, UEW 3O1 (unc. : the neg. stem may go back to U 'na - 'nc - [?] 'ni 'this'), LG 196-7ll A: pJ {S}: [1]
'na- 'lacking, non existent' > OJ na , J T nai_, Kt nai_, Kg na-Ia, Ns nc-, Sh nc-; [2] '-(a)n- 'not' (verbal negation) ( N
'?'aynV 'nothing, there is no...', q.v.) > OJ -(a)n- , J: T -na-, Ns/Sh -N, Ht -nc S AJ 267 [#56], S QJ #56, Mr. 835
DQA #74 (reconstructs pJ 'na-, but unconvincingly derives it from A 'ani 'not', negative verb) ^ AD GD #3 (Eg, IE, U, A),
Gr. I 212-3 ("negative N" in IE, U, A, EA, Ai).
1525. 'nu, postp. and pv. 'from', postp. 'of' > U '-n, genitive case marker > F -n, Vp -n / -n, pLp '-n > Lp S -n, Chr L -n,
-+n, Chr H -n, -+n, -on, Er/Mk -n (F Iala-n, Lp S guolc-n, Chr L Iol-+n 'of [the] fish', Er Iudo-n 'of the house'), Ne T, En
-?, Slq Tz, Kms -n, Mt M -n, Y T/K {Krn.} -n (distinguished by IN from the indf. gen. -n/-d < '-nsa); the unabridged
allomorph '-nu survives in pronouns: F mi-nu-n 'my', si-nu-n 'thy' (-nu- is a presuffix in all oblique cases), Es mi-nu 'my', si-nu
'thy' Coll. CG 282-4, Hl. SelJ 364-6, Hl. MTKJ 377, Krn. JJ 36, IN 191 ll A: M '-n'u, genitive case marker > WrM (reflecting
OM norms) -nu (modunu 'of the\a tree'), MM -ni ; pM {Pp.} 'mi-nu 'my' (> WrM minu), 'ci-nu 'thy' (> WrM cinu),
'ma-nu 'our' (> WrM manu), 'ta-nu 'votre' (> WrM tanu), 'i-nu 'his\her' (> WrM inu) Pp. IM 185-94 , 219-22 Tg
{Bz.} '-qi id. (< '-n + adjectival '-Ii, related to WrM -Ii in cndc-Ii 'being here, belonging to this place' from cndc 'here') > Nn,
Ul -qgi, Orc, Ud, Ewk -qi, Sln -ni, Neg -ni - -qi, WrMc -i / -ni Bz. 78-9 T '-q (presumably < '-n + an adjectival sx., as in
Tg), gen. ending > OT {Gbn.} -q " -n, after cnss. -iq / -iq - -aq / -an " -Vn, in later Og lgs. -n / -in / -in / -un / -un, in most
other lgs. -niq / -niq / -nuq / -nuq (with a denasalized allomorphs in some lgs.: -dVn or -tVn) Gbn. ATG 87, Sev. KP 47-8
Ko: Rm. mentions traces of the ancient gen. ending -n in the form hni_n (from hni_ 'day') Rm. VAJ 35 J: postposition of
genitive: pJ { S} 'ns > OJ ns > J no; in J the ancient N genitive marker still remains as an analytical postposition The
ablative meaning 'from' survives in T '-tan/'-tan 'from, out of' (< N 'djoy,a 'place inside' + 'nu) as compared with the T
locative ending '-ta/'-ta 'in'; this '-tan/'-tan is represented in all T lgs: OT (after l, n, r) -tan / -tan, (after other cnss.
and vowels) -dan / -dan with a dialectal var. -tin / -tin / -din / -din; the var. -dan/-dan/-tan/-tan survives in most later NaT
lgs., in Yk it is -tan/-tan/-ton/-ton (due to palatal and labial harmony of vowels), in Xk and Shor it is
-daq/-taq/-dcq/-tcq/-doq/-toq/-naq/-ncq; in Chv the same ending has the form -ran/-rcn/-tan/-tcn. The variant with closed
vowels (-din/-diq/-tiq/-tiq/-duq/-duq) survived in ET and Chg Gab. ATG 88-9, Sev. KP 55-7, Kon. GJTRP 158-9, Andr. ChJ-
66 48, Karpov XJ 432, BabD ShJ 47O-1 Rm. VAJ 33-5 ll IE: '-n 'from' within '-d"c-n survives in Gk to-cv 'where form?',
ouovocv 'from the sky' as compared with the loc. '-d"c in OI i'ha, Pali idha 'here', OI 'Iu-ha, OCS k+c I+-dc 'where?',
OCS t+c s+-dc 'here', Gk cvcc 'under' Brg. KVG 454-5 '-n- as the marker of oblique cases (presuffix, a morpheme
preceding the case endings) in the heteroclitic nouns, e.g. IE {Bks.} ''vcd-n-s 'of water' ( ''vod-or 'water') > Ht vctcnas,
Gt vatins, Gk uooto) gen. ( ''vod-or nom. 'water' < Ht 'vatar, Gt vato, OHG vaar, Gk uoe) Bks. 188, 22O
NaIE adv. 'no 'from, away' > Blt prep. (with gen.) (> Lt nuo 'from, off, out of', Ltv no [nuo] id.) and preverb 'hinaus-' (>
Lt nuo-, Ltv no-) || Msp {Mlw.} no 'from' The long vw. 'o suggests that NaIE 'no goes back to a compound with a N deictic
'hV (most probably 'nu hc 'from this', i.e. 'from here'), but this is not necessarily the case with Msp no, that may also represent N
'nu 'from' without additions Frn. 511, Kar. I 629-3O, Mlw. M 206 ll D '-Vn_-, a presuffix of oblique cases ("inflectional
increment"): OTm, Tm, Ml, Kn -in- (OTm {Shanm.} Ianav-in-al 'by the dream', nanr-in-otu 'with time', Kn gen.
guruv-in-a, instr.-abl. guruv-in-inda from guru 'guru'), Toda -n_- (instr. Ir-n_-al from nom. Ir 'buffalo'), Kdg -n- (acc.
battc-n-a, instr.-abl. battc-n-in:i from battc 'road'), Tu -n-, Tl -ni- / -na- (ustaIa-ni-Ii 'to the book'), Klm, Nkr, Gdb,
Png -n-, Prj -n-, -in-, Gnd -n-, -n_-, -in_-, Kui -ni-, -n-, Ku -n-, -na- id., Brh -n-, -an- in gen. An. SG 184, 189-91, Shanm. IID,
Shanm. DN 196-249, Zv. CDM 18-19 ll HS: N 'nu with the ablative meaning survives in B 'n, an ablative (en)clitic 'from' (after
a verb or a chain of other clitics); in Tmz, Sll, Tz, Dmn, ASgr, Kb and many other B lgs. the ablative n 'from' is opposed to the
directional d 'toward' (< N 'djoy,a 'place', q.v.): Kb avi-n 'carry away' avi-d 'bring', Tz idda-n 'go away' idda-d 'come',
Ntf oIsom n v. 'come out' oIsom d 'come in', Ah ans-in 'lie down there' ans-ad 'lie down here' AiM 226-7, Ai.
MCB 117-8, 2O8 [table 26], Pr. M I-III 2O8ff. Om: '-nV, genitive ending: NrOm: Ym {Lm.} -ni (asu-ni 'eines Mannes'),
{C} -n, -ni; '-n(V) as a generalized marker of oblique cases > NrOm '-n(V), marker of accusative (Ym na-ni 'a child' acc., Mj
{All.} vctc-n 'vaccam', IanIas-n 'dogs' acc., Kf {C} ya?o-n 'pontem', Shn {Rtl.} bi-n 'him' acc., tan 'me' acc.); in Ym
{Lm.} -ni- is the initial element of some oblique case markers: dative-benefactive -ni-I (asu-ni-I 'to\for a man'), directive
-ni-Ii (asu-ni-Ii 'zu einem Mann') [just as in the IE heteroclitic nouns]; a similar origin may be supposed for Kf caso modale
-nc and for the marker of the instr. case in Kf {C} (-na) and in Shn {Lm.} (-ns) || SOm: dative-benefactive (Ari Ii-n 'for him', i-n
'mihi', Dm is-in 'for me', Hm {Ldl.} sonya-na 'to the guests', tstn-nn 'for sorghum': tstn-nn vo muda yc?c 'Let us go on an
exchange-trip for sorghum!') Hw. CO 22-31, Lm. Y 65, 73, Lm. Sh 65, 86, Rtl. 193-7, Zab. CO 621, C SE III 5O-1 & IV 299-
3O1, Ldl. H 41O-2, Fl. D 518 EC: Sd {C} -ni, Ged -n-Ia (m. possessi) / -n-ta (f. possessi), Dsn -n (genitive marker in two
nouns; not mentioned in To. DL) Zab. CO 621, Mrn. S 86, Ss. D 2O6 l Much more questionable is the origin of the prepositional
nota genitivi 'nV, found in LbB, Eg and Ch, but the transformation of the N postposition 'nu 'of' into a preposition is only one
of the alt. explanations, less plausible than the hyp. drawing back the nota genitivi to N 'q'U 'thing' [q.v. ffd.] ll K: the element
'-n in K '-gan > OG, G -gan 'from, out of' (used as a postpositional ending) [< a cd , possibly N 'gayV nu 'from the side' or N
'ganhV nu 'from the side' (with N 'gayV 'side' or 'ganhV 'side of sth.', q.v.)] ^ In pN the genitive marker 'nu could be
followed by other postpositions (former nouns) or by nouns serving as postpositions. Such constructions (Noun + 'nu + case
postpositions) underly the IE forms for oblique cases of the heteroclitic nouns, the corresponding D forms with the presuffix
'-Vn-, as well as some forms in the Om lgs. These constructions are explained as former genitive phrases (noun + 'nu + another
noun) ^ IS I 1O & II 78-81 (N '-n of oblique cases in IE, K, HS, U, A, D), Gr. I 13O-7 ["genitive N" in A, J, U (incl. Y), IE,
Gil, CK, Ai]. IS treated this morpheme as a suffix, although its mobility [its functions as a postnominal case marker as well as an
analytical particle (in B and Blt)] and its analytical status (in B, in the Blt prep. and in J) prove that it was originally a word rather
than a sx.
1526. 'nV 'we' excl. > K: Sv n-, no- 'us' excl. (object px. of verbs), Sv UB nay, L nay, LB/Ln na 'we' excl., Sv UB
ni-sgvc-y, Sv LB ni-sgvc - ni-sgc 'our' excl.; the element -sgvc goes back to K 'cvc- (a component of possessive
pronouns) < N 'c'u 'that of, that which' {q.v. ffd., cf. also N 'vVyV 'we' and 'g'u 'we' incl.) Top. SJ 83-4, Tt. 18-9, 22,
TK 626, GP 229, 237, Dn. s.v. nay, Dt. 34 ll IE 'nc-/'no 'we' (stem of oblique cases), e.g. [1] acc. 'no-s - 'n-s > Ht anzas,
nas, OI nas, Av na, L nos (acc. nom.), Gt uns(is) (uns < 'ns), OCS u nI (and uot+ nas+ < 'ns-om, originally gen.
with the gen. pl. ending '-om), Clt (obl. cases stem nom.): OIr sni (< NaIE 's-ncs), ni, Brtt {RE} 'ni(s) > OW, MWE, W,
OBr, Br ni, Crn ny 'we'; 'ns-mc- > Gk Ae oc), Gk A ci), OI as'man 'we' nom.; Lw {Mlc.} anza 'we, us' (dat., acc.
and possibly other cases); [2] other oblique cases: Ht dat. anzas, nas, L dat.-abl. no-bis, Gt dat. uns(is), OCS dat. uom+ nam+,
[3] poss. prn. 'our' > HrLw azis (< nso-), L nostcr, OCS uomi nasi, Gt unsar, IE 'ns-mos > Gk Ae oo), OI as'maIa-,
Av ahmaIa-, [4] acc. du.: OI nau_, OCS uo na 'us two', as well as Gk A ve id. (Cowg.: < *vec) and OI a'vam acc. 'us
two' (Gk 'vec and OI a'vam are from IE {Cowg.} 'nH'vc < N 'nV 'we' excl. + the N dual pc. ''hu [q.v.]); Cowg.
postulates here a morpheme '-'vc (probably from N ''hu) Bks. 2O8-11, Brg. KVG 41O-3, BD II/2 412 ( : OI a- in a'vam is
an IE px. 'c-), Cowg. EG 169-7O & fn. 57, EI 454 (''noh 'we two, us two', 'nh'vc 'us two'), M K I 67, M E I 176, LP
337-57, Vn. S 15O-1, Thr. 4O3, RE 144 , Mlc. CL 2O ll HS: [1] HS 'nV-, px. of 1p in verbal conjugation: S {Hz.} 'ni-
(verbs G, active voice) > Ak ni-, BHb ni-/na-, Ug nV-, BA, JA ni-/no-, Sr nc-/no-, Ar na-, Gz no-, etc. [acc. to Hz., in the WS
lgs. the original vw. 'i in 'ni- (G, active voice) was partially replaced by the reflexes of 'a due to levelling within the conjugation
paradigm, while in the ps. voice and in the derived conjugations the vw. 'i was replaced by other vowels (Ar u, etc.) due to
morphological processes] B 'nV- > Ah, Kb, Shl, Si n(V)-, 1p px. of verbs C 'nV- (1p in verbs of prefix conj.) > Bj ni-'liv
'we burned', ni-d'bil 'we collected', EC: Af n-udurch 'we returned', n-a-durch 'we return', Sa {Wlm.} n-anu 'we are', Bn
a-n-thuqs 'we ate', Sml N n-idi 'we said', Rn n-imiy 'we come', n-ahc - n-chc 'we are', as well as the Cushitic 1p presuffix
'n-, i.e. personal px. of the former aux. verbs in periphrastic constructions underlying the suffix cojugation in EC, Bj and Ag (e.g.
Aw {Hz.} dcs-n-aya 'we study', Km {Ap.} vas-n-vI" 'we hear', Af mii-n-oh 'we are good' mii-t-oh 'thou art good', Bs
day-n-c 'we descended', Rn Iarsannc < 'Iars-ad-n-c 'we cook') [2] HS 'nV, short prn. (mainly sx. or clitic) of 1p: S
postnominal '-nV (= '-nu - 'ni?) 'our' > Ak OB -ni, BHb -nu, Ar -na; S postverbal '-nV 'us' (direct object): Aram, Ar, Gz -na,
BHb -nu, Mh -n; S '-nV, marker of 1p subiecti in predicative nomina (WS perfect) > Aram, Ar, Gz -na, BHb -nu, Mh -sn, Ak
-anu, Ak A -ani C: EC: Sa {Wlm.}, Af {PH} ni 'our' (prenominal prn.) EC: Sa {Wlm.} ni, Af {PH} nc / nc 'us' (preverbal
prn.), Dsn {To., Ss.} ni- 'we, us' excl., Bn J/K nu- 'us' (preverb), Bj {RHd.} -n 'our', Ya {Hn.} -ni` 'our', -ini- 'us', n--Vn 'we'
(combination of a px. and a sx. in verbal conjufation) Eg -n 'we, our' (postverbal and postnominal sx.), n 'we' (dependent prn.),
OEg ny 'we' du. (with the dual marker -y) [3] HS prn. [a] '?anihEn-n'u 'we' excl. [aut. prn.] ('?an- [focalizing topic pc.
marker of autonomous pers. pronouns] (< N '?onV 'self, the same') + '(i)hcn- (< N 'XAnjV,V 'together') + HS n'u (< N
'nV 'we, our') (survives in S, B and C) and [b] the var. '?anV-n'u ('?an- + 'n'u) (preserved in Eg and possibly in C): S
'?a'nihnua 'we' [aut. prn.] > BHb unh6n2a9 ?"'nahnu, Ph ?nhn, BA an1h6n2a9 ?"'nahna, IA ?nhn(h), Plm ?nhnv, JA
an1h6n2(a9) (?")nahna, JEA {Sl.} an1h6n2a9 ?"'nahna - Nn@a9 ?"'nan, Sr Nxa nohan - Nnax ?onahnan, Ar uh0Na
nahnu, Gz nohna, Mh/Hrs {Jo.} nsha, Jb E 'nha, Jb C 'nhan - 'nha, Sq {Jo.} han - 'hanhsn, Ak (a)ninu C: Bj {RHd.}
hi'nin, {Rop.} hc'nncn 'we, us', {R} ha'nan, han'in, hc'nin 'we', {R} hc'nc-b 'us', {RHd.} -hon, {Rop.} -hon 'us', {R}
han'nc " hc'nc 'our' || Ag: Q {R}, Km {CR} anon, Km {Ap., Ss.} an-div " an-niv " {Ss.} anvn-div [-div is a pl. marker, cp.
sntv(n)div 'you' pl., naydiv 'they'], Bln {Hz.} ysn, Xm {Ap.} yIn 'we' (obl. yIna - yInv-, poss. yIna- 'our'); Km {Ap.} anv
'our' || EC: Sa/Af {Wlm., PH} nanu 'we' (aut. prn.), Dsn {To.} nini 'we' excl., Arr {Hw.} ?ono 'we', -na (bound subject prn.),
Rn nah 'we' excl., inno 'we' incl., Sml N {Abr.} anna-I-u - anna-g-u 'we' excl. ( inna-I-u - inna-g-u 'we' incl.)
(-I---g- is a marker of m., -u is a nom. ending), anna-I-a - anna-g-a 'us' excl. (-a is an acc. ending), Bn K ano, J un(o) 'we'
(focus-marked K ano, J un-c), Bs {Hw.} no 'we, us' (dat.-ben. non), Kns {BlSO} ino 'we, us', Gdl {Bl.} inno 'we' (inno-
obl..), Or B nu, nu(h), {Sr.} nu (nom. nuya, nuvini), Or O nu (nom. nuti, nutini), Or Wt nu (nom. nuti, nuti), Or Wl nuy
(obl. nu-), Or H nu 'we', 'us', Hr/Dbs {AMS} ino, Gln/Gwd {AMS}, Cm {Hab.} inc 'we', Hr/Dbs/Gln {AMS}, Cm {Hab.}
-inna- - -ino-, Gln {AMS} -inc- 'us' (verbal second px.), Brj {Hd.} nanu, Ged {Hd.} no?o, Kmb {Hd.} na?oti, Brj nin-si,
Hd/Kmb {Hd.} nc(:)-s 'us' (whence Hd ncsc 'we'), Sd {Hd.} ninIc 'we, us' (from gen. with the marker of masc. possessi '-Ic,
cp. Brj nin-Ia m. 'of us, noster' nin-ta f. 'of us, nostra'), Ya 'nini? 'we' || Dhl nani 'we' Rn nah and Bj hinin certianly
reflect HS '?anihEn-n'u, while some of the forms without clear traces of a lr. may reflect '?anV-n'u Eg N inn 'we' (=
{Satz.} 'yanan, {Vc.} 'yana-na) 'we' > DEg inn > Cpt: Sd/B oueu, A/F ouou [4] HS '?anihEn-n'u-IV (and 'nV-IV?)
'we' du. > Ch: Ron {J}: Klr yigi:n, Fyer Ion 'we' du., Sha gsn id., proclitics: Klr gi, Bks Iu id. || ECh: Mgm -(y)cq 'us' du.,
-t-cq 'our' du. (-t- is a marker of possessive forms) B 'hana-y 'us, 'to us' > Tw {Pr.} an+y " han+y id.; postnominal sx.
'-nay 'our' > Tw -n+y, Kb, Shl -noy, Si, Wrg -nnoy, etc., postverbal sx. '-Vy " '-(V)nVy 'us' (> Ah -n+y, Kb, Shl, Wrg -ay, Si
-anay, Zng {MHNic.} -nog" This compound prn. is likely to go down to HS '?anihEn-n'u (and 'nV?) + reflex of N
'yuEqi 'two' [q.v.] AD SF 174 (C, Om, S, Eg, Ch), Tk. I 125-6 (id.), Blz. PPCh2 4O-53; on S: KB 69, 1669, Sl. 144-5, PS
25O, Jo. M 29O, Jo. H 95, Hz. VP 35-4O, Lip. 36O-1, 37O-1, 378-83, Sd. G 41-6, 5*, 8*-9*; on Eg: EG I 97 & II 194-5, 2OO,
Satz. EIPP 53-4, Ed. 7O-9, Er. 35, Vc. 13, Lpr. 64-7; on B: AiM 216-7, 221-2, Pr. M I-III 164, 167, 17O-3 & VI-VII 11, 16, Stm.
52, Hz. VS 12-7, Wlm. 25O-1; on C: R BdS 157-165, Rop. 197-8, RHd. B 111-2, 119-22, PH 234-8, 259-83, Hz. AL 49-5O,
PG 4O, HL 132, Grg. 178, Sr. 119-2O, Ow. 98, BlSO 46, Bl. G 42, PG 4O-52, Hw. A 215, 22O-1, Hw. B I 553-66 & II 11O, Ss.
D 2O7, Hb. S 3O, AMS 97-8, 28O, Hd. HEC 256-9, Hn. Y II 39, 42-5O, E SC 386, Eld. SC 289, To. D 37, EEN 4O, To. DL 211-
4 [1,2,3] NrOm: prn. of 1p (hard to make etl. identification with the above points [1], [2] or [3]): Kf {C} no, nu 'we, us, our',
Shn {Lm., Rtl.} no / no 'we', no 'our', Anf {MYTY} nusi 'we', nuna 'our', Cha {C} nu, noIa, Bsk/Zl/Gf {C} nu, Wl, Dc
nu- 'we', Bdt {Hw.} nu 'we' (clitic with verbs), nu-mba 'we' (abs.), 'us', nu 'us', nu-ni nom. 'we', Gm {Hp.} nuni nom.,
nuna acc., {Hp., Hw.} nu (gen. and short form), Zs {Hw.} ni 'we' excl. [and nu(y) 'we' incl.?], Gnj {Si.} nuna, Kcm {Si.}
nuna, Krt {Si.} nunt, Zrg {Si.} 'nuna, Male {Si.} 'nuni 'we', Bnc {Wdk.} nu, nuna` 'we' excl. (abs., subject). {Brz.} nu 'we'
excl. abs., nu`n 'we' excl. (subject) [and {Wdk.} nin, {Brz.} ni`n 'we' incl., ni {Wdk.} 'our, us' incl.?], Ym {Wdk.} inno
" inno` 'we', HzMa {SiW} nuqga 'we' excl. | Dzd: Mj {All.} inu 'we', in 'us', n- 'our', Sk {AY} nata 'we', n- 'our' (px. of
nouns), 'we' (px. of verbs), Na {AY) naIis 'we', naIna 'us' (-na is acc. marker), naIn 'our', n- 'our' (prenominal) C SE
III & IV 53-9, 477, Mrn. O 33, Lm. Sh 365, Rtl. ShM 196, Hp. 371, Hw. EG, Hw. CO, Hw. NKL 229, Hw. NZL 266-9, MYTY
1O5, Wdk. BY 1O8, 126, 182, Brz. PhGG 11-4, All. D 383, AY ShM 3, 7-8, AY NG 6-7, Si. ACh 22, Si. M 11, SiW AB 17
Ch: prn. of 1p excl. (hard to identify with the points [1], [2] or [3] - because of phonetic reduction and the complicated
morphological and phonological history): [a] absolute (aut.) prn.: [a] WCh {Kr.}: Bd a-a, Ngz a 'we' excl. || CCh: Higi
{Kr.}: HgNk yc, HgF ys-gyo, HgG qiyc, HgK ys-q?yc, HgB yyc, FlK yiy, FlG yuyi, FlJ ?iyin, FlM yid(u), FlB
yidi | BB {Kr.}: Gude (?)in, Gudu in, Bcm, Mln yi | BM {Kr.}: Wmd na-?ya, Mrg, Klb na-?ya, Hld na-yaq, WMrg ys?a,
Cb (i)yar, Bu ycru (BM '-r- < Ch '-n-) | Tr sb. {Kr.}: Gnd qga?an, Boka Ia-nsq, Hw Ian | Lmn {Wl.} nayiq (abs. prn.),
-yiq 'we' excl. (postverbal subject sx.) || ECh.: Mkl {J} Iayc (abs.), ?ay- / ?ay- (subject pref.) 'we' excl., Bdy {AlJ}
-niq / -niq (suffixed subject marker of 1p excl.), Mgm {JA} ni:, ni:-ta (abs.), ni / ni" (subject prn., clitic), EDng {Fd.} ni,
{Ebob.} nin(iq) we' excl. (abs.), {Ebob.} ni 'we' excl. (subject) [b] possessive 'our' excl.: WCh: Bd -a, Ngz (-a)-a ||
CCh: BB {Kr.}: Bcm -ayno, Gude -giyin / -gcn, Mln -gtyno | Higi sb. {Kr.}: HgNk -yc, HgF -qigyo, HgG -qiyc, HgB
-qgyc, FlK -qyi, FlG ysyi, FlJ -qgi, FlM -Iud(t) | BM {Kr.}: Hld, Klb -?ya, Wmd -?ya, WMrg -?a, Cb -yar, Bu -ycru,
Ngx -ycru | Tr sb. {Kr.} Gnd -ya?an / -?sn, Gbn ys?sn, Hw -nsn, Boka nani | Msg G/P {MB} -yi, Mlw {Trn.} -yi, Mbara
{TrnSF} -i | Lmn {Wl.} - yiq || ECh: Mkl {J} -ycy- (m. possessi), -d-cy- (f. possessi; -d- is f. marker), Mgm {JA}
(-t)-ini [c] 'us' excl.: Ngz/Bd {Kr.} a || CCh: BB {Kr.} Bcm nc-yno , Gude -g-tytn / -I-cn(a), Gudu
bi-in (nc-, g-, I-, bi- are objet markers) | Higi sb. {Kr.}: HgNk yc, HgF nIgyo, HgG tyc, HgK ?yc(-ndc), HgB yyc / ri,
FlK yiy, FlG ntyi, FlJ qya-yt, FlM gc-da (qya-, gc- are object markers) | Tr sb. {Kr.}: Gnd -ga?an-ci (-ci is an accus.
marker), Hw -Isn, Boka -?ani | Msg G {MB} -i, Msg P -yi, Mbara {TrnSF} -i | Lmn {Wl.} -ni(y)- || Mkl {J} -ayn(i)-, Bdy
{AlJ} -niq, ?iniq, Mgm {JA} -ni Blz. PPCh2 4O-53, Kr. RChP, AD EPCChL, MB SMSM 1O6, TrnSF M 166, Trn. M 183,
Wl. L 85, J R, JA 32-42, AlJ 35-9, Fd. 217, Ebob. MVOD 3O-4 HS '?anihEn-n'u 'we' [aut. prn.] is likely to go to a cd
'?an- [focalizing topic pc., forming aut. pers. pronouns] + '(i)hcn- 'together' or '(i)hVn- 'other' + 'n'u 'we, our'. The element
'(i)hcn- 'together' (if it appears here) is cognate with Eg fP hn 'together' (EG III 11O-1, Fk. 172) and goes back to N
'XAnjV,V 'together' [q.v.]. In this case '-(i)hEnV-nV originally means 'we together'. An alt. conjecture is to suppose here the
presence of the element '(i)hVn- 'other' < N 'uinV (= 'XinV?) 'other' [q.v.]. In the latter case the original meaning of the
pronouns is 'nous autres' (like Sp nosotros and Ctl nosaltrcs 'we' < L acc. pl. nos altcros 'us others') ll Gil: Gil A nsq, Gil ES
niq 'we' excl. Pnf. I 231, ST 219 ll ? D 'nam / (obl cases) 'nam- 'we' incl. > OTm nam, Tm, Ml nam, OKn nam - navu,
obl. nam-, Tu namo, Krx, Mlt nam 'we' incl, Brh nan 'we' (without distinction between incl. and excl.) Zv. CDM 37-8, 47,
An. SG 251-5 ll ? A {S} 'na 'I' > M 'na-, stem of the obl. cases of the prn. of 1s Ko {S} 'na 'I' > MKo na, Ko Ph/Chs na,
Ko S na, Ko Kw/Chj na, S AJ 253 [#44], S QK #44, Nam 85 ^ The original meaning of 1p excl. survives in K, C (Dsn, Rn,
Sml), Ch and Om (e.g. Zs), but in D we find the meaning of 1p incl. ^ Both the D and the A pronouns may be explained as a
shortened form of D 'manamu (> Tl manamu 'we' incl.) and A 'mana- 'we' incl. < N 'mi ?a 'we' incl. (q.v.) + 'nu genitive.
D '-amu / 'am- may be explained by analogy with D 'tam (obl. 'tam-) 'they' and 'yam 'we' excl. A '-a in ''mana- is
probably a case marker. If this is true, D 'nam 'we' incl. and A 'na 'I' do not belong here ^ IS I 7 (D, IE, K, HS), Gr. I 7O
(hesinantly connects IE and Gil markers of 1p\d).
1527a. 'nV, marker (pronoun) that formed analytic equivalents of passive participles ( derived passive verbs): IE: NaIE
'-no-, sx. of passive partiples and deverbal adjectives: NaIE {Brg.} 'l-'no- - 'lc-no- 'filled, full' > [1] 'l-'no- > OI
ur'na-h, Ir lan, Gt fulls, Lt ilnas, OCS ua+u+ l+n+, [2] 'lc-no- > L lcnus, OI rana-h Productive sxs. of
daughter-languages: OI bhind-a'na-h and pf. prtc. bibhid-a'n-s bhid- 'bind', Gmc '-ono-/-cno-: Gt vaur|-an-s, OHG
gi-vortan, ON orcnn 'geworden', Gt bit-an-s 'bitten', OCS uctcu+ ncs-cn-+ 'carried, getragen', oc+acu+ za-b+v-cn-+
'forgotten Brg. 316-7 ll HS: S px. of passive-reflexive derived participles and verbs: [1] 'na-, px. of passive-reflexive participles
and (in WS lgs.) of the new perfect ( verbal adjectives) of the passive-reflexive N -pattern (Hb niphal, Ar infaala, 7th form):
BHb rB1S6n5 ni-s'bar 'broken', rB2S6n5 nis'bar pf. 'was broken', Ak narusu [verbal adj.'] 'divided'; [2] '-n- (following the
personal px.) in the finite verb (Ak prt., WS new imperfective): Hb rb4[1i% yissa'bcr (-ss- < '-ns-) 'is \ will be broken'
(new imperfective), rb4[1I%v@ vayyissa'bcr '(and) was broken', Ar ya-n-qatilu 'is \ will be killed', Ak iaris (-- <
'-n-) 'was divided'. In Ar the pf. form was restructured on analogy of the ipf., hence -n- in the pf.: ?in-Iasara 'was broken into
pieces', ?inhazama 'was beaten' Br. G 536-7, Br. AG 38-, Sd. G 9O (117-8), Dk. JDPA 293-4 ll K {K} 'na-, px. of past
passive participle: OG na-ban-i 'washed, gewaschen', na-gucm-i 'beaten'. na-Iuct-i 'abgeschnitten', na-sob-i 'born', Sv
na-Ivcm 'getragen' (of garments), na-sdug 'geflochten' K 145, Shan. G 157, Dt. 227-8 ll A: Tg: Ewk {Vas.} -na/-ns/-no,
result of an action: duIu-na-v 'written by me' (lit. 'my written') duIu- 'write' Vas. 7O6 T {Cl.} '-(V)n, e.g. OT [MhK]
{Cl.} tcvrcn 'threads which are twisted to make waistbands' tcvir- v. 'twist' Cl. xliv, 443 ?? M: WrM {Pp.} -n, sx.
"denoting a quality caused by an action" (in Pp.s words): WrM siqgcn, HlM mnniyn 'thin (in consistency)', 'weak' (of liquid)
WrM siqgc-, HlM mnniy- 'be dissolved' Pp. GPMJ 1O1, MED 711-2.
1527. 'nai 'to go' ( 'to go to do sth.') > HS: Eg ny v. {EG} 'go\move\sail (somewhere)', {Fk.} 'travel' EG II 2O6,
Fk. 126 S: [1] '-nu- vi. 'move, shake, dangle' > BHb nv G (ip. o@uni! ya-nu
) 'shake' (intr.), 'dangle', MHb, JA
{Trg.} nv G 'move' (intr.), ? Ar nv G (ip. -nu-) 'expand the wings for darting on ones prey' (of a falcon), TD (pf.
tanavva) 'be shaken' (bough), 'walk ahead' [2] S 'nyv > Gz naa (f. no-i, m. pl. no-u) 'come!', (with loss of '): BHb
an! na (particle of request or encouragement) 'please', Ug n, Amr na, Sr nc id., Ar nvy 'se proposer une ch., avoir lintension
de ', as well as possibly CS '-nu- > Ug {A} n 'verlangen' (absent in OLS!) and Ar nv (ip. -nu-) 'demander, solliciter',
nu- 'thirst' Ls. G 382, JB ES 18, KB 62O, Grd. UT #1586, A #18O4, Hff. 236, Lv. T II 98, Br. 41O, BK II 1368-9, 1373, Hv.
8O8 ll K 'n- v. 'want, desire, wish' > G, Lz n- id., Sv US/L/Ln n- id. (_-o-n-i 'er will, er ist dafr') K 145, K
135-6, FS K 234,
FS E 257-8, Dn. s.v. n-
ll ?? IE: NaIE 'na- 'help, be useful' ( N 'nVqa 'to assist [help, protect]' [q.v. ffd.]) ll A: Tg
'-na-/'-nc- (verbal sx.) 'go to [do sth.]' > Ewk duIu-na- 'go to write' (from duIu- 'write'), Ud Ists-ns-mi 'I go to lie down'
(from Ists-mi 'ich liege'), vaIca-na-mi 'I go to hunt', WrMc taci-nc- 'go to learn' (taci- 'learn') Vas. 777, Shn. 77, 141, Hrl.
251 ^ AD NEPGF 237-4O.
1528. 'naXjV,bV (or 'nabV?) 'hungry and thirsty; sober' > HS: C: Ag: Bln {R} naab- 'be hungry\sober', 'nacb n.
'hunger, sobriety' R WB 279-8O Eg MKL/NK nhb.t n. 'wish, desire' EG II 294 ll IE: NaIE 'nab"- 'sober, hungry and
thirsty' ( NaIE 'nag""- 'sober, hungry and thirsty' < N ??? 'naHgU 'nagV?U) 'hungry, thirsty'?) > Gk ve, Gk D
voe 'drink no wine, be sober' || Arm ni not"i (< 'navt"i) 'fasting, hungry, famished, starved' ({F}: eArm 'navt" <
'nab"-t-) F II 318-9 ('nab"-), Slt. 355-6, WP II 317 and P 754 (both reconstruct IE 'nag""- without explaining the Arm
cns. v), EI 175 (vce < 'n`cg""-c/o- 'not drink') ^ The Eg ev. suggests a voiceless lr. ('X > Eg h), while the voiced lr. in
Bln is probably due to as ('hb > 'b).
1529. 'NAXiba 'thin, meagre' ( 'weak') > HS: WS 'nh - 'nXb 'be thin \ meagre' > [1] WS 'nh > Ar nhf G
(nahifa / -nhafu - nahufa / -nhufu) 'be naturally lank \ meagre', nahif- 'lank and meagre', Mh/Jb nhf: Mh ns'hayf, Jb E/C
'nhif 'lean, thin'; [2] S 'nXb > Sr nhb G 'grow lean, waste', no'hcb 'lean, meagre' BK II 1216, Jo. M 291, Jo. J 186, Br.
422, JPS 336 as 'nhb < 'nh C: Bj {R, Rop.} pcv. nhv {Rop.} 'become weak\thin', {R} 'schmachtig, mager, schwach
sein' ({R} p. 'anhav / prs. anan'hiv) R WBd 182-3, Rop. 223 Ch: CCh {Stl.} 'nuf- 'soft' > Wmd {ChL} nonofu 'softness'
| Mf {BLB} ncf-ncffc?c - naf-naffa?a 'fin, moulu finement (pour une farine), lger\fin (pour un tissu)'; Ch 1 Ar Ng nafnaf
'soggy, moist, soft'; CCh 'nuf partially contaminated with CCh 'luf- soft' < (?) N 'LabV 'be soft', q.v. ffd.), whence Msm {Vnb.}
louloufout 'softness' and Mf {BLB} lcf-lcffc?c - af-laffa?a 'fins (pour les cheveux)' Stl. IF 131, ChL III 217, BLB 211,
251 ll IE: NaIE '(s)ncb"-ri- / '(s)nob"-ri- 'narrow, thin' > Arm nurb nurb 'subtile, fine, slender, thin, slim; narrow' || Dn sncvcr
'eng, knapp', NNr snovcr, snov id., ON snofr 'flink, rasch', snfr 'rasch' WP II 698, P 973-4, Vr. 527-8, Slt. 44O IE 's-
mobile points to a presence of a palatal element in the pre-IE dialect of N: '(s)ncb"- < 'hnci_bV < N 'NAXiba ll A: T '|ubIa
'thin' (of flat objects) > OT {MKD} |uvqa 'thin', {Cl.} |uvIa - |uvga 'slender, insubstantial, thin', MQp XIII {Cl.} |uIa,
XIV [CC] |oga, Chg XV |uya 'thin, slender', OOsm XIV |u_a 'thin', Osm {Rdh.} qfvY yufqa 'thin (of flat objects), poor', Tk
yufIa id., 'fine, weak', Tkm |uqa - |uqva, Az |u_a, Nog, VTt |uqa, Bsh no a |+qa, SY |uqa, Kr G |uvya, Uz |uqa, ET
|uqa " zuqa " |uqa, Qmq |uqqa, Qzq, Qq zuqa, Qrg uqa " uqa, Alt uqa, Xk, Tv cuya, Tf cuya, MChv {Md.}
'su'xa > Chv L/MK ) xc su_c 'thin' (of flat objects) Cl. 874, MKD 235, ET J 241-2, Rdh. 2216, AzRL II 585, Ra. 198,
Rs. W 2O9, Md. 62, 134, 162 (T 'uyIa - 'ubIa), DQA #263O (unc. : T < A 'u|bc 'weak, bad', cf. N 'oj?,vV *'of
poor quality; weak, bad'). The rounded vw. 'u in pT may be due to the infl. of the adjacent 'b Comparison with M
'nimgcn 'thin' (of flat objects) and Tg 'ncm(i) 'thin' is hardly acceptable [ SDM97]. M 'nimgcn and Tg 'ncm(i) seem to be
equatable with T '|in- 'be narrow, thin' (Cl. 945-6) ll D (in SD) 'navur- 'tender, thin' ( N naVrV 'tender, delicate, beautiful',
q.v. ffd.) ^ IE 's- mobile before an initial sibilant may be interpreted as a palatalized variant of pIE '`- (see Introduction
1529a. ??? 'Ncc`V 'to plait, tie together' > HS: S +ext. 'nsI - 'nsg (< N 'Ncc`V 'saIjV,?u 'to plait, bind, wicker'
[q.v.]) > BHb nsI (pp. f. G ek1uxn^ nosu'Ia) v. 'entwine, plait, weave', IA nsI 'plait, weave, JA ak`1x6in5 nis'I-a {Sl.}
'thread of a woof', {Lv.} 'Gewebe', Ar asaNa nsg v. 'weave' KB 664, KBR 7O3, Js. 917, Lv. III 4O8, Sl. 752, Fr. IV 272
B (+ext. ) 'nsl > Si sonsol v. 'plait (leaves) in order to plat baskets' La. S 3O5 C: Ag: Aw {Hz., Plm.} onccv- (1s
oncc-) v. 'tie, bind', Bln {R} insav- v. 'tie, tie together', Q {R} cnscv-, Km {CR} ansav-, Xm {R} iccuv- v. 'tie' Hz.
VS 1O5, Plm. VSA 293, R WB 41, AD SF 299 ll D {Pf.} 'ncc-/'ncy-, {Km.} 'ncc-/'cc- > 'nc(:)y-, [GS] 'nc's- v. 'weave,
plait' ( N 'rcc`Vqa 'to tie, plait, knit', q.v. ffd.) ^ Qu. , but indispensible to explain the S cns. 's (reg. from N 'c`).
153O. ??? 'N'ac`V 'falcon' > CS ''naicac- > BHb n4 ncc, (BbV) n ncc, SmHb nas 'falcon', JA (BbV) [TrgO]
acn nac'ca id., JA [TrgJ] accn rb br ncc? - accin br nycc? ('[nico'ca]) id. (lit. 'son of a falcon'), JA [Trg.] {Lv.}
ac1n! na'ca or ac1n$ nc'ca 'Habicht' or 'Sperber', JEA {Sl.} acn ns? (unk. voc.) 'falcon', Sr coE ncs'sa {Br.} 'hawk
(accipiter)', SmA ns, nss, nssh ' bird', Ug ns {Grd.} 'falcon', {OAS} ' 'bird (of prey?)' (possibly 'hawk, falcon'), ? Ar
cWNa nass-at- 'female sparrow'; OHb fem. 'ncc'ca (> 'nic'ca) 'female falcon' (Job 39.13) was transcribed in LXX as
vcooo and translated by Aquila as ico and by Hieronymus (Vulgata) as acciitcr, while the Tiberian Masoretes read (and
vocalized) the word as ec17n no'ca, interpreting it as a wrong spelling for Et1c17n noca'tah 'its (= storks) feather'
(Et1c17n in their "Masora parva" comment) within the context ecnv edixh h"sida vnch which they understood 'stork and its
feather', while acc. to Aquila and the Vulgata it meant 'stork and [female] falcon'. This Masoretic misinterpretation is responsible
for the strange vocalization (with unexpected o and lack of gemination of c). KB 676 preserves the traditional Masoretic
vocalization as ec17n no'ca, but accepts (after G. Hlscher) the semantic interpretation of ecn nch as 'female falcon'. The
LXX translators were probably not sure about this difficult place and prefered to transcribe it (instead of translating) as ooioo
koi vcooo. The vw. of the first syll. of the word is not clear: both its Tiberian and Babylonian vocalization of BHb point to pS 'i
(''nicac-), while SmHb and Ar suggest pS 'a (''nacac-) KB 674, 676, KBR 714-5, Hlscher H 99, Yv. II 779, Grd. UT
#1682, OAS 333, Lv. T II 123, 126, Spr. BA I 181 (Lev. 11.16), 316 (Deut. 14.15), Sl. 771, Br. 442, Tal 545, BK II 1267 ll
A: ? M 'nacin - 'lacin 'falcon' (unless 'Latin or European falcon' A a European word for 'Latin') > MM [HI] lacin falcon
WrM nacin, HlM nau, Kl naun nacon id., Brt naman gyrfalcon, falcon Ms. H 73, MED 556, KRS 37O, KW 272, Chr. 325
NaT 'lain 'falcon' (A?) > OT, Chg, XwT, MU, MQp lacin 'falcon', Qzq lasin, Sg/Shor {Rl.} lacin, Xk ilacin, Az,
Qmq, Tv, Shor lacin, Tkm lacin, VTt las+n, Bsh lac+n - +las+n, Nog, Qzq, Qq lasin - ilasin, Alt lacin, ET lacin id.,
Osm {Rh.} lacin 'female peregrine falcon', Tk lacin (i because of a folk-etl. connection with European lgs.) The irreg. initial
'l- (for the expected '|-) may be explained either by borrowing (from which source?) or by internal phonological processes (not
identified so far). The unexpected preservation of the final '-in (which is not typical in T) suggests a borrowing either from some
unknown lge. of the Altaic family or from a non-Altaic lge. Cl. 763, Rs. W 313, TL 17O, 651, Rh. 1617 ?? Ko {Rm.} nacon
'a special kind of hunting falcon' Rm. SKE 135 KW 272, Rm. SKE l.c. This word in M, T and Ko may be a loan from the
European word for Latin (falcon Latin falcon) or represent a merger of the A word with the loanword. In the former case
the N etymology is to be rejected.
1531. 'NAdV '(the whole) clan' > HS: S 'ndvy > Ar ndv G 'assist at a meeting' Hv. 76O ll K: GZ 'nad- 'collective
assistance in agriculture' > OG, G nad-, Mg nod-, Lz nodc(r)- id. K 145, K
136 ll D 'nat-, {GS} 'nad- 'village' > Tm
natu 'country, district', Kn natu 'cultivated land; the country ( 'city'), Ml natu id., 'kingdom, district', Kt nat 'country,
settled are', Td not 'sacred place', Tu nadu, nad+ 'district, village', Tl nadu 'a country', Gnd nar " nar`, Knd nar_u, Png
naz / nas (obl. nat-), Mnd nay (obl. nat-, Kui na:u, Ku nai_yu " nayu 'village'; D 1 Mrt nat 'place' D #3638, GS
161 [#395].
1532. 'NidV 'eye; to look' ( 'to look for, seek') > A: M 'nidun 'eye' > MM [LM, MA, IM, IsV, HI, S] nidun, WrM
nidun, HlM n(( yn) , Ord {Ms.} nu'd_u', Brt n (y( n) , Kl n(n, {Rm.} nudn, MMgl {Iw.} nidu'n, Mgl {Rm.} nu'du'n,
Dg {T} nidu', Dx {T} nudun, Ba {T} ncdoq, Mnr H/M {T} nudu, Mnr H {SM} nud_u; 'nidulc- 'to look' > WrM nidulc-,
HlM n(ny- id., Dg {T} nidlc- id., 'examine', Kl n(n-x 'to notice', {Rm.} nudl- 'mit den Augen sehen', Brt n (yn- v.
'recover ones sight, get the habit (of visiting, going somewhere)' Pp. L III 72, Pp. MA 249-51, 442, Lg. VMI 57, H 116, Ms. H
78, MED 578, Chr. 342-3, KRS 388-9, KW 282, Rm. M 35, SM 287-9, Iw. 12O, T 353, T DgJ 157-8, T DnJ 131, T BJ 144 ll D
'nitt-, nct- > Kn nittisu- v. 'look at', as well as ( N 'lcvdA 'to look for, find') Tm nctu 'seek, look out for', Ml nctuIa
'obtain, get', Kdg nod- v. 'earn' D #3766 ll ? K 'nd- 'to wish' > OG nd-, G nd- 'wish' (OG, G msd.. nd-oma, 3s prs. u-nda), Sv
_vi-ndvn-c 1s 'I wish'; K 'n- 'wish' (OG, G, Lz, Sv n-) The adduction of K is legitimate unless 'nd- is derived from 'n-
Abul. 326, Fn. KD #5 ('nd-), K 145 ('n-), FS E 257-8 ('n-) ^ Fn. KD #5 (equates the D [inaccurately recostructed as
'nat-/nct-] with K 'nat-/nct- [without specifying its reflexes; he obviously means G natvr-/natr- 'wnschen, ersehnen,
begehren', Chx. 927-8]).
1533. ? 'nij?u,da 'nij?u,da 'to tie' > IE: NaIE 'ncd"- id. > OI 'nad"-, pp. nad'dha- (< 'nad"-ta-) 'tied', 'nahyati
'binds' || L nodus 'a knot' ({KM, Vr.}: < 'noz-do- < 'nod"-do-; WH rejects this hyp.) || OIr naidm 'fait dattacher \ de lier,
contrat', nasc- (< 'n,d-sI-) v. 'tie, attach', Br nasIa- 'attacher (les bestiaux par les cornes)' || ON nista 'to attach' (with the sx.
'-st-), OHG ncstilo, ncstila 'lace, band', ? AS nostlc 'fillet, band' WH II 172-3, EM 772-3, M K II 147-8, M E II 31-2, Vn. N
1-4, Vr. 4O8, 41O, Kb. 723, OsS 647, Ho. 238, P 758-9, WP II 825, EI 336 (L nodus < IE 'ncd- 'knot' with unj. 'd) ll U:
FU (or FP?) 'nioaa- (or nizaa-) 'bind together' > F nito- v. 'stitch, sew, bind', Es nidu- 'connect, bind together' | pLp {Lr.}
'nsoc- vt. 'fasten, join\stitch together' > Lp: L {LLO} n|atct id., N {N} n|addc- / -d- 'tack\lash on\together, join together by
tacking\sawing (skin traps etc.), fasten (scythe) on the handle', Kld na'd_tc- 'binden (mit einer Wurzelfaser), nhen' | Mk nc( -
ncda- vi. string (as beads)', Er nc( - ncda- id., 'hang on\up, haft', {Ps. [not in ERV]} ncta-, nata- 'anfgen, aufreihen,
umbinden, mit Stricken befestigen' || Ps. FI 23 adduces here Hg nyalab 'bundle', but MF 476 and UEW 713 reject it and (rather
unconvincingly) connect nyalab with Hg nyolc 'eight' The hyp. of the IIr origin of the FU is hardly acceptable because it
fails to account for the palatalized 'n and for the vw. 'i in FU UEW 713 (FU A pre-IIr 'n,d- or 'ncd"-), Set. FUd 382, SK
386, Lr. #751, Lgc. #43OO, TI 292, ERV 4O8, Ker. II 95, PI 178, Ps. FI 23 ll HS: Ch: WCh: Zar {ChL} nsttu, Zar K {Sh.} ntd
v. 'tie' CCh: Mdr {Mg.} qvoda / quda, {Mch.} qud, {ChL} qudanaquda, Glv {Rp.} ngud-, Gv {ChL} qgudavnufa,
Dgh {Frk.} qgvda id. ChC, ChL Eg fMd nvd.t 'babys napkin' EG II 225, DW 451-2 ^ Ps. FI 23 (FU A Ary), IS II 88
(''nida) (IE, FU) ^ The Ch and Eg data suggest the presence of 'v or 'u. The initial q- and the glottalized 'd in Ch may point
to a lr., most probably '? (i.e. N 'nij?u,da 'nij?u,da). In IE the lr. '? is regularly lost without traces (such as vowel
lengthening). The rec. 'nij?u,da is justified if the FU palatal 'n- goes back to 'n- with ass. palatalization (caused by 'i). The
alt. rec. 'nij?u,da presupposes pre-IE depalatalization 'n- > 'n- (neutralization of the palatality feature before the palatal vw.
1534. ??? 'naHgU (or'nagV?U) 'hungry, thirsty' > HS: Eg fMK n: v. 'parch with thirst', n. 'thirst' EG II 377, Fk. 144
S 'ngr > Ar ngr 'trepris dun violent acca de soif', nagar- 'accs de soif violent' BK II 12O2-3 Tk. I 56 ll IE:
NaIE 'nag""- 'sober, hungry and thirsty' ( IE 'nab"- 'sober, hungry and thirsty' < N 'naXjV,bV 'hungry and thirsty; sober',
q.v.) > Gk ve, Gk D voe 'drink no wine, be sober' || OHG nuohturn - nuohtarn 'sober, with an empty stomach', NHG
nuchtcrn, MDt nuchtcrnc, Dt nuchtcr id. WP II 317, P 754, Kb. 738, OsS 661, KM 515-6 (qu. : OHG nuohturn A L
nocturnus 'by night, nightly)', F II 318-9 (rejects the Gmc cognate and reconstructs IE 'nab"-), Vr. N 47, EI 175 (vce <
'n`cg""-c/o- 'not drink') ^ The comparison is valid unless the primary meaning of the Eg word is 'ersticken' (cp. EG: n:
'ersticken, verdursten; Dursten, Durst') and the IE is 'nab"-.
1535. 'nigjV,XE v. 'butt, push' > HS: CS 'ngh, '-ngah(-) v. 'butt' > JA [Trg.] ngh G (pf. no'gah) id., JEA ngh G
'gore', BHb hgn ngh (ip. -ggah) 'gore' (of oxen), ? Ar ngh Sh ?angaha {Fr.} 'superavit et vicit' KB 63O, KBR 667, Js. 873,
Sl. 729 ll IE: NaIE {IS} 'nci_g"- v. 'pierce' > OIr ncs(s) 'coup, blessure' (< 'nig"-s) ( N 'n`oKV 'to hurt') || Sl 'niz-/niz-,
'niz-ti 'penetrate, pierce' > OCS uut:u nisti (prs. uia nizo) 'penetrate', OR uu:u nizti (prs. ui nizu) id., 'pierece', OCS
a+uut:u v+-nisti (prs. a+uia v+-nizo) 'I stick\thrust into'; caus. 'noziti > R ) na:nr " na) :nr 'be a draught, penetrate'
(of wind)', RChS a+ueu:u v+-noziti, R no-n' :nr v. 'stick\thrust into'; Sl 'noz- (acc. to IS, an apophonic 'o-grade based on
the analogy of other verbal roots, like 'birati / 'bor+): R :a-'no:a 'a splinter in ones hand, foot, etc.'), Uk :a'n : (gen.
:a'no:y) 'a stick put through the ox-yoke'; Sl 'nozi (< pre-Sl 'noz-|o-s) 'knife' > OCS, OR uei noz+, Blg no, SCr noz
(gen. noza), Slv no_z (gen. noza), R no(gen. no'a), Uk n , P noz' (gen. noz'a), Cz nuz id. P 76O ('ncg"-), Vn.
N 11 (Ir ncs(s) < IE 'ncI-, Vs. I 348-9 & II 78 & III 8O, Glh. 443, SJSS VI 3O7, ESSJ XXVI 19, 68-9, EI 537 (OCS nozi
and MIr ncs(s) < IE ? 'hncg"-cs 'spear' IE 'hncg"- 'stab') The N lr. must have coalesced with 'g" without leaving
traces (N 'gH > IE 'g") ll U: FU 'niIIa vt. 'stick (in), pierce' > pLp {Lr.} 'nsIIct(t)c vt. 'stick (in), push' > Lp: S {Hs.}
naIIicdidh 'schieben, einherschieben, stoen', N {N} naIIcti- v. 'stick, put', Kld {TI} na,I:_c- 'hinein-stecken\-schieben' ||
ObU {Hl.} 'ncI- > pVg 'naI- > Vg MK naI- in ol-naIi- 'fortschieben', noInaI- 'aufrtteln, erwecken' and possibly
naIos- 'stoen, rasseln (?)' [unless the last one belongs to N 'nigESV 'to butt, pierce']; pOs ncI- 'stoen' > Os: Ty/Y ncI-,
Kz naIi- '(leicht) stoen (z. B. beim Aufwecken)', d : Kz naIomo- 'anstoen', Ty ncIomto-, VK ncIomt- '(an)stoen'
Coll. 1O1, Coll. CG 79, UEW 3O4-5, Lr. #7O1, Lgc. #4O58, Hs. 967, TI 272, Ht. #424 (pObU 'naI-/'ncI-; + unc. Vg T
naI- 'treten'), WVD VII 21O, MK 35O (Vg naI- " naI- 'treten') ^ IS II 96-7 [#334] ('NEgn ' non:ar ': HS, IE). IS
adduces here S 'ng, 'ngs and B 'ngs, which is less convincing because of the unexplained third cns. I prefer to equate S
'ngs and B ngs with IE 'nci_Igj",s- (> OI 'niIsati 'pierces', etc.) and to reconstruct N 'nigESV '' as a separate N
etymon. The rec. 'nigjV,XE enables us to equate S and IE with FU 'niIIa v. 'stick, pierce' (where '-II- is likely to go back to
'-g_- [or '-gh-?]). The connection between N 'nigESV and 'nigjV,XE (if any) belongs to the realm of pre-N (or N?)
1536. 'nigESV (= 'nigEsV?) 'to butt, pierce' > HS: S 'ngs > JA [Trg.] ngs G (3m ip. S7Gn^i% yin'gos) v. 'attack,
gore'; ?? S 'nIs (as '-Is- < '-gs-) > SmA nIs G gore', Ar nIs (ip. -nIus-) 'renverser' KB 633, Lv. II 92, Js. 876, Tal
528, BK II 1341 B 'ngs > Ah oqgos, Sll ongos v. 'butt so.', Kb ngs: no||os 'bousculer' Fc. 1339, Dl. 556 ll IE: NaIE
'nci_Igj",s- v. 'pierce' > 'niIsati id., Av nacza 'point (of a needle)', ClNPrs {Sg., Vl.} zayN ncza, NPrs {BM} zayNa
nci_zc 'short spear, demi-lance, javelin, dart, pike', {Vl.} 'lancea, hasta' M K II 158-9, M E II 41, Vl. II 1386-7, Sg. 1442, BM
576 ll D 'niI- ({GS} '-g-?) > Tm nicuni v. 'go through, pierce', Tl igu 'enter, penetrate', ? Klm iIcq 'pierce, thrust in (knife)'
D #3686 ll ? U: FU: Vg MK {Kn.} naIos- 'stossen, rasseln (?)' (unless derived from Vg MK naI-, cp. ol-naIi- 'push')
WVD VII 21O ^ If Vg MK naIos- belongs here, N 'S may be identified as 's ^ IS II 96-7 [#334] ('NEgn ' non:ar ': HS,
1537. 'nu jE,'nuvjE, 'now' > IE 'nuL 'now' > Ht {Ts., CHD} nu 'now, and, but', {CHD} nuva- 'still, yet' NaIE
'nu 'now' > OI 'nu, 'nu, Av nu 'now' || Gk vu 'now' (as well as vuv, vuv id. < 'nu-m?) || L num 'nun noch, nun jetzt',
'whether' (interr. pc.), nudius (< 'nu- + dycu_s 'day'): nudius tcrtius 'the day before yesterday' (lit.: 'it is now the third day'),
nudius quartus 'it is now the fourth day', etc. || Gt nu, ON nu, OSx nu, OHG, AS nu - nu, NGr nu, NHG nun 'now', NE
nov || Lt nu 'now, today', Ltv nu - nu 'now', Pru -nu in tci-nu 'now' | Sl 'n+ 'but' > OCS u+ n+, Blg n, no, R no, SCr no,
Slv no || pTc {Ad.} 'nu > Tc: A nu {Wn.} 'now' 'just, but', B {Ad.} no 'however, but' Ts. E II 339-43, CHD L-N 46O-7O,
P 77O, EI 397 ('nu), M K II 175, M E II 52-3, WH II 184-6, F II 325, Fs. 38O, Vr. 412, Ho. 239, Ho. S 56, Kb. 737, OsS 66O,
KM 516, Frn. 5O9-1O, En. 264, Vs. III 77, ESlSJ-SGZ II 5O8-1O, ESSJ XXVI 5O-1, Wn. 32O, Ad. 347 (Tc B no 'however, but'),
Ad. H 19, 26, 34 (Tc nu " no 'now, therefore') ll A: Tg 'nc 'now, immediately' > Ul ns, Nn ns, Ork nI - ns 'immediately', Ud
ns id., 'without fail (ncnpcxcnno)', WrMc nc 'now' STM I 614, Krm. 266 ll U: FU (att. in FP only) 'nn`uj:, 'now' (partially
FU 'nn`uIV < N 'nuIV 'nuIE 'now') > F nyt, F ny, nyy 'now, at the [resent time', Es nuud, nuu 'now', Lv
ni id. || Er ncy, Mk ni id. || Prm 'ni - 'ni 'already' > Vt ni, ini, Z Ud ni - ni id. SK 4O6-7, UEW 7O7, LG 192 lll N
'nu jE, nu ('nu jE, + genitive pc. 'nu) '(of) the present time' > IE 'nuL-nV > NaIE {P} 'nu-no- 'jetzig' > OI nu'nam
'now', MPrs nun, NPrs vnk0"a aI-nun, vnKu Io-nun id. || BSl: [1] Lt {Herm.} nun - nun 'now', [2] a fossilized case form
of the adj.: Lt nunai 'today, now' | Sl 'nInc 'at the present time' > OCS, OR uu1 nInc, R 'ninc, Blg ) nnnc, OP, OCz
nynic, C, Slk nyni, P ninic, var. 'n+nc > OR u+u1 n+nc, R ) nonc || ? L nunc 'now' (< 'nun-Ic or 'num-Ic) P 77O, M
K II 176-7, Vl. I 117 & II 9O2, WH II 187-8, Frn. l.c., Herm. LS 365, Vs. III 77, 82, 91, ESlSJ-SGZ II 51O-2, ESSJ XXVI 57-63
ll HS: C: Ag 'nVn 'now' > Bln/Q {R} nan, Xm non 'now (jetzt)' R WB 284 ll U: Z nin, Z nin 'already' LG 192 ^ IS II 97
reconstructs here 'Nuqn 'now' (> IE, U). The N cns. '-q- was reconstructed by IS on the alleged ev. of U 'NuIV 'now' > F
nyIy- adj. 'present [time]', supposing that U '-I- is a reg. reflex of N '-q-, which is at variance with the numerous cases where N
'-q- yields U zero (e.g., N 'oqi 'cover' > U 'oyV 'be wrapped', N 'toqUzV 'plait, wattle' > U 'tosV 'basket, vessel', N
'saljV,qV 'cut asunder' > U salu- 'cut' a. o.) as against two or three cases of U 'I < N 'q in U cns. clusters (N 'saqqa
'stalks' > U 'saqIa - 'saqV 'bough, branch', N 'ojV,qV 'thigh, haunch' > U 'ocIa 'Schenkel', N 'muqjE,ri 'shoulder' >
U 'mVrIV id.). N '-q- is ruled out by the Ht cognates nu and nuva, because the reg. Ht reflex of N '-q- is -h-. F nyIy- may be
equated with Ht nuIIu 'now' and Ag 'nVII- 'today' and hence go back to N 'nuIV 'nuIE [q.v.]. On the possible
connection (or identity) of the N etymon in question with N 'nEvjy,V 'new' see s.v. 'nEvjy,V Gr. II #280 ('nu 'now')
[IE, Ai, Gil + qu. EA + err. U + err. A, J, that belong to N 'nEvjy,V].
1538. ? 'n'ihvV (or 'q'ihvV, 'nqohivV?) 'to lead, direct (oneself) towards' > HS: S 'nhv 'lead, guide' > BHb
nhyv G (pf. eh1n! na'ha, imv. eh4n^ no'hc) 'lead, guide', Ar nhv G (pf. 'haNa na'ha, ip. -nhuv- - -nhav-) 'direct
oneself towards', nahv- n. 'side, tract' KB 647, GB 497, BDB 634-5 [#5148], Fr IV 252-3, Hv. 756 ll IE 'nci_L- 'lead, direct
towards' ( N 'qanV 'take so. with oneself, lead') > NaIE 'nci_- > OI 'nayati '(he) leads', pp. ni'ta- 'led (ductus)', Av nayclti
'brings, leads', OPrs a-naya 'he led\brought', Phl nitan 'fhren, treiben' Ht {CHD} nai-/nc- vt. 'send, dispatch' (and also vi., vt.
'turn'?), {Ts.} 'lenken, leiten, richten, schicken, wenden', [ N 'qni 'go (away)'] nanna- vi. 'treiben, ziehen, marschieren,
fahren', vt. 'treiben, fahren' WP I 321, P 76O, EI 346, Dv. #452, M K II 137, M E II 17-9, Ts. E II 253-7, 271-3, CHD L-N 347-
5O, 357-8, Sturt. CG 215, 247 (believed that nanna- is a rdp of nai- 'lead') ll ?? A: Tg 'qcb- 'carry away' [ N 'qibV 'to bend
down, sink' (q.v.)] > Ewk qsv- id., Ud {Krm.} qsugi- 'bring\carry back, carry away' STM I 667, Krm. 268 ll ?? U: FU: pPrm
{LG} 'nu- 'carry, lead' > Z ny- nu- 'lead', Vt ny- nu- (inf. nyini) 'carry, lead, lead away' LG 196, It. #1O5, UEW 71O;
both It. and UEW adduce [with hesitation] F nouta- 'follow the traces' and reconstruct FU 'o; for F nouta- see N 'noquda 'to
follow in the traces, hunt, pursue' ^ If the Tg word belongs here, the N rec. will be 'q'ihvV. N 'q- regularly yields S 'n- (rather
than '-) in the presence of a lr. Something similar seems to happen in IE, but the positional reflexes of N 'q- have not yet been
investigated. If the Prm word belongs here, the N rec. may be 'nqohivV, but in this case the absence of any trace of a lr. before
'i_ in IE and the vw. 'c in Tg are puzzling.
1538a. 'NAIV 'woman' > IE 'ncK- > Ht ncga- - ncIa- 'sister' Ts. W 56 ll HS: EC 'na'I- > Sml nag 'woman,
wife', ? Dl: Gwd {Bl.} nahayyc, Gwd/Grs {AMS} nahayc, Hr/Dbs {AMS} nahtc (pl. nahaddc) 'wife' The Dl words belong
here either if {AMS} h (for the expected h) is due to inaccurate recording or if h of the Dl lgs. may go back to EC '-I- under still
unknown conditions ZMO 3O1, Bl. 3O6, AMS 238 D 'naI- 'female' > Tm naIu 'female calf\fish\snail, heifer, female fish;
femininity', Ml a-naIu 'heifer', Kt nag, Td nox 'female buffalo between two and three years old', Tu naIu 'female calf', Tl
cla-naga 'damsel' (cla < D 'ila 'young'), Prj ncva 'female pig' D 3634 ^ Blz. DA 157 [#49] [equated D with EC and IE +
err. Tg 'ncIun 'younger relative' (see N 'nEKU 'relative of a younger generation')],
539. 'nEIU 'to open(?), to bare, to uncover' > IE: NaIE 'nog"- (- 'nog"odj",o-, 'nog"-no-) 'naked' > ON noIIva 'to
denude, bare' || 'nog"-os- > BSl: Lt nuogas, Ltv nogs [nuogs] 'naked' | Sl 'nag+ / 'nag+-|i id. > ChS uor+ nag+, SCr,
Slv nag, Cz, Slk nahy, P nagi, R na'ion (pradj. nai), Uk na) inn - 'nog"-od(")o- (- 'nog"-to-) > L nudus 'naked' || Gt
naqa|-s, ORu {Krs.} nAIa, ON noIIuir (< Gmc 'naIviOaz), OHG na(c)Iot, NHG nacIt, MDt nacct, naIc(n)t, Dt
naaIt, AS nacod id., NE naIcd 'nog"-to- > OIr nocht, W nocth, Crn nocth, noyth, noz, MBr noaz, Br noazh d
'nog"-no- 'naked' > OI nag'na-, Av mt mayna- id. || Gk mt uvo) id., 'bare', [Hs.] uvo) uvo); Gk Cp [Hs.] d
otouoto) otouveoi) 'stripping bare' || ON naIinn, NNr, Sw naIcn, Dn nogcn, OFrs naIcn, Dt naIcnd
'naked' Ht ncIumant- (niIumant-) 'naked' (of humans, gods), 'uncovered' (of horses) WP II 339-4O, P 769-7O, EI 45-6
('nc/og"'no-s 'bare, naked'), Vs. 37O, Vr. 4O4, 414, Vr. N 461, Krs. R #54, Mkj. 135, Kb. 714, OsS 638, KM 5O1, Ho. 229, Frn.
511-2, Glh. 432, ESSJ XXII 7O-3, WH II 185, Vn. N 19, Ern. 446, M K II 126-7, M E II 5-6, F I 332-3, Ch. 241-2, Ts. E II 3O7-
9, CHD L-N 433-4 ll HS: S 'nI? - 'nIy G 'uncover' > Ar [Qam.] nI? G {Hv.} 'take off the scab of (a wound)', {Fr.}
'eschara nudavit (ulcus) antequam sanatum esset', {BK} 'enlever la crote de la plaie avant quelle soit gurie' (with the acc.
denoting the wound); Ar nIy (pf. kaNa naIa, ip. -nIiy-) {Fr.} 'escharam detraxis (ulceri)', {BK} 'ter la crote qui recouvre la
plaie' Fr. IV 33O, 336, BK II 1336, 1345, BKIG IV 617, Hv. 796 C: Ag '?snI- vt. 'open' > Bln {R} cnI-, inI-, Q {R} cns-,
Xm {R} icI-, cI- R WB 37ll A 'n'cIc- > M 'ncc- vi. 'open' > MM [S] {H} ncIc- [ncgc-], WrM ncgc-, HlM, Brt
n) y- nc-, Kl ncc- nc-, {Rm.} nc-, Ord, Ba {T} nc-, Dx {T} nic-, Mnr H {T} nc- id., {SM} nic- 'ouvrir, dboucher' H
114, MED 568, KRS 374, KW 275-6, Chr. 341, SM 272, T 349, T DJ 13O, T BJ 144 Tg 'nig'i- vi. 'open, uncover' > Ud X
{STM} qigi-, Nn nixsli-, Orc, Ul, Ork ni-, Ewk, Neg ni-, WrMc ncy- vt. 'open' STM I 588.
154O. 'n'uIU (or 'n'uIjV?,U??) 'darkness, night' > HS: S '-niI- 'sleep with (a woman), copulate' ( *'spend the
night with') ( N ''nuK'u 'to lie down, sink, low') > Ak prm. -niI (inf. niaIu(m) > naIu) {Sd.} 'copulate', {CAD} 'have
illicit sexual intercourse', Ar nyI G (ip. -niI-) 'copulate with' (Fr.: 'futuit, inivit mulierem'), Jb C/E {Jo.} nyI G (pf. ncI,
3m sbjn. yinI), Hrs {Jo.} nyI G (pf. nsyoI, 3m sbjn. ys'ncI) 'sleep with (a woman)', Mh {Jo.} nyI G (pf. nsyuI, sbjn.
ysnycI - ysniI) id., 'copulate with' Rms. 265, CAD XI/1 197-8, Sd. 784, BK II 1376, Fr. IV 358, Jo. J 199, Jo. H 1OO, Jo. M
3O9, MiK I #2.53 ll IE: Ht {CHD, Ts.} ncIu- 'es wird Abend', 'to become evening', {Ts.} ncIu- 'evening', ncIut 'evening,
night', {CHD} ncIuz(a) 'evening, nightfall; dawn, twilight', {CHD, Ts.} nana(n)Iuss- 'be(come) dark\obscure\gloomy' NaIE
'noIj",t- / 'nuIj",t- 'night' > OI nom. naI, acc. 'naIt-am, Wx nayd id., Av d ua-naxtar 'an die Nacht angrenzend' || Gk
nom. vu, gen. vukt-o) 'night' || L nom. nox (gen. noct-is, gen. pl. noct-ium) id. || OIr in-nocht, MBr hc-nocz, Br hc-nozh,
MW hc-nocth 'tonight' (lit. 'this night'), MW cu-nocth 'every night', W bcunocth 'nightly'; Brtt {RE} 'noxts, {P} 'noKt-stu-
'night' > OW, MW, W, OCrn, OBr, MBr nos, Br noz, Crn nos id. || Gt nom. naht-s (gen. naht-s), ON natt, nott, NNr natt,
nott, Dn nat, Sw natt, OFrs, Dt nacht, OSx, OHG naht, NHG Nacht, AS niht - ncaht 'night', NE night || pAl {O} 'naIti- >
Al natc id. || Lt naIt-is (gen. pl. naItu), Ltv naIts, Pru acc. naIti-n id. | Sl 'noIti id. > OCS ue i nosti, Blg nomr,
McdS noi no, SCr noc, Slv noc, Cz, Slk, P noc, R nou , Uk n u || Tc A noItc 'at night', noItim' 'last night', B ncIciyc
'last night, at night' NaIE 'nug"g"- or 'nuI"I"- 'night' > Gk [Hs.] vu_o vukte 'by night', Gk d vu_io), vu_cio),
vo_oio) 'nightly'; the quality of the cns. _ (< 'g"g" or 'IIH?) is still puzzling ? NaIE 'ncu_K- > Lt niuIsoti 'appear\be
gloomy, be murky', ? niauIus 'cloudy, dark, dim' Ts. E II 273-4, 3O1-9, CHD L-N 394-5, 432-7, WP II 337-8, P 762-3, EI
394 ('ncI"t--'noI"t-), M K II 121-2, M E II 2-3, F II 327-8, WH II 181-3, LP 52, Thr. 221, RE 115, Flr. 271, Ern. 558, Fs.
368-9, Vr. 4O5, Vr. N 462, Ho. 236, Ho. S 54, Kb. 713, OsS 636, KM 5OO, O 282-3, Frn. 481-2, 499, 5O5, En. 213, ESSJ XXV
175-7, Glh. 439-4O, Vs. III 86-7, Ped. TIE 222, Wn. 319-2O, Ad. 342, JGH 5O, 1O3 The unusual apophony 'o/'u in NaIE is
explained by ADs hypothetic prehistory of the IE vowels ('noKt-/'nuKt- < 'nu_oKt-/'nuKt- < 'nu_oKt-/'nuKt- < N
'nuIu-'ta [cd with 'ta, dem. prn. of inanimate objects, like 'das Dunkle, the dark'?), cf. AD NGIE 17-9). Ht ncIu <
'nu_oKu < N 'nuIu ll U: FU (att. in FL) 'nn`uIIV 'sleep' > F nuIIu- v. sleep, be asleep', Vo nuIIua id., Krl A
nuIIuo - nuIIuo, Krl Ld nuIIuda, Vp {ZM} nuIta " nuIIuda 'be drowsy', Es {SK} nuIIu- id., 'be slumbering, sleep' | pLp
{Lr.} 'noIs- 'be drowsy\sleepy, fall asleep' > Lp: S {Hs.} naIIcdidh 'be sleepy\drowsy\asleep', L {LLO} nahIIat 'fall
asleep', N {N} noI'Iat / -II- id., 'go to bed', Kld {SaR} nohIc- 'be drowsy' The vw. 'u for the expected 'u may be due to
vw. harmony (infl. of the back vw. of the next syll.) SK 397-9, ZM 367, Lr. #734, Lgc. #42O4, Hs. 966, LLO 654, N III 119,
SaR 215, Blz. SNE #18 [err. rec. FU 'nuII- + err. Hg nyugod- 'tranquil' (belonging together with nyugsz- 'lie, take a rest,
repose'), which in fact goes back to FU 'nuqV 'ruhen', cf. UEW 328] ll A: Tg: Lm nssns- 'dark, black' STM I 65O Yk
nuIta- 'be drowsy' and nuIariy- v. 'fall asleep' (Pek. 1759-6O) are likely to be loans from some Uralic (or unknown Altaic?)
source; they cannot be inherited T words, because in that case the original initial 'N- would have yielded Yk s-ll CK: ChK {Md.}
'noIi 'night' > Kor noIi-, noIinoI, Aly noIi-, Chk nIi-, noirit id.; Itl nIsnI Im W nIonI id. Md. ECK 98, Zh. RKS 275,
MollI 85-6, KEMGU NS, Moll IR s.v. nioni ^ The unexpected gemination of 'I in U and the cns. -_- in Gk seem to suggest the
presence of a lr. that is likely to be a "light" one: 'h or ?, because '? leaves no traces ('o) in the intercons. position in NaIE, 'h
may have infl. the quality of the velar cns. ('Kh > NaIE 'I" > Gk _) and because '? and 'h can disappear in S (and Eg) ^ Blz.
SNE #18 (IE, U, Yk A U), Glh. 439-4O (IE, U, CK, EA: Esk unuI 'evening', unuaI 'night') Gr. II #278 (IE, U, CK + qu.
EA + unc. J].
1541. ? 'nuIV 'nuIE 'now' > HS: C: Ag: Bln {R} ni'Ii 'to-day, then, now', Dmb {R} ncIi, Q {R} ncy 'to-day' R
WB 283, R QW 1O6 ?? S: Gz ?onIa 'yet, now then' (unless ?on-Ia 'so, then?, therefore' ?on [ Ar ?inna 'behold', BHb
hcn, + -Ia) L G 29-3O ll IE: Ht nuIIu 'jetzt, sofort' Ts. E II 345, CHD L-N 471 [nuIIu = nu conj. + -(I)Iu] ll U: FU
'nn`uIV 'now, already' ( FU 'nn`uj:, < N 'nu jE, 'now') > F nyIy- 'present' (in cds : nyIy-aiIa 'the present time',
nyIy-olvi 'the presenr generation', nyIy-Iansa 'the people of to-day'), nyIyaan 'at present, now', Es nuud, nuu
'now', Vp nugud 'now' | Er ncn ncy 'now, at the present time', Mk nn ni 'already' | Prm {Lt, LG} 'ni - 'ni 'already' > Vt
nn ni, Z nnn nin, Z Ud ni - ni id. UEW 7O7, ERV 4O9, PI 18O, LG 192.
1541a. (alt. rec.) 'naIurV 'body of water' (see ffd. 'laK'u 'body of water (lake, river, etc.)'
1542. 'nAKa (= 'naKa?) 'fell, skin' > IE: NaIE 'naI- id. > Gk voko) 'fleece', vok 'wooly\hairy skin, goatskin', [Hs.]
voku(o)iov oco 'skin' || AS nsc {Ho.} 'deerskin', {Sw.} 'skin' (< 'naI-s-Io-) || Pru nognan 'leather' WP II 316, P 754,
F II 287, Ch. 733, Ho. 23O, En. 216, Sw. 122, EI 269 [? ',naI(cs) 'pelt, hide'] ll HS: Eg fMK nIn {EG} 'mit Fell bespannter
Schild', {BnH} 'Fell (beim Schild)' EG II 346, BnH s.v. nIn +ext. : S 'nI > BHb nI D (pf. FQ$n% niI'Ic
'schinden\zerfetzen (Haut)' (Job 1O.28), Gz nIf G (pf. naIafa, sbjn. yonIof) v. 'peel, bark', Tgr nIf G (pf. nvIfv)
'detach \ strip off (the leaves)', Tgy nIf G (pf. nvxvfv) v. 'bark', Sq {L} nIf G (pf. ncqof) 'scrape', Jb C {Jo.} nIf (pf.
nIof, sbjn.'yunIsf) 'pick off', 'fall off' (scab), c'nuIof 'uncover, pick the scab off' KB 681, BDB 668 [#5362], L G 399, LH
329, Jo. J 19O ll A: M 'ncIcyi 'sheepskin (\goatskin?) with its wool' > MM [S] {H} ncIci 'sheepskin', [HI] {Ms.}
ncIci 'fourrure', [IM] 'k3N {Pp.} ncIci_ 'fur coat', [MA] ncIci_ dcl 'fur coat made of sheepskin', ncIci_n cbcsun 'grass used
for tanning sheepskin', WrM ncIci, HlM nyxnn 'sheepskin with its wool', Ord {Ms.} nc"xi 'peau de mouton prpar servant de
fourrure', WrO ncIci_ 'sheepskin', Kl {KRS} nci` ncIa 'untanned sheepskin (with its wool)', Kl {Rm.} ncIc 'bereitetes
Schaffell', Brt nyxyn 'made of fur', nyxiid., 'long-haired' (of sheep)', nyxi (yiyn 'fur-coat, sheepskin coat', Mnr H {SM}
niI`i id., 'goatskin; fur (fourrure)', {T} niIi (di_cl), Mnr M {T} ncIci_ 'fur coat' H 114, Ms. H 78, Pp. MA 248, 442, MED 572,
KRS 374, KW 274, Chr. 341, Ms. O 489, Krg. 214, SM 276 ? Tg 'naIita 'bears hide' > Ewk naIita, Neg na_ata, Ud nata,
Ork natta id., Lm naq+t id., 'bear', Ewk Skh/Tt/Urm/Chmk naIita 'bear'; the cognate is valid unless the primary meaning was
'bear' DQA #1393 (pA 'naI`io "a k. of skin", i.e. ' hide') ^ If the Tg cognate is valid, the N rec. must be 'naKa (and 'c in
M 'ncIcyi is due to vowel harmony), otherwise we remain with the unspecified 'A = 'aa ('nAKa).
1543. 'nKE 'to pursue (the enemy), wage war' > IE: NaIE 'ncI- 'to kill; corpse' [ N 'n`oKV 'to hurt ('to peck, to
harm'), q.v.] > OI 'nasyati 'is lost, disappears, perishes', Av nasyciti 'verschwindet', nasista 'verderblichst', nas- 'calamity',
nasu- 'corpse' || Gk vcku), vcko) 'corpse', [Hs.] vckc) vckoi 'corpses' || L ncx, nccis 'death, murder', ncca- v. 'kill' || pTc
{Ad.} 'naI- > Tc A, B naI- vt. 'destroy', vi. 'perish' ( N 'qENKV 'to strangle, kill', q.v. [?]): OIr cc (< 'n'Iu-)
''death', Btn anIou, Crn ancov, MW anghcu, W angau, Crn ancov, Br hano id. (< 'nI(t)u-), Ir ccht {P} 'Totschlag, {EI}
'killing' ({EI} < 'nI-ti-) || Gmc 'aqhto ({EI} < 'onItch_-) > OHG ahta 'hostile persecution', AS oht id., 'oppression',
NHG Acht 'outlawry, ostracism' WP I 6O, P 782, Dv. #469, EI 15O ('ncI- 'death', ''ncI-u-s id., 'dead'), M K II 146-7, M E
II 28-9, F II 299-3OO, WH II 153-5, LP 8, OsS 7, KM 6, Kb. 11, EWA I 118-2O, Schz. 83, Ho. 241, Wn. 313, Ad. 335 ll HS: B
'nyH v. (prm. '-nyiH) 'kill' ( N 'n`oKV 'to hurt', q.v. ffd.) ?? S (+ext. ) 'nIm 'take vengeance' GB 52O, L G 274, Br.
446 ll A: M 'ncIc- > MM [S] ncIc- 'verfolgen, hetzen, berfallen', [HI] ncIc- 'fondre limproviste sur', WrM ncIc-, HlM, Brt
nyxy-, Kl nci- ncIo- 'pursue in order to seize, seek, require', Ord nc"xc- 'exiger la remise de qch., reclamer' MED 572, KRS
374, KW 274, Chr. 341, Ms. O 489 Tg: Ewk PT nsIs- v. 'fight, wage war' STM I 618 ^ IS MS 357 ('n'aIn 'pursue [the
enemy], M, Tg, S, B, IE 'HncI- + err. IE 'HcnI- [actually belonging to N 'qEnKV '']).
1544. 'nEKU 'relative(s) of a younger generation(s)' > HS: S (+exts ): [1] WS ''naiIjV,d- 'progeny' > BHb dk3n#
'ncIcd 'progeny, posterity', (+ppa. 1s) iD5k6n# ncI'di 'my posterity', MHb dk3n# 'ncIcd 'offspring, grandson', Gz nagad
'tribe, clan, kin, progeny', Tgr, Amh nvgvd 'race, tribe'; [2] S ''nagjV,l- > Ar j0Na nagl- 'genus, stirps, propago', 'natus, filius'
[a merger with Ar jN ngl v. G 'beget' (unless the verb ngl is derived from nagl-)] KB 658, BDB 645 [#522O], Js. 91O, L
G 391, Fr. IV 246, Hv. 752-3 ll A 'nacI`u(n) 'younger relative' ( N 'NiIu 'small, little'?) > T '|cgcn > OT {Cl.}
|cagcn 'son of a younger sister or daughter', Tk ycgcn 'son of a sister or another female relative', SY |ccn, ET {Mal.}
|agin, Uz n n iyan, ian, Alt cn, Tb {Rl.} nan, Xk ccn, Tf ccn 'nephew', Tv uyyn ccn 'nephew, niece',
Nog |iycn, Qq ziycn, Qrg cn 'nephew, grandson (daughters son)', Bsh cn` n |iyan 'grandson', Yk sian
'daughters\sisters child\grandchild', siyan 'cousin, second cousin' T '-g- (for the expected '-I-) is still puzzling Cl. 912-3, ET
J 166-7, TL 291, Rl. III 317, 631, 196O, Ra. 73, TvR 561, Pek. 2189-9O Tg 'ncIun 'younger relative' > Ewk nsIu
'grandchild', as well as a word used when addressing younger relatives, Sln nsxu, Orc, Nn Nh nsIu, Nn KU nsIu 'younger
sibling', Ul nsIu, Ork nuI(I)u id. (address word), Lm no' id., 'younger cousin from mothers side' (used with ppas.), Neg nsxun
- nsIun 'younger sibling\cousin, nephew, niece', Jrc {Kiy.} niyohun 'younger sister'; ?? Ewk niIi 'a relative', ?? Lm nos
'younger sisters child; a child of fathers\mothers younger sister', Lm O nos 'member of egos clan' STM 617-8, 637, 644,
Kiy. 113 [#291] M: {Pp.} 'ncIun '(male\female) slave' > MM [S] ncIun 'servants, slaves' ({H} 'Hausleute, Dienstboten,
Sklaven'), [L] 0vBu vkNi {Pp.} niIun bol 'female slave'; ?? 'ncIclcyi > WrM ncIclci, HlM nyxnnn, Mnr H {SM} niI`ili,
Qrg T (A M) niIclcy 'bastard', 'illegitimate' (of a child), Kl ncin` ncIla 'adoptive child', {Rm.} ncI
lc 'unechtes Kind'; M
1 (?) Qzq {Rl.} ncIasi 'illegitimate child' Pp. VG 38, Pp. L III 72, H 114, MED 572, SM 276, KRS 374, KW 274, Jud. 556,
Rl. III 671 Pp. VG 38 (M, Tg), SDM97 s.v. 'niaI`c 'nephew' [T, M 'ncIclcyi, Tg: they adduce only Ewk niIi 'relative'
rather than Tg 'ncIun), DQA #238O [pA 'ncI`o (unc. : 'friend, relative') > Tg 'ncIun], DQA #1484 [pA 'ni_ogc 'son-
in-law, nephew', incl. Lm nos, T) ll ?? IE: NaIE 'ncot- 'grandson, nephew' (if < cd ''ncIot- with the second element
'ot- induced by other words refering to the clan membership, such as 'dcms-ot- 'head of the clan') > OI 'naat 'offspring,
son, grandson', Av naa nom. / naat-, OPrs naa nom. / naat- obl. 'grandson, descendant', NPrs
da"vNa navodc 'grandson' || Gk Hm vctooc) pl. 'offsprings (?)' || L ncos (gen. ncot-is) 'grandson, nephew' (1 Al
ni id.) | OLt ncuotis {Frn.} id. || Gmc {Vr.} 'ncfod - 'ncfcd > ON ncfi 'nephew, relative', OSx ncvo 'nephew', AS ncfa
'sisters son, grandson, step-son', OHG ncvo, ncfo 'grandson, kinsman, maternal/paternal cousin', NHG Ncffc 'nephew' || OIr
nia - niac 'sisters son, grandson', MW nci, W nai, MBr ni, Crn noi 'nephew' || d : Sl 'ncstcra (< 'nct-tcr-a) 'niece' > RChS,
OR uct:cpo ncstcra, SCr ncstcra, OP nicsciora id. - 'nct-yo- > Av natya 'offspring' || Gk ovc)io) 'first cousin,
cousin' (< 'sm-nctyo-) || Sl 'ncti|i ({ESSJ} 'ncti|i) 'nephew' > ChS, OR uc:uu ncti|i - uc:u ncti 'nephew', Cz nct`,
OP nicc, Uk ncrnn, SCr gen. nct|a, d : SCr nc`caI, Slv nccaI id. - 'nct-i- 'granddaughter, niece' > Av nati-
'granddaughter', OI na'ti-h id., 'daughter' || L nctis 'granddaughter, niece' || OLt nctc' id. || OIr nccht, MW, W, OBr nith,
MBr niz, Crn nyth 'niece', Br niz id., 'nephew' || Gmc {Vr.} 'ncfti > ON nit 'female close relative, niece', OHG nift id.,
'stepdaughter' (- niftila 'niece' > MHG niftcl id.), MDt, MLG nichtc, NHG (A NLG) Nichtc 'niece' WP II 331-2, P 764,
Dlmr. 4O, EI 239 & 392 [''ncot-s / gen. ''ncot-os 'grandson', (?) 'sisters son'], 394 [''nctih_- 'granddaughter, (?) 'niece'],
M K II 132-3, M E II 11-2, Horn 234, Vl. II 136O, Sg. 1429, F I 1O6 & II 3O7-8, WH II 161-2, O 3OO, Vn. N 15, Ern. 445-6,
YGM-1 342, 345, Vr. 4O6, 41O, Kb. 718, OsS 643, 65O, KM 5O6, 51O, Ho. 233, Ho. S 55, Zh. IN 355, Frn. 494, Glh. 436, ESSJ
XXIV 224 & XXV 18-9, Mikl. E 214, Srz. II 433, Vs. III 67-8.
1545. 'nEK'u 'to carry, bring' > IE: NaIE 'ncI-/'nI-/'cnI- 'carry' > Gk ps. aor. -vc_-v 'was carried', Gk A
act. aor. 1 vcko (Gk I vciko, Gk Ep cvciko) 'bear, carry', aor. vckov id. || BSl: Lt ncs-ti (1s prs. ncs-u), Ltv ncs-t
'carry, bring' | Sl 'ncs-ti (1s prs. 'ncs-o) 'to carry, bear'> OCS, OR uct:u ncsti (prs. ncso), SCr ncsti, Slv ncsti, Cz ncsti,
Slk nicst`, R, Uk nc'crn id., Blg nc'ca 'I carry'; iter.-dur. 'nosi-ti (1s prs. 'nos-o) > OCS uetu:u nositi (prs. noso), SCr
nositi, Slv nositi, Cz nositi, Slk nosit`, P nosic, R no' cnr 'to carry', Blg 'noc 'I carry' || pTc 'cnI- > Tc: A cnts-, B cnI-
'take, grip, seize' ? Ht nininI- {CHD} 'mobilize \ set (people) in motion; move, remove, transfer (sth.., so.); set in motion',
{Ts.} 'in Bewegung setzen, antreiben; bewegen' F I 512-3, Frn. 497-8, Vs. III 67, 85, ESSJ XXV 19-23, Glh. 441, P 316-8,
Ad. 77-8, Ts. E II 328-32, CHD L-N 438-41, EI 35 (BSl, Gk, Tc < 'hcncI- 'attain') ll HS: C 'nI > Ag 'nVI- {Ap.} 'give
here' > Bln {R} nax- 'give', Xm {R} naI- 'geben, darreichen', Aw {CR} nay- 'give (here)'; +ext. 'nVI-s- 'bring' > Bln {R}
naq-s-, Xm {R} no-s- id. || SC: Irq {Mgw.} nuqus- 'pick up' || ? EC: Or B {Sr.} naI- 'put on\into, pour into', Or {Grg., Brl.}
naI- id., 'add to', Arr {Hw.} naI-ad- vi. 'return' R WB 284, R Ch II 85, Ap. AV 16, Mgw. 116, E PC #457, E SC 185
(adduces Dhl {E} niIIio- 'raise the eyebrows' = {To.} niIid- 'wink at\to'), To. D 144, Brl. 318, Grg. 299, Sr. 373 Ar nql G
'convey, transmit, transfer is doubtful as a cognate (because of the unexplained ext. 'l and a plausible interpretation of 'n- as a
historical px.) ll A: Tg 'ncIu- 'carry, lead' ( N 'li?VIU 'to let, let go, move (tr.)'??) > Nn KU nuIu- " noIu- id., Ud {STM}
nsxu- id., 'bring', ? Lm nsIor 'a present (no(apoi, iocrnncn)', {CiR} nsIsr 'a present, sweets; reserve\stock (:anac)' STM I
619, CiR 152 T '|uI 'a load' > OT |uI id., Tk yuI, Tkm, Qmq, Nog, ET, SY, Ln |uI, VTt, Bsh |iI, QrB zuI, Alt
uI, Xk cuI, Tv cu'I, Tf cu'I`, Chv: L aAi s+I, H s+I Cl. 911-2 (unt. : T '|uI pre-T ''|u- 'carry' - a
conjecture based on comparison of '|uI with T '|uo- 'carry' [in fact from N 'zidu 'to pull, drag, draw'), ET J 262-3, Ra. 199,
Md. 69, 163, Serg. 12O.
1546. 'ncKV 'to plait, tie' > U: FU 'n'cIIV (att. in Ugr) 'tie, plait' > Ugr {UEW} 'nacIV > Os Kr {KrT} ncvoy- 'die
Zettelfden des Gewebes flechten'; pVg 'ni- 'tie' > Vg: LK/Ss nc-, P ncv- 'binden' | OHg X nycI '(?) hedge (Zaun,
Hecke)' ( *'wattle fence'), XIII nycI 'hedge (Hag); enclosed place in a wood (e.g. 'kitchen-garden)', Hg nycI 'wattle fence'
UEW 874, Stn. D 1O26, KrT 564, EWU 1O38 ll A: M 'ncIc- v. 'knit, weave' ( 'rjv,KE 'sinew, cord, rope; bind, tie'?) >
MM [MA, IM, S] ncIc- 'weave', WrM ncIc-, HlM nyxy-, Brt nyxy- 'weave, knit', Ord nc"xc- v. 'tisser, tresser', Mnr H {SM}
niI`i-, {T} ncIi-, Dg {Mrm.} ncIu- 'weave', Kl nci- in ds : ncix ncIo-xo 'cloth, weft', nci` u 'weaver', ncinln n. act.
'weaving'; M 1 Ewk Brg/Np nsIs- v. 'knit (stockings)' H 114, Pp. MA 248, 442, MED 572, Chr. 341, KRS 374, Ms. O 489,
SM 276, T 35O, , Klz. D II 124, STM I 618 ll HS: Eg {Mks.} nc 'ficeler', Eg fOK ncc v. 'fetter, be fettered', {Mks.} 'ficeler,
entraver', Eg fP ncc n. 'fetter', Eg ME {Fk.} ncc.v 'bonds', Eg G {EG} ncc 'das Seil an der Harpune' Mks. I ##2257, 2274, EG
II 367, Fk. 143 ? Ch: Zar {ChL} qgun, Zar K {Sh.} qgcn v. 'plait', ? Kir {Csp., ChL} qanc, Kir Mn {Csp.} qan v. 'tie' ||
Msg {ChC Mch.} naga v. 'tie', {GKrs.} nigi- 'binden' ChC, ChL, Csp. 69, Lk. DQM 71.
1546a. 'NiIu 'small, little' > K: GZ 'ncIju,- 'little finger' > OG, G ncI-i id., G X niIora titi id. (titi 'finger'), M
naIu- id. K
141, Abul. 327 ll HS: [1] (+ext .) HS 'nIs 'little, small' > WS 'nIc 'be small\insufficient' > Md nIs
'decrease', Ar nqs G vi. 'decrease', Sb {Bll.} nIs Sh (h-nIs) vt. 'diminish' (but BGMR interpret the word as 'cede,
concede'), Sb {BGMR} d mIs-m 'loss, damage', ?? Tgr nIs G 'become weak, deteriorate', Jb C nIs G (pf. nIos)
'become short, of small amount', 'to do sth. petty and undignified', Sq {Jo.} nIs G (pf. 'nsIas) 'grow less', Jb C {Jo.}
nsI'sun 'insufficient' (of milk, water), Mh nIs G (pf. no'Iavs) 'be of small amount \ incomplete, be disgraced, do sth.
mean' BK II 1326, Bll. 4OO, BGMR 98, Jo. J 191, Jo. M 298, L G 4OO, LH 329 Eg fP ns 'klein, gering' ( N 'quCV
'small, few'??) EG II 384-5 C: Bj {R} nIs (p. an'Ias) 'be(come) small \ short', nc'Ias 'small, short', {Rop.}
naIas - naIas 'short, small in stature' || EC: Sa {R} nqs (p. 'unqusa) 'weniger \ geringer sein' R WBd 183-4, R Sa II 291,
Rop. 224 [2] ??? Bj {R} naIu 'zart, schwach, dnn', {Rop.} naIv 'soft, fin', a-naIv p. s'be soft\fine' R WBd 183, Rop.
224 ll A: M 'nigun 'boy' > MM [HI] {Ms.} niun 'boy', WrM nigun - nugun, HlM nyiyyn 'boy, son', Brt , b nugan id. Ms.
H 81, MED 58O. 595, Chr. 333 The de-emphatization 'I > 'I (underlying M '-g-) is still to be explained .
1547. 'n`UKV 'to strike, to peck, to hit' > HS: WS 'nIy (prm. '-nIiy-) 'hurt, hit' > OA nIy G (inf. nIh) 'beat, hit', Sr
nIvy v. G (pf. 'ko no'Ia) 'harm, hurt, injure', EpHb nIy Sh (3p pf. hIv) 'beat, hit', BHb nIyv Sh (pf. e1e5 hiI'Ia)
'strike, smite', ek4n^ no,Ic adj. sg. cs., Mik5n$ nc'Iim adj. pl. 'smitten, stricken', d e1m2 maI'Ia (< 'ma-n'I-at) n. 'blow,
wound, slaughter', Ar nIy G (pf. kaNa naIa, ip. -nIiy-) 'wound, hurt' ({Fr.} 'afficit nox, nece, vel vulneribus'), Gz nIy (pf.
naIaya, 3m js. yo-nIi) 'injure, hurt, damage, harm', Qt {Rk.} nIy v. 'injure, diminish', Sb d nIy, nIyt 'mischief (malveillance,
tort)', Jb C {Jo.} nIyv (pf. cn'Ic) 'hurt, hit on a sore spot', Sq d {Ls} 'monIc? 'coup (de couteau)' HJ 73O, BDB 645-6
[#5221-3, 4347], Br. 428, JPS 339, Fr. IV 336, Hv. 799, L G 397-8, L LS 267, Rk. 1O5, BGMR 96, Jo. J 189 ?? S 'nI- +exts.
: [1] CS 'nId 'stechen' > MHb nId id., Ar nqd G 'peck (a grain)' (bird), 'crack (a nut)', [2] S 'nIr 'to peck, prick' > BHb
nIr 'dig out, peck out', nIr D 'to gouge out (the eyes), pierce', Ar nqr G 'strike', Gz nI"r v. 'peck, prick, pierce', Ak
nIr v. 'hew out', ( N 'NuKV'NuKE 'hole') Ar nqr G 'hollow out (a stone)', [3] ? WS 'nIz 'puncture' ( N
'NuKV'NuKE '', q.v. ffd.) KB 679-82, KBR 722-3, Hv. 791, L EDG 399-4O1 B 'nyH v. 'kill' ( N 'nKE 'to
pursue (the enemy), wage war') > Ah, Gh oqy (3m pf. iqya), ETwl/Ty +nyu (3m pf. ETwl inya, Ty yonya), Kb noy (pf. yonya),
Izd noy (pf. inya), Mz, Wrg noy (pf. yonyu), Nf/Si {La.} ony, Gd cnn (pf. ycnnv) Fc. 14O1-2, GhA 143, 246-7 (on cj. 1 A 7),
Dl. 267, Dlh. M 138, Dlh. Ou 222, Lf. II #1O72, Mrc. 256 ll IE: [1] NaIE 'ncu_I-/nuI- 'hit, push' > Gk vuooe, Gk A vutte
'touch with a sharp point, prick, spur, pierce' (< 'nuIy-) || Lt niuIinti 'push, urge on', niuIas, niuIsas 'punch, cuff' | Sl
'nuI-/'nuI- ( interj. 'nu) > ChS uko:u nuIati 'hortari', R no-ny' iar ( instigating interj. ny) , Uk 'nyiarn,
' n oiarn 'to drive on, urge on', Cz nuInouti 'to impel', P nuIac 'to drive on, impel, set to work', SCr nu`Iati 'to persuade, talk
into (doing sth.)' || Gmc 'nuII- > MLG {Paul, KM} nucIcn 'drohend den Kopf bewegen', {KM} nucI(c), NHG {KM} NucIc,
pl. NucIcn 'versteckte Bosheit, unfreundliche Laune', MDt nucIc 'cunning, guile', Dt nuI 'whim, caprice' [2] NaIE 'ncI-
{Dv.} 'harm; to kill', {P} 'kill', 'ncIu-s 'dead person, corpse' ( N 'nKE '', q.v. ffd.) > OIr ncs(s) 'coup, blessure', ? Brtt:
W {Vn.} nych 'peine, chagrin', Br ncc`h 'peine, angoisse', MBr ncchif 'saffliger' || for other cognates within IE see N 'nKE
F II 329, Frn. 5O5 (Lt niuI- as o), KM 516, Paul 439, Vr. N 477, IS III 64, ESSJ XXVI 43-4 (Sl 'nuIati interj. 'nu), Vs.
III 326, Vn. N 11 ll U: FU 'n`oIIc v. 'peck', 'n`oIIV 'beak' > F noIIia- v. 'peck', noIIa 'beak' | Lp Kld {TI} nu_oIa- v.
'peck' (acc. to SK, a loan from F, bur acc. to Db, a genetic cognate of F) || ObU 'n`uI- v. 'peck' > pVg 'nII"- > Vg: LK naI"-,
MK/ML nsI"-, P nsI-, Ss nax"-; pOs 'n`oI- > Os: V n`oy-, n`tqa-, Vy n`oq-, Ty n`oq-, Y noq-, D/K/O no_-, Nz nu_-, Kz
n`u_- id. Db. OS xxvii [#1O2], Ht. #425, Trj. S 288, SK 39O-1, TI 288 ll D 'noII- v. 'indent, scratch' > Ml oIIuIa v.
'indent', Tu oIIu v. 'scratch, make furrows', Tl noIIu v. 'pinch, indent' D #378O.
1547a. ? 'NUKV ' canine' > U 'nuIV 'fox' > Sm {Jn.} 'noIa 'fox' > Ne: T noxo, T O {Lh.} no_o 'polar fox', T acc.
pl. nocn (> 'noIa-y), F L {Lh.} no_a+ id.; Kms {Pl.} nagabai 'lynx', Koyb {Pl.} nagamcida, {Sp.} naiaxanna id. (xanna
'bear') ? FU {UEW} 'nuIV-sV or 'nuIsc 'sable, marten' ( *'fox'?) > F nois in a n. l. Noisnicmi = R
Co6onnno ( co6on 'sable'), F noIIo 'sable', Es nugis 'Mustela Martes (Baummarder)' | Z Lu {UEW}, Yz niz, Vt {W}
niz - naz 'sable'|| ObU 'noIos 'sable' > pVg 'noIos > Vg: T noIs, LK/MK/LL noxs, UK/P/NV nox"s, SV nax"s,
ML/UL/Ss noxos id.; pOs 'noyos > V/Vy/Ty noyos, Y novos, D/Nz/Kz no_os id. | Hg nyuszt 'marten' Coll. 1O2-3,
UEW 326-7, LG 19O, Lt. 18O, Ht. #449, MF 491-2, Jn. 84 ll A 'nnqoI`V 'dog, wolf' > M 'noqayji, 'dog' > MM [L, MA]
{Pp.}, [IsV] {Lg.} noqai_, [IM] {Pp.} noyai_, MMgl {Iw.} noqai_, WrM noqai, HlM noxon, Ord {Ms.} no_o, Kl noxa,
{Rm.} no_a, no_a, Mgl {Rm.} noqci_, Dg {Pp.} nogo, Dx {T} nogi, Ba {T} nogui, Mnr H {T} no_uc, {SM} no_uc;
there may be a merger with N 'luIV 'canine, lynx' [q.v.] Pp. L III 72, Pp. MA 259, 442, Pp. MDG 186, Lg. VMI 58, Iw. 119,
MED 592, KRS 382, Ms. O 495, KW 278, Rm. M 34, SM 282, T 352, T DnJ 13O, T BJ 144 Tg 'noIc - 'qoIc ({SDM}
'noIc, {DQA} 'qoIc) 'wolf' > WrMc niyoxc, Mc Sb {Y} yu_s, yuxu 'wolf', Lm qo'Is " qo'Ia " qoIa - qusIs " qssIs
'male canine (dog, wolf, fox, polar fox)', Orc qoIsyo 'wolf' STM I 665, Z 223, Y #22O3 The front vw. in Lm and Orc may
be due to as (infl. of the next syll.) SDM97 (A 'noI`o 'dog, wolf'), DQA #154O [pA qi_aI`u; incl. Tg, M] ll ?? D
'naIIV 'fox, jackal' ( N 'luIV ' canine, lynx'??) > Kn naIIc, Tl naIIa 'jackal', Klm naIIa 'fox', Gnd naIIa, Ku
naIIa - naIa 'jackal', Knd naIa id., 'fox' D #36O6 The vw. 'a may be due to the infl. of 'nari 'jackal, fox' (> Tm nari, etc.,
cf. D #36O6) ll ? HS: WCh: Bg {J} naq, Kir {Sh.} naq, {ChL} nsq 'dog' ChC, ChL Cf. S: Ar naqaOi 'hyena' (or to N
'nUKV + an addit. root\sx. ' small fur-bearing animal'?) ^ The initial q- in Lm and Orc and the final q in are puzzling. Should
we suppose something like N 'nVIoKV ('ng- or 'ny- > Lm, Orc q; '-IK- > Bg, Kir -q)?
1548. ? 'NuKV 'NuKE 'hole' > A: M 'nuIcn 'hole, grave' ( ppM 'luIcn < N 'lovKV 'hole, opening') > MM
[MA] nuIcn 'pit', [IM] nuIcn 'grave', [L] {Pp.} nuIct pl. 'holes', [IsV] nuIcn 'hole', WrM nuIc(n), HlM, Brt nx(yn)
'hole, pit, chink, crevice, opening, orifice', Kl nin 'hole, opening, pit, burrow', {Rm.} nuIn 'Loch, ffnung, Mndung', Ord
{Ms.} nu'"x`c - nu'"x`u' 'trou, enfoncement, terrier, fosse', Mnr H {T} noIc 'pit, hole', {SM} noI`uo 'hole, opening, pit, well',
Dg {Pp.} nu'gu', nu'I`c, {Mrm} nugu, nug, nuh 'ffnung, Loch', Dx {T} nuIun 'pit, hole, opening'; d 'nuIc-lc-
'make\drill a hole, pierce' > MM [S] {H} nuIclc- 'ein Loch bohren', WrM nuIclc-, HlM nxny-, Brt nxyn- 'make holes, drill
a hole, pierce, perforate', Kl nin- {Rm.} nuIl- 'male a hole, pierce', Mnr H {SM} noI`uolo- id., Ord nu'"x`clc-
- nu'"x`u'lc- 'trouer'; d 'nuIct- v. 'pierce' > MM [LM, IM] nuIct- id. Pp. MA 262, 443, Pp. L III 72, H 12O, Lg. VMI 59,
Pp. MDG 89, MED 597, KRS 389, KW 282, Ms. O 5O3, SM 282-4, T 352, T DgJ 158, T DnJ 131, Klz. D I 125, Chr. 335 ll HS:
S 'nII 'cleft, crevice' > BHb qiq5n!' na'IiI' (att.: pl. cs. iq$iq%n^ noIi,Ic) 'cleft', Pun nI 'cave, rock cleft (?)', Gz
noIaI 'cleft, crecice'; +exts. : [1] WS 'nI > MHb oq@n# 'ncIa 'cleft, cavity, ravine', Sr "0oqe ncI'-a 'cave, hole', Gz
nI G 'be split, cleft', (?) Ar nq 'tear', {Fr.} 'diffidit, laceravit (sinum indusii)'; [2] [ 'n`UKV 'to strike, to peck, to hit']
'nIr 'dig, hew out, make a hole' > BHb nIr v. G 'gouge, pick out (e.g. the eyes)', D 'gouge, bore out', MHb {Js.}, JA [Trg.]
{Js.} nIr v. G 'dig, chisel', JEA {Sl.} nIr G 'pick out, hew, pluck out', Sr nIr G {JPS} 'hew out, hollow out', Md nIr
'dig', Ar nqr G 'hollow out (a stone), engrave (stone\wood)', 'pierce the egg for letting out the chicken' (of a hen), Gz nI"r (pf.
naI"ara, js. yo-nI"or) 'prick, pierce, make a hole', Mh {Jo.} nIr (pf. ns'Iavr) 'dig with an entrenching tool\adze', Jb C
{Jo.} nIr (pf. nIor) 'dig with a small tool or the fingers', Ak fOB nIr G (p. iIIur) 'hew out, carve' (and 'tear down,
demolish'?); [3] CS 'nId 'stechen, picken, hacken' ( N 'n`UKV 'to strike, to peck, to hit') > BHb d d7qn! na'Iod / -Dq8n^
noIudd- (pl. noIud'd-im, noIud'd-ot) adj. 'speckled', t&Dq8n^ noIud'dot n. pl. '(glass-\silver-)beads', MHb eD1q8n^
noIud'da 'point, dot, drop', Sr odwu nuIdo'ta id., Ar 6aqNu nuqtat-, Md nuIta 'point, dot' (as -qd- > -qt-, -Id-
> -It-), Ar nqd 'crack (a nut) with the fingers'; [4] WS 'nIz ( N 'n`UKV '') > MHb nIz G v. 'puncture', Sh

ziQe5 hiI'Iiz) 'let blood, be bled', JPA {Js.} nIz Sh (pf. ziQ$a2 ?aI'Icz) id., Sr nIz G v. 'point, add vowel-points',
zowu nuI'z-a n. 'point', nuIzanaya adj. pl. 'with vowel-points', Ar {BK} nuqz- 'well', Sb nIz 'excavate\dig (as a
grave)', Qt nIz n. 'well', Gz nIz G 'be worm-eaten'; [5] S 'nIb 'pierce' > BHb nIb G 'bore, pierce', Md nIb id., 'make
a hole', JEA nIb G 'pierce, perforate', Ar nqb G v. 'pierce (a wall), bore', Sb {BGMR} nIb 'cut\excavate (a channel)',
'creuser (un canal)', Qt {Rk.} nIb 'bore a hole, pierce', Mh {Jo.} nIb (pf. niIsb) 'be cracked', Jb E/C {Jo.} nIb (pf.
'niIsb) 'crack, break', Ak fOB nIb G (p. iIIub) 'deflower, rape'; hence d (ps.) adj. f. with the meaning 'female'
( 'perforata'): BHb eb1q$n% noIc'ba, Md nuI(u)bta, Sr 'boqe ncIo'ba / 4obqe ncIob'ta 'female'; d
''naIjV,b- 'hole' > Md niIba 'hole, stone bored with a hole', BHb bq#n# 'ncIcb 'tunnel, mine', MHb bq#n# 'ncIcb 'hole,
perforation, incision', JA aB1q^n% niI'b-a id., JEA {Sl.} aB1q6in% niI'b-a 'perforation, body orifice', Sr ncI'b-a 'hole,
opening, hollow, burrow, tunnel', Ar q0Na naqb- 'hole in a wall, breach; tunnel; ulcer', Sb nIb 'channel, passage', Qtr nIbn
'channel' KB 678-82, HJ 756, Js. 931-5, Sl. 753, 772, 776, L G 399-4O1, Br. 444, JPS 35O-2, DM 294, 299, 396, Fr. IV 318-26,
BK II 1318-24, Hv. 79O-2, BGMR 97-8, Rk. 111, Jo. M 296-7, Jo. J 187, 19O, CAD XI/1 328-9 ?? B (with an ext. ) 'nyr >
Kb nyr G (imv. onyor) 'perforer, trouer' (unless borrowed from Ar nqr), Wrg nyr 'raciner, senfoncer, se perdre dans le sol',
? Ah d onnoyor 'serrure en bois' Dl. 57O-1, Dlh. Ou 223, Fc 14O9.
1549. 'naKjV,hE 'to see, perceive' > HS: S 'nIh > Ar nqh G (pf. naqaha, ip. -nqah-) 'catch the meaning of', {Fr.}
'intellexit (sermonem)', imv. ?anqih li samaIa 'listen to me!', 'lend me thy ear!', naqih- 'intelligens, percipiens sensum
verborum', nqh Sh

(pf. ?anqaha) 'make so. understand (a speech)' Fr. IV 329, Hv. 796 Ch {JS} 'ng 'see' > WCh: Hs
niga 'perceive' | ( N 'n'c_a 'see') Su {J} na, Ywm {IL} na`?, Kfr/Gmy na 'see' | Mbr {Sk} nay-, Wrj {Sk.} naha, Kry
nahs id. || CCh: Lmn {Lk.} ny- | Glv {Rp.} nay-, Dgh {Frk.} nyinc / nya | Lgn {Lk.} qg"a, {Bou.} ?sqgs JS 219, JI I
144-5 (Ch 'ngn 'see') & II 284-5, Ba. 519, ChC, ChL ll U: FU 'naIc 'see' > F naIc- 'see, notice', Es nagc- 'see' | pLp {Lr.}
'ncIs n. 'dream', 'ncIs- v. 'dream' > Lp: S {Hs.} nicgcdidh v. 'dream', L {LLO} nicIati- id., nichIo n. 'dream', N {N}
nicIIo / -g- id., nicgadit v. 'dream', T {Gn.} niIIa- id. | pMr {Ker.} 'nac- > 'nayc- > Er ncc- ncyc-, nii-, Mk
n c- nayo- 'see, catch sight of' | Vt B {Wc.} naal- v. 'look at, regard' || ObU {Ht.} 'ni-, 'niy- > pVg d 'ni-l- 'be
seen\visible' > Vg: T navl-, LK/MK/ML nil-, P/LL nil-, UL/Ss ncl-; pOs {Ht.} 'nu-, nuy- id. > Os: Ty ni-, ni"-, Y
nu-, D/K niv-, Kz ni-, O ni- | Hg ncz- (with a sx. -z-) 'look, see' Coll. 1O1, UEW 3O2, Db. OS xxxiii, It. #257, Sm. 546
(FU, FP 'naIi-, Ugr 'naIi-), SK 41O, Lr. #731, Lgc. #419O, N III 32-3, Ker. II 93, ERV 4O8, PI 184, Ht. #418, Trj. S 294,
MF 47O ll A: pKo {S} 'ni_oIi- - 'noi_Ii- 'consider, regard' > MKo noIi, ni_oIi-, NK0o yogi- S QK #774, Nam 1O3,
1O6, MLC 316, SKE ll D 'ncI- ({GS} '-g-) > Tm niIar v. 'shine, be visible', Kn ncgar 'become manifest\notorious\well-
known, cause oneself to appear', Tl ncgadu 'be published, be well-known' D #3659, Zv. 66-7O (on D c and 'i in SD and Tl)
ll AdS of K 'na_- (< N ?? 'n'c_a 'see', q.v. ffd.) ^ The de-emphatization of the original 'K in the prehistory of U and D is
due to as ('-Kh-> U, D '-I-). It is worth paying attention to S 'nIr [> Ar naIr-, nuIr- 'acuteness of mind', BHb nIr Sh

ri5e5 hiI'Iir, ip. ri5i@ yaI'Iir) 'recognize, erkennen', JA, ChPA nIr Sh

(JA pf. r2a2 ?aI'Iar) id.], though it cannot be
ruled out that the goes back to n-Ir with the ancient prefix 'nV- ^ Gr. II #328 (U, Ko + qu. J).
155O. ?? 'nohlV 'to walk\lead\nomadize; way' > HS: S 'nhl D 'lead (esp. to a watering-place); lead (a herd), guide' >
BHb nhl D 'lead to a watering-place; lead\bring to a station\goal', ll1e9n@ nah"'lal 'pasture' (or 'watering place'), MHb nhl D
'lead', Ar manhal- 'watering-place', {BK} 'aiguade, endroit dans le dsert offrant quelque verdure et de leau', {Dz.} manhal-at-
'station, stage of the road', Ar nahal-at 'going to the water' (of men\beasts), Sb mnhl 'watering-place, well' KB 638, BDB 624-
4, Js. 881, BK II 1358, Hv. 8O4, BGMR 94 ll A: T '|ol 'way, road' > OT {Cl.} |ol, {TL} |ol, MQp, MU, XwT, Chg, OOsm |ol
'road, way', Tk yol, Tkm, XT {DH} |ol, Xlj {DT} |u
l, Ggz, Az, Kr, Qmq, Nog, ET, Slr, Ln |ol, Uz |ul, VTt, Bsh n |ul, QrB,
Qrg ol, Qzq, Qq zol, Alt ol, Xk col, Tv col, Tf col, Qzl nul, Yk suol, Chv L sul id.; T 1 AncM ':ol > WrM ol, HlM
:on 'good luck, fortune', Kl {Rm.} zol 'Glck; glckliche Reise, Erfolg' Cl. 917, Rs. W 2O5-6, Ra. 1O2, ET J 217-9, TL
531, DT 229, KW 475 ? Tg 'nulgi- 'to nomadize' > Ewk, Neg nulgi-, Sln nulgi-, Lm nulgo-, Orc nugguvu-, Ul nulu/i-,
Ork nuldi- - nul|i- id., Ewk, Neg nulgi, Lm nulgo, Ork nuldi - nul|i n. 'nomadizing, distance of one days migration', Orc
nuggi, Ul nuli 'family' The Tg stem belongs here unless it is borrowed from M (WrM ncgulgc- 'move, cause to nomadize',
cf. MED 569) STM I 6O9-1O ^ Qu. because of the semantic distance, but preferable to alt. comparisons (e.g. T '|ol Ar
-zul- 'leave, abandon, go away' [that does not explain the T long vw.]).
1551. 'nUmV 'pleasant (food, water), gentle, fine' > HS: S (or CS) 'nm > BHb nm (3 m ip. paus. yi-nam) 'be
pleasant, lovely, charming', Amr {G} nm 'be pleasant', Ar nm 'be green and tender'; BHb Mio5n! na'im 'pleasant', Ph, Pun
nm 'agreeable, good, favourable', Ug nm {A} 'lieblich, gut', {OLS} 'apuesto; agradable; benfico; bueno', Amr {G} naim-um,
nim-um 'pleasant', ? Eb na-im (in pr. names), Cn 1 Eg [EgSSc] na--mu, na-a-ma
(= {Hoch} 'naji,mu) 'dear, pleasant'; Ph,
Pun nm n. 'good, fortune', Ug nm 'gracia, donaire; delicia', Amr {G} nam-um, num-um 'pleasure' KB 666, HJ 738-9, A
#18O6, OLS 314-5, G A 26-7, BK II 1298, Krb. PE 98, Hoch #244 ll U: FP 'numV (- 'numV?) 'soft, tender' > Chr H nixi
'n+m+z 'tender' | Prm 'nu'mil - 'nu'mil > Z UVc nImlcs 'soft, free of lime' (of water), Vt numIlcs - numIlcs 'soft' (of
water), 'not tightly twisted' (of yarn) Prm 'numIl may have a palatal 'n- due to the infl. of FU 'namV 'soft' (see N
'nam'o 'soft') MRS 364, LG 199 ll A: M 'nomu-qan 'peaceful, meek, gentle' > MM [MA] nomuqan - nomuyan {Pp.}
'cxnpnin' (translating Chg |abas 'tame, docile' or 'kindly, peaceable'), [HI] nomuqan 'doux', WrM nomuqan {Kow.} 'doux,
tranquille, apprivois', {MED} 'peaceful, meek, gentle', HlM noxxon id., WrO {Krg.} nomoyan 'quiet, peaceful', nomoyon 'bland,
placid, calm, peaceful', Kl {Rm.} nom_
n - nomy
n 'friedlich, zahm', {KRS} noxln nomy+n 'quiet, tame (cxnpnin,
cnoionnin, rnxnn)', Brt noxion id., Dg {T} nom_on id., {Pp.} nom_aq, {Mrm.} nomoIon, {Mr.} nomchon 'gentle, mild'
Pp. MA 259, Ms. H 79, MED 591, KRS 381, KW 279, Krg. 223, Klz. D II 125, Mr. D 2OO, T DgJ 158, Chr. 33O T {Md.}
'|imVla- ({AD}: or '|u-?) - T {Md.} '|imVla-I ({AD} or '|u-?) 'soft' ( N i 'nam'o 'soft', q.v. ffd.) Tg 'num- >
Lm numon- 'quiet' (of water surface) (n- due the infl. of Tg 'ncmju,- 'soft' < N 'nam'o '') STM I 646, 652-3 ?, pJ
{S} 'nami_a 'slippery, smooth' > OJ na`mji_,c, J: T namcraIa, K namcraIa, Kg namcraIa ( N 'nam'o?) S QJ
#457, Mr. 492 DQA #1487 (A 'ni_uma 'warm; soft, mild'; incl. T, M, J, Tg 'num-).
1552. '`nim?V 'name, word' > IE '`no(:)m-n(-)/'`nm-n(-) 'name' > OI 'nama, Av nama, OPrs naman- || Gk: A
ovoo, D ovuo, in proper names D Evuo- || pAl {O} 'cinmcn > Al T cmcr, Al G cmcn, {LP} cmcn || Arm anun
anun (Me.: < 'anuvn < 'onomno-), gen. anuan anuan || L nomcn, Um NOME, numcm || OIr ainm n- (gen. anmc, pl.
anman), Brtt {RE} 'anman > OW anu (pl. cnucin), MW cnu, cnv, W cnv (pl. cnvau), Crn hanov (pl. hanvyn), MBr hanu,
hanff, Br anv; W c- on the analogy of the pl. forms || Gt namo (acc. pl. namna), ON nafn, NNr, Sw namn, Dn navn, OSx,
OHG namo, NHG Namc, AS nama id., NE namc || Pru cmncs (ce. for cmcns?), cmmcns, acc. cmncn | Sl '|imc (gen.
'|imcnc) > OCS uma imc (gen. umcuc imcnc), Blg ) nxc, SCr imc (gen. imcna), Slv imc, R ) nx (gen. ) nxcnn), Uk
nx`) , P imic, Cz |mcno, Slk mcno || Tc A nom, B ncm (pl. ncmna) 'name' Ht laman (dis from 'naman) WP I 132,
P 321, Mn. 851, EI 39O (''hnomn ''hcnhmn ''hnchmn 'name'), M K II 153, M E II 35-7, F II 396-7, Ch. 8O3-4,
WH II 173-4, Bc. G 339, LP 8.2, 75.4, Vn. A 36-7, RE 113, Hm. 38, Antt. SA 126-7, IS II 82-3, Fs. 369-7O, Vr. 4O3, Kb. 715,
OsS 639, Ho. 231, Ho. S 54, KM 5O2, O 87, Huld 61-2, LamP 148, Ivn. PiILX, Me. EAC 48, 142-3, 15O, Me. AAE 55, Slt. 23-4,
Grgv. BEO 128 (believes that Arm anun is a Phr loanword from DM - because Arm a- is a reg. reflex of IE 'o- in DM, but not in
Arm), Fs. 369-7O, Ho. 231, Vr. 4O3, En. 165, Tp. P E-H 28-3O, Stang VG 225, ESSJ VIII 227-8, Glh. 276-7, Vs. II 129-3O, Vn.
A 36-7, Wn. 327-8, Ad. 27O-1, Ad. H 28, 117, CHD L-N 31-6, Ts. E II 27-9 The initial vw. in Arm, Al, OIr and Pru (and
possibly in Gk?) is based on 'nmcn or 'nmcn (with an initial non-phonemic vocoid). On the possible prosodic orogin of Gk o-
(and on IE and N `-) see Introduction, 2.2.6. The initial long vw. in L, IIr and Ht is a grade of apophony or is due to the
ingluence of 'gno- v. 'know' (in L). The existence of an initial lr. is ruled out by the ev. of OI [RV] cds 'sa-naman,
sa'ta-naman, 'ahi-naman etc. without lengthening of the final vw. of the first element ( Cowg. EG 152). I agree with Cowg.
and Bam., who reconstruct the IE stem as 'nomn / gen. 'nmcn-s and do not see any reason to suppose the existence of a lr. in
either the initial or the medial position On the discussion see Cowg. EG 156, Bam. SLT 14O-1, Hamp GPV 6O and Wnt. TE
2O2-3 (both hypothesize 'onomn = 'Enomn), Szem. S 238-49, Ei. UWHM 162 (fn. 77) ('onoomon), Schn. ANS 263
('oncomn), Jas. NS 376 ('onomcn) and Bks. IELG 47, 229-31 ('no-mcn/'cno-mcn-m/'no-mn-os), CHD L-N
31-6, Ts. E II 27-9 ll HS: SOm: Ari {Bnd.} nam-, nami 'name', {Fl.} nam id., Gll {Fl.} lami 'name' (in Gll dis from nami, as
in Ht), Hm {Ldl.} nam- - nab- 'name', Dm {Fl.} nab-, {Bnd.} na- 'name' Bnd. AL 155, Bnd. LE 263-4, Bnd. MO 168, Fl.
Somot. ms. S 'nb? v. 'name, give a name' > Ak nb? (inf. nabu) v. 'name, give a name, appoint', BHb na'bi (spelled
aib5n1 nby?) 'prophet' (originally ps. prtc. 'named one, appointed one') [1 BA, JA aIb5n^ nobiy'y-a, Sr 'jobi nobiy-a, Ar
nabiy- 'prophet' 1 Gz nabiyy id.), Ar nb? G , D 'announce' (semantic infl. of nabiy-?), Jb nby-nb? v. 'name', Sq
{Jo.} 'snbs? (nb?) v. 'name'; in S we must assume a dis 'n.m 'n.b CAD XI/1 32-9, Sd. 697, 699, KB 622-5, KBR 661-2,
Br. 411, Nld. NB 34, BK II 1179, Fischer 131, Jo. J 179, L LS 255, L G 385 ll U 'nimc 'name' > F, Es nimi 'name' | pLp {Lr.}
'nsms > Lp: N {N} namma 'name, reputation', S {Hs.} nmmc, L {LLO} namma, Kld nsmm id. | pMr {Ker.} 'limo 'name'
> Er ncx lcm, lam, Mk ncx lcm | Chr H lom, Chr U/B lum | Vt/Z nim 'name' || pObU 'ncm id. > pOs {Ht.} 'ncm (=
{Hl.} 'nam) > Os: V/Vy/D/Nz/Kz ncm, Ty/Y na'm; pVg 'namV > OVg S Kg na(x)xn, OVg S Vt nax, OVh S Tr nax ,
OVg N Ber ncxa, Vg: T/LK nam, MK/UK/NV/SV nam, LL nam, UL/Ss nam | Hg ncv 'name' Sm 'nim-'num {Jn.,
Hl.} 'name' > Ne T nim?, num?, Ne F, Ng nim, En ni?, nu?, Slq Tz {KKIH} nim, Slq Ke nim, Kms nim, nom, Mt {Hl.}
'Nim - 'num 'name' (Mt M {Sp.} nyxxc(c 'his name') pY ''nim ({IN} 'niv) 'name' > OY XVII {Wts.} nim, OY K {Merk}
niiv, {Bil.} ncvc, OY Ch {Mat.} nina; Y: K {Krn.} niu, {Jc} niu, {IN} nu 'name' Coll. 39, UEW 3O5, Sm. 538 (U, FU, FP
'nimi, Ugr 'nimi, Sm 'nim), Lr. #7O2, Lgc. #4O66, Hs. 98O-1, Ker. II 77, Ht. #428, Jn. 1O2, KKIH 136, Hl. M #756
(misprint: 'num for 'num), IN 24O, 318, Krn. JJ 236, Ang. 182, Rd. UJ 4O [#35] (Y A U) ll A: Tg 'nim-qan, {Brk.}
'nim-qa- 'fairy tale', 'nim-qa- v. 'shamanize' > Ewk nimqa-Ian, Lm ntm-qan, Nn Nh ntqma, Orc nima, Ud {STM}
nimaqIu, Ork ntqma- nimga 'fairy tale', Ul niqma(n-) 'fairy tale; beginning of an extatic incantation (iaxnannc)' STM I
594, S AP II 224-5, Brk. LDK 66-7 ? pJ 'najN, 'name' > OJ na, J: T na(mac), K na, Kg na, namac, Ht naq 'name' S
AJ 69, 266 [#5O], S QJ #5O ("all modern dialects point unanimously to naN"), Mr. 49O ? pKo 'ni`i_aIi 'tale, story' > MKo
'ni`i_aIi, NKo ii_agi S QK #916, Nam 123, MLC 1333 ? M: [1] 'nim in MM [MA] nim niIcn 'each other' (niIcn is 'one')
Pp. MA 253-6 [2] WrM nim 'mark, sign'; but the variant 'im id. [> WrM im, Kl nx, Ord cm - im 'sign (a cut in cattles ear)']
is akin to T 'im 'mark, sign' and to Ewk him id. (Rm. W 171 traces it back to A 'im) MED 4O9, Kl 269, KW 2O8, Ms. O 237,
ET Gl 632-3, STM II 324 S AJ 24 and SDM equated Tg 'nim-qan and the J words with T '|om 'omen, legend, tale, magic
device'. DQA adduced pKo 'ni`i_aIi 'tale, story'. Earlier (S AJ 24) Starostin interpreted the sound corr. of T 'o-'u and
Tg 'i (-'i) as a reflex of the pA diphthong 'i_u; later (StDM95) S, ADb. and Md. reinterpreted it as a reflex of A 'a before
'o of the second syll. In SDM97 they preferred to reconstruct pA 'lamo [ DQA 'li_omo(qa) 'name; spell, divination'].
Actually T '|om, M 'dom (A T) and pJ {S} 'nsm- (> OJ nom- v. 'pray') belong to N 'lumV 'magic, spell' (q.v.) and not here
S AJ 69, 276 [#48], SDM95 (A 'nmo 'name; spell, divination'), DQA #1213 ['li_omo(qa), incl. Tg, Ko, J] ^ Cf.
AD LRC (IE, U, J), IS II 82-3 ('nimi 'name' > IE, U, S with an inaccurate semantic interpretation of the S ; the SOm and Altaic
cognates were not adduced [then the SOm cognates were not yet recorded]) ^ On N and pIE '`- see Introduction, 2.2.6 Gr. II
#273 ('nim - 'nom 'name') [IE, U, Y, J, CK].
1553. 'nVNcVj?V, 'high, big, strong' > HS: ''nV'qsV?- > Eg N ns v 'be strong' EG III 2O9 It is likely that Eg
may go back to 'q S 'ns? v. 'be high, lift up' ( v. 'carry') > Ar ns? v. 'grow up', 'become older' (of a child), 'be high in
the sky' (of clouds), Sb ns? v. 'arise, take action; build up, raise', OCn nassa / yinassi, BHb an ns? 'carry, lift, lift up', Ug
ns? G 'lift up, put on', Ph, Pun, Mb, OA ns? ns?, IA ns? [= ns?] v. 'lift up, carry', BA an ns?, JA [Trg.] axn - ixn
nsyv G 'hoch halten', SmA {Tal} nsy G 'take, carry', Sb ns? 'arise, take action', Mn {MA} ns? 'entreprendre; difier', Gz
ns? v. 'lift', Ak nasu v. 'lift, carry', Eb ns? id. KB 683-4, 1749, KBR 724-7, HJ 76O-4, A #1859, Grd. UT #17O9, DrG
153, OLS 334-5, Lv. III 4O2-3, Lv. T II 114-5, Tal 533, BK II 1255-6, HJ 76O-3, L G 4O4, Sd. 762, BGMR 98-9 C: Bj {R}
ns? (1s: p. a-n'sa?, prs. atnasi?) pcv. md. 'get up, rise' ('sich erheben, empor-\auf-steigen') R WBd 185 In addition, there is
a WCh word deserving attention: WCh {Stl.} 'nan 'big' > AG: Su {J} nan, Ang {Flk.} nan 'big, large', Mpn {Frz.} nan v. 'grow
big', nanan 'large' | SBc: Sy {Sh.} nuq, noq 'big' | ? Ron: Fy {J} nan 'brother' Stl. ZCh 235 [#821], J S 76, Flk. s.v. ncn, Frz.
DM 41 ll U 'nn`XncV 'big, strong, hard' > Hg nagy 'big' || {UEW}: ? Z US/LL/LV/MS, Yz na 'stingy' ( *'hard'), Z LV/Sk
nac 'completely' pY {IN} 'nanjco, > Y K {Jc.} nancc 'big' (nancc 'olutculcl Iclul 'Ein groer Greis ist gekommen')
UEW 31O, MF 461, Lt. J 15O, SZ 1O3 s.v. (:ni, 34O s.v. ciyn, Ang. 172, IN 238 ll A: M: WrM naicigar 'coarse, thick'
MED 12O7 ??? T: MQp [BMTQ, L, AH] yucc 'high', Tk yucc, Kr {Rl.} yua id., ? Az ua id. Rs. W 212, Zaj.
VAKBM I 27, TAG 1O9, Rl. III 614-5, ET J 263.
1554. 'n`iqu 'hair (of animals)' ( v. 'unhair, pluck out hair\feathers') > U 'n`iqa- 'unhair; lose hair' > F nivo- 'deprive of
hair, unhair a skin; shed hair', Krl nivo 'Stelle, wo die Haare abgenutzt sind' | pLp 'nsvc- 'shed\lose hair, deprive of hair' > Lp: S
{Hs.} n|yvv cdh '(sich) haaren, die Haare verlieren', L {LLO} navvct '(ein Fell) enthaaren, plen (man reit zuerst die Haare
aus, dann schabt man sie mit dem Messer)', N {N} navvc- / -v- 'pluck off the hair of a skin', T {TI} navvcdc 'unhair a skin'
| Er ncncnc- ncvclc- 'grow bare ( o6nc:r ), lose hair\feathers', Mk {Ahl.} ncvila- 'sich abnutzen' || ObU: Vg {Kn.}: P nat-,
Ss not- 'das Leder\Fell schaben'; Os: Kz n`ov-, O nav- 'free of hair, unhair (a reindeer-hide)' Sm: [1] Ne F P {Lh.} ncva-
'be worn out (as the hair of fur boots)'; [2] Sm {Jn.} 'nIqI+- - 'niqI+- 'pluck out (rupfen)' > Ne: T nn iaA-c 'pluck (a bird),
pluck out (feathers, hair, grass)', T O {Lh.} nIqIa-, F Ks {Lh.} niqIa-s 'pluck (a hen), pluck out (grass)'; Slq Tz {KKIH}
niqqIl- 'pluck out (feathers, grass)'; ? Kms nIqgo- 'reien, scharren', Koyb {Sp.} 1s prs. niniin x '(cpy'; Mt {Hl.} 'Niqgo-
'pluck out (rupfen)' (Mt M {Sp.} nnng x ' nnn ') UEW 3O6 ('niva- or 'niqa-), Coll. 39, Coll. CG 73, 127, 166, Sm. 546
[FU 'niva-, FP 'niva-, Ugr 'niga- 'unhair (skin)'], Lr. #7O6, Lgc. #4O87, Hs. 1O12, LLO II 585-6, TI 12O5, ERV 4O6, Jn.
1O1-2, Ter. 314, Lh. 288, KKIH 141, Ptp. 38, 99, Hl. M #761 ll A 'nuqX ({DQA} 'nuqu) 'wool, down' > T '|uq 'wool' > OT,
MQp XIII |uq, Tk , ET, Slr |uq, Az , Kr T/G, SY, Ln |un, Uz zun, Tkm |uq, SY |uq - |uq - |u, Tk yun, Ggz
|un - un, Qrj, Qmq, Nog |un, Qzq zun, Tv cuq, Xk nuq, Tb {Rl.} nuq, Yk suq, Chv: L aAx s+m, H s+m 'wool',
Qrg un, Qq zun, VTt non |+n, SbTt, Bsh |in 'wool, hair (on human body)', Alt uq 'feather', Yk suq 'wool\feathers that
were shed from animals' Acc. to Cl. 941 and TL 146, the variant with u is due to the infl. of T '|ug 'feathers' Cl. 941, Rs. W
211, ET J 267, TL 148, TatR 19O, Md. 58, 163 (T 'um - 'uq), BT 58 M [1] 'nuqga-sun 'wool' > MM [S] {H}
nuqgasu (spelled nuqhasu) 'wool (of sheep)'; [2] 'noyu-sun 'wool, down' > WrM nogusun, HlM nooc( on) 'wool, down', Ord
nos, Br noolon, WrO nosun, nosun, nos 'wool', Kl noocn nosn, {Rm.} nosn 'wool; hair (of human body)', Dx {T}
nogosun, Shrn {Pot.} noiycyn, Ba {T} nogsuq 'wool'; M 'noyulur > WrM nogulur, HlM noonyyp 'soft wool, down', Br
noonyyp 'down', Kl {Rm.} nolr 'soft fine hair, down', Kl D {Rm} nolur 'Flaum, Hauthaar, Daune', Ord nolur 'duvet
laineux (des chvres)'; ? M 'noyur-sun > WrM nogur-sun, HlM noopc( on) 'down, fluffy feathers' ( M 'noyura- 'become
tattered, threadbare, worn out, frayed'?) The M cognates with '-y- are valid if A '-q- yields M '-y- (as suggested by S and
ADb.) or if 'n...y < 'n...qg by dis Clauson (Cl. TMS 234, Cl. 941) unconvincingly claimed that MM nuqgasu is a loan from
T (being an ardent anti-Altaist, Clauson tried to ascribe most common elements of T and M to borrowing) H 12O, MED 588-9,
Ms. O 496-7, Krg. 222, KRS 381-2, KW 279-8O, Chr. 33O-1, 431 T DnJ 13O, T BJ 144, Pot. 422 Tg: WrMc nuqgari {Z}
'down, soft wool', {Hr.} 'Flaum', {Z} nunncri 'down, fluffy thin hair', {Hr.} nuqncri funiychc 'Flaumhaar', Mc Sb nuqan 'downy
hair, floccus; down, pile, eider down' Z 239-4O, Hr. 723-4, Y ##144, 2283 pJ {S} 'nunu_a > OJ nunju_,o, J: T nuno, K
nuno, Kg nuno 'fabric, cloth' S AJ 271 [#177], S QJ #177, Mr. 5O2 DQA #1514, Pp. VG 73, 123, S AJ 285 [#235], KW
279, STM I 611 ll D (in SD) 'nin`- 'string, tying, bondage' > Tm nina v. 'tie up, fasten, braid', ninavai_ 'tying, bondage, that
which is plaited', Td nin` 'twisted string', Kn Hl ncnc, Kn G {KG} nEnE, Tu nin, ncn, nin 'a wick' D #3668 ^ Cf. also
Jb C 'noy 'long fine hairs' (more plausibly from N 'navga 'hair, down' [q.v.]).
1555. 'NaV 'to move to and fro, winnow' > HS: WS '-nu- > BHb nv Sh

(pf. Fin5e4 hc'ni) 'move to and fro,
wield, brandish', MHb nv G 'move in the air, soar', JA [Trg.] nv v. Sh

(pf. Fin4a1 ?a'nc) 'erheben, schwingen', JEA
{Js.} nv vi. G {Js.} 'wave', {Sl.} 'sway to and fro', vt. Sh

{Sl.} 'wave (an offering)', Sr nv G (pf. na, ip. no-nu)
'bend, waver to and fro', Sh

'lift up, beckon', MHb ef1n1 na'a, JEA {Sl.} ai!f6n2 na'y-a n. 'sieve', Sq {L} nvf G (pf.
ncf) 'make a sign (with the hand?)', Mh {Jo.} nvf Sh

(pf. hsnvuf) v. 'beckon so.'; with rdp : MHb Fn$f6n% ni'nc 'swing,
fan' KB 644, HJ 741, 744-9, Lv. T II 98, Js. 888-9, 922-3, Sl. 738, JPS 333, L LS 262, Jo. M 3O6 ll D 'nav- v. 'winnow' > Tm
navu v. 'winnow, clear grain from stones', Ml navuIa 'cleanse rice from stones', Krx nab- v. 'thresh rice, winnow' D #3769,
Pf. 99 [#727] ll A: M 'nabta-: WrM nabtala-, HlM nanran:a- v. 'wiggle, sway\move from side to side (as a dog)', O
nab_t`a- 'pendre et flotter au gr du vent', Brt na6raiana- v. flutter' (about sth. hanging down) (infl. of M 'nabtayi- > WrM
nabtai-, HlM nanran- 'hang, hang down'?) MED 555, Ms. O 479, Chr. 316.
1556. 'no'E 'breathe, blow' > HS: Eg N nfy v. 'breathe out, exhale (ausatmen, hauchen)', Eg fNK nf 'breath (Hauch des
Mundes, Atem)', Cpt: Sd utqc nifc, B utqt nifi 'to breathe', n. 'wind' EG II 251, Vc. 149-5O S (+ext. , originally from cds ?):
[1] S 'ns 'breathe' (< N 'no'E 'breathe' + ''usV 'to blow' [q.v.]) > BHb ns N 'draw breath, breathe freely, recover',
Sr ns G 'breathe, be alive, have life', Gz nfs G 'blow' (wind, spirit), Sq nfs G 'respirer, vivre, se ranimer', Mh pf. nsfh
'recover from a faint', Ak ns G 'breathe freely, relax'; - S ''naas- n. 'breath, soul' > BHb Sf3n# 'nccs 'breath,
breathing, throat; soul, person, self', EpHb ns 'life, soul, person', Ug ns 'throat, gullet; soul', Ph, Pun, OA ns 'person', Yd
ns id., 'soul', JA [Trg.] Sf2n6 no'as / aS1f6n@ nasa 'soul, person, will', JEA {Sl.} nasa 'soul, body, self', Sr #fe
no'cs / '3ofa na's-a breath of life, soul', SmA ns 'soul', Ar f0Na nafs- 'soul, person, -self', faNa nafas- 'breathing',
Mn nfs id., Sb, Qt nfs id., 'life', Gz nafs 'soul, person, breath', Sq {L} 'nofos 'selves' (rf. prn., in pl.), Ak LB nasu 'life,
breath', OAk naastu, Ak naistu 'breath; life, vigour, good health; person', ? SES (if 's > 'h > zero): Mh nof / df.
hs-nof 'self', hsnof-i 'myself', hs'naf-I 'yourself', hsn'fayhsm 'thmselves', Hrs {Jo.} hs-nof- 'self' (nofi 'myself', nofsh
'himself'), pl. hs-nyshof- 'selves', Jb C {Jo.} 'nuf / df. 'c-'nuf 'self', 'ha-'nuf 'to oneself', Sq {Jo.} nof-, nhof- 'self'; [2] S 'n_
'breathe, blow, inflate' (< N 'no'E + 'PuqV 'to let out air\gas' [q.v.]) > Ar, Mh, Jb E/C nf_ G 'blow, inflate', Hrs nf_ G
'blow', Gz nf_ G 'blow, breathe on', Ak n_ G 'blow upon; blow (st.), hiss',
BHb/Aram/Sr nh v. G 'blow' ( CS
'nh), - WS 'man'a_- 'bellows' > Ug m_, du. m_m, BHb hp1m2 ma'ah, Gz monfa_ id.; [3] CS 'nh v. 'blow' (<
N 'no'E + 'uhV 'to blow' [q.v.]) > Ar nfh G 'blow' (of wind), Gz nfh G 'blow', ( S 'n_)
BHb/JA/Sr nh v. G
'blow' and SmA nh G 'become swollen', Sh

vt. 'blow (breathe of life), inflate'; [4] WS 'nO > Ar nfO G 'puff\blow upon',
Qt {Rk. D} nfO 'spit out; proclaim', {Rk.} 'appoint' 'spit, blow on sth.'; [5] Ar nfg G 'blow strongly' (wind) HJ 744-9, KB
669-74, BDB 655-6, 659-61, A ##1815, 1826, OLS 285, 327-8, Lv. T II 122-3, Js. 922, 926-7, Sl. 77O, Br. 435, 441, JPS 346-7,
BK II 13O4-6, 13O9-11, Tal 536-7, 541, Hv. 785-7, BGMR 93, MA 66, Rk. D 157-8, Rk. 11O-1, L G 388-9, L LS 271, Jo. M
283-6, Jo. H 94, Jo. J 181-3, CAD XI 263-7O, 288-91, 296-3O4, MiK I #1.2OO ('naa/is- 'throat'), ##2.45-6 ('n_, 'ns)
C: LEC {Bl.} 'ncf- 'breath, soul' > Sml naf 'soul, self', Sml N {Abr.} ncf 'breath', Arr {Hw.} nafa 'body', Or {Th.}
nafa, Or B/O {Sr.} naf-a, Or Wt {Hn.} nafa_ id.; 'ncfbs- 'breath, soul' (unless AAr): Or B {Bl.} 'nabsc? 'soul', Rn {PG}
ncbsi 'a breath', Rn ncbs-ad-, Sml ncfso v. 'breathe' Bl. 166, Bl. G 86, Sr. 372, Hn. W 57, Th. 253, PG 233, ZMO 3O7,
Abr. S 188, Hw. A 387, AD SF 177 ll U: FU 'n'otV > ObU {Ht.} 'noot 'lifetime' > pVg 'nat id. > Vg: T/P/NV/SV/LL
nat, LK/MK nat, UL/So not; pOs {Ht.} 'noot, {Hl.} 'naot [< 'noot] > Os: V/Vy novot, Ty/Y noot, D/K/Nz
nuot, O noot id. Ht. #435 ll A 'n'obV- > M 'noclc- 'come in gusts' > WrM nogclc-, HlM n' ' n' -x id., WrM
nogclc-Iu salIin 'a gust of wind' MED 592 DQA #2735 (pA 'ni_aobo; M + semantically unc. comparison with T, Tg
and J).
1557. 'n'oi 'fog, cloud' > HS: Eg G nfy 'fog' (?) or 'darkness (?), Cpt Sd/B utq nif 'fog' EG II 251, Vc. 149-5O
EC: Dsn {Flm.} ncbo (- nndo?) 'cloud' Fl. GO, Blz. DL s.v. 'cloud' ll IE 'ncb"- - [1] IE 'ncb"os /'ncb"cs- ntr. 'cloud,
fog, sky' > OI 'nabhah / obl. 'nabhas- 'vapour, cloud, mist; sky', Av nabah- pl. 'air space, sky' || Gk vco) n. (gen. vcco))
'cloud' || W, Crn ncf 'heaven', Br ncnv id., 'sky', ? OIr ncm 'sky' || Clt: OI ncm (s-stcm), W ncf 'heaven' || Sl 'ncbo / obl.
'ncbcs- / pl. 'ncbcs-a 'sky' > OCS ucce ncbo / obl. uccct- ncbcs- / pl. ucccto ncbcsa [1 R 'nc6o], Blg nc'6c / pl. nc6c'ca,
SCr nc`bo / pl. ncbcsa, Sln ncbo / pl. ncbcsa, Cz ncbo / pl. ncbcsa, Slk ncbo / pl. ncbcsa, P nicbo / pl. nicbiosa, Uk
'nc6o 'sky', R 'n[6o 'palate (roof of mouth)' | Lt dcbcsis, Ltv dcbcsis 'cloud', dcbcss 'sky' (Blt 'd- due to the contamination
with a different word, possibly the Blt cognate of Gk ovoo) 'darkness, dusk, thick clouds') Ht ncis-, ncisa- 'sky' [2]
NaIE 'ncb"-cla 'cloud, fog' > Gk vcc 'cloud' || L ncbula 'vapour, fog, mist' || OIr ncl 'cloud'; W niul, nifvl, Crn niul id.
(A L ncbula?) || Gmc 'nc|la-, 'ni|ula- 'fog, mist' > OSx ncval, OFrs ncvil id., OHG ncbul 'fog, darkness', NHG Ncbcl 'fog,
mist', AS nifol 'dark', ON nifl- id. (in cds : niflvcgr 'dunkle Strae', niflhcl 'underworld'), n|ol 'fog, night', AS nofol 'dark' P
315-6, EI 11O (''ncb"cs- - 'ncb"-cl- 'mist, cloud, sky'), Bc. 52-3, 1484, M K II 134, M E II 13, F II 3O9-1O, WH II 151-2,
YGM-1 342, Vn. N 8, LP 97, Schz. 22O, Kb. 718, OsS 642, KM 5O5, Ho. 236, Ho. S 55, Vr. 4O9-1O, Vs. II 53, ESSJ XXIV
1OO-4, Glh. 436, Frn. 85, Ts. E II 31O-5, CHD L-N 448-53 ll A 'nobi- 'to smoke, smell' > Tg 'nu- v. 'smoke' > Ewk nuv-,
Lm nub/- 'be smoked (elaborated by smoke)' (of a hide), Ewk nuvs 'smoked hide, pon(yia (leather made of reindeer hide)',
Neg nu- vi. 'smoke' (of a lamp), Lm nubgit- vt. 'smoke (a hide to dress leather)', Neg nuIit- id., 'smoke (fish, meat)', Orc
nuci id., Ud {STM} nucu- vi. 'emit smoke', vt. 'smoke (sth.)', niuti- 'be smoked', Ork nuutci- - nuucci- 'be
smoked' (of a hide), 'be covered with soot', Nn nuci vt. 'smoke, elaborate by smoking' STM 6O7-8 pKo {S} 'nni 'smoke'
> MKo 'nni, NKo na S QK #8O, Rm. SKE 158, Nam 1O2, MLC 315 pJ 'nis- 'to smell' > OJ nio-, J: T nio-, K
nio-, Kg nio- S QJ #234, Mr. 736 ? T '|iar 'smell, fragrance' ( 'musk') > OT {Cl.} |iar 'scent' (in QB), 'perfumes,
musk' ([QB]: |ayiz |cr yiar toldi 'the sweet scent (of flowers) has filled the brown earth'), XwT XIV, MQp XIV [CC] |iar
'musk', Tk |iar, Qq zuar, Qrg iar 'scent, pleasant odour', Yk sibar - simar 'odour, stench', Bsh noqap |+far, SY
suvar 'musk' Cl. 878-9, KW 469, ET J 284 Rm. EAS I 77, Rm. SKE 158 (Tg, Ko), S AJ 297, SDM97 (A 'nobi, incl. Tg,
Ko, J), DQA #1477 (A 'nibic- 'to smoke, to smell', incl. Ko, J) ^ If Dsn {Fl.} ncbo 'cloud' is a reliable recording (albeit
absent in To. DL), it may point (together with Eg nfy and Ht ncis) to N 'n'oiyV ['-iyV> '-i?V > Dsn -bo], with loss of
'-Vy- in NaIE Gr. II #67 ('nc 'cloud') [IE, CK, EA].
1557a. ?? 'NVVRV 'bank, shore, edge' > HS: Eg fMK {EG} nr 'edge; bank, shore', {Fk.} nr.t 'brim (of well)' EG II
249, Fk. 13O ll K: G nair- 'bank, shore; edge' ('Ufer, Kste, Gestade; Rand'), {DCh} id., 'border (of a country)' [unless d from
K 'ir- 'lip, edge' with the px. of pp. 'na- (K 145), although the semantic interpretation of nair- as a ps. particple is hard to
undwerstand] Chx. 92, DCh. 958.
1558. 'nuq'U 'to bend, swing, sink' > HS: S '-nu_- 'lie down, sink; rest, repose' ( 'have rest') > OCn [EA] nu_- 'be at
rest' (of so. who is in safe condition), BHb nvh G (hn! nah / h@uni! ya-nu
h) 'settle, rest, repose; have rest, wait', Ph Sh

pf. yn_ 'erect (an altar)', Ug {A, OLS} nv_ 'rest, have a rest', n_t {A} 'Ruhesitz', {OLS} 'divn', Amr {G} nv_ v. 'rest',
nu_um 'rest', IA d nyh n. 'rest, tranquility; resting place', EpJA nvh 'be at rest', JA [Trg.] {Js.} nvh G 'rest, lie', JEA {Sl.}
nvh G 'rest, be calm, place', Sr nvh G (nah/-nuh) 'rest, be at rest, stay quiet', Ar nv_ (na_a/-nu_) 'kneel' (of a camel),
'lie down upon ones breast', n__ G 'make (a camel) kneel ', Mh {Jo.} nv_ Sh

(pf. hsvnc_) 'give so. a rest from working',
ssvnc_ v. pf. 'rest', Hrs {Jo.} 'ssvns_ / yosono_, Jb E {Jo.} 'sins_ id., Gz nv_ (pf. no_a, js. yo-nu_) 'repose, linger',
Ak nv_ (inf. na_u - nua_u, p. inu_) 'be slow\still; relent, be appeased; rest, repose' HJ 721-2, 729-3O, KB 642-3, 1745,
A #1772, Grd. UT #1625, OLS 323, Hff. 237, G A 27-8, Js. 885-6, Dlm. 265, Sl. 735-6, Br. 419, JPS 331, BK II 1219, 1363-4, Ln.
2864, L G 4O9, Jo. M 3O7, Jo. H 99, CAD XI/1 143-5O, Sd. 716-7 Eg XX n_n_ 'knock down (the attacking eneny)' (of a
lion), 'throw back (an enemy) with its horns' (of a bull), Eg G n__ 'repulse (an attacking enemy)' EG 312, 314 Semantics:
vt. 'sink, fell, knock down' C: Bj {R} nu?- scv. 'senken, sinken lassen, niederlassen' || ?? Ag: Bln {R} na y- 'auf den Rcken
liegend emporschausen', na-s- vi. caus. 'auf den Rcken legen' R WBd 178, R WB 279 Ch {Stl.} 'nV_- 'wait' > CCh:
{ChL} HgB nayudo, Kpf nuyutc 'wait' Stl. IF 124, 211 OS #1837 (HS 'nah- 'bend' [intr.]: S, Bln), #19O7 (HS
'nVvVq- 'rest' v.: S AG 'nuI-, see N ''nuK'u 'to lie down, sink, low') ll IE 'ncu_H- > NaIE 'ncu_o- vi. 'bow, nod' > L
nu-tus 'gravitation, downward movement', nu-o / -crc (pfc. nui, pp. nu-tum) v. 'nod', nu-mcn 'a nodding with the head, nod'
|| Gk vcue (aor. vcuooi) 'bow the head, nod, beckon, bow in token of assent' (< NaIE 'ncu_-s-?) || Lt {Frn.} niausti (prs.
niausiu) 'neigen, beugen' The absence of the lr. (or its traces) in the stem 'ncu_-s- is accounted for by IE morphological laws
(NS PK 3O1) The editors of IS III ( P 767) adduced OI 'navatc 'moves', which, acc. to M E II 23, does not exist; in any case,
the IIr words for 'move' (adduces by P and the editors of IS III) are not semantically close enough to justify the comparison P
767, EI 394 ('ncu_- 'nod'), WH II 189-9O, F II 3O9, Frn. 5OO ^ Ffd. IS III 61-6 ('Nuq'u in HS, K, IE + unc. A + err. [?]
NED 'nuI- 'bow, droop'). IE 'n- provides ev. for a N 'n- ('nn`-) and rules out N 'n-.
1559. ? '`nVqa 'to assist (help, protect)' > HS: Eg fMK n_ v. 'protect (so.), help' EG II 3O4 ll IE: NaIE '`na- 'help, be
useful' > Gk ovi-v-i, -vo-cv (ft. ovoe, Gk D aor. ps. evov) 'profit, benefot, help, assist', ovoi) (Gk D ovooi))
'use, profit', Gk Mc ono 'profit' OI na'tham 'help', nath- 'Zuflucht suchen' (which is better explained as going back to NaIE
'nctH- 'help, grace, favour' < N 'nat V 'seek, seek aid' [q.v.]) WP II 315, P 754, M K II 151-2 (no definite et. of 'na-tha), M
E II 33, F II 395-6 & Ch. 8O3 (both find no convincing IE et. of o-vi-v-i) ^ On pIE and N '`- cf. Introduction, 2.2.6.
156O. 'nar'u 'thin, narrow' > IE: NaIE: Gmc 'narva 'narrow' > OSx naru adj. 'eng, kummervoll', nar(a)vo adv. 'eng',
AS ncaruo (gen. ncarvcs) 'narrow, confined', NE narrov; d : MHG narlich 'gering, wenig, notdrfig' Ho. S 54, Ho. 232-3,
Sw. 123, Lx. 149 ll A 'nar- 'thin' > M 'narin 'thin, narrow, fine (not coarse)' > MM narin [L, MA, IM] {Pp.} 'thin', [IsV] {Lg.}
'mince', [S] {H} 'fein, genau', WrM narin, HlM napnnn 'fine (not coarse); narrow, tight; thin', Mnr H {SM, T} narin id., Brt
napnn 'thin, narrow', Kl n` pn narn id., {Rm.} narn 'fine, narrow', Ord {Ms.} narin 'fin, effil, troit', MMgl [Z] narin,
Mgl {Rm.} norin 'thin, fine', Dg {T} narin 'thin, narrow, flexible', {Pp.} narin 'thin', Ba {T} naroq, Dx {T} narun id.; M
'narida- > WrM narid(a)-, HlM napnn(ax 'become thin, slender, narrow, tight', Kl n` p(- 'become thin', Brt napn(a- 'become
thin\narrow', Ord narid_a- 'tre trop troit\fin'; Mnr H {SM} narind_i- 'tre\devenir fin\troit\menu' Pp. L III 71, Pp. MA 246,
442, H 114, Lg. VMI 56, MED 565-6, KRS SM 258, Iw. 118, T 348, T BJ 144, T DnJ 13O, T DgJ 156, Chr. 322-3 Tg: WrMc
nar_un 'thin', Jrc {Kiy.} narhun 'slender' STM I 585-6, Kiy. 134 [#672] ??? T '|ar- > Qrg aro 'wiry, lean, no(apin' (of
a horse) (unless from T '|ara- 'be fit', whence 'be well trained' - of a horse); ? T '|argaI 'lean', 'dressed hide without hair' (if
'thin hide\skin') > Qrg aryaqtay 'lean', Qmq |aryaq 'lean, skinny', Uz oryaq 'dressed hide of a lean goat\sheep', Tkm,
Nog, Bsh |aryaq, Qzq, Qq zaryaq 'dressed hide without hair', Qrg aryaq id., 'membrane (ncpcnonia)', ET |a(r)yaq id.,
'parchment', Alt {Rl.} |aryaq (aryaq) 'shabby hide', Chv sur_ax 'membrane, treadbare\shabby coat' T '|argaI belongs here
if its primary meaning is 'lean, thin' rather than 'hide' ET J 141-3, TL 384 (NaT '|ariy 'hand-made leather'), Jud. 236, MaM 162
?? pKo 'yor- 'thin' > MKo yor-, NKo yol- - yal- S QK #11O, Nam 376, MLC 1182 DQA #1437 (pA 'ncra
'thin, flat' > M, Tg, T, Ko) ll K: MG [VTq.] narnar-i 'tender', G narnar-i 'zart, fein, sanft' ( N 'nar E 'na rE 'unripe,
tender, weak') DCh. 959, Chx. 923.
1561. 'nahcrV 'day, sun, daylight' > HS: WS 'nahar- - nahar- 'day' ( 'qch'Ur'i 'light, fire'?) > Sr hao na'har
'morning', Ar nahar- 'day, day-time', Mh, Hrs nshor 'day', nshoron '(at) midday', Sq {Jo.} 'snhor 'days', Jb C 'nhc'rc? 'at
midday' Fr. IV 343, BK II 1354-5, Jo. M 29O, Jo. H 95, Jo. J 186ll A 'narV 'sun, dawn, day' > M 'naran 'sun' > MM {MA, IM,
IsV, PP}, MMgl naran, WrM naran, HlM nap( an) , Kl narn, Ord, Mnr nara, Mgl, Dx, Ba naran, Dg. nar Pp. MA 245, 442,
Pp. KP 154, Lg. VMI 56, MED 565, KRS 368-9, KW 272, SM 357-8, Iw. 118, T 348, T DnJ 13O, T DgJ 185, T BJ 144 T
'|arin 'early in the morning' > OT |arin 'early in the morning; to-morrow', Tk yarin, Kr Cr, SY |arin, Yk sarsin 'to-morrow',
Ggz |arin 'morning, to-morrow', Qzq , Qq zarin 'next year', Chv iran 'to-morrow' Rs. W 19O, Cl. 97O, DTS 241, ET J 147-
9, Jeg. 343, Fed. II 473 pKo {S} nar 'sun, day, weather' > MKo nar, NKo nal S QK #186, Nam 95, MLC 3O2 SDM97
(A 'narV (- 'ncru) 'day, sun' > T, M, Ko), DQA #1439 [pA 'qcra 'day, sun, light'; incl. T, M, Ko] ll D 'ncr- 'sun, day,
time' > Ml ncram 'sun, day, time'. Tm ncram 'time, season, opportunity', Kdg ncra 'sun, time', Brh dc 'sun, sunshine, day,
time'; the pD meaning 'daylight, morning' may be discerned in Kdg ncratc and Tu ncrd 'early in the morning' D #3774,
GS 178 [#451a] (D 'nc- 'time, sun') D '-c- < N '-ahc- ^ IS MS 339 s.v. (cn 'nahrn (> A, S), IS II 85-6 [#32O] (pN
'nara 'fire; to flame'; does not dustinguish between the reflexes of N 'nahcrV and those of 'qch'Ur'i 'light, fire').
1562. 'nc'qirV 'forehead, front of the head' > HS: B 'nyr - 'yrn - 'rny 'forehead' > Izn {Rn.} ta-nycr-t (pl.
tanirivin), {La.} ti-ni_cr-t, Kb Ir {Pic.} anyir, Rf A {Rn.} mt aynar, Gd inar, Sw {La.} i-nir (pl. iniron), Tmz {MT)
-i-nir, Zw {La.} anir, Izd ayirni (pl. iyrnan) - ai_rri (pl. ii_rra), Nf arnay, Mz arnay (pl. irnayon) La. S 242, Mrc. 123, Rn.
391, Dlh. M 174, La. MChB 112 [fn. 2], Pic. 432, MT 495 C: Ag 'qal-, {E} 'qar- 'head' > Aw {Hz.} qari, Kfl {TBZAC}
qI"uri, Dmt {CR, R} qari id. || LEC {E} 'nar- 'forehead' > Arr {Hw.} nar id., Or {Grg.} nara 'eyebrow' E PC #466, Hw.
A 388, Grg. 3O1, Brl. 321 ?? S 'n_r: ''nu_ar- > Ar nu_ar-at- 'snout, forepart of the nose', nu_r-at- 'nose', nu_ar-
'nostrils'; S 'na_(r)ir- 'nose, nostrils' > BHb Mi%r@ih5n^' nohi'rayim' du. 'nostrils', JPA, JEA {Sl.} ar!ih5n^ nohi'r-a 'nostril',
Sr nohi'r-a 'nose, nostrils', Ak na_ir- 'nostril'; SES 'na_rir- 'nose' > Sq {L} nahrir, {Jo., SSL} 'nah'rir, Mh {Jo.} ns_rir, Hrs
na_'rcr, Jb C {Jo.} na_'rcr, Jb E {Jo.} ns_'rcr id.; d : Ar manari_- pl. 'nostrils', but these nouns or part of them may have also
derived from 'n_r 'snore, snort' [o?] or 'n_r 'to pierce' ['nahir- as pp. 'pierced'] (cp. Ar n_r [pf. na_ira] 'tre us et trou',
na_ir- adj. 'perc et offrant un passage au vent') KB 648, 651-2, Lv. III 371-2, Sl. 741, JPS 335, BK II 122O, L LS 265, SSL
LSNP 1468, Jo. M 3O8, Jo. H 99, Jo. J 199, Sd. 714, MiK I #1.198 ll U: FU 'nn`crc 'nose, beak, foremost' > pLp {Lr.}
'ncrc 'cheek' > Lp: L {LLO} nicrra, Kld nirr id., N {N} nicrra id., 'side of face' | Er ncr, Mk nar 'beak, snout, mouth (of
animals)' | Chr L/E/H ncr 'nose; hill between depressions' | Prm {LG} nu'r > Z, Vt nip nIr 'nose, beak, snout, muzzle' || ObU
'nnir > pOs 'nir > Os: V/Vy nir 'cap\promontory in a river (xic; Kap, Landzunge, Vorsprung des Steilufers zwischen zwei
Bchen)' (like in R noc 'nose' 'cap') Sm {Jn.} 'ncr+ 'point, extremity (Spitze, Ende)', 'in front (of)' (adv., prep.) > Ne: T
ncpn , T O {Lh.} ni_crnc 'in front', T ncp' 'earlier', nc'piadj. 'front, preceding, former', T O {Lh.} ncr?o_ adj. 'front', F
Nl {Lh.} ni_cr 'vorher'; Ng {Hl.} ncro 'place in front (of sth.)', {Mik.} ncro loc. 'in front'; Slq (cd ?): Tz {KKIH} ncnna
'forward, in front', Tm {KD} ncnnc 'forward'; Kms {KD} ncr 'Gipfel, Spitze', {Cs.} ncr 'Spitze', n|crimna 'forward, front
(nncpc(, ncpc(n n)', Koyb {Sp.} +ppa. ncp(c 'its end'; Mt {Hl.} 'irsn 'earlier, long ago' (Mt M {Sp.} icpcn , npcn ), 'irnE-
'in front' (Mt {Mll.}: M irncndc, K irning, T orning 'antrorsum', {Pls.} irn|adu 'in front' (-ndc, -ing, -ndc are case endings)
pY {IN} 'nao- (misprint for 'nao-?) - 'nao-yo- 'face' (with the nominal sx. '-yo) > Y {IN}: K naso, T naco id.; OY:
K {Bil.} ncatsha, {Klc.} n uaia, Ch {Mat.} n ua, {Boe.} n r no id. Coll. 39, UEW 3O3-4 ['ncrc ('ncrc)], Db. OS xix,
Lr. #732, Lgc. #4192, SaR 213, LG 197, Lt. 195, It. #361, Trj. S 31O, Stn. D 1O7O, Jn. 11O, Ter. 3O2-4, KKIH 14O, Cs. 185, Hl.
US 125, Hl. M ##8O, 353, 355, 359, IN 238, 312 ll D 'ncr_r_i, {GS} 'nct_-i 'forehead, head' > Tm ncrri 'forehead, front',
Ml ncrri, Kt ncc, Tf nity, Kdg, Klm, Nkr nctti 'forehead', Kn nctti id., 'head', Gnd ncc, Knd ncti, Mlt nitlu 'crown of the
head', Tu nctti id., 'forehead', Tl nctti 'head', Gdb ncdidc 'scalp' D '-r_r_- < ''-r_Vr_- (from '-r_- + a sx.?) DED #3118,
D #3759, GS 59 [#166] ^ Ag 'q- suggests the presence of a lr. or uvular cns. ('nH- or 'nq-> 'q-), which accounts for the length
of the FU 'c. If the S cognate is valid, the N rec. must be 'ncqirV, otherwise the rec. is less specified ('ncHirV) ^ IS MS 354
s.v. 'ncqrn 'ncp[( (iononi)', IS II 82 ('nc'rHi 'front part of the head, forehead'.
1563. ? 'niXRV 'hollow, cave, pit' > IE: NaIE 'nooar-/'ncr- 'cave, hollow in the ground' > BSl: Lt naras 'cave, hole' | Sl
'nora '(animals) hole' > OR uepo nora, R, Uk no'pa, Cz nora, P nora, nura || Gk [Hs.] vioo) to) koio) tcto) 'hollow
rocks' acc. pl. || ? OI 'nara'Ia- - naraIa-h 'hell, underworld', Pali naraIa- 'Abgrund, Spalte' W II 334, P 766, Frn. 495, ESSJ
XXV 184-5, Vs. III 82-3, Chrn. II 577, F II 315-6, M K II 138, M E II 37 ll HS: S 'nhr > Jb C {Jo.} 'nahar (pl. 'nhchr) 'hole
in a tree-trunk in which animals may nest', nah'run 'having a big hole' Jo. J 186-7 ll A: Tg: Ewk niru - niru 'small hollow\pit'
({Vas.} ') xia, nna(nnia') Vas. 296, STM I 6OO.
1564. 'nurV 'to penetrate' > IE: NaIE 'ncr- 'to penetrate, plunge, dive' [ N 'niXRV 'hollow, cave' (q.v.)?] > Lt ncrti
(prs. ncriu) 'to dive, plunge' - naras 'diver ( duck), Ltv nirt 'to dive', nirct, nirdat 'to plunge' | Sl 'ncr- / nor- / (R-gr.)
'nir--'n+r- 'dive, plunge' L-gr. (iter. stem) 'nir--'nIr- id. > Cz noriti, Slk norit` 'to dip', SCr {Chrn. ?} noriti 'id. (?),
ChS cd a+up1:u v+-nrcti / a+uipa v+-niro 'tociooucooi, penetrate', uuipc:+ iz-nirct+ 'ckouvci, emerges
(from)', Slv ondrcti / ondrcm vt. 'dip'; - Sl iter.-dur. 'nIrati - 'nIrati > RChS uupm:u nir|ati, R ni' p r , Uk nn'p rn
'to dive', Blg 'nopnax'I dive', 'nopna 'dive', SCr onirati 'to lose oneself into subterranean passages of the chalk formation'
W II 334, P 766, Tr. 197, Frn. 495, BER IV 653, 685, ESSJ XXV 188-9, XXVI 65, Vs. III 91-2, Chrn. II 581-2, Drd. 525 ll D: [1]
'nur`V 'creep in, penetrate; insert' > Tm nurai_ 'creep through a narrow passage, penetrate', nuruntu 'insert, stick in', nurai_
'narrow way, opening, cave', Ml nurayuIa 'creep in, squeeze through', Kn norc 'creep in', Tu nuru- id., nurum 'hole', Knd
r`ug 'enter, steal in, get into, enter through a passage', Png, Kw r`ug- vi. 'hide', Kui r`uIa- (< 'r`uI--) / r`uIt- 'thrust in
between, insert', Krx nur`-, Mlt nudc- 'hide, conceal' D #3714 l [2] ? 'nu(:)r_- 'force ones way through, shove in' > Kn
nuru 'force ones way through', Krx nurug- 'push back into the fire unburnt ends of logs protruding', nurg- 'shove in, insert', ?
Mlt nurgc v. 'drag, draw (as a net)'; the decerebralization '-r`- > '-r_- (or earlier depalatalization '-r- > '-r-?) may be due to a
suffix (reduced to zero acc. to the laws of D phonology that rule out cns. clusters) D #3711 ^ IS MD 357 ('nurn: IE, D).
1565. '`nVyarV 'man, male animal' > A 'ni_ari ({SDM97} 'naria, {DQA} 'ni_ari) 'man, young man' > Tg
'ni_ari-'nari 'man, young man' > Nn nat-nay 'person', Nn KU ntra 'male animal', ntra bsys 'male person',
Ork nart, Orc na-ni 'man (person, male person)', Ud {STM, Krm} ni, Ud A {Shn.} nc 'hombre!' (address word for a
person), Ul ni 'person', Ewk A nori, Ewk V/Np ncravi, Ewk PT/I niravi - niravi '(young) man, husband', Neg
ncyavt, Lm nart, Sln niro 'male person', Jrc {Kiy.} niyarma 'person' (in phrases: hadi niyarma 'nobleman',
hchc niyarma 'woman', fasi niyarma 'carpenter', andahai niyarma 'guest', etc.), WrMc niyalma 'person', Mc Sb {Mrm.}
nalma - nalma - nalm - nalm 'person, man, somebody' STM I 598-9', Krm. 266, Kiy. 112-6 [##273, 281, 299, 33O-333, 336-
7, 339], Z 244-6, Klz. MS 231, S AJ 213 [#92] pKo {S} 'nnr-na 'brave' > MKo nnr-na, NKo nalla- id.; ?? MKo {Nam}
nni_ > NKo na 'man, person' SDM95, S QK #615, Nam 96, 1O2-3, MLC 3O3, Rm. SKE 158; the enigmatic loss of '-r ( IS II
93) suggests a change of the word-final '-i_r into -i_ T: [1] T '|armVI > Chr apxaAi sarm+I - axpaAi samr+I
'young, young man', Blgh 1: OHg gycrmcI 'young man, child' (> Hg gycrmcI 'child'), VTt/Bsh JcrmaI p.n., Oyr B {Vld.}
crmcgci_ 'young person, child' Rs. W 198, Ash. XII 36-7, 66, Md. 36, EWU 495-6, Rm. SKE 28 [2] ? T '|crnc '(elder)
brother-in-law' > NaT '|cznc > OT {Cl.} |aznac 'the husband of ones elder sister or of ones fathers younger sister', MQp
XIII {Cl.} |czna 'son-in-law, bridegroom', XIV [CC] |cznc-|iznc 'brother-in-law', Chg XV |azna 'sisters\daughters
husband', Tkm |cznc, Az |czna, VTt 'n:nn zizni, Kr G |cznc, Kr T |czna, Bsh c&n` |iona, Nog, SY |czdc, Uz
czna - czda, Qzq, Qq zczdc, Qrg czdc, Alt cstc, Tv ccstc, Xk cistc 'husband of an elder sister or an aunt' Cl.
988, ET J 169-7O, TL 298, Pokr. 64-5; TatR 761 S AJ 291 [#394] ('ni_ari) (Tg only), SDM97 (incl. Tg, Ko), DQA #1471
(incl. Tg, Ko, T) ll IE '`ncr- 'man, male animal' > Vd 'na (< 'nar) (acc. naram, nom. pl. 'narah) 'man, person', Av na / nar-
id., : OI 'narah 'man, husband, hero', Av naro 'man'; Blc nar, Phl nar 'male', NPrs rNa nar 'husband, male', Oss nal 'male
animal, man (vir)' (< Irn d 'nar-ya-) || Arm ajr ayr, gen. an arn 'man, husband' (< 'nr-?) || pAl {O} 'ncra > Al n|c'ri 'man,
human being', Al SG/D/P/Be/ nc'ri, A 'ncr || Phr ovo 'man' || Gk o`v, gen. o`voo) 'man (male person)' (probably a
merger of the expected nominative *v with the stem variant of the oblique cases: gen. *o`-o) <'nr-os) || L []
ncriosus 'resistens, fortis', Osc niir 'vir, princeps, procer (title of rank)', gen. pl. NERUM 'virorum' || OIr ncr 'wild boar', MW
{Flr. ?} ncr 'lord', W ncr 'lord, Lord; hero' ?? Lw annarummi, Ht innarauvant- 'strong' P 765, EI 366 (''h_ncr / gen.
'h_n'r-os 'man, person'), Mn. 837-8, IS II 92-3, M K II 138, 148-9, Bai. 174, Ab. II 165-7, F I 1O7-8, WH II 164-5, Bc. G 32O,
Vn. N 1O, YGM-1 343, Flr. 266, O 3O4, Huld 1OO-1 (IE 'Ancr- > pAl 'ncri), Slt. 121, Pv. I-II 366-73, Lar. 27 ll HS: C: Ag:
Aw qsri 'male person' || EC: Arr ncrdc 'young man' and\or EC {Bl.} 'nirig- 'camel foal' > Dsn nir-in 'newborn
donkey\camel', Sml nirig, Sml N nirig, Rn nira_ 'male camel foal' E PC #47O (pC 'qcrz 'man, young man'), Bl. 26O, ZMO
3O8, Abr. S 188-9, Hw. A 389, PG 237, To. DL 522 ??? Eg nr 'people (homines)' (mentioned in IS II 93) is qu. according to
EG II 279, nr.t is a "spielende Schreibung fr rmt 'Menschen'" ll K 'nar- > G nar-i 'male camel' DCh. 959, Chx. 923 ^ AD
LRC #19: IE, Tg; IS MS 349 ('na|rn 'male person') and IS II 92-3 ('Na|Rn 'male person, male') [in both: IE, A (Tg, Ko), HS (Eg,
C)]. IE 'n- rules out pN 'n-, hence the Tg palatal cns. (or cluster) 'n-ni_- must be explained by postulating an root-internal 'y
in pN. It may be also responsible for Arr 'n- and pAg 'qV- (< ''nV?V- < 'nVyV-) ^ On N and pIE '`- see Introduction,
1566. 'nusV 'to breathe' > HS: S (+ext. ): [1] CS 'nsm 'breathe' > Sr, Md nsm v. G id., BHb nsm v. G 'pant, puff',
JA {Lv., Js.} nsm v. T (pf. ?itno'sam) 'take breath, rest', Ar nsm v. G (ip. -nsim-) 'blow gently' (breeze), 'diffuse itself'
(aroma); - CS 'nasa'm-at- > BHb am1S1n^ nosa'ma 'movement of the air; breath, breath of life; living being', MHb
nosa'ma 'soul', BA Kt1m6S6n% nismo'taI 'thy breath of life', JA [Trg.] am1S6n% nis'ma, at1m6S6n% nismo't-a, Sr
nosam't-a 'breath, spirit, soul', Md nisimta 'soul', Ar nasamat- 'breath of lime, soul; asthma'; words of the root nsm in Mh,
Hrs and Jb (Mh nsscm 'breath, soul', etc.) are loans from Ar [2] S 'ns 'blow, winnow' > Ak ns v. G 'blow away,
winnow', BHb ns G 'blow, blow upon', JEA {Sl.} ns G 'blow', JPA Bz {Sl.} ns G 'blow, breathe', Ar nsf G
'winnow', 'scatter (dust) (of wind) KB 73O, 1749, Js. 941, Lv. T II 131-2, Sl. 779, Sl. P 361, Br. 451, DM 3OO, 3O7, BK II
125O-3, Hv. 766-7, CAD XI/2 56, Sd. 758, MiK I ##2.5O-1 EC 'nVss- 'breath' ( EC 'ncbfs- id. < N 'no'E 'breathe,
blow'?) > Arr {Hw.} nassc 'breath', Kns ncssa 'soul, breath', Gdl nass 'voice, character', pSam {Hn.} 'nas v. 'rest' > Sml, Rn
nas- id. Hn. S 69, ZMO 3O5, Abr. S 187, PG 231, Hw. A 387 ll IE: NaIE 'ncu_s- v. 'smell sth.' ( N 'nisu 'smell, breathe
heavily' with mt ) > Sl 'nuxa- ({ESSJ 'nuoxa-) v. 'smell sth. deliberately, take a smell' > R ' n xa-r , Uk ' n xarn, P
niuchac, Blg ' n xmiax, ' n mna, SCr n|u_siti, n|u_sIati od., Cz ci-nichati v. 'smell at sth.' (of animal) || Gmc: AS
ncosian, niusan 'to find out, visit', OSx niusian, niuson, OHG niuscn 'to try, endeavour', NHG nuschcn 'mit der Schnauze
whlen', ON nysa 'untersuchen, sphen', n|osna 'sphen', Gt bi-niuhs|an 'kotookotooi, to spy out', niuhscins 'ctiokot,
visitation' Vs. III 93, ESSJ XXV 156-9, P 768-9, Ho. 234, 237, Ho. S 56, Kb. 73O, OsS 654, Vr. 41O, 413, Fs. 93, 377 ll ? U:
FV 'nusIa 'to sniff, breathe heavily' > F nuusIaa- v. 'snuff', nuusIi- v. snuff, smell, scent', Es nuusIa- 'blow ones nose',
nuusIi- 'sniff, snuffle, sniffle' | ErMr nocia- nosIa- v. 'pant, breathe heavily & moisily through the nose' UEW 711, SK 4O5-
6, SSA II 244-5.
1567. 'nuusjy,V 'woman (general term), 'woman from of the opposite moiety' > HS: S 'nis- 'woman' (used in pl. and
with pl. endings only) > Ar nis-una 'women', nisa?- id. (and through metanalysis: nsv, whence nisvan-un 'women',
nisv-at-un - nusv-at-un 'woman'), Sr '3=e ncs(s)-c, SmA nsyn 'women', BHb MiS5n! na's-im ('a < an apophonic 'a-
plural from 'nis-, cp. 'ban- 'sons' - a plural stem correlating with 'bin- 'son'), Ak nis-u 'people' (-u is a pl. marker; semantic
contamination with ''?inas- 'person' - '?unas- 'people') KBR 93, 729, Br. 45O, Tal 55O-1, BK II 1254 CCh: McMdr: Dgh
{Frk.} nisc, Gv {Kr.} nusa, Gdf {IL} nosn, Glv {Kr.} nusa 'woman' | Tr {Nw.} nusu id. ll K: GZ 'nusa 'sons wife' > Lz
nusa, Mg nosa " nisa id., OG nusa-dia 'uncles wife' (lit. 'grand daughter-in-law') Ch. 988, Q 289, AD IEH 21, K KON The
word may be either a loan from IE or an ancient K inherited lexeme. In the latter case GZ 'nusa must go back to pre-K ''nusV <
''nusya < ''nusya < N 'nuusjy,V ll IE: NaIE 'snuso-s 'sons wife', {EI} id., 'brothers wife' > OHG snur, NHG Schnur,
Yid runs snur " sntr, AS snoru, ON snor - snor 'sons wife', Gt Cr 'schnos (cn. for schuos) 'sponsa, fiance' || Gk
vuo) 'sons wife, bride' || Arm nu nu (gen. nuoj nuoy) 'daughter-in-law, sister-in-law, brothers wife' || L nurus, -us id. ( <
'nurus, -i on the analogy of socrus, -us 'mother-in-law') 'snus-a > OI snu'sa 'sons wife', Sgd svnsh, ClNPrs nuSu
sunuh, d : ClNPrs r'enS sunhar, NPrs sonhor, Psh nzor 'daughter-in-law' || Sl 'sn+'xa ('sn+xo) id. > SrChS, OR tu+o
sn+xa, Blg cn'xa, Slv snaha, sncha, R cno'xa id., P d sncszIa id., SCr snaha 'sons\brothers wife' Acc. to ISs hyp., the
IE initial 's reflects a palatal element ('y) within the original . Another explanation is phrasal metanalysis: in phrases
'...-(o)s nuso-s '(so.s) sons wife' (where '-(o)s is the genetive ending of the preceding noun) '-s was reinterpreted as belonging
to the following noun '...-(o)s nuso-s > '...-(o)s snuso-s In OI and Sl the word got a standart feminine ending '-a WP II
697, P 978, EI 148 ('snu'so-s), M K III 535, M E II 771, Sg. 7O4, Mrg. 57, F II 328, WH II 19O, Fs. 414, Kb. 923, OsS 841, Ho.
3O5, Vr. 528, Vs. III 7OO, Glh. 568, O 3O2-3 (Al nusc 'bride, young daughter-in-law' A L 'nutia, a local variant of nuta
'married womn, bride'), Slt. 194-5 ll U: AdS of FU 'nisV 'woman, wife' (< N 'niz'uu 'female' [q.v. ffd.]) ^ The vw. 'i and
the cns. '-s- in FU do not correspond to 'u in K and IE, therefore the etl. connection of FU 'nisV with N 'niz'uu 'female' is
preferable ^ AD NM #98, S CNM 12 (unc. : IE 'snusi- A NrCs 'nusa; NrCs 'nuosa 'daughter-in-law', ST 'no
'female relative').
1568. 'nisu 'smell, breathe heavily' > HS: S 'nsv > Ar nsv v. 'smell (sth.)', nasvat- 'odour', nusu?- 'good smell'
Fr. IV 278, 284 || ?? B 'nzv v. 'sneeze' > Nf, Si onzu (pf. inzu) id., Sll, Nf, Si tinzi 'a sneeze' ll IE: NaIE 'ncu_s- v. 'smell
sth.' [with mt ] ( N 'nusV 'to breathe') ll ? U: FU 'nn`issta- (more plausible than 'nn`ista-) v. 'pant\puff, snuff (e.g. a
fire), blow ones nose' > F niista- v. 'snuff, blow ones nose', Es niista- v. 'snuff ('a candle, etc.)' | Chr: L nycmranam, U/B
nustala-, H nimranamv. 'blow ones nose' UEW 7O8, SK 378 Rd. (UEW) reconstructs 's ('nista-) on the ev. of the
alleged Lp cognate: Lp N {N} nistcti- v. '(happen unintentionally, because one is not careful enough ) 'let go, let slip out of
ones hands, let fall', Lp T nistcc- 'wegschnappen'. But the adduction of the Lp word is to be rejected for semantic reasons (even
Rd. is close to recognizing it: "Die Zugehrigkeit des lapp. Wortes is aus semantischen Grnden sehr unsicher"), hence there is no
reason to reconstruct 's. More than that: 's- in the Eastern dialects of Chr (U, B) usually (but not always) goes back to FU 's or
's rather than to 's ll A: M 'nisun 'nasal mucus' ( N 'Lizu 'saliva, mucus, q.v. ffd.) ll ? D 'ncc- - 'ncnc- (or
'ncI- - 'ncnI-) v. 'breathe, breathe heavily' > Tu ncsa 'asthma', Prj ncn(:)-, Gdb, Png, Mnd, Ku ncn:-, Gnd nc:-, Kui
ncn:a v. 'breathe', Knd ncnz- v. 'sigh, respire when exhausted or tired', ? NED: Krx nax-na, Mlt ncgyc v. 'breathe' D
#3765. The velar reflexes x in Krx and g in Mlt seem to point to a D 'I (= lateral 'c?).
1569. 'nat'U 'to bend, bow, incline (intr.)' > HS: S: [1] CS 'ntv 'bend, incline' > BHb ntyv G (pf. ey1n! na'ta,
ip. ey`3i% yi-t'tc) id., EpHb nty vt. Sh

(pf. hth) 'incline', JPA nty - ntv G (pf. iy4n^ no'tc - ay1n^ no'ta) 'incline,
hang over', JEA nty 'incline', ? Ar ntv G 'weave (a fabric)'; [2] '-nut- > Ar nvt G (pf. nata, ip. -nut-) vt. 'hang,
suspend' KB 654-5, HJ 728, Lv. III 377-8, Js. 89O, Sl. 744, Hv. 779, 8O8, BK II 1287, 1367-8 B 'nVjH,d 'pli', 'vnd
'plier, tourner' > Sll {Ds.} i-nid-i (pl. i-nad-an) n. 'pli', v. caus. sntdt ({Ds.} snudu) 'plier', Wrg {Dlh.} onnod 'tourner,
entourer', Kb {Dl.} onnoo '(s)enrouler; tourner, tourner autour', Ah onnod (pf. {Fc.} innod) vt. 'tourner, changer de
direction', Twl/Ty {GhA} onnod (pf. inn+d) 'enrouler, envelopper, tourner (dans une autre direction)' Ds. 222, Dl. 546, Dlh.
Ou 212, Fc. 1298, GhA 14O, 346 (on the conj. 1 A.2), Pr. #531 ll IE: NaIE 'nct- 'lie down, rest' > Gmc ( NaIE 'nctH- 'help,
favour' < N 'nat V 'seek, seek aid'): ON naa 'Ruhe', pl. naar 'Ruhe, Ruhe des Schlafens' (ganga til naar 'sich zur Ruhe
legen'), OHG {OsS} ginada - ganada 'Niederlaen in der Absicht zu ruhen; Ruhe', MHG gcnadc 'Ruhe', ( NaIE 'nctH-
'help, grace, favour' < 'nat V 'seek, seek aid'): N NHG Gnadc, Dt gcnadc 'favour, grace, clemency, mercy', OSx {Ho.}
(gi-)natha 'Gnade', gi-nathc'ri 'Erbarmer' (c' = Umlaut of a) WP II 327 (does not distinguish between this IE and the
abovementioned IE 'nct- 'help, support'), Vr. 4O3, Vr. N 195, OsS 259, Lx. 61, KM 263, Ho. S 54 ll A: NaT '|at`- 'lie down' >
OT |at- 'lie down', 'lie down to sleep', 'settle down' (of nomads), MQp XIII |at- - |at-, Chg XV |at- 'sleep', XwT XIII |at- 'lie
(down)', Tk yat-, Ggz, Qmq, Nog, VTt, Bsh, ET, SY, Slr, Ln |at-, Xlj |at--|at-, Qq zat-, Qrg at-, Alt at-, Xk cat-, Tv
ci't-, Tf ci't`-, Yk sit- 'lie', Tkm, Az, Kr |at-, Uz ccr- |ot-, Qzq zat- 'lie, (go to) sleep' Cl. 884, Rs. W 192, ET J 156-8, Ra.
2OO, DT 221, Md. 1O5, 16O Cf. 'a'?a 'to lie (liegen)' M 'natuyi- > WrM natui-, HlM naran- 'bend down, hang, hang
over', {Kow.} 'pendre, tre suspendu' MED 567, Kow. 613.
157O. 'na t'o 'woman (of egos generation) belonging to the opposite moiety' ( 'sister-in-law') > HS: B 'nVHd- >
Izn/Rf/SrSn {Rn.} tanutt (pl. tinudin), Kb {Dl.} ta-nuO (pl. ti-nuo-in) 'husbands brothers wife' Dl. 546, Rn. 392
C: EC: Or {Grg.} naddcn (pl. naddo) 'woman, lady', Or B {Sr.} nadcni 'woman (married)', naditti 'woman' || Dhl
nata 'woman' Grg. 298, Sr. SO 372, Th. 252-3, To. D 144, Blz. CL 181 ?? NOm: Mc {L} nuta 'one of two wives of the
same husband in relation to the other one' L M 44 ll U 'nn`ato 'sister of husband\wife' > F nato 'spouses (husbands \ wifes)
sister; brothers wife', Es nadu - nado 'husbands sister' | Lp: Rr {Lgc.} no:ts 'younger sister of ones wife', Vfs {Lgc.} nots
'elder brothers wife' | Chr: H {Ep.} ny(i nuo+ 'spouses sister', L ny(o 'nuoo, Uf/B nuoo 'spouses younger sister' Sm {Jn.}
'natc+ 'sibling-in-law' > Ne: T na(o, T O {Lh.} naou 'spouses younger brother', F L {Lh.} nattu id., 'spouses elder
brothers son', T {Ter.} nc na(o, F ncn nattu 'spouses younger sister' (nc nc 'woman'); Kms {KD} nado, {Cs.} nado,
nadu 'spouses brother' Coll. 38, It. #3O, UEW 299-3OO, Sm. 539 (U, FU 'nativ, FP 'nativ, Sm 'nato 'in-law'), Lgc.
#4238, Lgc. SL #1366, MRS 361, Ep. 77, 135, Ps. OT 78, Rm. BT 88, Jn. 98, KD 42 U '-t- (rather than '-tt-) reflects
postcons. 't ll D 'nat-/'natt-/'nant- 'husbands sister, brothers wife' > Kn nadani, nadini, naduni, Ml nattun id., Tm
natti, nattun, nattanar 'husbands sister', Kt natuy 'a womans sister-in-law \ female cross-cousin', Knd nanr_a, Mnd
nan:ar` 'wifes younger sister', Ku {Isr.} nan:o id., {Fzg.} nan:o 'sister-in-law', Kui nan:a 'younger sister-in-law', Krx nasgo
'elder brothers wife'; D 1 OI nanandr-, nandini-, nanda- 'husnands sister' D #3644, Pf. 74 [#455] (D
'nat/-tt-, 'nat/-tt-/-nt-, 'nat-VI-), Tu. #6946 ll K: Sv: {Ni.} nati 'cnoncrncnnni (relative-in-law?)', UB nati, LB/Ln
nati, L nati 'kinsman' (unless somehow connected with G natcsavi id.) TK 632, GP 226, Ni. s.v. cnoncrncnnni, Dn. s.v.
nati ll ?? A: [1] Tg: Ewk PT/Skh/Uc nati 'female relative', 'daughter, sister', Ewk B nats 'sibling, ones child' STM I
627 [2] ??? Tg: WrMc nccc 'wifes elder brothers wife' (vowels influenced by WrMc ncyc 'wifes younger brothers wife',
see N 'nayE 'woman') Z 22O ^ B and D provide ev. for an emphatic 't. The U and K cognates point to 't (most probably
from 't under the de-emphatizing ass. infl. of ' (= vl. 'h or 'h?) ^ In Sm and K the word broadened its meaning: 'female
relative-in-law' 'relative(\sibling)-in-law (irrespective to his\her sex)', and in ds of Sv: 'kinsman' ^ IS II 81-2 ('nat'o in U,
D), Blz. KM 17-8 [#2O] (added Ewk nati and Mc nuta) .
1571. 'nat V 'seek, seek aid' > K {Fn.} 'nat- 'wish' > OG natr- 'beatum/am dicere, benedicere' (Lc. 1.48, ) 71.17, )
143.15) ({Ser., DCh.} ' y6naar '), G {DCh.} natra n. 'wish', {Chx.} natvr-/natr-/natrul- v. 'wish, long for, desire' Chx.
927-8, DCh. 963, Ser. 124, Fn. KD #5 ll IE: NaIE 'nctH- 'help, grace, favour' [ NaIE 'nct- 'lie down, rest' < N 'nat'U 'to
bend, bow, incline (intr.)'] > OI na'tham n. 'help, refuge', nath- v. 'seek aid, Zuflucht suchen' || Gt ni|an 'to support', [L-gr.] ON
na 'grace, favourable attitude, compassion', Sw nad 'grace', OHG ginada 'merci, grace, reconciliation', NHG Gnadc, OSx
(gc)natha 'favour, favourable attitude, grace' ? Ht nut- 'Glck, Wohlbefinden, Ansehen' or sim., nut- - nu- ' desirable
condition', 'contentment (?)' Mn. 839, WP II 327 (does not distinguish between this IE and IE 'nct- 'lie down, rest'), M K II
152, M E II 33-4, Fs. 376, Vr. 4O3, Kl. 361, Ho. S 54, Ts. E II 352-4, CHD L-N 476 ll U: FU (att. in ObU) 'nattV- > ObU
{Ht.} 'nat- 'help' > pVg 'nat- > Vg: T nat-, LK/MK/UK/UL not-, P/NV/SV/LL not-/not-, Ss not-; pOs {Ht.} 'nat-
id. > Os: D/K not-, Nz/Kz not-, O nat- Ht. #477 ll ? D 'nat- ({GS} 'nad-) 'seek, look' ( N 'rodE 'to seek, wish'
'lcvdA 'to look for, find') > Tm natu v. 'seek, inquire after', Ml natuIa 'follow with the eyes, covet, seek', Tu nadu-
'search, seek', Gnd nar`- 'see, look at' " nad- 'gaze' D #3637 ^ ObU (or pFU, pU) 'n- may result from palatalization 'nn`- >
'n- caused by unknown factors. If D 'nat- belongs here, D '-t- (the reg. reflex of N '-t-) for the expected '-t- (< '-t-) may
be due to the de-emphatizing infl. of the lr. ' or to coalescence with N 'rodE ^ Fn. KD #5: K, D 'nat-/nct- 'see, look').
1572. 'na'hv'i 'vessel' > HS: S 'nvy > Gz novay 'vessel' L G 41O ll IE: NaIE 'nau_- 'vessel (made of a trunk),
boat' ( 'ship') > OIr nau 'ship', MW {Vn.} noc 'large vase, auge', W noc 'kneading-trough, flat vessel, dish', Br nco id. (<
'nau_ya) || Gmc: Nr nu 'a trough hollowed out from a tree trunk', ON no-r 'ship', AS d novcnd 'shipman', OHG nuosc
'slot, tub, canal', {Kb.} 'Nsch, Rhre, Rinne', {OsS} 'gutter (Rinne), gutter-shaped trough for cattle', MHG nuosch id., 'tube',
NHG , OFrs nost 'trough', MLG nostc 'cattle-trough, water-trough' || OI nau-h 'boat', OPrs d naviya 'fleet',
OPrs navaa-, Av navaza- 'shipman', Phl nav, ClNPrs {Sg.} v'N nav 'trough; drain-pipe, boat, small ship', NPrs {BM} v'N
nov 'channel; ship', KhS no 'boat', ChrSgd nv, BdSgd n?vh 'boat', Oss I nav, Oss D nava 'ship' || Arm nay nav 'ship, vessel,
boat' || Gk Hm vu) (gen. vo) < 'navos), Gk A vou) (gen. vce)) 'ship' || L navis id. WP II 315, P 755-6, EI 74
(''nch_-s / gen. 'nh_'v-os 'boat'), M K II 181, M E II 59, Bai. 192, Ab. II 162, Sg. 1382, BM 557, F II 292-3, WH II 148-9,
Vn. N 5, YGM-1 3, Vr. 411, Ho. 238, Kb. 738, OsS 661, Lx. 154 ^ The Clt and Gmc data prove that the primary meaning of the
IE word was 'wooden vessel, trough', whence later 'boat' and 'ship'. Therefore the tempting comparison of IE 'nau_-s 'ship' with
Eg n, ny 'to come, go, arrive, journey, travel, sail' (where the meaning 'to sail' is by no means the primary one) [BmK #569] is
untenable: serious etymology cannot be based on comparison between secondary derived meanings. Hence this comparison cannot
serve as an argument for V. Ivanovs daring hyp. of paleolithical navigation (Ivn. LDDM 236). On the Eg verb cf. N 'nai 'to go'
^ N 'h is the only lr. that may be lost in S and causes lengthening of vowels in NaIE.
1573. 'nEvjy,V 'new' > IE 'ncvo-/'novo- 'new' > OI 'nava-, new, fresh, young', Av nava-, ClNPrs vNa nau_, NPrs
vNa nou_, Oss navag 'new' || Gk vc()o-) 'new, young', Gk Mc nc-vo || L novu-s 'new' || OLt 'nava-s (in n. l. NaviIai), Pru
nauns (indluenced by |auns 'young'), dadj. ncuvcncn | Sl 'nov+(-|i) id. > OCS uea+ nov+, Blg non, SCr, Slv no`v, Cz, Slk
novy, P novy, R 'non-in (pradj. 'non), Uk 'nonnn || pTc {Ad.} 'navc > Tc: A nu, B nuvc id. || Arm d nor nor 'new,
fresh' Ht ncva- , Lw {Melch.} nava/i- id. NaIE 'ncvyo-/'novyo- 'new' > OI 'navya- || Gk I vcio) 'new' || Clt: Gl
ncvio-, novio- in n. l. Ncviodunum, Noviodunum (lit. 'new town'), OIr nuac, noc 'new', Brtt [RE] 'noviyos id. > OW nouid,
MW, W ncvydd, Crn nvcth, ncvyth, novyth, OBr [] nouuid, ncuid- id. (in the d ncuidtcr 'nouveaut'), MBr, Br ncvcz
'new' || Gmc 'niu_|az > Gt niu|is, ON nyr, Dn, Sw, NNr ny, OSx, OHG niuvi, NHG ncu, AS nicvc, nivc 'new', NE ncv || Lt
nau|as id. WP II 324, P 769, EI 393 (''ncvo-s), M K II 144-5, M E II 25, Horn 234, Ab. II 175, F II 3O6-7, WH II 181, Vn. N
23-4, RE 115, Flr. 266, Fs. 377-8, Vr. 413, Ho. 236, Ho. S 56, Schz. 224, Kb. 73O, OsS 655, KM 5O9, Frn. 487-8, En. 213-4,
ESSJ XXV 225-39, XXVI 7-14, Glh. 441-2, Slt. 229-3O, Me. EAC 5O, 91 (on Arm nor), Wn. 328, Ad. 269, Ad. H 34, Frd. HW
15O, Ts. E II 32O-3, CHD L-N 455-8 , Melch. CL 157, Ivn. SA 154 ll A {DQA} 'ncbi 'new' > Tg {S} 'ni_ab- 'young' > Ul
nava(n-), Nn Nh naonoa, Nn KU naooa 'young', Ud I/Sm {Krm.} na?ula, Ud K {Krm.} naola 'boy\girl (adolescent)',
Ork naooqqa(n-) 'boy'; Lm nsyi 'new, fresh' STM I 616, 636, Krm. 269, S AJ 221 [#223] pJ {S} 'nii 'new' > OJ nii,
J: T nii-, K nii-, Kg ni-Ic, Ht nI- id. S AJ 27O [#13O], S QJ #13O, Mr. 497 ?? pKo {S} 'no- 'younger relative' (in cds
) > MKo no-s-harmi 'wife of grandfathers younger brother', NKo no- 'younger brother (in cds ) S QK #772, Nam 1O5, MLC
336 S AJ 11O, 279 [#121], DQA #1418 (incl. Tg, J, Ko) ll ?? HS: B 'yny (prm. {Pr.} '-ynay) 'be new' > Tw imv. inai_
(3m pf. {Pr.} i_a-i_nai_) 'be new \ recent', Ty imv. iynay (3m pf. y+-ynay) 'be new' Fc. 7O1-2, 2OOO, Pr. M VI-VII 157,
GhA 2O6 It is tempting to equate it with IE 'yov-cn- 'young', but it is hardly tenable because IE '-cn- is a sx. ? NrOm
(unless akin to C 'ng" 'suck' [acc. to Lm. W 481-2]): Gm {Hw.} na?a 'child, boy', Wl {Lm.} na?a 'boy, son', Malo/Zl/Gf/Bsk
{Lm.} na?a 'boy, child', Dwr {Lm.} na, naho id., 'son', Kcm na?a, Zl {C} nayc, Gmr {Bnd.} na? 'boy', Bnc {Wdk.}
na`? 'child', Ym {Bnd.} na?o, {C} na?o 'boy', {Wdk.} na-ni` 'our child', {Lm.} na 'boy, son', Shn {Lm.} na?a, Bdt {Lm.}
na?a, nayc 'boy, son', Mch {Lm.} 'na?o 'child, boy', Kf {C} nao 'slave, servant' ( 'boy'), Cha {Lm.} na 'child', Anf
{MYTY} na?o 'baby' Bnd. PO 156, Wdk. BY 1O8, 132, Lm. Y 369-7O, Lm. W 481-2, L M 43, Hw. EG s.v. 'boy' & 'child', C
SE IV 477, MYTY 118, Hw. EG ^ An ancient connection between N 'nu jE, or 'nuvjE, 'now' [q.v.] and 'nEvjy,V 'new'
(the latter supposedly derived from or identical with the former) is hardly plausible because of the different vowels of these roots
(reconstructed on the U and A ev.) Gr. II #280 ('nu 'now') [IE, A, J words for 'new' + err. : no distinction from words for
'now' - see 'nu jE, or 'nuvjE,).
1574. 'nayE 'woman' > IE: NaIE '-ni, derivational marker of feminine sex (deriving words for women from the
correponding words for male beings): 'ot-ni 'domina' (A 'ot- 'dominus, owner') > OI 'atni, Av a0ni-, Gk totvio
(transformed into a standard female -a-stem), OLt -atni (in cds : vicsatni 'Frau' *'hostess, hospes [f.]'), as well as OLt
vicsni 'female guest' ( vicsis 'guest'), OCS -uu -In|i: ceruu bogIn|i 'goddess' ( cer+ bog+ 'god'),
pruu drugIn|i 'amica', retueuu gosodIn|i 'ocotoivo, domina' BD II/1 215, 283, Frn. 551, 1244-, Vnd.
I 424
ll U: FU {UEW} 'nayc 'woman, wife', 'nayc- v. 'marry' > F d naincn (gen. naiscn), Es nainc (gen. naisc) 'woman, wife', F
nai- v. 'marry' || ObU {Ht.} 'nay > pVg 'nay > OVg S SSs nai|c, Vg: T nayi, LK/MK noy, P/NV/SV nay, UL/Ss
nay 'gentlewoman'; pOs 'nay > Os: Sh nay 'wife\daughter of a hero\prince', VK nay 'wife of an official', V nay, Ty/D/K
na'y 'queen (in playing-cards)' | ? Hg no 'woman, wife', nc|c 'his wife' Sm {Jn.} 'nc 'woman' > Ne {Ter.} nc, Ne T O {Lh.}
nc, Ne F nc, Ng {Mk.} nI, {Cs.} nc, En {Ter.} nc, {Cs.} nc, Slq Ch/UO nca 'Frau', nic 'Tochter', Kms {KD} nc - nc
'woman, wife', Koyb {Sp.} ny 'woman' ('6a6a, cn nna'), Mt {Hl.} 'na 'woman' (Mt A {Msr., Strl.} nah 'ein Weib', Mt K
{Mll.} nc 'wife', Mt M {Mll.} nc 'woman') UEW 297-8, Sm. 539 (U, FU, FP 'naxi, Ugr 'nagi, Sm 'nc 'woman'), Ht.
#42O, Jn. 1OO, Cs. 139, KD 44, Hl. M #727 ll A: Tg: WrMc ncyc 'wifes younger brothers wife' Z 216 ll ? HS: WCh: Sy
{Csp.} ni 'daughter' Csp. 46 ??? possibly Eg G ny 'ein Klageweib' EG II 2O1.
1575. ? 'niz'uu 'female' > K 'ncz`zv- > G nczv-i 'female animal (esp. pig, goat, sheep)', (1) Mg nczv-i 'female' in
nczvi yci 'sow' Chx. 951, Q 288, 35O ll U: FP 'nisV 'woman, female' ( N 'nuusyV 'woman') > pLp {Lr.} nison 'woman'
> Lp: U {Schl.} niisuna, L {LLO} nison, N {N} niso (gen. nisson), Klt ncczzan, Kld nIzan, S {Hs.} nu|scn- in cds :
nu|scna||aa 'woman, wife', nu|scncs-t|uc 'womans hat', nu|scncs-vuoddch 'womns boot-laces' | Er niz-ana
'wifes mother' (niz- 'wife' + ana 'mother'), {Ps.} nizaIa 'female animal' It. VFUMr 264 ('nisV), UEW 7O8 ('nisV), Lr.
#729, Lgc. #418O, Hs. 1O18-9, Stn. FUV 61 ll ? HS: S: Ar nuzza- (pl.) 'female animals (sheep, etc.) agitated by sexual desire'
- possibly nz 'sbranler et se mettre en mouvement (surtout avec une agitation qui tmoigne dun dsir)' BK II 1235-6
^ The lr. in the N etymon explains the length of the U vw.. If the S word does not belong here, the rec. may be 'nni zuu or
'nniz uu. One may consider adducing here WrMc ncyc 'wifes younger brothers wife', but it is more plausibly connected with
N 'nayE 'woman' (q.v. ffd.).
1576. 'Nc'i 'finger, toe; ? knuckle of finger' > HS: B nsy 'toe, foot of ungulate animals' > Ah ti-nsc (pl. tinsavin), Gh
cinci id. (pl. cincavin) 'toe', Wrg {Dlh.} ti-nsi (pl. ti-nsa) 'pied et bas de la patte dun quadrupde (la chvre, la brebis, lne,
le chameau, etc.)', Mz {Dlh.} ti-nsi (pl. ti-nsa) 'pied danimal (surtout ovin)', Kb ti-nsa pl. 'sabots de bovids', Shl {La.} tinsit
(pl. tinsa) 'pied de toute bte de somme' Fc. 1415, Nh. 184, Dlh. Ou 225, Dlh. M 14O, Dl. 576, La. MChB 12O (fn.3) ll A {AD}
'nn'clqu 'fingers breadth, knuckle of finger' > T ''j|,cl-lig (> 'illig - 'cllig) (ADb.} > OT clig 'fingers breadth', Chg ali(I)
'fingers breadth as unit of length', ET {Jr.} ilig id., 'finger', ET H {Ml.} clcI 'fingers breadth', ET iIIi cliI 'breadh of 2 fingers'
(iIIi is 'two'), QrB, Nog. Qq, Qrg cli, Qzq cli, VTt illi, Brb {Rl.} iliy, Bsh ili, Alt {BT} clu, Alt\Tlt {Rl.} olu, ET X {Ml.}
clcI, Qb/Sg {Rl.} cli, Tv ili, Yk ili id., Alt olu 'vershok (Russian measure of length, 2 inches)', Uz tort clli 'breadth of 4
fingers' Rl. I 814, 816, 819, 1248-9, 1489, Cl. 14O-1, ET Gl 263-4, TL 259, Ml. X 9O, ADb. SR 178, BT 119, 191 Tg
{ADb.} (att. in AmTg) 'niqqu (= 'niqqu < 'nilqu) > Orc niqi 'finger (as measure of length)', Ud X niqi, Ud Sm nini 'finger
knuckles breadth (measure of length)' STM I 639, Krm. 267 ADb. MSR 13 [#61] (A 'nilqu). ADb. SR 47 (A ci_lgi) ll D i
'ncti or 'noti 'crack\snap of the thumb and middle finger; cracking of the finger joints' > Tm, Ml noti 'crack\snap of the thumb
and the middle finger', Tm noti- v. 'snap with the thumb and the middle finger', Ml noti 'snap of fingers', Tl nctiIa 'a knuckle
cracking or snapping of the knuckles' D #2936 ^ ADb. MSRm 22 [#31] (N 'ncIu > A, D).
1577. 'nab'?V 'warm, heat' > HS: Eg fP nby, fBD nby.t 'flame, live coals', fP nby vi. 'burn' EG II 244 C: Bj {R,
Rop.} nb? pcv. ({R} 1s p. 'amba?, prs. anam'bi?, prtc. 'ncb?a) 'be\become hot', {R} 'be hot' (sun), 'ncb?a 'heat, heat of the
sun', {Rop.} nab?a 'hot' || ? +ext. .: Ag: Q {R} cmbclav-, Km {CR} onbolou- 'be hot' (A EthS?) R WBd 179-8O, Rop. 221
? +ext. or cd : S 'nblj?, 'flame' ( N 'bl'X 'to boil, cook') > Ug nbl, Gz nabal, Ak nablu id. A #1739 (Ug nblt),
OLS 316, L G 383, Frnz. LS7 626, CAD XI/1 25-7 Tk. I 9O (HS 'nbl > Eg nb|, S, Ag 'nbl, as well as 'bl in C, B and
Ch, actually N 'bl'X '' and 'bilV 'be warm; warm') ll A 'naba > NT '|aba > OT {Cl.} |ava 'warm' ([MhK] |ava |cr
'warm place', |ava 'warm'), Yk saban - saman 'heat', 'warm summer', 'warm' (of summer) Cl. 872, MKD 219, Pek. 2OO6,
2O61 Tg 'nama 'warm' (as 'n...b > 'n...m and N 'nam'o 'soft') > Ewk, Orc, Ul, Nn nama, Lm nam, Neg nam,
namagdt, Ud {Krm.} namahi, Ork nama 'warm, warmth', Sln namagdi 'warmth' STM I 63O-1, Krm. 269 ADb KL (A
'naa 'warm'), STM I 631 (Tg, T); SDM97 ('namo 'warm, soft, mild') and DQA #1487 (A 'ni_uma` id.) [in both the Tg
root 'nama 'warm' is equated with M 'nomu 'soft', and with J and T reflexes of N 'nam'o].
1578. ??? 'nac_V 'wet, moist' > HS: S 'nOh > Sb nOh v. 'provide irrigation (?)' BGMR 1O2 ll U: FU 'nacIV
'wet, moist' > F nahIca 'damp' (but not nahIca 'leathery' nahIa 'leather') | pLp {Lr.} nocIs 'wet, raw' > Lp: N n|uosIas,
n|uosIa- 'get wet', S n|uotsIcs, L n|uosIas, Kld {Gn.} nucIas 'wet, raw' | Er nacIo, Mk nacIa 'wet, moist' | Chr: L
nouio 'nocIo, Uf nocIo, H nacIs id. || Os: Kz nasa_, O nasa_ 'raw' Coll. 1O2, UEW 311, Lr. #787, Lgc. #4471,
MRS 358 ll ?? IE 'ycs- v. 'stir, seethe, ferment' ( N 'naocVjqV, v. 'moisten', q.v. ffd.) ^ A phonetic var. of N
'naocjV,qV v. 'moisten, be moistened'? Qu., because the HS root is represented by uncertain data of one lge. only.
1579. 'naocVjqV, v. 'moisten, be moistened; sprinkle' > HS: WS 'ns_ v. 'sprinkle' > Ar no_ 'aqua conspersit',
nao_-at- 'une onde', Sb nc_ v. 'defile, sprinkle with impurity' Fr. IV 291-2, BK II 1278-8O, BGMR 92 ll U: FU 'naocV
'moist' > pPrm 'nuc id. > Z nu 'moist', 'viscid' (of clay), 'flexible', Yz nu 'moist' LG 2OO ll ?? IE 'ycs- v. 'stir, seethe,
ferment' ( *v. 'become moist'?) ( N 'nac_V 'wet, moist'??) > OI yas- (prs. yas-yati) v. 'boil, become hot, foam', Av yah-,
KhS |is- v. 'boil' || Gk ce 'I boil, seethe' || OHG {OsS} icsan 'to boil, foam' (= {Kb.} |csan - gcsan 'gren, to ferment'?) || W
ias n. act. {LP 'boiling, intense heat\cold', {YGM} 'thrill, shiver, temper'), ? OIr cs(s) 'cataract' ( *'foam') || Gmc: OHG |csan 'to
ferment', {OsS} 'effervescere', AS ist 'foam, yeast', NE ycast ?? Ht is(sa)na-, cssana- 'dough' WP I 208, P 506, Mn. 444,
EI 77 ('ycs- 'boil'), M K III 13, M E II 4O6-7, Bai. 111, F I 612, OsS 464, Kb. 33O, LP 20, YGM-1 295, Wn. 595, Pv. I-II 381-
5 ^ If the Ht word belongs here (which is not certain), S '-_- must be an extension, because it cannot reflect N '-q- for lack of the
expected correspondence in Ht. But if the Ht word (or IE 'ycs-) is not a legitimate cognate, '-q- (> S '-_-) belongs to the etymon.
158O. 'nugV ' deer, antelope' > HS: Eg OK/MK nvv 'addax antelope (Addax nasomaculata)' EG II 226 ? Ch:
Mdr {ChL} cd ? nagigurc 'antelope' ChL ll U: FU (att. in ObU) 'nuvV > ObU 'noyv 'elk' > pVg 'nov 'Elch' > Vg:
T no ({Ht.} misprint no), MK nov id.; pOs 'noy 'elk' > Os: V/Vy/Ty/Sl noy, Y nov, K/Kr {Stn.} no_ id. Ht.
#442, Hl. rHt. 73-4 (on the reflexes of FU '-- and '-v- in ObU), Stn. D 1O29, Trj. S 317.
1581. 'nEhag'u 'drive, chase' > HS: WS 'nhg (prm. '-nhag-) 'drive (game), follow (tracks)' > BHb nhg G (ip.
-nhag) vt. 'drive (an animal), drive away, drive on; lead, lead out', JEA {Sl.} nhg G vi. 'follow a practice\custom, lead', Ar
nhg G (pf. nahaga, ip. ya-nhag-u) 'follow (the tracks of)' - e0Na nahg- '(plain) road' - nhg G 'trace a road', Gz
nhg G (pf. nahaga) 'lead to pasture', Sh

(pf. ?anhaga) 'push forward (herd), drive (herd)' KB 637-8, Js. 88O-1, Lv. III 347-8,
Sl. 731-2, Hv. 8O2, BK II 1352-3, L G 393 ll IE: NaIE 'yag"- 'chase, hunt' > Gmc: OFrs |agia, OHG |agon 'to hunt,
persecute; jagen, treiben, verfolgen', NHG, Dt |agcn 'to chase, drive, hunt'; - OHG |agid > MHG |agct > NHG Jagd n. 'chase,
hunt, pursuit', MDt, Dt |acht id. Dt |acht 'yacht' ( 'hunting ship, Jachtschiff') || ?? Vd yah'va {MW} 'restless, swift, active'
[but {Bt.} 'der jngste, neueste', {Cpl.} 'der jngste, ewig jung\munter'], {MW, Bt.} yah'vat(-i) 'ever-flowing' (of a river)', {MW}
ra-yaIsati '(?) is quick, speeds on', {Bt.} 'vorwrts eilen, streben; (einer Sache) nachtreiben, erstreben, erreichen', {Cpl.}
'vordringen, eilen, streben'; the OI words are valid cognates if their interpretation by MW (& WP, P, partially Bt. and Cpl.) is right
WP I 195-6, P 5O2, Kb. 519, OsS 461, M 329, Vr. N 284, MW 838, 849, Bt. V 114, 134, Cpl. 343, 349, M K III 1-2, 13-4 & M
E II 391, 4O7 (interprets Vd yah'va as 'young, vigorous', yah'vat-i as '(?) youngest', and 'ra-yaIsati as 'displays', rejecting the
connection of the OI words with Gmc) ll ? A: M 'ncu- 'drive the herd to other pasture grounds, trek, nomadize, move from
place to place, migrate' [ N 'qni 'go (away)'] > MM [HI] {Ms.} ncu- 'transhumer', [LM] {Pp} ncu- 'reisen', [MA] {Pp.}
nuyc- (Pp: read nc`u-), nu- 'nomadize away', [IM] nu- 'wegfahren', [S] {H} nc?u- ncu- 'sich auf den Treck begeben,
trekken', d nc?uri ncuri 'Treck, (Karren-)Zug, Karawane', WrM ncgu-, HlM, Brt n-, Kl n- nu- v. 'nomadize, move
from place to place; trek, migrate', Ord nu':- 'dmnager', ? WrO {Krg.} nc- 'move, go past', Dg {T} ncu- 'nomadize, migrate'
Ms. H 78, Ms. O 5O3, Pp. L III 73, Pp. MA 262, 443, H 116, MED 569, Chr. 335, KRS 39O, KW 282, T DgJ 157, Krg. 212 ^ If
the M belongs here, the N must be 'nEhagu, otherwise we remain with some unpecified vowels ('nVhagE).
1582. 'nogulV (or 'nogUllV?) 'tear out\asunder, pinch, tatter' > HS 'ngl > S 'ngl > Ar ngl G (pf. ajaNa
nagala, ip. -ngulu) 'rip up, skin (a beast) from the hocks, till (the ground); ngl G (pf. ajaNa nagala, ip. -ngilu) 'erase (a
writing)', 'strike off pebbles' (camel), 'pierce (with a spear)' Fr. IV 246, Hv. 752-3, BK II 12O7 Ch: MfG - ngsl- 'cueillir,
arracher', Mf {BLB} ng"alala 'fte de rcolte' Brr. MG II 211, BLB 262 ? Eg G ng: 'die Glieder zerfleischen, den Augapfel
ausreien', Eg P ng: 'kill, slaughter' EG II 348 OS #1896 ( Ar ngl 'mow, reap' Mf ngsl- 'cut') ll A: M 'no'yula- vt.
tear to pieces, tatter' > WrM nogula-, HlM noono- id., Kl noon- 'pull (at\about), pluck' (' ropxomnr , rpcnar , rcpc6nr '), Brt
noono- 'pull (at\apart)' (' rcpc6nr , pa:(cpinnar ); - 'noyura- > WrM nogura-, HlM noopo- 'become tattered, worn out',
Brt noopo- 'become worn out' MED 588, KRS 381, Chr. 33O ll D 'null- v. 'pinch, pluck, nip' > Tm nullu id., Ml nulluIa
v. 'pinch, pluck', nulla 'a pinch, bit', Kt nuly-, Kn nullu v. 'pinch', Tl nulumu id., nul(u)cu v. 'pinch, nip off, squeeze' D
#3717 ll ?, U: FU 'nulIc- v. 'skin, flay, lose hair' > F nylIc- v. 'skin, flay, strip the skin off', Es nulgc-, nulgi- v, 'skin,
flay' | pLp {Lr.} 'nslIs 'get the hair separated from the hide' > Lp: S {Hs.} n|algcdh 'die Haare durch Auswassern der Felle
lsen\abtrennen', N {N} n|al'ga / -lg- 'get the hair\feathers torn or scraped off in a certain place' | Er ncn ic- nclgc-, Mk
ncn io- nclgo- 'take away, take by force (entreien, wegnehmen)' || pOs 'ncylom-, {Hl.} 'niylom- > Os {Ps.}: Y
ncom-, K ncotmo- v. 'moult, lose\shed hair' pY {IN} 'ncl- 'flay' > Y K ncl-bo-t- id. UEW 319, 329, SK 4O7, Lr.
#755, Lgc. #431O, PI 179, Ker. II 93-4, PD #1461, IN 238-9 ^ If the problematic U cognate is valid, the N lateral cns. is likely to
have been 'l, which is responsible for both D 'l and U 'l (< 'l in precons. position). Otherwise th N rec. must be 'nogullV.
1583. ??. 'nagoRV (or 'nagoRV) 'groin, small abdominal organs (kidneys, pancreas and sim.)' > ? IE: NaIE
'ncg""'ro-s 'kidney(s)' > Gk vcoi (pl.) 'kidneys' || Itc {Mul.} 'nc_"ro- 'kidney' > L [Fest.] ncfrcndcs 'kidneys' or
'testicles', L Prn [Fest.] ncfroncs, L Ln [Fest.] ncbrundincs id. || Gmc {Vr.} 'ncu_r(i)an > ON nyra, OSw niurc, ME,
MLG ncrc 'kidney', OHG nioro id., 'loin', NHG Nicrc 'kidney' P 319, Dv. #263, EI 329 ['(h)ncg""'ro-s], F II 31O, WH II
156, Mul. 285-6, Vr. 413, Kb. 728, OsS 651, KM 511 ll ?? U: FU 'narma 'groin' [ N 'nV... + '?ar VmV ( = 'h?) 'upper
part of a limb' (q.v.)] > FP 'narma > F naarva 'Leiste, Weiche', naaran (gen. naaramcn) 'Leiste des Pferdes',
Es naarc (gen. naarmc) 'Halsdrse' | Lp T {Gn.} na
rmc 'Schambug, Schamleiste' || pObU {Ht.} 'nIrmV > pOs
'narom 'Leistengegend, Ende des Oberschenkels' > Os Nz norom, Os O narcm id.; pVg 'nIrom 'Schulter, Hfte' > OVg N
SoO n px, Vg N {Mu.} narc'm [narom] U 'a < ''a < '-ago- ? Coll. 1O1, UEW 312, Sm. 546 (FU 'nIrma,
FP 'ncrma, Ugr 'nIrma 'groin, hip'), TI 571, Ht. #475; U 'a < ''a < '-ago- ll A: NrTg 'ncrun 'gland' > Ewk nsrin,
Ewk Ald nirun, Lm nirun, Lm B nsrun id. STM I 654 M 'noyir (= 'no'ir?) 'fat adhering to the intestines, pancreas' >
WrM noir, HlM {MED} nonp id., {Gl.} 'long piece of fat adhered to guts of a pig', HlM {Luv.}, Brt {Chr.} nonp 'pancreas', Kl
{Rm.} nor 'Darmfett', {KRS} n' p nor 'pancreas' MED 589, Luv. 27O, Chr. 329, KW 28O, Gl. II 44, KRS 384 M '-o'i-
(is presumable from '-oyo- < (by as ) '-ayo- ^ The discrepancy between IE 'n- (regularly < N 'n- or 'n`) and 'n- in FU and
Tg may result either from pre-IE depalatalization 'n- > 'n- (caused by unknown factors) or by secondary palatalization 'n- >
'n- (caused probably by some lexical interaction, e.g. infl. of 'nV... '?ar VmV) ^ Ernits KSTM, Ernits PSTM (Lp, TM).
1583a. '`naKIV or '`naKIV 'to laugh, be amused' > U: FU 'naIV (or 'naIV-?) 'laugh' > F nauraa,
naIraa id., Ing nagra, Krl K naIroa, Krl Ld nagrada, Lv na`gro id. || pOs 'nay- 'laugh' > Os: Ag/Ty nay-, Nz/Kz/O
na_- id., Ag/Ty/Y nay, Nz/Kz/O na_ 'laughter, a joke' | ? OHg XVI ncvct-, Hg ncvct- id. [influenced by (albeit
hardly cognate with) OHg XV mcvct- id. < Ugr 'mEIyV- 'laugh' (> Vg: T mavont-, LK/P mayont-, Ss movint- id.)]
SK 369, SSA II 2O9-1O, Stn. D 1O28, Trj. S 3OO-1, UEW 872, EWU 1O24 ll D 'naI(I)- v. 'laugh, smile' > Tm
naIu id., naIIal 'laughing, mockery', Ml naIcIIa v. 'laugh', Kn nagu, nagc, Tl nagu v. 'laugh, smile', Prj nav-, Gdb
nag- " nagg- 'laugh' D #356, Zv. 119, 129 ll ? IE: NaIE '`ycI"-/'`yoI"- 'laugh, play, be amused' > L iocus (gen. ioci) 'a
joke, jest' || Gk c)io, c)io 'game played with pebbles' || Lt |uoIas 'laughter, joking', Ltv |oIs 'jest, joke, fun' (unless
borrowed from L iocus, as supposed by WH, WP and P; but, acc. to Bu ga, this is an inherited L-grade of the IE stem), - Lt
|uIdyti, |uoIinti, |uIinti 'make laugh' Better (for semantic reasons) than the alt. hyp. (of WP): L iocus < NaIE 'ycI-
'speak' (< OHG |chan 'say, speak, MW icith, Br icz 'language', etc.) P 5O3, WH I 716-7 (both: L iocus < IE 'ycI-
'speak'), Frn. 197, Bg. SBE #88 (= Bg. RR I 446), Bg. PDK 432 ^ If IE '`ycI"- belongs here, the N et. has '-K-, otherwise
'-I- is more plausible. Os n- and IE 'y- point to a N 'n-, while D (and Hg?) suggest a N 'n- (depalatalization due to a still
unknown cause?) ^ Schrd. DU 95 [#45] (D, U), Blz. LB #97 (U, D).
1584. 'nuIE 'nuIV 'to shake, swing, tremble' > HS: WS 'nInI > Gz nInI v. 'shake, agitate', Ar nInI v.
'importune a debtor', nII (pf. naIIa) v. 'pester, annoy', ? Sq {L} ncgncg v. 'shake' L G 396-7 Eg N (XX) nvc ' to
tremble' EG II 225 ?? C: Ag 'ng"d v. 'tremble' > Bln {R} naguad- 'zittern, beben die Erde' ( Ag 'ng"d 'thunder' < C
{AD} 'nI"d id.) R WB 281-2, AD SF 176, 24O, L G 182 ll U: FU 'nu'IV v. 'tremble' > pObU 'noy-/nuy- > pVg
'nov-/'nuv- > v. 'tremble (beben)' > Vg: T novst-, MK novt-, P novot-, Ss novit- - nuvit- 'schaukeln'; pOs
'noya- ({Hl.} 'naya-) > Os: V/Vy/Ty noya-, Y nova-, Kz no_a- vi. 'move'; V/Vy noyal-, Ty noya-, Y nova-,
D/K no_atto-, Nz no_at-, Kz no_a-, O no_a'l- 'schaukeln' Ht. #443 ll D (in NED) 'nuII- v. 'shake' > Krx nuI-na
v. 'shake, cause to oscillate', Mlt nuIc v. 'shake' D #3696, Pf. 192 [#147] ^ IS II 91 ('nuIn 'rp) crn, rcpc6nr ' > U, D).
1585. 'noIjV,XV 'be in front, take the lead, precede, be first' > HS: S ''nuIjV,h- > BHb hk27n 'noIah n. cs. 'in front
of, facing' Hb h is regularly from 'h or '_ , but '-Ijvj_- is ruled out byone of the S incompatibility laws GB 5O5, KB 66O
(+ext. ) B 'nId > Ah onIod 'aller en avant' Fc. 1368 ll A: Tg 'nog- (- 'noI-?) 'taking the lead, precede, be first' > Sln
nogt 'first, former', Lm noy adj. 'front, first', Ewk noyi " novu id., no- v. 'precede', Neg noyu - novt 'first, taking
the lead, front', 'in front', Orc noIi adj. 'front, initial', Ud H/A nau__c - nou__c, Ud Sm no_o 'first, front', Ork novt 'first,
going in front of others (a reindeer in a team' STM I 641-2 ll Gil: Gil: A nui-, ES {Krn.} nuind adj. 'front', A nui adv. 'in
front' ST 213, Krn. N 479 ll D: GnD 'noI- 'be in front of others, precede' > Png noI- 'go first, precede', Kui noIa 'precede,
go ahead of', noIi 'ahead, in front of', Ku noI- 'precede'; ? Kn nol 'precede, take the head' D #3799 ^ The Tg vowel
length is compensatory ('-oIjV,X- > Tg -oI-).
1586. '`n'aKU 'soft parts of the animal's body (liver, marrow, suet)' > HS: S 'nIy/v > Ar niqy- 'marrow', naqv-
'bone of the arm, one full of marrow', nqv/y v. 'extract marow from a bone' Fr. IV 329-3O ll IE: NaIE '`ycI"-r(t-) / gen.
'`ycI"-'n-cs 'liver' > OI 'yaIrt (/ gen. yaI'nah), Av yaIaro

, NPrs rgaJi cgar, Oss igar, Ydg ycyon || Gk )to (gen.
)toto)) || L iccur (gen. iccoris - iccinor-is) || Blt 'ycIna > OLt |aInos, Lt (|)cInos, Ltv pl. aInas (- bf sg. aIna),
|cInos pl., Pru {En., Tp.} iagno (emendation of the ms. ce. Lagno) | ?? Sl '|iIno - '|iIra 'hard-roe': [1] '|iIno > LLs
|iIno id.; [2] '|iIra id. > ChS, OR ukpo iIra, Blg 'nipa, SCr i`Ira, Slv iIra, Cz |iIry pl., |iIra, Slk, P iIra, R n'ipa, Uk
'ipa P 5O4, EI 356 [',ycI"r(t)], M K III 1, M E II 391, Brtl. 1282, Horn 95, Vl. I 521, Ab. I 541-2, Bai. 1O8, F I 639, WH I
673, Frn.192-3, En. 183, Tp. P I-K 11-4, ESSJ VIII 216-2O, Glh. 275 ll U: FU 'noIvV(-zV) > ObU {Ht.} 'noyoz 'meat'
> pVg 'naol- > Vg: T navl, LK novl, nuvl, MK/P/NV/LL/UL novl, SV navl, Ss novl; pOs 'noyI ({Hl.}
'nayI) id. > Os: V/Vy noyI, Ty nay"I, Y navI, D/K no_o, Kz no_i, O no_a Ht. #445 ll A: NaT '|aIri 'suet,
fat (of an animal)' > OT |aqrI ({Cl.} yaqrI) 'fat, suet' (semantic infl. of T yay 'fat') Cl. 9O5, DTS 238, Rs. W 177 (|aqrI
within the entry of |ay 'fat'), ET J 59 (|aqrI |ay 'fat'?), AD NM 26 ('n'aKU > T 'yaIrI), Vv. AEN 18
(misunderstanding of my inconsistent notation: the entry quoted in NM was written long ago, when I used different phonetic
symbols; in fact T 'yaIrI = '|aIri; Vv. points to a morphological problem: the element '-ri is not a living sx. in OT, but it may
go back, just as extensions in IE, S, etc., to earlier structyures, inluding N derivation or composition of word groups, cf. IE
'ycI"-r- 'liver' - AD NMI 5).
1587. ?? 'nUKV (+ an addit. root\sx.) ' small fur-bearing animal' > U 'nuIV-sc (or 'nuIsc) 'marten, sable' > FU
{UEW} 'nuIVsc or 'nuIsc 'marten, sable' > F nois 'sable' in the n. l. Noisnicmi (= R Co6onnno R co6on 'sable'),
{Kll.} noIIo 'sable', Es nugis (gen. nugisc) pine marten, Mustela martes' | Prm 'ni 'sable' > Z Lu {UEW} niz, Yz niz, Vt
nnc: niz id., Yz va-ni 'otter' (lit. 'water-sable') || ObU {Ht.} 'noIos 'sable' > pVg 'noIos > Vg: T noIs, LK/MK/LL
noxs, UK/P/NV nox"s, SV nax"s, ML/UL/Ss noxos id.; pOs 'noyos ({Hl.} 'nayos) > V/Vy/Ty noyos, Y novos,
D/Nz?Kz/O no_os id. pY {IN} 'noqOo- 'sable' > Y {IN}: K noqso, T noqso, K {Jc.} noxsa, noxso id. Coll. 1O2-3,
UEW 326-7, SK 389, LG 19O, Lt. 18O, Ht. #449, MF 491-2, IN 237, Ang. 184, Rd. UJ 41 [#4O] (Y A U) ll A: pKo {S}
'noIori 'badger' > MKo noIori, NKo noguri S QK #773, Nam 1O3, MLC 329 ll ? HS: S 'nIO > Ar naqaOi 'hyena' BK
II 132O ^ This etymon may be genetically identical with (or derived from) N 'NUKV ' canine'.
1588. ? ''nuK'u 'to lie down, sink, low' > U 'niI'u- vi. 'bow, bend down' [ 'qa'?igu 'to bow, bend (down), hang
(by sth.), hang down'?] > FU: pLp 'nsIV- 'bend down' > Lp: N n|aIIa- / -g- 'bend down, stoop down' (of person), 'sink, settle,
get crooked' (of a house), L {LLO} n|aIcti- vi. 'bend, bow, writhe' (of a tree, person), Kld {SaR} nniiny v. 'bow, bend down';
pLp {Lr.} 'nsIc 'crooked, bent' > Lp: N n|aIIc, K {Gn.} nihI Sm: Sm {Hl. IS III} 'niIu - 'nIIu, {Jn.}
'nII+ - 'niI+- 'bend \ bow (the head), nod' > Ne T {Ter.} d nnxn-pa-c - nnxn-p[-c 'to turn back ones head ( 6ir c
orinnyron iononon)', Ne F {Lh.} nihuv-" nihu?- " nihiv-, Ne F P {Lh.} ni_I|-s 'bow, bow low (before so.)', En
{OSIPL} nIxu-s 'to pray', Ng {Cs.} nigutm v. 'beten, den Kopf biegen', Slq Tz {KKIH} nIIaltImI- v. 'nod' pY {IN}
'niy(i)- vi. 'bend' > Y K nigi-bu-y- id. Coll. CG 4O2, UEW 317-8, Lr. #752, Lgc. #438O, Hs. 1OOO, N III 46, Gn. 1O91, TI
3O1, Ps. B 284-5, Jn. 1O1, Ter. 316, Lh. 323, KKIH 138, SaR 211, IN 236-7 ll A: T '|uIun- 'bow, kneel' > OT |uIun- 'bow,
do obeisance to; worship', XwT XIV |uIun- v. 'bow, worship', MQp XIV |uIun- 'serve kneeling', MQp XIV [CC] |ugun-,
OOsm XIV-XVI |uIun- 'kneel', ET |uIun- v. 'bow, kneel', Qq zugin-, Qrg ugun- v. 'bow', Qzq i n- zugin- 'sit
cross-legged; worship, admire', Qmq |ugun-, VTt zigin-, Bsh |igin-, Uz |uIun-, Yk sugun-, suguy- 'kneel', Chv:
L aAiaAn- s+g_+n-, H s+g_+n- 'bow, drop curtseys' Cl. 913, ET J 264-5, Sht. 1O7, Jud. 972, Pek. 2379-81, Ash. XIII 8,
IS III 64-6, Rl. III 5O4 ll D (in NED) 'nuI- 'bow, droop' ( N 'n'ovHaKi 'to bend, be crooked') > Krx nux-, nuI"- 'bow
(the head), keep down (the eyes); silence, defeat, put down', Mlt nugc v. 'droop, walk\behave without energy' The length of 'u
results from D morphophonemic alternation (probably "the rule of Krishnamurti", Zv. 184) and/or from coalescence with N
'n'ovHaKi D #3723, Pf. 193 [#149] ll ? HS: WCh: Hs noIc 'draw back (as a tortoise drawing it head into its shell),
retire, withdraw' || AG: Mpn {Frz.} noI v. 'stop (doing sth.)', Su {J} noI 'stehenbleiben, bleiben, aufhren' (but Su noI
'ausruhen' is likely to be akin to Mpn no`I 'breathe') J S 77, Frz. DM 44-5, Ba. 822 ? S '-niI-, 'nyI 'copulate' [ N
'n'uIU (or 'n'uIjV?,U??) 'darkness, night', q.v. ffd.] ^ IS III 61-6 [T and D + unc. HS, K and IE reflexes of N
'nuq'U 'to bend, swing, sink' (q.v. ffd.); reconstructs N 'Nuq'u] ^ In daughter-lgs. (e. g., T) contamination with the reflexes
of N 'nuq'U ''?
1589. 'n'ovHaKi 'to bend, be crooked' > U: FP 'noIIc 'crooked, bent' > Mk noina 'noIla 'slope, declivity (as of a
road\way)', {LG} noIsl, noIsla, {Jh.} noIol, noIola 'sloping, inclined' | Prm: Z n iin nuIIl n. 'bend, curve (cin6, n:in6,
niin6, :ain6)', Z V nuIIl, Z Ud nuIil 'Biegung, Krmung, Haken; krumm, gebogen', Z Ud nuIIr-nuIIrsn 'writhen, huddled
up (from pain)' UEW 714, PI 181, LG 2OO ll A: M 'naIi-yi- > WrM naIi-, HlM naxnn-x v. 'bend; cave in, be shaky', Kl
naIi- vi. 'bend, bow, incline forward', {Rm.} naIi- 'sich ein wenig seiwrts biegen; schaukeln, schwanken', Brt naxi- vi. 'be bent,
bend down, cave in'; M 'naIi-gar > WrM naIigar, HlM naxniap adj. 'bent, bending, flexible', Kl {Rm.} naI
yar 'ein wenig
schief gebogen' MED 561, KRS 366, KW 27O, Chr. 324 ll D (in NED) 'nuIjI,- v. 'bow' ( N ''nuK'u 'to lie down,
sink, low', q.v. ffd.) ^ The length of the D vw. suggests the presence of an additional element ('v or lr.).
159O. 'nuKV (or 'nuIV?) 'tear, tear out' > HS: Eg BD nI 'tear out (the heart)' EG II 343 WS 'nI 'tear'
( 'split') > Ar nq v. G 'tear (a garment), slaughter (a camel for guests), kill', Gz nI v. G 'be split, have cracks, become
torn'; - WS ''naIja,- 'a crack, split' ( 'NuKV 'NuKE 'hole') > Gz naI id., Sr ncI'-a 'cave, hole', MHb oq2n#
'ncIa 'cleft, cavity, ravine' L G 399, KB 681, Js. 934, BK II 1329 ll U: FU 'nuIV v. 'tear, jerk' > F nyIi-, Vp nuIa-
id. || pObU: pVg 'nu'v- 'pluck (rupfen, zupfen)', {BV} v. 'nibble (grass)' > Vg: T nuv-, LK nav-, P nav-, Ss, MK
{BV} nav- id. | Hg nyu- " nyo- 'shred (flax), pluck (raufen), wear out (a garment)' Sm {Jn.} 'ncI- - 'nsI- 'pull out' >
Ne T nyxy- id., Ne F {Lh.} ns_I-, En X {Cs.} 1s aor. obcj. nc'hibo 'take', Ng {Mik.} naI- 'take, seize'; Slq Tz {KKIH}
naIa- 'pull ( r) nyr , (cpiar )'; Koyb {Sp.} nc6n ' nar) inna (I stretch)' UEW 318, Coll. 1O3, Sz. 152, SK 4O6, Kn. WV
2O1, Stn. WV 25, BV 68, Jn. 1OO, KKIH 136, Hl. M #338.
1591. i 'nalV 'tongue' > U: FU 'nalma id. > pLp {Lr.} 'nalmc 'mouth' > Lp: S {Hs.} n|aalmic, L {LLO}
n|al'mc, N {N} n|al'bmc / -lm-, Kld nalt m id. | Chr: P {Gn.} nolmo, H {Ep.} nicnxic yolmo, L ninxc y+lmc, Uf/B
y+lmc 'tongue, language' || ObU {Ht.} 'nilmV 'tongue' > pVg 'nilmV id. > OVg S: ChusO nclma, Kg ncnxa, SSs ncclmc, Tr
nnn xa, OVg E TM, OVg N SoG n|clm, Vg: T/P nilom, LK/MK/UK nilom, NV/SV/LL nillom, UL/Ss nclom; pOs {Hl.}
'nalom, {Ht.} 'nalom id. > Os: V/Vy nalom, Ty/Y na'om, D/K na'tom, Nz natom, Kz naom, O na'lom | Hg
nyclv id., 'language' Coll. 43, Db. OS xxx, UEW 313-4, It. #287, Sm. 546 (FU, Ugr 'nclma, FP 'nalma 'mouth'), Lr.
#763, Lgc. #4352, Ber. #24 (pChr 'yilmo, but 'y- is at variance with the ev. of Chr P nolmo), MRS 161-2, 166, Ep. 34, Ht.
#463, MF 48O-1 ll D 'nalV-(IV) 'tongue' > Kt nalg, Kn nalagc, naligc, Tu nalayi, nalayi, Tm, Ml naIIu, Tl naliIa,
naluIa, nalIa, Klm nalIa, Nkr nalIa, Knd naliIa id. D #3633, Zv. 128, 131 ll HS: WCh: Grn {Hrn., Sh.}
nala 'tongue', as well as possibly Wnd {Sh.} qgcs, {IL} qgcs and Dw {ChC} qgus id. (unless going back to 'qV-lVs
'lVs 'tongue', cp. Bg {J} qslss 'tongue') JI II 328, ChC, Hrn. EG s.v. 'tongue' ll ? IE: i Ht lala- 'tongue', Lw {Lar.} lali-
'tongue (?)', {Mlc.} lala/i- 'tongue, gossip'; but Ht lala- 'harmful speech, slander', lala- v. of speech, HrLw lali- 'word, speech'
and Ld {Gsm.} lac- '(aus)sprechen' do not necessarily belong here, but may be independent onomatopic stems l- for the
expected 'y- is due to the ideophonic factor Ts. E II 2O-1, CHD L-N 21-6, Mer. HHG 78, Lar. 62, Mlc. CL 122.
1592. 'nolE (or 'nalE) 'sinew' ( 'bow' 'arrow'), 'to tie together' ( 'to put on shoes', ? 'to clothe') > HS: S: [1]
''najV,l- 'sinew', 'tie' (noun) > Ar nal- 'nerf, boyau, morceau de cuir avec lequel on entoure larc au haut de la cambrure ou
sur les cts; chaussure, soulier, sabot', BHb lo2n2 'naal 'a sandal', Ug {A} nl 'sandal' (but OLS 313-4 and Mrgl. BM 18f.
interpret Ug nl otherwise), Sr na'l-a 'horse-shoe', Md nala 'shoes, sandals', Mh {Jo.} nsal, Jb E nal 'sandals', Sq {Jo.}
'naal, {L} naal 'chaussure'; [2] 'nl v. G 'tie' > BHb nl v. 'secure (a door by straps), fasten sandals on ones foot', Ug nl
'binden, schlieen', JA [Trg.] nl v. 'tie a shoe', Md n?l v. 'shoe a horse, bind up, tie', Ar nl v. 'give shoes to so.', Gz d
noult 'widow whom the late husbands brother marries by levirate' (lit. 'a tied one [f.]') BK II 1296, KB 666, KBR 7O5, A
#18O5, Lv. T II 118, DM 283, L G 382, L LS 629 ll U 'nolc 'arrow' ( **'bow' **'bow-string' **'sinew') > F nuoli
'arrow', Es nool 'arrow. bow' | pLp {Lr.} 'nols 'arrow' > Lp: S {Hs.} n|uolc, L {LLO} n|uolla, N {N} n|uolla, Kld null |
Er/Mk nan nal id. | Chr L nocnoc nolo 'arrowhead made of bone' | Prm 'no'l / 'no'ly- 'arrow' > Z nsv / nsvy-, Yz 'nu'l,
Vt nsl, Vt B ncl, Vt SW nol || pObU 'nIlV 'arrow' > pVg 'nIlV > OVg: S ChusO niola, S VT ncna, S SSs n|cla, E TM
n|cl, OVg N SoG n|al, N SoO n n, Vg: T/P/NV/SV/LL/ML ncl, LK/UL/Ss nal, MK/UK nsl; pOs 'nal > Os: V/Vy/O
nal, Ty/Y na, D/K not, Kz no | Hg nyil (acc. nyilat) Sm 'ns+_y ({Jn.} 'ncsy-) 'arrow' > Ne T -nn ({Lh.} -'ni) in
rynn tun'ni 'gun' (lit. 'fire arrow'), Ne F {Lh.} -ni in qIni 'Stellbogen' (qIn- 'bow'), En {Mik.} -niy in tuniy 'gun', Slq
Ch {KD} -ni in q`vsoni 'arrow for shooting at birds', Kms {Cs.} nca, n|a 'arrow', {KD} 'na' 'bull', Koyb {Sp.} nc 'arrow;
ioncnno y crpcni; bull', Mt {Hl.} 'ncy or 'ncy 'arrow' (Mt: K {Mll.} nci, M {Mll.} nc`i id.) UEW 317, Sm. 539 (U 'nIxlI,
FU 'nIIli, FP nooli, Ugr 'nIli, Sm 'nco|), Lr. #789, Lgc. #4462, Hs. 1OO9, LG 197, Ht. #459, Jn. 1O8-9, Hl. M ##729,
746 Another line of semantic changement: FU 'nolV (or 'nalV) v. 'tie together' > Hg nyalab 'Bndel, Bund' | pOs 'nula
'together' > Os: V/Vy nula, Ty nua, D nuta, Nz nuta', Kz nua MF 476, 488 ll ? A: Tg 'nuj:,lgc (or 'yuj:,lgc) > Ewk
Tmt nulga - |ulga - yulga, Ewk Z/Tng/Urm/Ucr yulgs 'arrow, iron arrowhead' STM I 35O.
1593. ?? 'nulV 'pluck, pull out, tear out (hair, branches), pinch' > HS: S 'nl > Ar manal- 'arrach de son tronc avec
enlvement de sa base (rameau, branche)' BK II 1296 ll A {SDM97} 'nuli 'to shave, pluck' > NaT '|ul(i)- > OT |uli-
'shave', MQp XIII [LM] {Hou.} |uli-, XwT XIV, MQp XIV [CC] |ulu-, OOsm |ulu--|uli-, Tk yulu-, Qmq n -
|ulu-, Tv un- culu- Rs. W 11, Cl. 919, KumRS 383, TvR 551 ? M ':ulmu- 'pluck (a bird); shed
skin\hair\feathers' > WrM ulmu-, HlM :ynxa- id., Brt :ynxa- 'shed hair' (of wool), 'shed skin' (of snakes), 'scale off' (of skin)
MED 1O79, Chr. 262 Valid if M ':- regularly represents A 'n-. Otherwise it may be a loan from a T d of '|ul(i)- Tg
'nuli- v. 'scrape (hide)' > Ewk, Lm nul- 'scrape (the inner side of hide)', Neg nul- vi. 'soften (the hide by scraping it)', Ork
nulu- 'scrape off hair from the hide' STM I 645 ? pKo {S} 'jn,ir- 'clear out, rinse' > MKo ir-, NKo il-, nil- S QK #1453,
Nam 4O5, MLC 1351 T '|alaq 'naked' (> OT |alaq, |aliq) that is equated in SDM97 with M ':ul(m)- 'exuviate, fade', Tg
'nivl- id. , pJ 'ni_ar 'to tan' (> J ncru) and Ko 'nir- (= the abovementioned Ko 'jn,ir); in fact T '|alaq (and Tg 'nivl-?) may
be equated with N 'naglV or 'naglV 'to fade, be worn out, be spoilt' 'to fade, be worn out, be spoiled' [q.v.] DQA #15O7
[Tg < A nolo -u- 'to pluck, pick out ( cpinar , ni(cpinnar )'] ll ? U 'n'iulV- 'get loose (bark, skin), peel off, bark'
> F {SK} niloa, nilota 'get loose (bark, skin)' | pLp {Lr.} 'nsls v. 'bark a tree' > Lp: S {Hs.} n|allcdh 'separate, loosen', L
{LLO} n|alla- '(leicht) losgehen, sich (leicht) lockern, lsen (Rinde in der Saftzeit)', N {N} n|alla- 'flake off, get loose and peel
off' (of skin, part of body), 'peel' | Prm (?) 'nu'l- > Z P nildInI, Z Ud nivdInI 'to skin (an animal), Z LV nivmInI 'be barked',
Vt Sr nIlal-, Vt Kz nslal- v. 'bark a tree', Vt n in(- nIld- 'to scrape off, bark, skin', Vt Kz nsl 'bark of a tree' || pOs {Ht.}
'nal-, {Hl.} 'nIl- > Os {Stn.}: VK nal-, Vrt na-, Nz not-, Kz no- 'lose Birkenrinde'; pOs {Ht.} 'nal-, {Hl.}
'nIl- v. 'bark' > Os: VT/Vy nal- id., Os ps.: Lk naOom-, Nz notom-, Kz noom- 'vi. 'peel off (birch bark)'; Vg: T nal-,
LK/SS nil-, P nil, nil- 'schlen, ausnehmen (Fische)', N noli- 'sich abtrennen (z. B. Baumrinde)' Sm: Nn T O {Lh.}
nalc- 'lose\shed hair' (of reindeer, dog, fur) UEW 29, SK 38O-1, Lr. #754, Lgc. #4314, Stn. D 1O41-2, LG 191, U3S 3O9,
KKIH 139 ll D 'null- v. 'pinch, pluck' [ N 'nogulV (or 'nogUllV?) 'tear out\asunder, pinch, tatter', q.v. ffd.] ^ IS II 91-
2 ['nuln > D, A + U 'nulIc (cf. N 'nogulV (or 'nogUllV ''].
1594. 'naglV (or 'naglV?) 'to fade, be worn out, be spoilt' > HS: S 'nyl > Ar nyl G (pf. nayila, ip. -nyalu) 'be
spoilt in tanning' (hide), 'be ulcered' (wound) Fr. IV 3O8, Hv. 784-5 ll U: FU 'nalV- 'get spoiled' (skin) > Prm {LG} 'nol-
> Z n[n : i- nolzI-, Z HS nolzI- vi. 'become flushed because of sweat\damp' (of skin, particularly of a baby), 'spoil
because of sweat\dampness' (skin), 'rub off' (skin) || ObU {Ht.} 'nal-, {Hl.} 'nIl- > Vg K {Szil.} naltt- 'become
leprous', Vg {Coll. ?} nult 'leprosy, scab, totter'; pOs 'nalo- ({Hl.} 'nIlo-) > Os: VT nalo- 'come out, fall out' (hair),
naloy- vi. 'scale, peel off', O nalom 'sich lsen (Schleimhaut im Mund), ausgehen (Haare)', Kz nolmo- 'fall ill with
scrofulosis', Ty nalomto-, Nz nolomt-, Kz nolomt- 'fall out' (hair from a poorly dried hide), 'have a disease in which the skin
(esp. that of the head, behind the the ears and on the temples) scales off, bleeds and festers'; Coll. 41 (?) quotes Os Sr naOom-
and Os S notom- id., which (if not mistakenly recorded) points to a pOs (and hence pFU and pN) '-l- rather than -l-, evidenced
by more reliable data of Stn. D Coll. 41, LG 189, Stn. D 1O51-2 ll D 'nal- > Tu nalagu- 'fade, wither, be reduced by sickness',
Tm nali v. 'waste, pine away, suffer, fail', nalaqIu 'grow faint, wilt, lose stiffness', Kn nalagu, nalugu 'become tumpled \ ruffled
(as cloth)', nalavy, naluvu 'weakness', Tl nalagu, nalugu, naliyu 'be crumpled \ rumpled', {Km.} 'fade, wither' D #3611 ^
There is conflicting ev. about the quality of the lateral cns.: D and Coll.s data on Os point to a plain '-l-, while Stn.s Os data
provide ev. of a postalveolar '-l-. Is the solution connected with the infl. of the adjacent 'g or of a final 'i (suggested by the Prm
palatal 'l) or with contamination of two roots in D (e.g. ''nal- 'fade, wither' D 'nal- 'crush, squeeze' [> Knd nal- id., etc.],
which may go back to N 'naPlV > Jb nfl v. 'break off a chip, splinter of stone, cut a sliver [of wood])?
1595. 'nogaljy,V 'slime, tears, moisture, fluid; raw' > HS: SES 'nyl > Mh nsyslit (pl. nsyal), Hrs snyal, Jb C naylt,
Jb E sn'ylst 'sweat' Jo. M 288 ? ECh: Smr {J} nul, Nd D {J} nuln 'weep' (if *'shed tears' a word for 'tears') ll IE
'yculo-/'yulo- > NaIE 'yclo-/'yolo- 'unripe, raw' > Ltv |cls 'raw; undercooked; sore', |clsa victa 'sore\raw place' | ??
Sl '|alov+ 'unfruitful' (soil), 'barren' ( 'alov+ id.) > ChS maea+ |alov+ 'sterilis', OR maea+ |alov+, R ' nonin, Uk
' nonnn, Blg ' non, ' nn, SCr |a`lov, Slv |alov, Cz, Slk |alovy, P |alovy 'unfruitful' || Clt: W {P} ial 'clearing, glade'
( *'waste plot'), Gl ialo- *'clairire' in n. l., e.g. Nanto-ialo- 'valley-glade' > Fr Nantcuil P 5O4-5, Kar. I 355, Vs. IV 554-5,
Glh. 286-7 & ESSJ I 66-7O (Sl 'alov+|i), Mikl. E 99 ('|al-), Mikl. L 4, Billy 88, Dtn. 262 ll U: FU 'noj:,lV 'moisture, slime,
fluid' > Er XVIII {Dms.}, Er nola 'sap' | Chr: L nono nolo 'moisture, moist, sap', nol+I 'season of sap flowing (when the bark is
separated from the tree)', H {It.} nal+, Uf/B nol+ 'sap' ('juice'?) | Lp I n|alc 'sap, birch sap' || Os: V nalI, D nato 'rust', K
nato 'slime', Kz nolI 'rust, slime' UEW 318-9, Ps. B 92, ERV 415 ll A 'nalV > T '|al 'fresh, moist; moisture' > [1]
'|aj:,l > NaT '|aj:,s 'fresh. moist' > OT |as id. (|as tanani 'fresh sesame seed', |as ot 'fresj forage'), |as suquIlari
'moist bones', |as 'green vegetables', XwT XIV |as 'young, fresh, MQp XIII |as 'green', Osm {Rh.} 'Ya |as 'wet; moisture', Alt
as 'fresh, green', Bsh |as 'fresh', Ggz |as, Qzl {Jk.} sas 'fresh, moist', Xk cas 'fresh, young', Tk yas, Az |as 'moist', CrTt,
ET |as, Uz |os. VTt |as, Nog |as, Qzq, Qq zas, Qrg as, Tv cas 'young', Kr T/G |as id., 'moist, juicy'; [2] T '|al >
NaT '|as 'tears' ( N '`alXV or '3alHV 'dripping fluid' [q.v. ffd.]) > OT {Cl.} |as, XwT XIV |as 'tears', Tkm, Uz , Xlj
|as, Tk yas, Ggz, Az,Qmq, ET |as, Uz ccm|os, Kr |as - |as, Qzq, Qq zas, Xk cas, Tv cas, Tf cas 'tear(s) || Chv L
iyyn Ius-sul id. (cmpd.: Ius 'eye' + sul) Cl. 975-6, Rs. W 192, ET J 161-4, Rh. 2186, BRS 243, BT 5O, BIG 312 Tg
'nal- 'moist' > Ewk naliIin 'moist' (wood), 'not dry' (undressed hides, raw leather), Neg naltxtn 'raw, not cooked\baked
sufficiently' (food, bread), 'unripe', Nn Nh nalo - nalt - ni_alo - ni_alt 'fresh, raw, uncooked' (meat, fish), 'moist'
(wood), Ud {Krm.} naligi, {STM} naligi, Ul nalt(n-) - nclt(n-) 'moist, raw' (meat, fish, wood), Lm nal+qa, nal+q id.,
'undressed' (hide), Ork nalt - nalt - naltv id., 'uncooked' (food), 'unripe' (fruit, vegetables) STM I 63O, Krm. 268 pKo
{S} 'nnr 'sth. raw, moist' > MKo nnr, NKo nal S QK #14O, Nam 96, MLC 3O2 S AJ 256 [#14O] S AJ 76, 28O-1 [#145]
ll D 'nola 'saliva, sticky liquid' > Tm nola 'saliva', nola 'slaver; glutinous fluid in fish\fruit\snails', Kn lola, loli, lolu,
lolc 'saliva, slaver, tenacious mucus, phlegm', noli 'sticky (juice)', Tu nonc 'saliva, spittle', noli 'anything sticky, gummy,
viscous; saliva'; D 1 OI lala- 'saliva, spittle, slobber' D #2937, Tu. #11O27 The cns. l- in words for 'saliva' may be due to
the ideophonic factor [Ll ] ^ IE 'u points to a following front vw., while T 'a may go back to '-oHa- < N '-oga- rather than
to '-oHc-; hence the tentative rec. of 'a in the N etymon ('nogaljy,V). T '-l and D '-l- point to a N palatalized 'l, while U
'-l- may go back only to the plain N 'l; the discrepancy may be solved by postulating a N cluster '-ly- ^ IS MS 365 s.v.
'nojH,ln ' cnn: ' (IE, A, D + unc. U 'nolIc 'slime, saliva, mucus and ? U 'nolc- 'to lick').
1596. 'nihla 'moist, slippy' ('the moist internal layer of bark/hide') > HS: S 'nhl 'give water, make wet, give to drink'
> Ak LtB n?l (inf. na?alu) v. 'water, make wet', BHb d Mil5le9n@ nah"lo'l-im pl. 'watering-places', Ar nhl G (pf. nahila,
ip. -nhalu) 'drink a first draught; quench (thirst)', {BK} 'goter un peu dun breuvage; tancher la soif, avoir bu sa soif' CAD
XI/1 6, Sd. 694, KB 638, BK II 1358, Hv. 8O4 Ch: CCh: Ms {OS ?} qul 'moisten', {ChC} qulumo 'moist' (OS: Ms q <
'n?), Azm {Pc.} quloba 'damp' || ECh: Mgm {JA} nalo 'couler (la pluie travers le toit', Smr ("Sibine") {OS ?}
qvsls 'rain' JA LM 112, ChC, Pc. 322 OS #4OO ll U: FU 'nila 'slime, mucus' > F nila 'bast, bass', 'slime, mucus',
Ioivun nila 'birch-tree sap', nil|a 'slime, mucus', Krl nila 'sap', ? Es nilanc (gen. nilatsc) in nilanc lats 'helpless baby' (if
'snivelling child') |
Lp: L {LLO} n|allc 'etwas Glattes oder Schlpfriges; der Baumsaft, wenn er sich zwischen Stamm und
Rinde gesammelt hat, so da es rinnt', Nt {TI} na'lo / -l- 'slippy\smooth place' | ? Er {Rv.} nolaza 'smooth' (soil, ice, etc.)
|| ObU 'n'il / 'n'il > Vg N {Mu.} nal 'slime of a tree', Os: O ncl 'sap-wood (Splint), sap (of willow, birch-tree)' Sm: Ne
T {Cs.} nylu 'juice', ho-nylu 'sap of a tree' (y = [I]?), Ne F L {Lh.} nil:i id.; ? Nn T O nalu 'white, soft and moist layer
under the bark of a tree' IS II and the editors of IS II adduce here FU words for 'slime, moisture, sap' with back vowels in the
first syll. (Er {Dms.}, Er nola, Chr nolo " nal+, etc.), explaining their back vowels by the infl. of the stem-final '-a (while Rd.
in UEW explains it by onomatopia), but external comparative ev. suggests the presence of a different N etymon, reconstructible
as 'nogaljy,V 'slime, tears, moisture, fluid; raw' [q.v.]; contamination with the latter may account for o in Er nolaza and a in
Nn nalu Coll. 1O2, UEW 318-9, 329, Sm. 546 (FU 'nila, FP 'nila, Uhr 'nila 'sap-wood'), SK 38O-1, TI 294, LG 198-
2OO, Ht. ##789, 79O, Cs. 18, 27, Lh. 295 ll A: M 'nil(a)- > MM [MA] {Pp.} nila- v. 'plaster (walls with alabaster)', nilaqu
'plasterers trowel', Kl {Rm.} nila- (< ''nila-yi-) 'be sticky, slimy, watery (klebrig \ schleimig \ wsserig sein)', Dg {Mr.}
niolon 'smooth' (Mr.: 'mucus-like, tery, spitty; snotty)', WrM {Kow.} nilcuim 'glutineux, visqueux (comme les phlegmes, la
colle, la bile, etc.)', 'incni n, inccnarin, nnni n, cnn:ncrin', {MED} nilcuim-a 'sticky, adhesive', HlM n nnanxid., WrM
{MED} nilcai-, nilcui-, HlM n nnan- 'become sticky, clammy', {Luv.} n nnan- 'be sticky, slimy'; M 'nilbu - 'nilmu > MM
[IM] nilbu 'a spit', Dg {Mr.} niolcmc - niolomc 'spit, spittle, saliva', M 'nilbu-sun - 'nilmu-sun 'saliva, spittle, mucus, tears' >
[HI] nilbusun 'saliva, tears', [S] {H} nilbusu(n) 'tears', [LM] 0vsbul0Na nalbusun (fallacious vocalization for 0vsbul0Ni
nilbusun?), [MA] nilbusun 'spittle', WrM {Kow.} nilbusu(n) 'larme; salive, bave', {MED} nilbusun, nilmusun, HlM
nynxac id., 'mucus', {Luv.} nynnxc( an) , Kl {Rm.} nul
msn 'tears', Brt n[n6olon 'tears', MMgl [Z] nilbusut pl. 'tears', Mgl
{Rm.} nilbusun, Mnr H {T} nilbusc, Mnr Nr {SM} num`u_s, Ba ncmsoq 'tears', Dg {Mr.} niolcmosc, {Pp.} nombosu,
{T} nom(b)os; (bf ?) 'nilbu- - 'nilmu- v. 'spit' > MM [LM, MA] -vblyN nilbu-, [S] nilbu-, WrM nilbu- - nilmu-, HlM
nynxa-, {Luv.} nynnxa- Pp. L III 72-4, Pp. MA 253, 442, Ms. H 79, H 117, KW 276, Rm. M 34, Kow. 663, MED 583, Gl. II
38, Luv. 276, 269, Iw. 119, SM 29O, T 351, T BJ 144, T DgJ 158, Mr. D 199-2OO, Klz. D II 125 Tg: Ewk nilli " nili " nildi
'slime (on fish)' STM 593 ^ IS II 88-9 ('niln > U, A), Rs. UAW 49-5O (U, A).
1597. ??? 'n'cqja,lV 'bed of a torrent, valley' > HS: S ''na_al- 'wadi, gorge, ravine' > Ak na_allu, na_lu id., BHb
lh2n@ 'nahal 'torrent, torrent-valley, dry bed of a torrent', Ug n_l {A} 'torrent, wadi', {OLS} 'torrent', [AkSc] {Hnr.} na_aljl,u
'wadi, ravine (?)', JA [Trg.] lh2n^ no'hal / al1h9n@ nah"'l-a id., 'valley', JEA {Sl.} al1h6n@ nah'la 'wadi, stream', Sr Lxe
no'hcl / \oxa nah'l-a 'id., 'gorge'; Cn 1 Eg [EgSSc] {Hlk.} na-_a-l 'stream, brook' KB 648-9, BDB 636, A #1773, OLS
323, Hnr. 152, Js. 894, Sl. 741, Br. 423, CAD IX/1 124-5, Hlk. #143, SivCR 82 ll D 'nal-, {GS} 'ncl- 'field, flat land' > Gnd
ncli " ncl " lcli 'field', ncl 'ground, earth, flat land', Tm, Ml nalam, tl ncla 'earth, land', Klm cl, Nkr cl 'earth', Knd
nclc id., 'ground', Png ncla 'ground, Png, Mnd ncl 'hill-field', Kui ncla 'plot of high ground for cultivation', Ku nc?la {Fzg.}
'field (for cultivation)', {Isr.} 'dry field', Krx nal 'fields, terraced fields'; D 1 OI nala- 'field under cultivation' D #2913, GS
143 [#364] ll ? K: G (A Zan?) nol-i 'fruchtbare Anschwemmungsland an einem Flu; mit jungem Gras bewachsenes Wiesland'
Chx. 964 The vw. o (< K 'a) suggests the Zan origin of the word, but the loss of the expected _ (< K 'q) is puzzling.
1598. Regional ''nalyV 'four' > U: FU 'nclya id. > F ncl|a, Es ncli (gen. ncl|a) | pLp {Lr.} 'nclyc (or
'nclyc?) > Lp: S {Hs.} nicl|i|c, U {Schl.} nc`l'|a, L {LLO} nicl'|c, {UEW} nicl'ya, N {N} n|l'l|c, I {It.} ncl|i, Klt {Lr.}
ncll|, Kld nicllt | Er nilc, Mk nilo | Chr L nin n+l, H nicn nol | Prm {LG} 'nol ({LG} 'nol) > Z nccn nol, Z
US nol, Yz 'nul, Vt n in nIl, Vt Shm/Kz/B nu'l, Vt: Sr nil, Y nil, Kz nul || ObU {Ht.} 'nilV > pVg
'nilV / 'nal(V)-: 'nilV > Vg: T nili, LK/MK/UK nilo, P nila, NV/SV/LL/UL/Ss nila 'four'; 'nal(V)- is represented
in the word for 'forty': Vg T nclov, LK/MK/UK/Nv/SV/LL nalmon, P nalmon, UL/Ss naliman; pOs 'ncla ({Hl.}
'nila) 'four' > Os: V/Vy nclo, Ty/Y nco, D/K ncto, Nz nito, Kz na, O nil | Hg ncgy Coll. 1O2, It. #322, UEW
315-6, Db. OS xxxi, Sm. 546 (FU, FP 'ncl|a, Ugr 'nil|i), Ker. II 96, Ht. #46O, Lr. #72O, Lgc. #4372, Hs. 978, Schl. 99-1OO,
Ep. 78 ll D 'nal- 'four' > Tm/Ml/Kn nal, nalu, Kdg nalI, Tu nal+, Tl nalugu, naluvu, Gnd naluq, Kui nalgi, nal 'four',
Klm naliq 'four things', nal udul 'four days', Nkr naliq 'four things', Nk nali, Knd nalgi 'four' (non-masc.), Prj ncl 'four',
nalu(I) 'four things', Gdb nalug " nalig 'four' (neut.), Krx nax '4 things', naib 'four' (of animals and things) D #3655, Zv.
1599. 'nulju,qjK,V (= 'nulju,qjK,V?) or 'nu'luqKV 'marrow, brain' > HS: S: Gz nala, Tgr, Tgy, Amh
nala 'brain, skull ? Ch: WCh: Krkr ndulaIa, Ngm ndalaIu 'brain' | Wrj {Sk.} nds`lina`, Kry nds`lay, My nds`li`, Sir
{Sk.} nds`lim | Zar zoqga id. | Ngz {Sch.} zanaI (pl. zanani`n), Bd azansn id. ChC, ChL ll A {ADb.} 'nulqi >
NaT: [1] '|ulun - '|ulun (< pre-T ''|ulun?) 'spinal marrow' > OT |ulun {MKD, Cl} 'spinal cord', {DTS} 'spinal marrow',
ET {Jarr., Mng., Rl.} |ulun, Uz |ulun " |uluq, Nog |ulin, Qzq nnin zulin, Qq zulin, Qrg ulun, Alt
ulun, Tf {Cs.} cilcq, Yk sulun 'spinal marrow', Tv cun id., 'nerve', Bsh |+l+n id., |ilin 'spinal cord', Shor {Rl.}
ciliq '(spinal\bone) marrow', Xk ctltq, QK {B} |ulun 'marrow' [2] '|uliI or '|iliI 'marrow of bones)' > OT, MU, MQp
[incl. CC], XwT |iliI, Chg (|)iliI, Tk iliI, Uz |uliI " |uluI " |iliI, Tkm |uluI - |iliI, VTt iliI - |iliI, Az, Kr, Uz
iliI, QrB iliI, Alt iliI - |uluq, Tv cilig_, Yk silaI - sali - sili id., Qmq |iliI, Qrg iliI 'hollow bone', ET |iliI - ziliI
'marrow, hollow bone', Nog |iliI, Qq ziliI 'shin-bone' Though MhK translated the word as ''xaNu = spinal cord', the ev. of
many other T lgs. suggest that the original meaning was 'spinal marrow' Cl. 927-8, 93O, MKD 233, ET J 265-6, TL 263-4, ADb.
SR 314, DTS 278, Rs. W 245, Jr. 16O, Mng. G 739, Rl. III 556, 2O86 & IV 17O, Jud. 274 Tg 'nuqi (< ''nulqi) > Ewk
PT nuqi, Ewk Tk nuqi 'marrow' STM I 646 M 'iluya ({ADb.} 'iluga) 'brain' (or 'brain, marrow') > MM [IM] ola id.,
Brt onoo 'babys fontanel' Pp. MA 439, Chr. 232, ADb. SR 314 ADb. SR-D 448 [#35], 453, ADb. SR 47, 314 ll ? D
'nuLVgV - 'mulVgV 'marrow, brain' > Prj nulli, nulgum, nulgut, Kt mil, Tl mulaga, Klm mull, Gnd
mur`c " mur`gon:i, Knd mur`va, Krx murma 'marrow', Tm mulai_, Ml mula id., 'brain', Brh mili id., 'kernel of nut', Tu
mulc, Mnd mur`a 'brain', Kui mula id., ? nili 'bone marrow' D #5O51 D 'm- (side by side with the expected 'n-) may
result from the infl. of D 'mulV 'bone' (D #5O5O) ^ If D 'mulVgV belongs here, the N rec. is with '-l- ('nuljU,nV),
otherwise it has an unspecified '-l- ^ ADb. SR 314 (A, D).
16OO. ?? 'nVllV ' insect' > A: AmTg 'ncilc- 'nit, small louse' > Ul nils-Its 'nit', Ork nslis, Ud nsigs 'small
louse', Nn nilsIs id., 'nit' STM I 616, Krm. 271 Tg 'n- for the expected 'q- may be due to the infl. of N 'nayu(-qV)
'larvas, worms, nit(s)' ll D 'nul- 'stinging insect' > Tm nullal, nollal 'gnat, eye-fly, mosquito', Kn nola, nolavu 'a fly', Krg
nurqgi, Prj nur`ni " ur`ni, Gnd DM nulc, Gnd HMSr nulc 'mosquito', Gnd B {Tr.} nullc 'a flea (esp. one which damages
kodon & kutki flowers)', Gnd M nullc 'gnat, Klm nullc 'a fly' D #3715 ll HS: B: Ah a-nollug 'ant', ETwl a-nollug 'small ant'
Fc. 1387, GhA 147.
16O1. ?? 'niqulV 'scrape, scrape off, polish' > HS: S 'n_l > Ar ni_liy- 'morceaux de chair qui sont rests sur la peau
dun animal corch et quon enlve en prparant le cuir', ? n_l G 'trier\sparer les parties viles et enlever les meilleures' BK II
1223 ll A 'nivlX 'scrape, polish' > T '|il- 'rub' ( N 'ziLa 'to shove, stir up'??) > NaT '|is-, '|isi- v. 'rub': '|is- > SbTt
{Tm.} |is- v. 'wipe, smear, rub, plane (wood)', SbTt Tb/Tr {Rl.} |is- 'glatt machen, polieren, hobeln', StOir ( im- is-, Xk
cis-, Qb {Rl.} |is- v. 'rub, rub on', Qrg imi- isi- id., 'rub off', QrB, Qmq isi-, Qzq, Qq is-, Alt is-, QK {Rl.} |is-, Qb
{Rl.} |is-, Xk cis- 'rub (on sth. with)' (' narcpcr '); NaT '|isi- > Qrg isi-, QbB isi-, Qmq isi- id. eT '|iljg,- 1 M
':ilgu- v. 'wipe, polish, dust; rub\brush against' > WrM ulgu- - ilgu-, HlM, Brt :niy-, Kl :ni- id. Rs. W 2O2, ET
Gl 667-8, BT 62, Rl. III 496, 498, Tm. 92, BIG 327, Jud. 285. MED 1O85, KRS 259, Chr. 268 Tg 'niu_l'a- 'rub, polish,
smear, dye' > WrMc nila-, nilc- 'rub, polish', Neg ntylt- - ntlt- 'smear, rub', Ul nili- v. 'smear, dye', Nn Nh niuls- - nuls- v.
'dye', Ork nilitci- - nilicci-, Ud X {STM} ysuls- v. 'dye' Z 232, STM I 638.
16O2. 'nam'U 'to squeeze, seize' > IE: NaIE 'ycm-/'ym- 'hold, hold fast, grasp' > OI yam- (aor. 'yamati, 'yamat, prs.
'yacchati [< IE 'ym-sIc-], pp. ya'ta- [< IE 'ym-to-]) 'hold, lead, controle', Av yam- (ayamaltc 'mag sich zuziehen'), Av,
OPrs yasa- (Av yasois 'du sollst zulassen', OPrs ayasata 'nahm an sich'), Av, OPrs pp. yata- || pTc 'yam- > Tc A yom-, B
yam- 'achieve, obtain; reach' || ??? Gk co), Gk D oco) 'tame, tamed' ( *'held') || Sl '|im-o / inf. '|c-ti 'take' ( N
'?acmV 'to seize, hold', q.v. ffd.) P 5O5, EI 27O-1 ('ycm-), Mn. I 443, M K III 2-3, M E II 399-4OO, F I 235-6, Wn. 27, 5O3-
4, Ad. 497-8, Ad. H 22, JGH 61-2, 3O3, IS I 133, ESSJ VI 71 ll U {IS} ''namo > 'noma- - 'namV- 'squeeze, hold fast' > Lp
L {LLO} n|ammo- 'umschlingen, umfassen, mit den Hnden um etw. greifen' | Chr {Szil.} numorgcm 'zusammengepret
werden', {} numurgcm ' cnxa c ' ('I am pressed together' or 'I am squeezed')', {LG Trc.} numcrgcm 'I squeeze ( cnxa )'
| Prm: Z n xpanni namrav-nI, mom. n xiprninamIrt-nI 'to squeeze', Prmk namlav-nI 'to knead (dough, clay)' || OHg XIV
nyom- 'pressen, (zusammen)drcken', Hg nyom- v. 'press' Sm: Nn T O {Lh.} nama- grasp ('fassen, ergreifen, packen)', En
{Cs.} no?a- v. 'catch' pY {IN} nom- 'squeeze, press' > Y K num-usoy- - mum-usoy- id. (-uscy- is a sx.) Coll. 4O,
1O3, UEW 322 (U 'noma- 'fangen, ergreifen' > Lp, Sm), 33O (FU 'nXmV 'zusammendrcken' > Chr, Prm, Hg), 876 (Hg
nyom- < Ugr 'nolV 'drcken'), Sm. 546 (FU 'noma-, FP 'noma-, Ugr 'nama- 'seize, grasp'), 135, LG 2O2, TmK 479-
8O, EWU 1O45, MF 488-9, Lh. 296, Cs. 86, IN 24O ll D 'nam- 'squeeze, press' ( N 'j`,lamjX,V v. 'be weak, soft; make
soft, knead'?) > Ml namuntuIa 'squeeze, knead', Tm ncmir / -- / -tt- 'press with the hands, ncmir / -v- / -nt- 'be crushed \
compressed', ncmi vi. 'break, give way as under a weight' ( *'be crushed'), ncmitu vt. 'crush, press out with the hands', Kdg
navn`d- ({IS} < 'namn`d-) 'squeeze', Tu nauntu 'squeezing, pinching', , nauntuni 'to pinch', Ku nabgali ({IS} <
'namuI-) 'press down' D #2926, Km. 187 ^ IS II 85 ('namn; IE, U, D), IE MS 339 ('nomn 'to hold': IE, ?A [M ', T], U, D
+ unc. ?A [M 'nomu-qan 'peaceful, calm', T '|um- 'press']).
16O3. i 'nam'o 'soft' > HS: S 'nm 'be soft \ smooth' > Mh {Jo.} ns'?aym, ns'aymst 'soft, smooth', Jb E 'nim,
Jb C nc'im id., Hrs ns'nm id., ncam v. 'soften', Ar nm (pf. nauma, ip. -namu) 'be soft \ mellowy', {BK} naim-
'doux, souple, moelleux (vtement, etc.), doux au toucher, tendre' Jo. M 278, Ho. HL 92, BK II 1298 ll U {UEW}
'namV - 'nXmV, {Sm.} 'namVIIV 'soft' > Lp S {L} ncmoI id. || ObU {Ht.} 'namoI id. > pVg 'namoI,
'namIom > Vg: N {Mu.} namcI, LK {Kn.} namIom, MK {Kn.} nomIom id.; pOs 'namoI > Os: V/Vy namoI,
Ty/Y/D/K na'moI, O namoI id. Sm {Jn.} 'namV- (or 'n+mV-?) 'soft' > Ng {Cs.} d 'naman, namaga id., Slq Tz
{KKIH} namII, Kms {Cs.} d nomur, {KD} nsm+r id.; acc. to UEW 33O, the Sm vw. is irreg. and is a reflex of a back
vw.; the irregularity of the Sm vw. (if any) may be explained by the ideophonic factor or by the infl. of 'n- Coll. 38 ('nEmV),
UEW 314 ('namV), 33O ('nXmV on the ev. of the questionably adduced Ne T O nuqI 'hurtig, flink, geschickt' and En B
nuggo 'soft'), LG 2O1, Ht. #464, Jn. 1O6, KKIH 139, Cs. 185 ll A 'nEmV ({SDM97} 'namo) 'warm, soft, mild' > T [1] NaT
''|im 'quiet' ( N 'dumV 'to be motionless, silent, quiet', q.v.) > QK {Rl.} cim, {B} sim 'quiet', {Rl.} cimca- v. 'be silent',
Qmn {B} cim 'quietly, without stirring', Tb {B} cim 'quietly', StAlt {RAS} cim 'motionless' (adv.), 'quietly', Tv
uixaapian cimaryay adj. 'quiet, shy', uixaapap- cimarar- v. 'become quiet, shy' Rs. W 2O1, Rl. III 21O2-3, B DLT
224, 227, B DK 271, B DChT 166, RAltS 756, TvR 557; [2] '|iumiu-la- v. 'be\become soft' [ N 'nUmV 'pleasant (food,
water), gentle, fine', q.v.] > NaT '|uimju,sa- 'become\be soft' > OT, XwT XIV, Chg XV |umsa- 'be soft \ quiet', Qmq, Ggz
|imisa-, Tk yumsa-, Osm {Rl.} |um(u)sa-, Tkm, Uz, ET |umsa-, Qq |imsa-, Qrj Cr |imsa-, Nog |umsa-, VTt |+msa-,
Qzq nxca- zumsa-, Qrg umsa-, Qb/Qc {Rl.} |im|a-, Alt {Bu.} imiza-, Xk nix:a- nimza-, Tv cimca-, Tf
cima-, Yk simna- 'be\become soft', Alt {B}, Tlt {Rl.} imza- vt. 'soften', Chv cxcA- scmis/z_- 'become soft'; - T
'|imi-laI (< 'nimilaq) ({Md.} 'imVlcaI, {SDM97} '|im-lcaI) 'soft' > OT {Cl.} |imsaq - |umsaq, Xk nimza_,
MQp XIII, Chg XV, Tkm, ET, Ln |umsaq, Ggz |imisaI, Osm {Rl.} |um(u)saq, Tk yumsaI, Az |umsag, Uz |umsoq, SY
|umsaq, CrTt |imsaq, Qmq |imisaq, VTt, Bsh |+msaq, Qzq, Qq zumsaq, Alt imzaq, Sg cimaq, Qb/Qc {Rl.}
|im|aq, Tv cimcaq, Chv cxc scmz_c id. ? Chv s+m+l 'light (in weight), easy' MKD 233, Cl. 938-9, ET J 252-3, DTS
279-8O, Ra. 2OO, Rs. W 2O1, Rl. III 5OO-1, 58O-6, GAJ 181, Bu. II 384, Ra. 2OO, BIG 12O, RXS 385, 8O1, Ash. XIII 26, Md.
83, 161 M 'ncmcun > WrM ncmcgun, HlM nyxn 'soft, gentle; pliable', Kl {Rm.} ncmun 'soft, pliable' MED 574,
KW 275 Tg 'ncmV- > Ewk nsmu-ms 'soft, tender (to the touch)', Nn nsmsri, WrMc ncmcri 'soft' STM I 652-3
??, pJ (S) 'nami_a > OJ namji_,c, J T namcraIa 'smooth' [ N 'nUmV '', q.v.] Rs. W 2O1 (T ''|im WrM
nomugan, i.e. nomuqan 'peaceful, meek, gentle, calm', cf. MED 591 ) ^ IS II 86-7 (i 'namn > U, A).
16O4. 'najn`,ccV 'grass' > U 'nacV ' grass' > Lp: N {Fri.} n|uocco-rassc, -rasc 'horsetail (plant)' ('equisetum,
kjaringrok, kjringsnelde'), L {LLO} n|ohtso blttrige Pflanze, die in Mooren wchst und nach der der Rentier gelstig ist'
| Prm 'naca > Z Ud n rma naca ' soft low grass in wamp meadows', Z LV naca 'xoipnna (Stellaria media, winterweed)',
Yz naca id., ':nc:(uaria (Stellaria, chickweed)' Sm 'nac'+a 'grass' > Ne T r (a, Ne T O {Lh.} na'oa, Ne F {Lh.}
ns_a'ttao_ 'Rentierflechte', Ng {Mik.} noto 'moss', En X {Cs.} 'nara, En B {Cs.} 'nada id., Slq Tz {KKIH} nutI 'grass,
hay', Slq Tm {KD} nu, Kms {KD} no?, {Cs.} no`d, no`n 'grass', Koyb {Sp.} nor 'grass', no 'hay', Mt M {Pl.} norn id.
(mentioned by Jn., but absent in Hl. M) UEW 311, Fri. 496, LG 2O2, Jn. 1O5, KKIH 142, Cs. 185 ll A: Tg
'na|aIa - 'nanVIa 'grass' > Ul, Nn Nh naa_a, Nn KU ntaa_a 'grass, weeds', Lm nanci_a 'grass, greens' STM I 627
ll D 'nnanc- 'poison' ( *'poisonous grass', like NE grass for 'marihuana') > Tm, Ml nancu, Td no, Kn nan|u, Tl nan|i,
nan|u, Prj ncn: 'poison', ? Krx man: 'vegetal poison used for intoxicating and catching fish', ? Mlt man:raha 'benumbed'; D
1 Mundari man:om 'prepared poison; to poison' D #358O, Pf. 114 ll ? K 'nac- > G nac-i, G G naca 'green shell of a
hazel-nut' Chx. 942, DCh. 974.
16O5. 'nuqV 'rest, slumber, sleep' > HS: S '-num-, 'nvm 'slumber, sleep' > BHb, JEA nvm, prm. -num- 'slumber,
be drowsy', Sr nvm, prm. -num- 'slumber, sleep heavily', Ar nvm, prm. -num- 'sleep', 'abate' (wind, sea)', Gz nvm, prm.
-num- 'sleep, take a rest', Ak OB {Sd.} nvm (inf. namu) 'slumber', Ug d nhmmt 'sopor, desvanecimiento' KB 643, Lv. III
359, , Sl. 737, Js. 887, JPS 332, Ln. 3O4O, Hv. 8O9, OLS 321, L G 4O9-1O, Sd. 729 ll U 'nuj:,qV 'take the rest, repose, sleep' >
FU 'nuj:,qV 'take the rest, repose' (UEW: 'ruhen, rasten') > Er, Mk nyna- nuva- 'slumber, doze' ({PI} '(no) (pcxar '), Er
nyncc- nuvsc- vi. 'doze', {Rv.} 'dsen, vor sich hin trumen', nyna- nuva- 'doze' (in ds : nyna: 'sleepy, sleepy-head, drowsy-
head', nyna:cnc- inch. 'doze', etc.) || ObU: pVg 'nunt- 'take a rest' [ pVg 'nun- 'stretch' > Vg {BV}: Ss n nc-, MK nuns-
'stretch oneself', Ss n nicn-a inc, MK nunsl- - nusl- 'draw out, nir) nyr '] > Vg: LL nont-, N nunt- vi. 'rest', T
il-nont- 'sich ausruhen (bzw. ausstrecken)', Vg {MK}: N/ML nunti, LL nonti, T nontant- - no_ntant- '(take a) rest' [=
'ruhen', (Hg) 'pihen']; Os N {PpB} noyol-, noyol- vi. 'sleep, rest' | OHg XIV nyug- vi. 'rest, lie, sleep', XV nyug- 'Ruhe halte,
ruhig verbleiben', Hg nyug(o)sz- (/ nyugod- / nyugv-) 'lie (liegen), take a rest, repose', OHg XIII nyugol(o)m, Hg nyugalom
'rest, stillness, quiet(ness), peace', nyugta 'peace' pY 'nuqc- 'sleep' > OY NW {Lnd.} nungncc 'I am asleep' UEW 328, PI
182-3, ERV 42O, MF 489-9O, EWU 1O47-8, MK 374, IN 24O, 314.
16O6. 'nAyq'i ' coniferous tree' > IE: NaIE 'yoi_ni- > L iunicrus 'juniper' ({Ld.}: < 'yoi_ni-cros) || ON cinir, Sw
cn, Dn cnc, Nr cincr id., Nr cincbcr, Dn cncbcr 'juniper berry', MLG cynbcrcnholt, NLG, cn(c)Ic 'juniper', NLG cnbcrcn
'juniper berry' ({Ped.} < 'yai_nia-) > WP I 2O8-9, P 513, EI 481 (l & Gmc < 'yoi_ni-s 'reed, rush'), WH I 731, Vr. 97, Hlq.
183 ll U 'naqV 'larch (Larix sibirica)' > Z U/I nia, Sk ni-u, Lu ncya-u || ObU {Ht.} 'niqIV 'larch' > pVg 'niI > Vg:
LK/MK/UK/P/NV/SV/LL/ML nix; pOs 'naqI > Os: V/Vy naqI, Ty/y/D/K/O na'qI, Nz/Kz naqI UEW 3O2, LG 19O, Ht.
#432 ll A {ADb.} 'qaqc ({DQA} 'qi_aqc) 'fir-tree (Abies)' > Tg 'qaqt'a id. > Ewk qaNts, Lm qaqt+ " naqta id., Neg
qaqta 'Abies, Picea', Ud qanta 'coniferous tree (Abies, Picea, etc.)', Ul, Nn Nh vaqta, Nn KU qaqta 'Abies', Ork
vaq(t)ta mont 'Abies, Pinus', WrMc vaqtaqa 'coniferous tree' STM I 657-8, Krm. 272 pJ {S} 'msmi or 'mu_ami 'fir-
tree' > OJ mju_,omi > ltOJ [RJ] momi, J: T momi, K momi, Kg momi S QJ #27O, Mr. 484 ADb NN 35, DQA #1528
(> Tg, J; rec. of Tg 'qi_aq-ta with an unjustified 'i_) ^ If D 'van_n_i 'prickly tree' (D #533O) belongs here (as suggested by
ADb.), the N rec. may be 'NivAyq'i (cp. v- in some Tg lgs. and Eg vn 'Nadelholz') ^ A 'q- is due to as ('n...q > 'q...q)
^ ADb. NN 35 (N 'nayqV > A, U, IE + qu. D).
16O7. 'nicqHV 'woman' (and 'woman from the opposite moiety?)' > U 'niqa 'woman, wife, female animal' > FU: pLp
{Lr.} 'niqclss > Lp: S minnclcs, L niqqclis, Kld nn nycc 'female animal', N n|iqqalas - n|iqqclas id., 'a female' | Er nn
ni 'woman, wife' | Z Vm nin 'female' (nin ccri 'female of salmon [ccuxia]) || ObU {Ht.} 'ni > pVg 'ni > Vg: T ni,
LK/MK/UK/P/NV/LL/UL.Ss nc 'wife, woman, female animal'; pOs 'ni > Os: V/Vy ni, Ty/Y/Nz/Kz nc, D/K ncq, O niq id. | Hg
no 'woman, wife', nc|c 'his wife' ( N 'nayE 'woman'?) Sm {Jn.} 'nc 'woman' ( N 'nayE '', q.v. ffd.) Coll. 41, UEW
3O5, Lr. #727, Lgc. #4388, SaR 213 ll A 'ncqV 'female relative (sister or brothers wife)' (partially Ll ) > T '|cqa ''wife of
ones elder brother or of ones fathers younger brother' > OT {Cl.} |aqa, {DTS} |cqga id., Chg XV |cqga 'woman who
adorns the bride and presents her to the bridegroom', ET |aqga, Uz |cqga, Qzq, Qq cqga 'elder brothers wife', Tkm
|cqqc, Slr {Tn.} |cqgo - -u - |cqqo --u, Nog, SY |cqgc, VTt 'nni` zinga, Ln |cqqa, Alt cqc, Xk nigc, Tv ccqgc id.,
'wife of an elder relative', Yk saqas 'wife of an elder relatrive', Az |cn) ` ycnga 'bridesmaid (woman accompanying a bride to
her bridegrooms house)', Tk ycngc id., 'brothers\uncles wife' Cl. 95O, ET J 189-9O, TL 313, Rs. W 197-8, TatR 769, MM
175, Hs. 121. Pokr. TR 65 Tg 'ncqnc > Ewk nsqns 'sweetheart' [but hardly here Ewk nono 'grandmother' and Ewk {Rm.}
nsns-gc - nsns-ga 'aunt', {STM} nsns-Is 'grandmother', actually Ewk {Rm.} nsnc - nsnc 'mother', {STM} nsns
'grandmother, mother' (obviously Lallwrter)] STM I 6O5, 622 () M 'nagacu 'maternal uncle; relatives on mothers
side' (MED 556) and pKo {S} 'nu`ii_ '(boys) sister' (> MKo nu`ii_, NKo nui_, see S QK #345, Nam 115, MLC 358)
SDM97 s.v. 'ncqu 'brothers wife', DQA #1434 [pA 'ncqu 'female relative (sister or brothers wife)'], Rm. EAS I 76, Df. IV
2O7 ("kaum annehmbar... Lallwort") ll IE: NaIE 'ycno-tcr / y,notr- 'wife of husbands brother' > OI yata / yatar-, ClNPrs
r'Y yari, Psh yor (pl. yun`c) id. || Gk cvot id. (pl. Gk A civotcc)) || Phr acc. iovotca 'id. (?) || L ianitriccs 'wives of
brothers' || Arm ner ncr (etymologically correct nr ncr) / gen. niri niri 'wife of husbands brother or another wife of the same
husband' || Lt |cntc' (gen. |cntcrs) 'husbands brothers wife', Ltv ictcrc, Cur |cntcrc id. | Sl '|ctrI / gen. '|ctr+vc 'wife of
husbands brother' ('-I/+vc due to the infl. of 'svcIrI/+vc 'husbands mother') > ChS m:p |ctry, Blg c) rpna " ) rpna,
SCr |c``trva, Slv |c`trva, OCz |atrcv, P |atrcv, R , ) rpon, Blr d ) rpoyAia, Uk d ) rp nia P 5O5-6, EI 522
('hycnh_-tcr-), Szem. KT 26, M K III 15-6, M E II 41O, Mrg. 1OO, Sg. 1525, F I 464, Ch. 323, WH I 668, Frn. 193, ESSJ VIII
188-9O, Glh. 3OO, Slt. 193-4 ^ ADb. NN 35 (A, U, IE + err. D van- 'elder brothers wife', cf. N 'jXV,van`V 'relative [of a
younger\the same generation] of the opposite moiety', ffd. see N 'van`V).
16O8. 'noquda 'to follow in the traces, hunt, pursue', 'to move quickly' > HS: CS '-nud- > BHb nvd G (ip. -nud, pf.
nad) 'sway', 'be\become homeless', Sh

'shake', MHb nvd G 'move, be unsteady', JEA nvd G id., 'shake', Md nvd G
'shake, quake, tremble', Sr nvd G id., 'sway to and fro (as a reed\branch), stagger', Ar nvd G (ip. -nud-) 'move ones head;
nod the head from sleepiness', TD (pf. tanavvada) 'swing (bough)'; (?) : WS 'ndd - 'ndnd > BHb ndd G 'wander about;
flee, take to flight', Ug ndd G 'go, wander, be in a hurry', {Lip.} 'go to and fro', MHb/JA {Js.} 'move, shake, chase', Ar ndd G
'flee', Tgr ndnd 'shake' KB 635, 64O, Lv. III 353, Js. 877-8, 883-4, Sl. 734-5, A #1755, Grd. UT #1615, OLS 318, JPS 33O,
DM 293, Fr. IV 257, 35O, BK II 1364, Hv. 8O6, L ESAC 33 Eg fMd nvd vi. 'move; step back, retreat; stagger (wanken)'
EG II 225 B: Tmz {MT} nyuddu - nvuddu 'marcher, se promener', Iz {Loub.} ni_uddu 'se promener', n. act. tani_uddut
MT 544, Loub. 577 Ch: WCh: Krkr {Lk.} nd-, Krf {Sch.} ndo?o, Ngm {ChL} ndoq, Bl {Lk.} di 'go' | Wrj {Sk.}
ndaI- | Wnd {IL} 'ni 'go' || ECh: Mu {Lk.} na, nau 'go' JI II 162-3, ChC, ChL SYv. ES IV 72 (S, Eg), OS #1826
(S, Eg, B, WCh, CCh) ll IE: NaIE 'ycu_d"- / 'you_d"- / 'yud"- 'stir, move' ({P} 'in heftiger Bewegung sein') > OI
'yudhyati 'moves, fluctuates' (as water)' ( 'yudhyati 'fights'), ud-yudh- 'boil up' (as water), Av {Brtl.} yaoz- 'in unruhige
Bewegung geraten', OPrs {Brtl.} yaod- id., {Hinz} yaud-atim apr. acc. f. sg. 'in hellem Aufruhr', Blc {Brtl.} uzay vi., vt.
'move' || Lt |udc'ti 'move, stir, budge', Ltv |udit 'zanken machen, verhetzen', |udit 'langsam treiben, unruhig machen' | Sl
'|udi-ti 'instigate, beckon' ( 'cause to move') > P |udzic, Uk '(nrn 'to instigate, incite, seduce', Blg '( 'beckon,
seduce' || L |ubco 'order' ( 'cause to move') || ? Tc A yutI- 'be anxious' () OI yudhyatc, Av yuloyclti 'fights' and
related words [ WP, P, EI and IS] Possibly also (with pre-IE depalatalisation 'n- > 'n-?) Ht {Ts.} nuntar- 'Eile, Hast',
{CHD} nuntaras adv. 'promptly, without delay, soon', nuntaras gen. 'of haste, of swiftness', nuntariya-, nu(t)tar(r)iya- adj.
'swift', nuntarriya-, nuntarriyc- v. 'hasten, be quick', nu(n)tarnu- v. 'hurry, hasten' WP I 2O3, P 511-2, Mn. 446, 453-4, MW
854, Brtl. 1231-2, Hinz 152, M K III 2O, WH I 724-5, Frn. 195-6, ESSJ VIII 191-2, EI 2O1 ('yud"- 'moved, stirred up,
fight'), CHD L-N 472-4, Ts. E II 347-5O ll U 'noqvoa- 'follow (the tracks of)' > F nouta- / nouda- id., 'fetch, overtake', Krl A
nou_to- - nou_do- 'follow (e.g. the tracks of)', Es nouda- strive for, aspire to, be intent (on), require', nouc / noudc
'requirement' || ObU {Ht., Hl.} 'nuvol- v. 'pursue, hunt' (more likely than 'nuyol-) > pVg 'nivol- / 'navl- 'pursue' > Vg:
T navl-, LK navl- / navl-, MK novl-, UK/P/NV/SV/ML nivl-, UL/Ss navl-; pOs 'noyol- > Os: V nuyol-, Vy
noyol-, nuyol-, Ty noyo-, nuyo-, Y novo-, D/L/O no_ol-, Nz nu_ot-, Kz nu_o- id., 'chase, hunt' Sm: [1] Sm
{Jn.} 'norV- 'pursue' > Ne T n[paiy-n , Ne T O {Lh.} noroIuc 'pursue, overtake', Slq Tz {Prk.} norI- 'treiben,
verfolgen'; [2] {Hl.} 'nota-, {Jn.} 'nota- 'pursue' > Ne T n[(a-c , Ne T O {Lh.} nooa, Ne F {Lh.} nottas, Slq Tz
{KKIH} notI- 'pursue, overtake', Mt {Hl.} 'nodo-, 'nodo- 'pursue, chase' [Mt M {Sp.} xncano(a ianriiix 'I pursue a
beast' (xnca 'beast'), no(amrax'I chase'] But Sm {Jn.} 'no- 'pursue' and pY {IN} 'nav- 'watch, follow\pursue (an animal)'
belong rather to N 'noj,vV 'hunt, pursue' [q.v. ffd.]) Coll. 41, Coll. CG 4O8 ('novoa- = 'nsvoa-), UEW 323-4
('noqoa- or 'novoa-), Sm. 539 (U 'noxI-, FU, FP 'nuxi-, Ugr 'nugi-, Sm 'no- 'pursue' without distinction between the
reflexes of N 'noquda and 'noj,vV), SK 385, Ht. #446 ('nuyol-), Hl. rHt. 73-4 (on pObU 'v and 'y), Jn. 111, Hl. M
#766, Prk. 119, IN 236 and IN UASJu 84 (the above U pY 'nav- ' cnc(nr , npccnc(onar '), Rd. UJ 4O [#37] (Y
'nav- A U 'noqvoa-) ll ? A: Tg: Lm qsdi 'track' STM I 667 ?? OT {Cl.} |ind- 'search (sth.), seek (sth.)' Cl. 946
The front vw. in both Tg and T is puzzling ll D (in SD) 'non`t- vt. 'stir, obtain (sth. out of sth.), dig out' > Tm nontu 'stir, dig
out, grub up, root out, pick off as the scab of an ulcer, pick out as wax from the ear, pilfer, pluck as an ear of grain', Ml nontuIa
'to stir, dig, tease', Tu nodavu-, nodadru- 'to rake up, stir' Semantics: 'stir' *'make move' D #3795 ^ The cns. '-q- was
lost (partially due to dis ) in NaIE and HS ^ The original meaning (connecting with hunting) still survives in U and Tg, but is lost
in HS, IE, D and T (due to the loss of the hunters way of life?) ^ IS II 9O-91 s.v. 'novda (all cognates, except Ht and A).
16O9. i 'naqgu 'tongue' > IE: NaIE 'yng"u- - 'dng"u-/'dng"va - 'lng"u- id. > Arm lezu lczu id. ( IE
'lci_g"- v. 'lick'?) || OL dingua, L lingua, Osc {Vtr.} FANCVA, FANGVAM || Clt {RE} 'tangvato- > OIr tcngac, Brtt {RE}
'tavatos > MW {Vn.} tauavt, {RE} tafavt, W tafod, OCrn tauot, Crn tavas, MBr tcaut, Br tcod id. || Gt tuggo, ON,
NNr, Sw, OSx tunga, Dn tungc, OHG zunga, NHG Zungc, AS tunc id., NE tonguc || BSl '(y)inzu- (< IE 'yng"u-) >
Pru insuvis [inzuvis], Lt liczuvis id. ( liczti 'to lick') | Sl 'j|,cziI+ 'tongue' > OCS mk+ |czII+, Blg c:ni,
|aziI, McdS |a:ni, SCr |cziI, Slv |cziI, Cz, Slk, HLs |azyI, LLs |czyI, Plb |ozcI, P |czyI, R, Blr ':ii, Uk ':ni; in
pSl the initial 'c is regularly preceded by prosthetic '|-, hence here the rec. of Sl '|- is synchronically superfluous, but
etymologically justified || pTc {Ad.} 'Iantvo (mt < 'dng"va) > Tc A Iantu, Tc B Iantvo 'tongue' || ? IIr: OI |ih'va,
Av hizu-, hizva ({P} < as 'gig"va and Irn 'sizva- < 'zizva- due to dis of sonorants), OPrs hizan-, Phl uzvan, Oss: I
svzag, D avzag id. WP I 1792, P 223, GI 814, EI 594 ('dng"uh_-), M K I 436-7, M E I 591-3, Bai. 29O, Ab. IV 279-8O
WH I 8O6-7, EM 36O, Mul. 147, Vn. T 5O-1, RE 14O, Fs. 482, Vr. 6OO, OsS 13O1-2, Schz. 337, KM 892, Ho. 355, Ho. S 76,
Kb. 1266, Frn. 369-7O, En. 184, Tp. P I-K 55-9, Fs. 482, ESSJ VI 74-5, Glh. 3OO-1, Slt. 159-61, Wn. 2O4, Ad. 139. Ad. H 118
The variants 'dng"u- and 'lng"u- are accounted for by ancient dis (prior to the denasalization 'n > 'y, i.e.
'njV,ng"u- > 'dng"u- - 'lng"u-); in the case of 'lng"u- the ideophonic factor and the infl. of NaIE 'lci_g"- 'to
lick' and esp. of its nasalized present stem 'ling"- have played a role (cf. N 'Ligj,E 'to lick, sip, suck'). The voiceless 't- in Clt
is still puzzling ll K 'ncna- 'tongue, word' > OG cna- 'tongue', G cna- id., 'language', Mg nina-, Lz ncna- id., 'word', Sv
UB/KB/L/Ln nin (/ pl. UB/KB/Ln non-ar, L non-ar) 'tongue, language' K
147, K
141, Q 289, TK 635, GP 237; FS K 239 &
FS E 264 ('ncn-) The palatal vw. 'c may be due to the infl. of the former palatal 'n-ll U 'naqIcc(mV) 'tongue' ( 'hard
palate', 'gills') > pLp {Lr.} 'noIcsm 'tongue' > Lp: S {Hs.} n|uoIt|cmc, L {LLO} n|uout|av, N {N} n|uovca / -I'cam-,
Kld {SaR} nu__ccm, K {Gn.} nu_:ccm id. | ? Chr: L/Uf/B nosmo 'hard palate', H namxi nasm+ 'gills' | ? Prm
'nooIcim (= {LG} 'nooIcim) 'gills' > Z n[iunx noIcim id. || ? ObU 'nIjq,IcomV ({Ht.} 'nIjq,IcomV) 'gills'
> pVg 'nIIcVm id. > Vg: UK nsxsom, P naxsom, NV/LL naxsom, UL/So naxsam id.; pOs 'naqIcom id. > Os: D
naq_som, K na_som, Nz/Kz no_som id. Sm: Ne: T nnn:nt ninzi?, T O {Lh.} ninci?, F Nl {Lh.} ninsIi, F
{Ppv.} 'ninsiIu 'palate'; Kms {KD} ncni?, ncni, {Cs.} ncni, Koyb {Sp.} n nn id. The primary meaning of the U must
be 'tongue' ( UEW), whence (by metonymy) 'hard palate'; the meaning 'gills' appears in pFU due to fishing as the primary
economic occupation of the pFU community Coll. 4O ('naqIcc 'tongue'), UEW 311-2 ('naqIcc [?] 'hard palate', [?]
'gills'), Lr. #788, Lgc. #4458, N II 1O4, SaR 222, MRS 351, 359, Ep. 75, 133-4, LG 189, Ht. #444, Ter. 313, Lh. 235, Ppv. 67,
KD 44, Ptp. 44, Cs. 184 ll ??? A 'nniqV 'curse, swear' > Tg 'nniqi- v. 'curse, invoke a harm to' > Lm niqi-, Ork niqii- id.,
Ewk niqi- - niqi- v. 'curse, swear', 'omen harm', Sln n. '(religious) curse' STM I 598 pJ {S} 'nsnssir- 'curse, swear' > OJ
nonosir-, J: T/Kg nonosir-, K nonosir- S QJ #95O, Mr. 737 DQA #1469 [A 'ni_aqc 'to curse, swear'; incl. Tg, J]
^ The U cognate goes back to a cd (or d ?) ^ IS MS 373 ('nan'gn 'tongue'; IE, U, K).
161O. 'nEqs'i 'dirt, dirty liquid' > HS: S 'ngss v. 'be dirty' > Ar j0Na nags- 'sale, malpropre; impar, immonde',
ngs v. 'be dirty' BK II 12O4 ll IE: NaIE 'nsi- 'dirty-coloured; dirt, mud' > OI 'asi-tah 'black' || Gk ooi) (gen. ooio)) f.
'mud (of a river), slime', ooio) 'muddy' P 771, M K I 64, F I 162 ll U: FP 'nEsV '(dirty) liquid' > F [Agr.] ncsi 'liquid, juice', F
ncstc id., Krl A nczcva, nczcvu 'moist', ncstuo v. 'become wet', Es ncstutada, ncstutada v. 'moisten' | Z Vm/I/Ud
nasti 'dirt' BF 'c suggests to a FP 'c, while Prm 'a points to a FP 'a ll A: Tg 'naq'sa 'dirt' > Ewk naqna 'dirt, dirty', Lm
naqs+, Orc naqsa, yaqsa - naqsa, Ork naqtsa - naqsa, Nn yaqsa - niaqsa - naqsa id. STM I 633-4 DQA #14O5 (Tg
< pA 'naqa 'dirt; to smear').
1611. ? 'n'aa 'nose' ( 'face', 'front') > HS: EC: Sa {Bl. ?) ncf, {R} nof, nif, Af ncf / ncf- 'face' Bl. 166, R S II
286, PH 174 S 'ni- > Ar AT/Mrc {Bss., DMA} nif 'nose' 1 Kb nnif 'nez, amour-propre' DMA I 1O2, Dl. 548 ll A
'nabV 'front, in front' > T: [1] 'nab- 'front, forward' > Ewk PT navds 'in front', 'forward', Orc nauIa - nauIi id., 'at
first', Ork navra- - naorra- 'go forward \ in front (of others)' But Tg 'nog- 'be in front, first' is more likely to belong to N
'noIjV,XV 'be in front, precede, be first' (q. v. ffd.) STM I 627, DQA #1483 (Tg 'nob- - 'nab-) ? pJ {S} 'mai_a
'front, before' > OJ {S} mai_c, {Mr.} mac, J: T mac, K mac, Kg mac id., {Kenk.} 'the front' The change 'n- > 'm- still
needs elucidation (as 'n... > m...??) S AJ 267 [#65], S QJ #65, Mr. 469 SDM97 (A 'naba), S AJ 297 [#585], DQA
#1483 (A 'ni_oo 'front, in front, front side'; incl. J, Tg 'nab-).
1612. ? naVrV 'tender, delicate, beautiful' > HS: Eg nfr 'good, be good, (be) beautiful' ({Vc.} acp. 'nafir), Cpt: Sd
ueqc nufc, B ueqt nufi 'good, beautiful' EG II 253-6, Vc. 15O ll D 'navuru 'fine, tender' ( N 'NAXiba 'thin, meagre'??) >
Kn navuru, navaru, naviru 'that is tender \ soft \ fine', Tl navuru, nauru 'soft, delicate' D '-r- for the expected '-r_- suggests
that in pre-D the root was followed by a sx.-cns. D #3618 ll mt U {Coll.} 'nara 'thin (not dense), sparsed' > pLp {Lr.}
'narc id. > Lp: S aadj. n|aarbcs, U n|a`rbcc, , N d n|ar'bad, L n|ar'c id., Kld n[appn 'thin' (of liquids), 'sparse'
(hair, wool)' Sm: Ne F N {Lh.} ni_cr|oo 'lichtmaschig' (Netz)' Coll. 4O, SSA II 254, Lr. #767, Lgc. #4367, SaR 2O9-1O,
TI 294-, Lh. 315.
1613. 'niq'U 'grind, crush, rub, rub down\off, rub to powder' > HS: Eg fOK n ({Vc.} 'n:y) id. (EG: 'ver-\zer-reiben,
mahlen') > DEg nt id. > Cpt: Sd/B ue: nut / Sd uo:- nat-, B ue:- not v. 'grind'; Cpt F stt. uo: nat < Eg {Vc.} stt. 'na:ycv;
- Eg fMK n, ny.v ({Vc.} 'nay:av) 'flour' > DEg nyt > Cpt: Sd uect: nocit, B uwt: noit, F uot: nait id. EG II 369-7O,
Fk. 143, Er. 131, Vc. 141, 145 Ch {JS, JI} nVI- 'grind' > WCh {Stl.} 'niI- 'grind' > Hs niIa | Fy {J} niI, Bks {J} nuI |
Bg {Sh.} noI, Zar K {Sh.} ntI JS 125, JI I 82 & II 17O-1, Stl. ZCh 235 [#818] ?? B (with ext. ) 'nyd 'craser, broyer,
rduire en poudre' > Tmz {MT}, Kb {Dl.} nyd G (imv. Tmz onyod, Kb onyod) id., Mz {Dlh.} nyd G 'broyer, piler', Izn
{Ds.} nyd G 'craser', BSn {Ds.} nyd G (imv. onyod) 'broyer' MT 479-8O, Dl. 368, Dlh. M 138, Ds. B 52, 1O8 OS
#1871 (HS 'niI- in Eg and WCh) Tk. I 32O ll K: OG naq- v. 'pound' (DCh.: ' ronou '), G naq- '(zer-)stampfen\-stoen,
kleinstoen, klopfen (z. B. Steine)' Chx. 933, DCh. 967 The vw. a is probably due to apophony ll A 'niI`u 'grind, gnaw' >
NaT '|iI- 'crush, grind' > OT |iq- 'demolish, destroy', MQp XIII |iq- 'demolish', XwT XIV, Chg XV |iq- 'destroy', Tk yiI-, Ggz
|iI-, Tkm, Qmq |iq-, Az |i_- 'destroy, demolish', Xlj |uq-, VTt {Rl.} z+q- 'destroy' To distinguish from T '|iI- 'throw
down' (in some lgs. contamination of both roots) Cl. 897, Rs. W 2OO, ET J 273-4, Rl. IV 116, Bu. II 358, GRMS 221, TkR 376,
Hs. 161, KumRS 158, DT 23O M 'niqu- 'rub, crumble' > OM 'niqu- (1 Ewk niIu- v. 'grind'), WrM niqu- - nuqu-, HlM
nyxa- v. 'rub, massage; mash, press; crumble', Brt n xa- nu_a- 'knead, mash, rub, mix by rubbing', Ord {Ms.} nu_u- 'ptrir,
malaxer, masser', Kl nyx- 'knead, rub, mix by rubbing', Kl {Rm.} nu_
- 'kneten, zerreiben, zermalmen', Mnr H {T} nugu-
'knead' (' xccnr , :axccnr '), {SM} nug_u- 'ptrir, broyer qch. entre les mains', MMgl [Z] {Iw.} nuqu- v. 'pound', MED 586,
KRS 388, Ms. O 5OO, SM 288, T 353, Iw. 12O, Chr. 346 Tg 'n'UIi- 'gnaw, pound' > Ewk nsIi- 'gnaw, crack (by teeth)',
Sln nu_uqIi n. 'pestle', WrMc d niyo_u-, niyo_ulc- v. 'pound (in a mortar)', niqca- 'destroy, demolish' STM I 591, 637
pKo {S} 'niIi- 'knead, mix' > MKo niIi-, NKo igi- S QK #777, Nam 119, MLC 1319 DQA #1451 (A 'niI`u 'to
grind, crunch; knead'), Pp. VG 39 lll A reduplicated variant is attested in WCh (Su {J} nuq, Sha {J} nuq, Klr niq) and pJ {S}
('nsnIs-- 'nunIu-- 'rub, wipe (off)' > OJ nogo- > J: T nugu-, K nugu-, Kg nugu-, cf. S QJ #682, Mr. 738) ^ The
B and Ko cognates are qu. because they are not attested in their pure form (without extensions).
1614. 'noqa 'lowland, depression' > K (GZ?) 'noqa- > G noqa- 'bog, marsh, swamp', ? G G/I noqo 'langsam
flieendes, sumpfiges Wasser'; Tmpel'; {acc. to K and K
} Mg noya-, noyo- 'branch of a river, plain', {K} 'low place, river-bed',
Lz noya 'lowland, bank' (K believed that the change '-q- > Zan -y- is reg. [cf. 'd(l)aqv- 'elbow' > Lz xc-duy- id.], but FS refer
this Zan word to the K 'noy- 'lowland, swamp') K 148, K
144 ('noya-), Chx. 965, FS K 242 ll U: FU 'noIIa 'ravine,
depression' > Prm {LG} 'nuI id. > Z MSs nuI, Z nuIss 'depression\ravine with a river', Vt nuI 'ravine (onpai, noi)' LG
2OO, Lt. 2O8.
1615. 'naRu 'swamp' > U 'nor'o 'swamp' > ? F noro 'swampy valley' | pPrm {Lt.} 'nur 'swamp' > Z nur, nurvIv,
Vt SW nu'r, Vt nur id. (Prm 'u for the expected 'u due to the palatalizing infl. of 'n-?); but Vt nur 'dampness' may go back
to N ''nou'rV 'moist; to gush' [q.v.] as well || ObU {Ht.} 'nurmV > pVg 'nurmV 'meadow' > Vg: ML nurom id.; pOs
'norom 'swamp' > Os: V/Vy norom, Ty/Y norom, D/K/Nz nurom, Kz nurom id.; UEW suggests a different Vg cognate:
pVg {UEW} 'nIr > Vg: T/P ncr, LK/Ss nar 'swamp' Sm: Slq: Tz {KKIH} narI 'tundra', UTz {KKIH} narI 'swamp', Ke
{Cs.} n|ar 'tundra', Tm {KD} nar 'swamp, Moorwald' pY {IN} 'noro 'swamp, puddle' > Y: T {IN} nor-il id., K {IN}
noro-l 'puddle', {Jc.} norol-ca(gc) 'swamp', ? norod-ozi 'puddle (Wasserpftze)' (ozi 'water') UEW 324-5 (U 'norV), SK
393, LG 2O1 (Prm 'nEr), Lt. 221 (Prm 'nur), Ht. #476, KKIH 129, Ang. 184, IN 239, Rd. UJ 41 [#38] (Y A U) ll A: Tg
'naj:,ru 'swamp' > Ewk narut " narut " naru 'small swamped lake, swamp, swampy glade in a forest', Lm Al
nartqay " nartqav 'swamp, puddles', Nn ntaro " ntru " naro " naru, Ud nau 'swamp, swamp in taiga ( xap )', WrMc
niyari 'marsh, quag' STM I 636, Krm. 269 S AJ 257 [#169] ll ? HS: S (+ext. ): Ak OB, LB narit- 'morass, marshland'
CAD XI/1 353 EC: Arr {Hw.} nor 'mud' ( N ''nou'rV 'moist'?) Hw. A 389 ^ U '-o- due to as (infl. of the final
rounded vw.)? Gr. II #376 ('nur 'swamp') [U, Y + err. A, J, Gil].
1616. 'niRV 'to rub, scratch, draw\make a sign' > U 'nirV 'scratch, scrape' > Prm 'nir- 'rub' > Z nnpr- nirt- 'rub,
scratch', nirav- " niral- v. 'rub, massage', Vt {U3S} nnp - nirya- 'anoint', nnpr- nirt- 'rub sore, wipe off' || ? OHg XV,
Hg nyir- v. 'clip, trim, cut, shear' Sm: Ne F {Lh.} nira- ''gnaw; plane with a scraper' UEW 32O-1, LG 192, U3S 3O1, EWU
1O42-3, Lh. 324 ll A 'nnirV > Tg 'nniru- 'draw (a picture, lines)' > Sln niru'an 'a drawing', Neg niyuyit, niyu-, Orc
niru- - nuru- v. 'draw, write', Ul nuru- - nuri-, Ork nuri- - niru- - nuru-, Nn Nh niru- v. 'write', WrMc niru- 'draw (a
picture), draw lines, paint' STM I 6OO, Hr. 7O9-1O T '|'iR- - '|ar- ({Md.} '|ar-) 'draw a sign' ( N 'yarV 'to
draw\scratch a sign', q.v. ffd.); the variant '|'iR- is represented by Blgh 'ir > Chv ip sir 'write' and the M loanword iru-
'draw, paint' ?? pKo 'nirI- > MKo nirI-, NKo ilI- v. 'read, recite, chant', Ko Ph iI- 'read' S QK #724, Nam 125, MLC
1361 SDM97 (A 'narc 'draw' > T '|ar - '|Ir, Tg 'niru- 'draw' and MKo nirI- to read'), DQA #147O [T, Tg and Ko <
A 'ni_arc '-l-? 'to draw (zeichnen)'] ll HS: S 'nir- > Ar nir- 'marque de fabrique ltoffe; trac bien distinct de la route',
nyr (ip. -nir-) 'marquer une toffe de ls marque ryNi' BK II 1375-6.
1617. 'nuRV 'to become very hot, shine' > HS: S 'nur- 'light, fire' ( N 'qch'Ur'i 'light, fire') > Ak fOAk nuru id.,
Eb nu-ru-um (= nurum) {Krb.} 'Licht', IA F nvr, JA [Trg.], JEA er!un nu'r-a, Sr owu nu'r-a, Md nura 'fire', BHb rn4
ncr 'small clay lamp filled with oil' (< adj. 'na'vir- 'shining'), Ug {DLS} nr, [AkSc] {Hnr.} nciru 'lamp (?)', {OLS} 'brillo,
resplandor' 'lmpara', BHb rin5 nir 'light, lamp', er!&nm6 mono'ra 'lampstand', Ar nur- 'light, luminous body', nvr (ip..
ya-nur-u, pf. nara) 'shine, glow', Mh navr 'light, glamour', Gz nar, nur 'light, fire' ({L}: A Ar), nvr D {L} 'be lit\lighted,
illuminate'; a secondary variant: WS 'nir-, 'nyr > BHb rin5 nir 'lamp', Ar nar- 'fire', nar- - niyar- (pl. of nar) 'lights', Jb
c'nycr v. 'glow' (of light)' GB 489, 494, KBR 6OO. 697, 723, A #185O, DLS KTU IV 284, Hnr. 152, OAS 331,Lv. III 363, Lv.
T II 99, Sl. 738-9, Br. 421-2, DM 294, Nld. MG 118, Fr. IV 35O-1, BK II 1364-5, Hv. 8O6-7, Jo. M 3O7, Jo. J 198, L G 4O1,
41O, CAD XI/2 347-51, Frnz. LS3 144 ll A: NrTg 'nurc- 'incandence' (of metal) > Ewk nurs vi. 'incandence, become hot',
Neg nuys- id., Lm no'rqi- " norgi- " no'rgo- " nurqi- vt. 'incandence, no':cqib- vi. 'incandence' STM I 649 Ko: [1]
Ko {Rm.} nur- vi. 'burn (as cloth before a fire)', {MLC} nulli-ta 'scorches, burns, singes'; [2] ? pKo {S} 'nuri- 'have a burnt
smell' > MKo nuri- id., NKo nuri-, nori- 'be rank, foul-smelling' Rm. SKE 173, S QK 911, Yu 162, MLC 364-5, 342, 357, S
QK #911 M 'nurma 'hot cinders, embers; bonfire' ( N 'qch'Ur'i 'light, fire', q.v. ffd.) pJ {S} 'nira(n)I- 'temper (meta)
by puting heated metal ito water' > OJ nirag- S QJ #967, Mr. 736 DQA #1448 [A 'ni_ori 'to heat ( naipcnar ,
naiannnar ]) > M, Tg, J] ^ IS MS 337 s.v. ' iopcr ' 'nurn ^ Qu., because S 'nur- may alternatively go back to N
1618. ?? 'na?RE (or 'na?RA?) 'pungent, strong' (of sensations, feelings, etc.) > HS: S 'n?r > Ar n?r v. 'tre excit
au point de se jeter sur quelquun' Fr. IV 226, BK II 1176 ll U: FP 'nara 'heartburn' and sim. > F nara 'angina, ardor
stomachi, narastys 'heartburn, acid dyspepsia' | Z nsra in set phrases: Lu/Skt nsra viys, Z UV nsra viyc '[it makes]
heartburn, sinking sensation in the pit of the stomach (cocyr no( nocuion)' (viys, viyc 'kills, strikes') UEW 713, LG 19O, SK
415 ll A: Tg 'nar- > Orc naraIta 'very' STM I 635 ll IE: NaIE 'yor- (an apophonic grade of 'ycr-?) 'strong, violent' > Gk
eo) 'pure, sheer, strong' (of wine without water) || Sl '|ar+(|i) > OCS mp+ |ar+ 'amarus, austerus', SCr |ar 'hot, cruel', |ar
'anger, fury; passion', Slv |ar 'ardent, furious', Cz |ary 'fresh, ardent', Slk |ary 'full of strength, fresh', HLs |cry 'pungent', P
|ary 'pure, bright, vigorous' (voda |ara 'pure water', sviatlosc |ara 'a pure unadulterated light', dzicn |ary 'bright day',
stary alc |ary 'old but vigorous' [of an old man]). OR, RChS mp+ |ar+ 'anger', R ' pin 'ardent, violent'; Sl '|ar+I+(|i) 'bright
(esp. of colours)' > Blg ' pi, SCr |araI, R ' pinn id., Slv |arcI id., 'shining', OR, RChS mp+ku |ar+II|i 'severe, furious;
bright' (but Cz |ary 'young' is connected with N 'nayrE 'young', q.v.) || ? ClNPrs "r'Y yara, NPrs yoro {Sg.} 'boldness,
courage; strength, force', {Vl.} 'robur, potestas, audacia' Mn. 452, Vl. II 15O1, Sg. 1525, F I 618, ESSJ VIII 176-8O, Bern. I
447-8, Glh. 288, Vs. IV 562-3 ^ It is tempting to adduce here T '|aru- 'be(come) bright, shine' > OT |aru- id. (Cl. 956-7), but for
semantic reasons it is more plausibly connected with N 'zahrV (or 'ahrV, or 'zahrV) 'to shine' [q.v.]. In any case, a
coalescence of both etymons in T '|aru- remains a possibility.
1619. ? ''nou'rV 'moist; to gush' > HS: S 'nr > Ar nr G 'gush forth', naar- 'wound gushing with blood, vein
spurting with blood' Hv. 781, BK II 1293 EC: Dsn nuru 'wet', (??) Arr {Hw.} nor 'mud' ( N 'naRu 'swamp'?) || SC:
Irq {MQK} na- 'be wet', naari 'wet land along river bank', Alg {EC} na- 'get wet' Hw. A 389, To. DL 523, E SC 352,
MQK 76, Blz. DL s.v. 'wet', Blz. SCL s.v. 'wet' ll A: M 'noj:,r- > MM [IM] {Pp.} nor-, WrM nor- 'become wet, soaked, damp,
moist', Ord {Ms.}, Kl nor-, Brt nopo-, Mnr H {SM} nori-, {T} nori-, Dx {T} noro- 'get wet', M d (caus.) 'noj:,rga- > WrM
norga-, HlM nopio( -x) vt. 'wet, moisten, soak', Ord norgo-, Kl nopl- nory+-, {Rm.} norya- - norya-, Brt nopio-, Mnr H
{SM} norg_a- vt. 'wet' IS II 89 reconstructs M 'o on the ev. of Mnr o, but the regularity of the Mnr reflex of the pM vowel
length is not yet evident Pp. MA 443, MED 591, KRS 382, KW 279, Ms. O 497, Chr. 331, SM 284, T 352, T DnJ 131 pJ {S}
'nura- 'get wet'> OJ nura-, StJ nurasu 'to wet', nurcru 'get wet', nurcta 'wet, soaked', J: T nurc-, K nurc, Kg nurc- 'get
wet' S QJ #491, Mr. 738 DQA #149O (M and J < A 'ni_urc 'become wet, soak') ll D (in SD) 'nuor'amb > Tm
nurambu 'mud, mire', Tu nurumbu 'alluvium' In pSD before a derivational sx. 'a the contrast 'u 'o was neutralized (Zv. 65-
6) D #37O7 ll ? U: FU: Vt nur 'dampness' (for other possible connections of Vt nur cf. N 'naRu 'swamp') LG 2O1 ^ IS
II 89-9O ('nohrn 'humid; to flow'; equates M 'nor(u)- 'soak, moisten' with S nhr 'river, stream', U 'norV/'norV 'moist,
swamp, flow', ? D 'nir 'moisture, water' - on which cp. N 'nihr'a 'to stream, a stream, liquid').
162O. 'nA'IVrV or 'nc'IVrV 'sprout' > U {UEW} 'nErV - 'nXrV - 'nXrIc, {IS DU} 'narV, {Db.} 'norV
'rod, young sprout' > Chr {Szil.} nora 'sprout' ('Spro, Sprling'), noro 'twig\ ('Zweig'), Chr L {p} nocpioc 'young
sprout', {MRS} 'young (of a sprout)', Chr H {Rm.} noro 'young tree', {Ep.} noro, noro 'flexible sprout, young sprout' | Prm
'no'r ({LG} no'r) 'rod, twig (no:a, ncria, npyrni)' > Z n ocp nsr / nsry- id., Yz nu'r 'rod (npyr)', Vt n ocp nsr 'twig,
branch, birch rod (ncria, po:ia)' || ObU {Ht.} 'nir 'Rute' > pOs 'ncr(i) [{Hl.} 'nir(i)] > Os: V ncrom id., D
ncrom id., 'Zweig, dnne Weide', Ty ncr 'auf einem abgebrannten Platz aufgewachsener Hain', Kz nar 'Laubholzhain',
Laubhozdickicht', narom, Y ncr 'gerissener Baum'; pVg 'nir 'Rute' > Vg: T nar, LK/MK/UK/P/NV/SV/LL/ML/Ss nir |
Hg nyir 'birch tree', nyir 'young sprout (junger Schling)', mcg-nyir-cz- v. 'mit Ruten schlagen' Sm {Jn.} 'nsr- 'willow
(Weide)' > Ne T ncpo, Ne T O {Lh.} ncru, Ne F {Lh.} ncru; Sm {Jn.} 'ncrIa (- 'nVrIa), {Hl.}
'nsrIa - 'nVrIa id. > Ng {Adl.} ncrIi, En {Cs.} nigga, {Mik.} nIga`, Ne T ncpia, Ne T O {Lh.} ncrIa id., Slq Tz
{KKIH} narqI, Kms {Cs.} narga, {KD} narga " n+rya, Mt {Hl.} 'nncrgV id. (Mt T/K {Mk.} ncrgc, M {Mll.} ncrgo
'salix', K {Pl.} ncrga 'ran', M {Sp.} napia 'nnn) i, ran nni') Coll. 43, UEW 331, Sm. 546 (FU, FP ncri, Ugr niri 'twig'),
IS DU, Db OS XXII, XXIV, 134, MRS 36O, Ep. 77, Ht. #47O, Hl. rHt 75, KrT 629, PD 1466-7, Jn. 1O8, KKIH 139, Hl. M #748
ll D 'nar_- 'sprout', {GS} 'ncd_- 'to appear, sprout, shoot forth' > Ml naru 'young plant fit for tansplanting', Tm naru v.
'sprout, shoot forth', naru v. 'appear, arise', Kt nat, Knd naru 'sedlings for transplantation', Knd ncr_- v. 'rise from the seed'
(a plant), Kn Gl natu v. 'sprout', Kdg nor- 'become tall, straighten oneself so as to become tall' (of a plant), 'rise up and come to
view', Tu nc|i 'nursling, young plant of rice', Tl naru 'young sprouts or plants which are to be transplanted', Gnd ncr 'rice-
seedlings', Png ncz-, Mnd ncy-, Ku ncy- v. 'sprout', Kui nc:a- id., 'germinate and shoot up' D #2919, GS 142 [#363] ll K
'noyr- ( 'nayrE 'young, new-born') > G Gr {IS ?} noyr- 'young grass' IS MS 349 ^ IS II 83-5 (includes the D into
the etymon 'narn 'young, new-born'), IS MS 349 (D 'nar_- and G noyr- < N 'narn). In the light of my recent phonological
research (proving that D '-r_- goes back to N '-r- and is not akin to T '-r-) D 'nar_- 'sprout' is to be kept apart from T 'nar
'springtime'. In U 'norIc 'sprout' '-Ic is a sx.. G Gr noyr- is absent in the stardard dictionary of Georgian dialects (Ghl.) and
therefore remains qu. Hence 'I in the N rec. is within uncertainty brackets ' . If GSs rec. of a pD 'c is right, the N etymon had
to have been 'nc'IVrV. D '-r_- (the reg. reflex of the intervocalic '-r-) points to a vw. before N 'r.
1621. 'ncjH,rV 'plain, ground' > HS: B 'ncr > Ah tcncrc, Gh ciniri 'plain, desert', ETwl, Ty tcncrc (pl. tinarivcn)
'plaine dsertique' Fc. 139, Nhl.15O, 19O, GhA 149 ll A: T '|cr 'earth' > OT |cr ({Cl.} |cr) 'ground, earth, land, soil', Tk ycr,
Az, Tkm, Uz, SY, Nog, CrTt |cr, Ggz |cr, ET |a(r), VTt zir, Bsh cp yir, Qzq, Qq zcr, Xk unp cir, Xlj |cr - |cr, Tv ccr,
Tf c`cr, Yk sir, Chv cAp sor 'earth, land', Kr |cr, Alt cr id., 'country' Cl. 954, ET J 191-2, TL 87, Rs. W 198, S AJ 177
(#23), BIG 317, Sht. 67, Ra. 195, DT 222-3, Jeg. 211, Fed. II 11O Tg: Lm nsrIs 'place under the hearth or near it; hearth'
STM I 355 ?? pKo {S} 'nara(h) 'country' > MKo narah, NKo nara The vowels still defy explanation S AJ 257 [#169],
S QK #169, Nam 87, MLC 287 S AJ 29O [#359] (A 'narji, 'earth, land': Ko, Tg 'na 'earth, land, dry land'), DQA #1441
[T and Tg < A 'ncra 'earth, floor'], STM l.c. ll ?? U: Chr: L nyp nur, H nip n+r 'field' (unless to U 'nor'o 'swamp' < N
'naRu id.) 135-6, Rm. BT 88.
1622. 'nihr'a 'to stream, a stream, liquid' > HS: S 'na'har- 'stream, river' > BHb re1n! na'har id., Ug nhr {OLS} id.,
{A} id., 'flood', OA nhr 'river, water-course', JA [Trg.] ar!e9n@ nah"'r-a 'stream', JEA {Sl.} ar!e6n@ nah'r-a 'river, canal', Sr
nah'r-a, Ar nahr- - nahar- 'river', Sb ?nhr pl. 'irrigation channels', Ak naru 'river, canal; vein'; WS 'nhr v. 'stream' > BHb, Ar
nhr G id., Gz nhr G 'flow, go down' KB 639, GB 489, A #1762, OLS 321-2, HJ 72O, Lv. T II 95, Js. 882-3, Sl. 734, Br.
417, BK II 1354, BGMR 94, CAD XI/1 368-76, L G 394 ll U 'n'ira 'stream, liquid' > FU (att. in BF) 'Nira 'brook' > F nira
'small brook with a rapid current, brook in a forest', Es nira 'brook' Sm {Jn.} 'ncsr 'liquor' > Ne T ncp' 'egg-white', Ne T O
{Lh.} ncr?o_ 'sap of a tree', Slq Ke {KD} nsr 'liquid produced during copulation (vtska, som alstras vid samlag)' SK 384, Jn.
1O9-1O ll D 'nir, {GS} 'nir- 'water, liquid' > Ml nir 'water, juice, moisture', Tm nir id., 'sea, liquor', Kt, Td nir, Kn nir, niru,
Kdg niri, Klm ir, Nk, Nkr ir 'water', Knd nir masu 'mist, dew', Kui niru 'juice, sap', Brh dir id., 'water, food-water' D #369O,
GS 144 [#368] ll? A: It is worth paying attention to Ko: OKo Sl {Lee} 'narih, MKo nai_ / nai_h-, NKo na 'river' The
unexpected vw. a needs explanationl an alt. hypothetic origin os N 'laK'u 'body of water (lake, river)', q.v.) Lee GKS 8O, S
QK #229 (pKo 'nai_h). Nam 1O1, MLC 315 ^ IS MS 369 ('ni(h)rV 'to stream, flow': ?U, D, S).
1623. 'naXji,rU(-KE) 'cartilage' ( 'cartilage of the vertebra', 'backbone') > HS: S (WS?) ''nahjV,r- > Ar nahr-
'clavicule et la partie du corps entre le bas du cou et le sternum', ? Tgr nvhar 'breast', ? Jb C {Jo.} 'nahar 'windpipe and lungs', Sq
{L} 'nahar 'avoir mal la gorge' BK II 1213, LH 324, Jo. J 187, L LS 264, MiK I #1.196 ll U: FU 'norIc, {Db.} 'norIc
'gristle' [ N 'muqi'HorKV (or 'muqi arKV?) 'gristle, horn'] > pLp {Lr.} 'norIcs > Lp: N {N} n|uorgcs / -r'ga id.
(also of separate rings of the windpipe), L {LLO} L {LLO} n|uoraIis - n|uor`Ics 'cartilage in the nose, nose meat of fishes', K
{Gn.} noargas 'cartilage' | Chr L nocpioc noro, Uf/B noro, H {Ep.} nocpiic noro 'cartilage' || ObU {Ht.}
'nIrIV id. > pVg {Ht.} 'nIro > Vg: T ncrIs " ncrov, MK nsri, P ncri, Ss nari; pOs {Ht.} 'naroI > Os: Vy
naroq, Ty/Y naroq, D/K noro, Nz noro, O nar id. | ? OHg XVI nyir, Hg nyir (+ppa. 3s nyir|a) 'flesh ("frog") in the
horse-hoof' ('Strahl am Pferdehuf') [semantic infl. of nyil id. nyil 'arrow', which is a loan-translation from Sl or German]
Sm {Jn.} 'nsr 'gristle' > Ne: T ncp' , T O {Lh.} ncr?o_ id., F Nl cd uyycn-ni_crrI 'gristle of the nose', d no_c:oIu
'gristle'; Ng {Ter.} nnp id.; En {Ter.} ni' nI? / nip- nIr- id.; Slq {KD}: LTz nsr, Ch nsr id. Db. reconstructs the pFU
(and pU) vowels as 'o...c on the basis of his theory (Db OS xxvi-xxxiv) of two corr. sets for pU 'o: [1] in '-c-stems (those with a
final '-c) 'o > F o, Lp N uo, Mr o, Chr u, o, Prm 'u, Vg s (- a), Os a, o (preceding y?), Hg i, [2] in '-a-stems FU 'o > F o,
Lp L oa, Mr u, Prm {Lt.} 'u, 'o, Vg u / a (/ u), Os a (/o / u / a), Hg a (/ a). UEW reconstructs here U 'nsrIV = {UEW}
'ncrIs} or 'norIc Coll. 43, Db. OS xxvi, UEW 317, It. #62, Sm. 546 (FU 'nIrIi, FP 'ncrIV-, Ugr 'nIrIi 'cartilage'),
Lr. #794, Lgc. #4467, N II 99, LLO 628, Ber. 43, MRS 36O, Ep. 77, 134, LG 187, Ht. #317, MF 485, EWU 1O43, Jn. 1O8,
Ter. 3O5, Ter. SILSJ 287, Lh. 314, KP 144 ll A 'niru(KV) (or '-r-) > Tg 'nniri(-Ita) 'vertebrae, spine' > Ewk niri - niri, Sln
nsrds, Orc, Ud {STM} niIta id., Ud {Krm.} 'vertebra, spine', Lm ntrt id., 'back (dos)', Neg ntIta, ntytIta, Ul
ncraqta - ncrt_aqta - ntrtqta, Ork ntrtIta, Nn Mh/KU ntrtqta 'spine' STM I 639-4O, Krm. 266 M 'niruyun 'back
(dos), spine' > MM [S] {H} niruun - niriun id., [IM] {Pp.}, [IsV] {Lg.} niryun, [L, MA] {Pp.} nirun 'back (dos)', [HJ] {Ms.}
nirisun (err. spelling of niriyun?) 'spine', WrM nirugu(n), HlM nypyy( n) , Brt n pia( n) 'back, spine, backbone', WrO {Krg.}
niruun 'spine', Kl nypln nury+n id., 'back', {Rm.} nuryon 'Rcken', Ord nuru 'back (dos), vertebra', Dx {T} nurun 'back
(dos)', Dg {T} niro id., 'spine', Mnr H {T} nuru 'back (dos)', {SM} nuru id., 'fish-bone', nuru yass 'spine' (yass 'bone') H 117,
Pp. MA 257, 442, Pp. L III 72, Lg. VMI 57, Ms. H 79, MED 585, Krg. 221, KRS 386, KW 282, Chr. 343-4, Ms. O 5O2, SM 291,
T 353, T DgJ 158, T DnJ 131 ADb. SR-D 3O6 (A 'niru- 'back, backbone'), Pp. VG 39, 116 (M, Tg + qu. : OT {Cl.} |ir
'north' [acc. to Pp., 'north' 'behind ones back']), DQA #1457 (M and Tg < A 'nira 'spine') ll D {Pf.} 'nar- 'sinew, tendon,
nerve' > Tm naramu, Ml naramu, Kn nara, naravu id., Kt narb 'muscle, sinew', Td narb 'muscle, vein', Tl naramu 'vein,
nerve, tendon', Tu nara id., narambu 'sinew, nerve', Klm, Knd naram, Prj ncrub, Gdb narub, Gnd naral 'vein', Kui drambu
'tendon, sinew', Kw nromi 'nerve', Mlt naru 'the veins', ?? Krx nari 'pulse' (unless A InA: cp. OI nadi 'pipe, tube, pulse', Npl,
Ass nari 'pulse', Hnd nar`i, nari 'vein, pulse') Ml 'n- may suggest a pD 'n- (< N 'n-), but the existence of this D phoneme
in the initial position is by no means evident D '-r- goes back to 'r-clusters (in this case to '-Xr-; if pN had '-XVr-, the vw.
was syncopized in pre-D) D #29O3, Pf. 174 [#8] (Krx nari A InA).
1624. 'nar E (or 'na rE?) 'unripe, tender, weak' > HS: NrOm: Kf {C} niro 'soft, tender', Mch {L} nira(yc) 'be soft,
loose, flexible' C SE IV 15O, L M 44 ll K: MG [VTq.] narnar-i 'tender', G narnar-i 'zart, fein, sanft' ( N 'nar'u 'thin,
narrow'?) DCh. 959, Chx. 923 ll U: FU 'narc 'raw, unripe' > F , Krl Ld, Vo, Es narc 'young fir-tree' | pPrm 'ncr (=
{LG} ncr) > Z ncr 'weak, unripe, not grown up (ncno:xyanin)', Vt norcd 'unripe, young' || ObU {Ht.} nar 'raw' > pVg
'nar > Vg: T nar, LK/MK/UK/NV nor, P/SV/LL/ML nor, UL/Ss nar 'raw'; pOs 'naroy > Os: V/Vy naro, Ty/Y
na'ro, D/K na'ro, Nz naro, Kz nar, O na'r id. SK 414, LG 199, Ht. #469 ll A: Tg: WrMc niycrc {Z} 'weak, feeble, thin,
not solid', {Hr.} 'ungefttert, dnn (Kleider)', Mc Sb niro 'weak, weakly, feeble' Z 249, Hr. 718, Y #25O2 ll D 'nar- 'be
deficient in growth' > Tm naruqIu id., 'grow lean as a child', naruqIal 'stunted growth', Kn naratu 'become deficient or stunted
in growh', Tu narad+ 'stunted(ness)', Krx narma`a- 'soften down, reduce in point of stoutness' D #36O8 ^ D '-r- is a reg.
reflex of 'r-clusters, therefore we may suppose the presence of a lr. (preferably after 'r, otherwise we would have to expect
lengthening of the preceding vw.); K suggests that the lr. was ' (= '?hh), because the "strong" lrs. '_ and 'y survive in K.
1625. ? 'n'aRKa (= 'n'aRqa?) ' deer' > IE: NaIE 'yorII- 'roe deer' ( N 'XiRgV 'male horned arteodactyl' [q.v.])
> Gk o, oko) id., 'gazelle', NGk okooi; the variant ooko) id., 'gazelle' is being explained by F and P by folk-etl.
connection with ockooi 'see' || Clt: W {YGM} ivrch, iyrchyn 'roebuck', iyrchcs 'roe', OCrn yorch "caprea", Crn yorgh
'roebuck', Br yourc`h 'roe deer'; {F}: Gk [Opp.] ioko), [Hs.] iokc), iukc) id. may be loans from Galatian (a Clt lge. in Asia
Minor) WP I 2O9, P 513, EI 155 [''yorI-s 'roedeer (Capreolus')], LP 3.2, YGM-1 298, ECCE 31O, Hm. 837, LS 445, F I
41O, Ch. 293-4 ll A: Tg 'narIg- 'young elk' > WrMc niyar_uca id., Ewk Tmt nargu, Ewk M/Urm narguan 'two-years-old
male elk', Lm naran, Neg natan, Orc nagua, naguIa 'first-year young elk' STM I 635 T '|argun > OT {Cl.}
|aryun ' wild quadruped'; Early pT 1 M ':orgul > WrM orgul, HlM :opion 'one-year-old deer' Cl. 963, MED 1O71
DQA #14O9 (A 'nargu 'young male deer\elk' > T, M, Tg) ll ?? HS: B 'nHr 'antelope Mohor' (= {Pr.} nHr, where 'H is a
"strong" lr.) (< ''nVqr- < ''nVrq- resulting from de-emphatization of 'n'aRqa?) > 'nir- > Ah {Fc.} c-nir id. (pl i-nir-on),
Tns {ABs.} ti-nhir-t, Twl/Ty {GhA} cncr (pl. incr+n), Twl {ABs.} inir, tinirt, anor, Ty {ABs.} cnir (pl. iniron), anir F c.
1399, Pr. H #559, GhS 149.
1626. '`narE 'young, new-born' > HS: S: Cn ''najV,r- 'young person (boy, a youth)' > BHb 'naar id., Ph nr
'servant', Ug nr 'boy; servant'; Cn (pl.) 1 Eg [EgSSc] {Hlk.} na-a-ru-na 'warriors, soldiers' KB 668, A #18O8, OLS 315, HJ
739-4O, Hlk. #136 ll IE '`ychr- > NaIE 'ycr- / 'yor- / 'yor- 'springtime' 'year', 'young' > OI 'yar- 'year' in arya'rini
'(a cow) that calves for the first time in a year', Av yar- 'year', OPrs dus(i)-yara- 'unfortunate year (Mi-Jahr)' || Gk eo
'season, hour' (1 L hora 'hour'), )eo) 'time, year' || L hornus adj. 'of this year, this years' ( 'ho yor- 'in this year') || W
iar, Br yar 'hen' (< 'yor-a) ( 'young hen', : below Blg) || Gmc {Vr.} '|cra- 'year' > Gt |cr, ON ar, Sw, Dn, NNr ar, OSx
|ar - gcr, OHG |ar, NHG Jahr, AS c'ar (- = [y-]) 'year', NE ycar || Sl '|aro - '|ara - '|ar+ 'springtime' > RChS, OR mpo
|ara, R ) pa, SCr |ar, Cz, Slk , LLs, OP |aro, P |ar, Uk p id.; d '|ari f. > Slk |ar f., Uk p f., P |arz id., OR mpi |ari,
R , Uk p , Slv |ar f., Cz |ar 'spring crop', SCr |ar 'spring barley'; Cz |ary 'young'; d '|ar+Ia 'young animal' > Blg ' pia,
Slv |arIa 'young hen', SCr |a`rIa 'a hen that laid for the first time', Slk |arIa, Uk ' pia 'year-old sheep', OR mp+ko |ar+Ia, R,
Blr ' pia 'young sheep' Lw {Mlc.} ara/i- 'time' P 296-7, EI 654 ['(h)ycro/ch_- 'year, new season'], M K II 227-8, M
E II 98-9, F II 115O-1, WH I 658-9, LP 119, YGM-1 295, Hm. 835, Ho. S 4, 25, Ho. 141, Vr. 12, Fs. 3O1, Kb. 52O, OsS 4622-
3, KM 33O, ESSJ VIII 175-81, Glh. 288-9, Vs. IV 559, Ad. 271, Mlc. CL 24, Mlc. LL 41 (fn. 28) ll U: FU 'norc 'young, new-
born; springtime' > F nuori / nuorc-, Es noor 'young' (1 Lp N nuora- id. [ SK 4O1]) | pLp {Lr.} 'nors 'weak, tender' >
Lp: U {Schl.} n|uaras, Ml {Schl.} nuaras 'thin', L {LLO} n|uoras 'tender, soft, not yet hard' (of plants, children), 'fresh' (of
vegetables), N {N} n|oras 'soft, not woody yet' (of plants), 'weak in the body, not able to stand' (of babies), Pa {TI} nuorvs
'weak', 'tender' (of babies, reindeer calves)'; - Lp: U {Schl.} n|uarahIa 'zart', n|uarahIadt|a 'Kind im zarten Alter', L {LLO}
n|uoraI 'tender, little' (of babies), N {N} n|oraI 'young reindeer calf', n|uoraI- (in cds ) 'new-born, suckling, baby' | Chr
{Ber.} 'noro > L {} nocpoc 'noro, E {Ber.} noro 'flexible & weak', H nocpic 'noro 'flexible and young' (of a sprout,
a tree); 'norgo [ N 'nA'IVrV or 'nc'IVrV 'sprout', q.v.] > L 'nocpioc 'noro 'young sprout; young', H
nocpiic 'noro 'flexible & young' ? Sm: Mt {Hl.} 'narha, 'narha 'new' (Mt K {Pls.} n|aarha, Mt M {Sp.} napa);
possibly also ( Jn. & Hl.) Mt 'nara 'springtime' (Mt K {Pls.} nara id., {Mll.} naramua 'it is springtime') SK 4O1, Lr.
#793, Lgc. #4469, Schl. 1O1, LLO 628, N II 98, TI 3O9, 134, Ep. 77, MRS 36O, Ber. 43, Hl. M 314-5 [##722, 724], unc.
Jn. 98 ll A {SDM97} 'nar'a, {SDM95} 'narV 'young; spring, summer' < T 'nar > NaT '|az 'summer, spring' > OT
|az 'summer', MU |az id., 'spring', MQp [CC] |az, Tkm |ao, Az, VTt |az, Bsh |ao, Qrg az, Alt as, Xk cas_i, Tv cas, Tf
cas, Yk sas 'spring', Tk yaz, Ggz, Kr, Nog |az, Qzq, Qq zaz, Blq zaz, Uz |oz 'summer' || Chv L sur 'spring', Blgh
'nar 1 Hg nyar 'summer' Cl. 982, ET J 71-2, TL 73-4, Ra. 134, Jeg. 219, Fed. II 138-9, EWU 1O37 M 'nirayi 'new-
born; new, fresh' > WrM nirai, HlM n pan, Kl {Rm.} nira - nira, Brt napan id., ?: Mnr H {SM} narg_c 'jeune, en bas-
ge, tendre', {T} nargc 'young' (of trees); M 1 Yk niray - niray - niray 'new-born, baby' 1 Ewk niray - niray id.
MED 585, KW 277, STM I 639, SM 258, T 348 Tg 'nargu 'young, new' > WrMc niyara_un - niyar_un 'new\fresh' (of
grass, vegetation), 'young', 'greens', niyar_uca 'young of en elk', Lm naran, Neg natan, Orc nagua 'young elk (of the first
year of life)', Nn nargi - nt_argi, Orc nargi 'young willow' STM I 635, 639 pKo {S} 'ni_orI-m 'summer' > MKo
ni_orIm, NKo i_orIm id. S QK #19O, Nam O7, MLC 1163 pJ {S} 'natu id. > OJ natu, J: T nacu, K nacu, Kg nacu
S QJ #241, Mr. 494 S AJ 74, SDM97 (A 'nar[a]), DQA #1476 (A'ni_ar'a 'young; spring, summer') ll K
'noyr- ( N 'nAc'IrV 'sprout', q.v.) > G Gr {IS ?} noyr- 'young grass' ^ IS II 83-5 ('narn 'young, newborn') and IS MS
349 ('n'oyrn 'young'). IS adduces here D 'nar_- 'young plant, sprout', which is preferrably connected with a different N
etymon (see N 'nAc'IrV '') ^ S '-- < N ' or 'y. Lw ara/i- 'time' suggests a weak lr. ('), while G noyr- (if real) points to
a N 'y ^ On N and pIE '`- see Introduction, 2.2.6 Gr. II #362 ('nyar 'spring [season]') [IE, U, A, Ko + qu. Gil + err. J +
unc. Ai, CK].
1627. 'nutduRV'qV 'fist, knuckles of fingers; to strike with the fist\knuckles, hold in the hand' > U: FU (att. in BF)
'NurIIV 'fist, knuckles of fingers' > F nyrIIi 'fist', {Lnr.} nyrIIa, Vp {ZM} nurI 'fist', Krl nurIIi, Es K nurI
'knuckles of fingers' SK 4O8, ZM 37O ll A 'niturju,Iga 'fist' > T 'nuturuI - 'nituruI > NaT '|uturuI 'fist' > OT
{MKD} |udruq, {Cl.} |ioruq " |uoruq, {DTS} |idruq " |uoruq, MQp [CC] |uruq, Tkm |udruq, Kr |uduruI - |uduru_,
Qzq, Qq zudiriq, Nog (ipii |udiriq, VTt no(pii |+dr+q, Bsh |+or+q, Qrg uduruq, Alt {B} ( y(pyi (new spelling
|y(pyi) udruq, Qmn {B} |udruq, QK {B, Rl.}, Brb/Tlt {Rl.} |udruq, Tv cuduruq, Tf nudruq, SY uzruq, Yk suturuI, as
well as Qmn {B} nunduruq - nunturuq and Xk munzuru_ (< 'nun'duruq < 'nuturuI (possibly T '|umruI 'fist' [lit.
'clenched'] '|umur-, caus. of '|um- v. 'shut, clench') TL 253 and ADb. SR 182, 317 (both: T '|iqoruI), Cl. 892, MKD 232
(OT |udruq), DTS 265, 277, ET J 248-9, Rl. III 565, BT 57, KrkR 259-6O, BR 222, B DK 213, 235, Ra. 21O M 'nidurga
'fist' > MM [HI] {Ms.} nudurga, [MA] {Pp.} nudurqa - nudurya [nudurga], WrM nidurga, HlM ny(paia, Ord {Ms.}
nud_urga, Brt n (apia, Mnr H {SM} nudurg_a, {T} nudurga id., Kl {Rm.} nudryo 'geballte Faust', d : Kl ny(pxa, {Rm.}
nudrmo 'fist' Ms. H 8O, Pp. MA 261, MED 578, KRS 385, KW 28O, Chr. 342, SM 288, T 353 Tg 'nurga 'fist' > Ewk
ntrIa, Sln nor'ga " nuru'ga, Neg nclga - noyga, Ork nugga, {PSchm.} nurIa, Ul nuga, nugaIu, ? WrMc nuan id.
STM I 59O ? pJ {S} ninIir- 'hold in the hand' > OJ nigi_ir-, J: T nigir-, K nigir-, KLg nigir- S QJ #948, Mr. 735
SDM97 (A 'nidurgi 'fist' + 'hand'), KW 28O (T, M), DQA #1463 (A 'ni_udurgi 'fist' > T, M, Tg, J), ADb. SR 317 (T, M, Tg)
ll K: MG, G rtq- 'beat, hit' DCh. 1O42 ll ?? HS 'trI - 'trI - (Ak) 'trI > Ph trI G 'strike', JEA trI G 'strike
(with the knuckles of fingers)' ([BT] trI lyh b?sIvtl? {Lv.} 'er schlug ihn mit dem Fingerglied'), Ar trq G 'knock (at the
door), beat, play with the fingers upon (a musical instrument)', Ak fOAk trI G (inf. taraIu) 'schlagen, klopfen' HJ 1233-4,
Lv. II 198, BK II 75-6, Hv. 431, Sd. 1324-5 The initial 'n- was lost probably due to its reinterpretation as a derivational px. of
the N -pattern; 't (alongside the expected 't) is due to regressive as : 't...I > 't...I; Ak -I- is due to progressive as
('t...I > t...I) ^ If G rtq belongs here, we reconstruct a N cns. 'q, otherwise we remain with an unspecified 'K
('nutduRVKV) ^ ADb. SR 317 (A, U).
1628. 'nctV 'stalk, stem, trunk' > A: Tg 'ncti 'log, beam' > Ewk nstiq 'cross beam on the ground in the middle of a chum
(Tungusian tent)', 'seating place (made of rods) near the walls of a chum', Ud Sm {Krm.}ncsigi 'the lower part of the wall of a
chum', Ud X/Sm {Krm.} ncsigi 'a log near the inner wall of a hut that serves for keeping bedclothes, a log for keeping dishes'
STM I 655, Krm. 271 ll D (in McTm) 'nctt 'stalk' > Tm ncttu 'stalk, peduncle', Ml ncttu, nctti 'footstalk of a leaf or
fruit' D #2925 D 't for the expected 't (due to a sx.: 'nctt- < 'nct-t?) ll HS: S: Ar '6aNa nata-t- (pl. ?anta?-) 'stalk
of unripe dates'.
1629. ?? 'noj,vV (or 'noyvV?) 'to hunt, pursue' > HS: Eg fOK nv 'hunter' EG II 218 ? S 'nyv - 'nv >
Gz nv G (js. -nav) 'hunt, lay snares', Tgr pf. G nva 'hunt', Ar nv G ip. -nu-u) 'expand the wings and dart on its prey'
(of birds of prey) L G 382, BK II 1368 ll U 'novc > Sm {Jn.} 'no- 'pursue' > Ne T d n[ra-c 'to pursue ( inar c) :a
icx/ucx)', Slq: Tz {KKIH}, Tm {KD} no- 'pursue, chase' pY {IN} 'nav- 'watch, pursue' > Y: K {IN} nob-di- 'watch
( cnc(nr ), pursue ( npccnc(onar )', T {IN} nav-ri- id., {Ku.} navri- 'watch, observe' (-di " -ri is a sx. of vt.) The U (Sm,
pY) does not belong ( Rd., IN) to U 'noqvoa- (that goes back to N 'noquda 'to follow in the traces, hunt, pursue') Sm.
LM #115, Sm. 539 (U 'noxI-, FU, FP 'nuxi-, Ugr 'nugi-, Sm 'no- 'pursue' without distinction between the reflexes of
'noj,vV & 'noquda), Jn. 111, Ter. 3O8, KKIH 141, UEW 323-4 (Sm 'no- < U 'novoa- 'follow, pursue'), IN 236 (pY
'nav- < U 'novoa-), Ku. 164, Rd. UJ 4O [#37] (Y 'nav- A U 'noqvoa-) ^ If the S lr. is of N origin, it is most likely to
go back to N ' (rather than 'y), because the loss of the "light" lr. in Eg is more plausible (though still enigmatic) than that of the
"heavy" cns. 'y.
163O. 'navga 'hair, down' > HS: S {Jo.} 'nvy > Jb C {Jo.} 'noy 'long fine hairs (not only of camels)' Jo. J 198 ll U
{IS} 'nava 'hair, down' > F naava, Krl noava, Krl Ld nuav 'beard-moss' ( 'fine hair, down'); the ancient meaning is
preserved in Lp {SK} (A eF): L navva- 'down, fine hair', Ar navva 'hair on a human body') || Lp: N {N} n|avvc / -v- 'long
hair \ beard under the throat of a male reindeer \ he-goat', L {LLO} n|aavic 'long hair under the throar of a reindeer' Sm {Hl.}
'na- (< 'nava with the reg. loss of '-v-) > d : Ne T n n: nanz, Ng nansa, En X nodo n. 'down', Ne T n i naqg 'a
fine hair of nap (nopcnnia), nap (nau[c)', Slq Tz nalgI n. 'down' SK 364, LLO 986, N II 65, Ter. 352-3, KKIH 139 ll D (in
SD) 'navir 'mans hair' > Tm navir id., navitam 'mans tuft of hair, (crown of) head', Kn navir(u) 'hair' D #3615 ll A: ?? T (<
cd ?): OT {Cl.} |ovlac 'fine goats hair', {MKD} |ovlic (= |ovlic) 'goats down' Cl. 876, MKD 231 o for the expected a is
due to the infl. of the adjacent v (?) ^ Schr. UDM 756 (U, D), IS II 87 (?'na'vHa 'hair': U, D).
1631. ?? 'n'c_a 'to see' > A: [1] ?? A {DQA} 'ni_a 'eye' > Tg {DQA} 'ni_a-sa, {AD} 'ni_a-sa(l) 'eye(s)' > Nn
KU/Nh nasal, Nn KU tsal, Orc isa, Ud {Shn.} yc

, Ud X/A/B/Sm {Krm.} yah - ycha, Ud I {Krm.} yah, Ud K {Krm.}

yaha, Ul tsal, Ork tsa, tsal(a), Ewk csa " i_cha, Sln isal " 'csa " 'ycsa, Lm s+l " yasal, Neg csa, WrMc yasa, Mc Sb
yasa, Jrc {Kiy.} yasi, {Md.} qi_ac`i ({Md} qiaci) id. STM I 291-2, Krm. 242, Kiy. 124 [#496], S AJ [#38], DQA #1473
M: Mnr H {SM} nu- v. 'look'; but M 'nidun 'eye' goes back to N 'NidV 'eye; to look' (q.v. ffd.) SM 287 ?? pKo {S}
'nun 'eye' > MKo nun, NKo nun, Ko Hm nun S AJ [#27], S QK #27, Nam 115, MLC 359 SDM97 (A na: 'eye'), DQA
#1473 (Tg, Ko) [2] The A cd {DQA} 'ni_a-'mi_uri 'tears' ( 'ni_a 'eye' + 'mi_uri 'water')' [the first component going
back to N 'n'c_a 'to see', to 'oynV 'to see, look' (or 'eye'), or to 'NidV ''] > Ko: MKo nun-mir 'tears' SDM95 pJ
'na-mi(n)ta 'tears' > OJ nami-ta - namida, [RJ] namida - namita S AJ 88 The Tg words 'ina-mu- v. 'weep' and
'(i)na-mu-Ita 'tears' are likely to go back to N 'oynV + 'muhi 'water, fluid' (ffd. cf. N 'oynV ''). The M and T words
for 'tears' are of different origin ( DQA #1473): M 'nil-mu-sun 'tears' is identical with M 'nilbu-sun - 'nilmu-sun 'saliva,
spittle, mucus' (< N 'nihla 'moist, slippy', q.v. ffd.), T '|al 'tears' [> NaT '|as, Chv L iyyn Iussul (< 'Ius-sul-i, lit.
'tears of the eye'; Chv iy is 'eye')] is identical with T '|al 'fresh, moist; moisture' (< A 'nalV < N 'nogaljy,V 'slime,
tears, moisture, fluid; raw', q.v. ffd., probably N '`alXV or '3alHV 'dripping fluid' [q.v. ffd.]), cf. Cl. 972, 975-6, Rs. W 192,
S AJ 195 [#23O], Jeg. 12O-1, Fed. II 13, Rh. 2186, BR 243, BT 5O, BIG 312 S AJ 3O-1, 275 [#21] (A 'nia 'eye',
'nia(l)-muri 'tears'), DQA #1473 ll K 'na_- > OG {Abul.} na_- 'see', G na_- / na_ul-/ na_v- 'see (so.), look at, visit',
{Chx.} id., 'find' Abul. 325 & SSO I 586 (OG & eNG na_-, providing ev. for -_- rather than -q-), DCh. 974-5, Chx. 945-6 ll HS
'nhy v. 'see' > S 'nhy > Ar hN nhy (ip. -nhiy- - -nhay-) v. 'direct one's looks towards' (with semantic infl. of the
paronymous verb vhN nhv v. 'direct oneself towards' < N 'n'ihvV 'to lead, direct towards') BK II 1218, Fr. IV 257-8
B 'nyjH, ( N 'oynV '', q.v. ffd.) > Ah oni (habit. hannci_) v. 'see' Fc. 1357 Ch: WCh {Stl.} 'nah- v. 'see' ( N
'naKjV,hE 'to see, perceive'?) > Su {J} na, Ywm {IL} na`?, Kfr/Gmy na 'see' | Mbr {Sk} nay-, Wrj {Sk.} naha, Kry
na`hs` id. | Gmy, Kfr na, Cp na, Su na | Krkr na, Krf nc, Gera ni, Grm nc || CCh: Glv na, Dgh
n-inc, na 'see' | McTr: Pdl na, Gbn ni, Hw nadsn | HgB ntyo | Bcm na v. 'see' ChC s.v. 'see', ChL, J S 76, Stl. ZCh 235
[#82O] ?? Eg XVIII nv v. 'see, look' EG II 218, Fk. 127 Tk. I 126 ^ Cf. AD AltAD #3.
1632. 'nayu(-qV) 'larvas, worms, nit(s)' > U 'nivqc 'maggot(s), worm(s)' > FU 'nivqc id. > Lp: N {N} n|iv'dn|a /
-vn|- 'nits', n|ivn|a / n|iv'dn|ag- ' a small white\grayish insect found e. g. in books; an insect which come on thick sour
milk', L {LLO} n|im'n|a 'young louse' || ObU {Ht.} 'niqI - 'nuqI 'maggot' > pVg {Ht.} niqI"- > OVg S Vt n x, OVg N
BerK nini, Vg: LK nix, ncx", MK/NV nix, UL/Ss niqI"; pOs 'niqI id. > Os: V/Vy/Ty/Y/O niqI, D/K niqI, Nz niqI,
Kz n`iqI id. (Os Kz n`- still defies explanation) | Hg nyu (acc. nyuv-ct) 'maggot', 'worm, louse' Sm: Slq: Tz {KKIH}
ncnI 'earthworm', Tm {KD} ncn 'worm', Nrm {Cs.} ncu, MO/Ch {Cs.} nci, UO {Cs.} nai, NP {Cs.} nc|u, Ke {Cs.}
nci|u, B {Cs.} ncnc, Kar {Cs.} nin 'angle-worm'; Kms {KD} nci_mo, nci_mc id. Coll. 93, UEW 32O, Ht. #467, MF 493,
KKIH 14O, Cs. 141, 197, KD 44 ll A 'nncyV or 'nnayV 'louse' > Tg 'nncy- > Ewk nsyIs " nsyIs " nsyIs " nsyiIs
'small louse' STM I 616 pKo {S} 'ni 'louse' > MKo ni, Ko: Ph i, Sl/Chl/Hm/Chj/Kw i, Ks i: S QK #5O, Nam 119, MLC
1316 Rm. SKE 165 tried to reconstruct pM ''ni-sun 'louse' on the ev. of its presumable d 'niscl- (actually 'nisal-) 'kill lice,
crush with the thumb' (> WrM nisal-, HlM nasl-, Kl nncn- nisl-), but Rm.s hyp. is untenable because in fact M 'nisal-,
'bogcsun nisaci- 'kill lice with fingernails\fingers' is a sd from 'nisal- 'hit\snap with the fingers', 'nisci- 'press\squeeze with
fingernails or between fingers' (cf. MED 586, Gl. II 33, KRS 379, KW 277) S AJ 253 [#5O], DQA #1422 (A 'ncyi 'louse, nit',
incl. Tg, Ko) ll ?? D 'nnaqI...- 'worm' > Tm naqIuru, naqIur, Ml naqqul, naqqul, naqqul 'earthworm', Kn Hl
nsn:uli, Kn B naIIIlI-hula, Gnd M narvan: 'earthworm' D #29O6 ll HS: WCh: Tng {J} qaqa (df. qaqi), Krkr {ChL}
nsv-nsv 'mosquito' J T 126, ChL.
1632a. 'na3irV 'sun', 'sunshine, heat (hot weather)' > A: M 'na:irV 'summer' > Brt naap nazar, Dg {T, MYC}
nair, {Mr.} nairc, {Mrm} nair - nadir id. Chr. 317, T Dg 156, MYC 463, Mr. D 194, Klz. D 122 ? pKo {S} 'nac
'day, day-time' > MKo nac, NKo nac nat QK {S} #992, Nam 1O1, MLC 312 But T '|ay 'summer' is more likely to go
back to N 'zay V 'summer' (q.v.) ( Blz. LNA) ll D (in SD) 'nacir_, {GS} 'ncsir_ 'sun' > Tm nayiru - nayiru, Ml
nayiru - nayaru, Td nor_, Kn ncsar(u), Tl ncs+r+ 'sun' D #291O, GS 221 [#54O] ^ Suggested in Blz. LNA #4O (M,
Ko, D T).
1633. 'q'U [1] 'thing', [2] 'what?' (most probably, a phonetic reduction or an ellipsis from 'yV qV or '?cyV qV 'which
thing?') > HS: C: Ag: Xm {R} qa 'property, thing' || Bj {R}, Bj B {Alm.} na 'thing', Bj {R} na 'which?' R Ch II 86, R WBd
177, Alm. III 49 || ?? EthS: Gz novay 'vessel, ustensil, property' ( *'thing'), Tgr ~Y nay 'belonging to', 'of' (nota genitivi), Tgy
~Y nay 'of' (nota genitivi) L G 41O, LH 337 ? WCh: Ang {Flk.} nc 'who, which, whom' (rel. prn.) | Tng nsq 'what?', nuq
'who?' | SBc: Wnd ninin, Zar nnc 'what?', Wnd nuno, Zar nno 'who?' Flk. s.v. nc, ChL 'q'U may be one of the
possible sources of the LbB, Eg and Ch prepositional nota genitivi: LbB 'nV > ONum nota genitivi n || B 'njV, id. > Tz n 'of'
(afus n tmyart 'the hand of a woman'), Zgg, ASgr, Izn, Wrg, Ah, Gd, Nf, Si, Zng n, Shw on 'of' AiM 181, 23O, Ai. MCB 17O-6
Eg n, n| (f. n.t) 'of' (nota genitivi), Cpt u- on- px. of gen. EG II 196-7 Ch {Gr.}: Msg na, Lgn n, Mrg r (< 'n) id. Gr.
LA 47 This source of the LbB, Eg and Ch nota genitivi is more plausible than N 'nu 'of' [q.v.] ll K 'nV > Lz na, na-mu (pl.
na-ni) 'what' (relative), Mg ni 'that, which' (relative), Mg namu 'which, what' relative (Marr: na + 3 pers. marker mu) Marr 32,
172, Q O47, 289 ll A {SDM97} 'q'o 'what?, who?' > NaT 'nc 'what?' > OT nca ({Cl.} na), XwT, MQp, Chg, OOsm nc,
Tk nc, Az na, Qmq, Nog, Qq, Qzq, StAlt nc, VTt, Bsh ni id.; a cd 'nEmE > OT {Cl.} na-ma 'something, anything', Chg
{Cl.} ncma 'thing', MQp {Cl.} ncmc 'thing, anything', in later lgs. 'what?': Tkm namc, Qzq ncmcnc, Bsh nama, Uz nima,
ET nima, Xk nimc 'what?'; another cd is found in Xk, Shor no 'what?' Cl. 774-5, 777-8, Rs. W 352, Isx. M 235-6 The
presense of the nasal sonorant in the initial position in T contradicts reg. phonetic laws. One of possible explanations is to suppose
that in ppT the word still preserved an initial vw. (ppT 'Vnc < 'yV q'U 'which thing?' or '?ayV q'U id.) Tg {SDM97}
'qu 'who?' > Ewk qi (the higher synharmonic series), Sln ni-xs, Lm ni " qi, Orc ni, Ud {Krm.} ni, {STM} ni " ni, Ul
qui - quy - uy, Nn Nh/B ui - uy, Nn KU ni, WrMc vc, Mc Sb {Y} vs id. STM I 66O-1, Krm. 266, Y #2895 pKo {S}
'nu- 'who?' > MKo nu-, Ko: Ph/PhN/Chj nu-gu, Chs/Ks/Sl nugu, Hm nu``_gva S AJ 255 [#1O1], S QK #1O1, Nam 114,
MLC 356 pJ {S} 'nV 'what?' > OJ nani, J: T nani, K nani, Kg nai, Rk ds : Ns nu, Sh/Ht/Y nu id. S AJ 1O4, 268
[#88], S QJ #88, Mr. 493 S AJ 55, 278 [#84], SDM97 (A 'q'o 'what, who'), DQA #1552 (A 'q'i_V 'what?, who?')
SDM97, DQA and S AJ adduce here M 'yayun 'what?' (and 'yayuma id.) without justification (if they had been right, it would
have been the only case of M 'y- < A 'q-). On M 'yayun cf. s.v. N 'ya 'which?' ll ? U: Y K/T ncmc 'what?' (Y T {Krn.}
ncm-q, ncmc-lcq) IN 271, Krn. JJ 87-9 ll ? D: Krx nc 'who?', Mlt {SKD} ncrc- 'who?' m., ncri-, nc- 'who?' non-m. (nc-I
obl. for both m. and non-m.), Brh dcr, dc 'who?' (sg. and pl.) [if Emeneau is right in postulating that Brh d- is from 'n-, which
he attributes to the "NDr." proto-lge.] D 467 [#5151], Hahn KG 29-3O, SKD 44-5, Pf. 49 ("Original PNDr 'c was enlarged
by 'n-), Em. BDCG 14-5 ["We must assume that this whole NDr. group has n- (of whatever origin) as its one secondary
peculiarity"], 65 ^ IS MsN s.v. 'na interrogative (T, K, D, C, Ang), Gr. I 232-4 ("interrogative N" in T, Y, J, Ai, EA + unc. Ko
+ err. Ugr).
1634. ?? 'qibV 'to bend down, sink' > IE: NaIE 'Inci_b- 'bend down, decline' > Gmc 'xni-/'xni- > ON hnia 'hang
ones head, be despondent, sully, gloomy', AS hniian vi. 'to droop, bend down', MHG nifcn 'einnicken' || Lt Inibti (1s prs.
Inumbu 'to fall, descend, lose elasticity, decline' P O8, Vr. 243, Ho. 166, Sw. 91, Lx. 151, Ju. III 183, Frn. 277-8, IS III 57
ll HS: S '-yib- > Ar yyb (3m ip. ya-yib-, pf. yaba) 'set, disappear' (of the sun), 'be absent, hidden from' Hv. 54O Belongs
here if the meaning 'to set' is primary ll ?? A: Tg 'qcb- 'carry away' [ N 'n'ihvV (or 'q'ihvV, 'nqohivV?) 'to lead, direct
(oneself) towards', q.v. ffd.].
1635. ??? '`quc`c`V (= '`quccV?) 'late, evening, night; delay' > HS ''uc- > S 'ss: (G prm. '-uss-
'-uss-), 'vss (G prm. 'uss-) > Ar ss G (ip. uss-u) v. 'patrol \ go to the rounds by night', 'come late' (of news)',
ass- 'patrol, night-watch', vs (ip. ya-us-u) 'prowl about by night' (of man, wolf) BK II 248-9, 4O7, Hv. 471, 5O9 Ch:
Ngz gcstu 'be late' Sch. DN 126 ll IE: NaIE '`vcs- 'sunset' > OSx vcst 'in the west', AS vcst id. ('westlich'), NE vcst;
ON vcstr 'west, to the west', OSx, OHG vcstar 'westward'; OHG vcstan, NHG Wcstcn 'west'; ON vcstan, OSx vcstan(a),
AS vcstan(c) 'from the west', OHG vcstana id., {Kb.} 'westward'; OHG vcstar, AS vcstcrra 'western', NE vcstcrn (unless
OI a'vas 'down' (direction) NaIE 'au_- 'down') NaIE '`vcscros 'evening' > Gk cotco) id. || L vcscr (gen. vcscris)
id. It is possible (but not certain) that this etymon took part in the creation of IE 'vcs- 'dwell, spend the night' > OI 'vasati
'stays, spends the night', OIr fo(a)id 'spends the night' P 73, 117O-4, Vr. 658, Ho. S 87, Ho. 391-2, Kb. 1185, OsS 1132, Schz.
321, WH II 77O-1, F I 575, EI 184 (''vcscro-s - ''vcIcro-s 'evening') ll A 'q'oc`V 'evening, late' > pKo {S} 'nic- 'late' >
MKo nic-, NKo nic-, Ko Ph nit- / nii-n id. S QK #212, Nam 9O, 118, MLC 375 ? Tg: Ewk uc 'long time ago' STM II
295 pJ {S} 'nsti { - nsti?} 'after, afterwards' > OJ noti, J: T noci - noci, ?K noci, Kg noci S QJ #288, Mr. 5O1
? NaT 'oig 'youngest, latest, smallest' ( N 'quCV 'small, few', q.v. ffd.) It is tempting to adduce here WrM ocigcn
'yesterday' and the related M words, but this is unt. in the light of h- in MM [IsV] hocIcn, [LV] hcccgcn and MM [McSc]
xccigc udur (P SD I 1O) suggesting an initial pM 'q- ( Lg. VMI 33, Pp. L III 74, Iw. 436, T 379) SDM97 (A 'qoc`c 'late,
evening'), DQA #142O (A 'nlcc`c 'late', incl. Ko, J) ll ? K 'Vn` > Mg on- 'to fall (night), ncucpcr ',
onua - onva - oniua 'evening' Chik. 3O3, Q 293-4 ll ? D 'nacc- > Tm naccu 'delay, procrastination', Tl naccu 'delay,
slowness' D #578 The vw. 'a is puzzling ll ??? U: FP {UEW, Sm.) 'noca 'slow, sluggish (trge)' > pLp 'nocc id. >
Lp: L n|ahtsc 'langsam, trge (beim Gehen)', N n|oaccc 'slow, dilatory', Nt nuv_ss 'langsam (beim Arbeiten)' | Prm {LG}
'no'z- > Vt ncc - nozya- v. 'stretch out (words)', Z Vm/I nsz, StZ n ocnoc nszys 'slowly, quietly' UEW 713, Sm.
553, Lr. #777, Lgc. #442O, LG 198 The U cognate is doubtful because U '-c- is not the reg. cognate of S '-ss- and K '`. The
palatality of FP 'n- needs explanation ^ Cf. ADb. NN 35 (N 'qOcV 'late, slowly' > A, D, U 'noca + err. IE 'nas- 'live,
dwell') ^ The whole etymology is tentative, because both IE 'vcs- (in Gmc) and the T word have alt. explanations. T
oci - ocuy is found only in the T lgs. neighbouring the Mongolian language area and may be a loan from M ( WrM ocuIcn,
HlM ' uxyn 'little, small'). If the K (Mg) word belongs here, the N rec. must be 'quccV ^ On N and pIE '`- see Introduction,
1636. 'quCV 'small, few' > HS: Eg fP ns 'klein, gering', fOK ns 'der Kleine' ( HS 'nIs 'little, small' < N
'NiIu 'small, little') EG II 384-5 ? S 'vy?S > Ak fOB/OA -vis- (inf. vi`asu) 'wenig, (zu) gering sein\werden' Sd.
1496, DRS 482-3 ll A: Tg {S, SDM} att. in AmTg) 'qui- 'small' > Orc qici, Ud X/Sm {Krm.} qica?, Ud B/I {Krm.}
ica?, Ud A {Shn.} ica, nica, ? Ul nuci - nuci, ? Ork nui 'small' STM I 589-9O, Krm. 272 M 'ucu-Icn
- 'ocu-Icn 'small, little' ( 'X'unCV 'thin, narrow') > MM [HI] ucugIcn id. ('petit'), [IM] ucugcn - ucuIcn, [S]
{H} ucugcn - ucugan, [MA] ocuIcn id., [MA] ocon 'peu', WrO
ucuIcn, uciuIcn, ucouIcn, ucuuIcn 'small, little', ucuuguIcn 'trifle', WrM ucuIcn - ocuIcn,
ocuguIcn, HlM ' uxyn, Kl uin 'small, little; few', MMgl u'ciIa 'light (levis)', Dg {Pp.} u'ccI, {T} uccI, {Mrm.}
uccIc 'peu', {Pp.} u'ciIcn, ucixcn, {T} uccIcn 'small, little' Ms. H 1O7, Pp. MA 273, 449, H 157, Krg. 195, MED 629,
KRS 558, Iw. 142, T DgJ 171 NaT 'oj:,ig (probably 'o-ig) 'smallest, youngest, latest' > Qb {Rl.} ocuy, Sg {Rl.} oci,
Shor {Rl.} oca, QK {Rl.} oi 'youngest, smallest, latest', Xk {BIG} oui oci 'smallest, youngest (child in the family)', Tb {B}
oci 'the youngest (girl)', ? Alt {BT} oco ccccn 'fourth finger'; 'o- > Yk {JkR} uohun-, {Pek.} uosun- v. 'diminish,
reduce', {JkR) n. act. uostu 'diminishing, reduction' Rs. W 356, Rl. I 1133-7, B DLT 179, 182, B DChT 141, BIG 133, BT 118,
BIG 133, JkR 44O, Pek. 3O51 pJ 'usu 'thin' > OJ usu, J: T usu, K usu, Kg usi, Ns usu S QJ #1O4, Mr. 843
?? pKo {S} 'nnc- 'low, inferior' > MKo nns-Ia-, nnc-, NKo nac- nat- S QK #616, Nam 1OO-1, MLC 312 S VL
228, SDM97 (A 'niqc`i and 'quc`c), ADb. NN 34, cp. DQA #1544 [A 'qoycu thin, small' > T 'ocu- (i.e. 'oj:,ug)
'smallest', M 'ocu-, Tg 'qusi, pKo 'nnc-, pJ 'usu-).
1637. 'qa'?igu 'to bow, bend (down), hang (by sth.), hang down' > A 'qayigu, {IS} 'qaygu- 'bow, hang down' > Tg
{ADb. in IS} 'qayyu- (= {ADb.} 'qa|yu) 'descend, decline' > Ewk qcv- v. 'lie down lower on the slope, lie down nearer to
the hearth\fire', d qcyur- vt. 'move\put (sth.) nearer to the fire\chimney', WrMc vasi-, Mc Sb vasi- vi. 'descend, go\get down',
'set' (of the sun), 'alight'; possibly also d 'qayu n. 'slope', adj. 'being in a lower place' > Ewk qcyu " qcvu 'lower, being on
the river-bank \ on the edge', Sln nsx, Orc qaa '(river-)bank', Lm qay - qcy - qay " qtay adj. 'being on the
bank\coast\edge', qcvu " qcvt 'lowest', Ork qovvc, qot 'coastal, coast', Ul vayt 'lower (riverside) part of the village', Nn Nh
vayi, Nn B vat 'riverside' STM I 659-6O M 'nayigu- 'bow down, stoop' > WrM naigu-, HlM nania-x id., 'hang down (as
branches, leaves)'; ?? M 'nayigu- 'reel, walk unsteadily' > WrM naigu, HlM {Luv.}, Brt nania- 'stagger, reel ( marar c) ,
iauar c) )', Ord nagu- 'se balancer (plantes sous laction du vent), chanceler (personne ivre)'; M 1 WrMc {Z} nay_u- 'hang
(over), hang down, bend down' MED 558, Cev. 362, Luv. 258, Chr. 318, Ms. O 485, Z 2O7 IS III adduces here T '|ayIa-
'shake', which is too doubtful for both semantic and phonetic ('-I-) reasons. M 'nayigu- 'flutter in the wind; quiver; shake, sway'
(> WrM naigu- id.) is likely to be related to the T , but its connection with N 'qa'?igu 'to bow, bend' is qu. ADb. NN 38
(A 'nayga ' iauar c) ') ll HS: S 'a'vig- 'crooked, bent' > Ar aviOa aviga G pf. 'was\became crooked, bent, distorted', d
(?) 'vg > Ar vg vt. G (pf. a'Oa aga) 'turn aside (a beast, with the rein)' Fr. III 239, Hv. 5O7 ll K: Sv {Ni.} -
nIv-/-ncIv-, Sv L {Dn.} -nIv-/-niIv v. 'bend, bow', Sv UB {GP} -ncIv-/-nIv-/-niIv-: msd. li-ncIv 'to
bend', li-nIv-c (pfc. o_-niIv-a) vt. 'to bend' Ni. s.v. inyr , Dn s.v. niIv, GP 162, 249 -I- < '-?g- ll IE: NaIE
'Inci_g""- 'bend, bow' ( N ''IuNigU 'to bend, incline, bow' [q.v. ffd.]) ll U 'niI'u- 'bend down, bow' ( N
''nuK'u 'to lie down, sink, low', q.v. ffd.) ^ IS MS 35O ('nign ' nainon) r c) = bend down' > IE, U), IS III 56-61
('na|gu 'bend down, bend, hang down' > IE, U, A with further details), ADb. NN 38 (A, U, IE) ^ Sv -I- and U '-I- suggest the
presence of a lr. (most probably '?) that caused glottalization in Sv and devoicing in U; in IE the stem-internal '? (not preceding a
cns.) is lost without traces.
1638. 'qiKa (or 'n`iKa?) 'jugular vertebra, neck, nape of the neck' > U 'n`iIa 'vertebra, joint [of a body], neck, nape of
the neck' > FU 'n`iIa > F niIama 'vertebra, node of a stalk' || Hg nyaI 'neck' | Vg: T naI, LK/MK nax (pl. naIt), UK/NV
nax, P naI (pl. naIt), UL/Ss naI 'node of a stalk, joint'; Os Kz n`a'I id. Sm: Slq: Tz {Hl.} nuII 'collar-bone', Nr {Cs.}
nug, Kt nuIIa 'occiput'; Ne nixira- 'den Kopf nach hinten biegen, 6ir c :anpoinnyron iononon' (adduced by IS), which
rather belongs to Sm {Jn.} nIIo- - niIo- 'den Kopf biegen' IS II 92, Ht. 2O2 [#781] (adduces Os V/Vy/Ty noy, Kz nuv
'bough', but not Os Kz n`a'I), Jn. 1O1 ll A {IS} 'niIa 'neck, vertebra', {DQA} 'ni_aIc > M 'nigur-sun 'spinal marrow,
spinal cord' > WrM nigursun, HlM nniapc( an) , nniac, Kl nylpcn nuy+rs+n '(spinnal) marrow', {Rm.} nuy
rsn 'spinnal
marrow, cartilage between vertebra'; ? MM [HI] nirusun or nirisun 'spinal cord' (acc. to Ms., a slip of the pen for 'niyursun, but
Lew. may be right in considering it a misspelling for niruyun 'back, spine') MED 58O, KRS 385, KW 281, Ms. H 79, Lew. II 64
Tg 'niI-, 'niIin- 'neck' > Ewk Brg niIin 'neck, vertebra of the neck', Ewk
niIinma - niIinma " niIimna - niIimna - niIimna - niIimna " niIimqa id., Ewk Chmk niIin 'throat', Sln
nixama - nixima 'neck', Lm ntq+n " ntI+n " niIan 'back of the neck, vertebra of the neck', Neg ntxma " niIimna "ntIma
'neck, vertebra of the neck', Ul ntqt(n-) id., 'back (dorsum)', Ork ntqt(n-) 'neck part of a fish head', ntqtmna 'neck of a reindeer',
WrMc niIdc {Z} 'place of the saddle on horses back (at the end of the mane and front shoulder-blades)', 'nape', {Hr.} 'der den
Sattel tragende Teil des Rckens bei Pferd, Maultier und Esel; Sattellage' STM I 591, Z 231, Hr. 698 ? T '|aIa 'collar' > OT
|aqa, Tk yaIa, Az |a_a, Tkm, VTt |aqa, Qzq, Qq zaya, Nog |aya, Qrg aqa, Alt aqa, Uz |oqa, Yk saya, Chv L
yxa su_a 'collar' The T word is homonymous with '|aIa 'edge, border', but it is not clear if the words are etymologically
identical ('collar' 'edge' or 'edge' 'collar'?); if the original meaning is 'edge, border', the T does not belong here ET J 82-4,
Jeg. 222, Fed. II 146-7, Cl. 898 If the T word belongs here, SDMs rec. 'naI`a or 'naI`c may be justified SDM97 (A
'naI`c 'neck, vertebra'), DQA #1464 (A 'ni_aIc 'neck, vertebra') ll IE: NaIE 'InoI(I)o-/IncI(I)o- 'nape of the neck,
tumulus' ( N 'guq'qE or 'guq'qV 'nape, hind part of head' [q.v.]) > ON hnaIIi, hnaIIr 'nape', OHG {Kb.} nac 'summit,
crown, neck', {OsS} hnach " hnacch 'nape, occiput', MHG {KM} nac(Ic), NHG NacIcn, MLG nccIc, MHG gc-nic, gc-nicIc,
NHG GcnicI 'nape of the neck', AS hnccca 'nape, back of the head, neck', NE nccI || Clt: OIr cnocc 'protubrance, colline,
mont', NIr cnoc, W cnvch 'protubrance', cnvch y gvcgil 'la bosse de la nuque', OBr cnoch 'tumulus', MBr Incch, Br Ircc`h,
Ircac`h 'hill' || Tc A InuI 'neck, nape' Vr. 242, Ho. 166, OsS 4O8, Kb. 714, Lx. 61, KM 248, 5OO-1, Vn. C 132 (IE
'InoIIo-), Wn. 225, P 558-9 ('Incu-g-, -I-) ll ?? HS: S ''unju,I- - ''inju,I- 'neck' [ N 'omKE '( part of the)
neck\chest', q.v. ffd.] ^ There may be two alt. hypotheses for this : [1] N 'q- yields IE 'In- and U 'n`- (or zero in some
positions), while T '|- and Tg 'n- are positional reflexes of A 'q- before 'i; [2] IE 'In- reflects N 'n`-. I find the first hyp. more
natural because of the presence of a velar\lr. feature in IE, which is parallel to A 'q- (found in similar roots not before 'i, e.g. in N
'qa'?igu 'to bow, bend', 'q'U 'thing; what?', 'qVlV 'hVmP'i 'gnat, mosquito'). The second hyp. does not cope with the fact
that N 'n`- (evidenced by U) yields IE 'n- rather than 'In- in several roots ('n`i 'not', 'n`oKV 'to hurt'). IE 'n- (rather than
'In-) in 'ncus- 'nose' (< N 'qaqasa) and NaIE 'nau_- 'dead body' (< N 'qav'i) may be due to the presence of a lr.; n- in
Ht nanna- vi. 'treiben, ziehen, marschieren, fahren' (< N 'qni) may be due to as ^ AD NM #1O8, Vv. AEN 7, ADb. NN 38
(A, U, IE).
1639. ? 'q'ivolV 'to extend, stretch, become long' > HS: S '-ul- > Ar vl (pf. ala, ip. -ul-) 'deviate from the right
course', ala fi... (ip. yaulu fi...) 'extend the bounds in', {BK} 'dpasser\excder le chiffre \ la mesure' BK II 411, Hv. 51O
ll A 'qollV ({SDM} 'qolV, {S VL} 'qolV) 'long; to extend' > M: WrM nolig, HlM nonni 'long\boring' (of a conversation)
Luv. 27O, Cev. 38O Tg {S} 'qol'i- 'be long' - 'qolVmi 'long' > WrMc golmin, Mc Sb gollin 'long, extended', Ul
valmt - volmt - qolmt, Orc qon(i)mi, Ud {Krm.} vanimi, {STM} vanimi " vanimi, Ork, Nn Nh qontmt, Ewk qonim,
Sln ninomi, {Iv.} iono x, Lm qon+m, Neg qonom id.; d 'qoljm,i-la 'length' > Ul qolmila, Orc qonila, Ud vanila, Nn
qontla- (+ppa.) id. STM I 664-5, Krm. 218 pKo {S} 'nnr- 'be extended, extend' > MKo nnri-, NKo nil- S QK #123,
Nam 92, MLC 372 pJ {S} 'nan-Ia 'long' > OJ naga-, J: T nagai, K naqai, Kg nagc, Ns naga-, Sh naga-, Ht na-, Y
na- S QJ #44 S AJ 1O9, 276, DQA #1546 (A 'qola 'long; to extend'), S VL 227-8 ll ? U: FU:
Hg nyul(-iI) 'stretch,
extend, expand', unless it is related to nyu|t- id., which goes back to FU 'nXyV id. Coll. 1O3 (tentatively equates Hg nyul-
with Vt nuyal- 'stretch, extend'), UEW 3O9 (explains the Hg and Vt forms as derived from the reflexes of FU 'nnXyV) ll D
'nil- 'be long; extend' > Tm nil id., 'length', Ml nila, nilc, nilavc 'far', nilam 'length', niluIa 'extend oneself, become long',
Kt nir`-, nin`- '(iron) becomes longer by expansion', nit- 'lengthen (iron)', Td nil- 'be stretched out straight' (rope), 'stretch
oneself over\into', Kt, Td nit- 'stretch out' (limb), Kn nil 'grow long\high, extend, extend oneself', Kdg nila 'length', Tu nclya
'great, large', nitu- 'stretch out\forth', Tl nilugu 'stretch, stretch ones limbs', Knd nilba 'straight, erect', Kui nilba 'be standing'
(corn), Ku niluvu 'long (in measuring)' D #3692 ^ ADb. NN 35 (A ['qola], U, D), DQA #1546 (A, D).
164O. 'qVlV 'hVmP'i 'gnat, mosquito' (= 'nVlV + ''hVmP'i?) > A: Tg 'qalma- 'gnat' > Ork
qalma-qta - nalma-qta - nala-qta - namma-qta, Ud qama-Ita, Orc gama-Ita, Ul galma-qta - garma-qta, Nn B
galma-qta - garma-_ta - garma-qta, Nn Nh/KU garma-qta, Ewk, Neg qanma-Ita, Sln
nama-Ita - namma-Ita - namma-tta, WrMc galma-n, Mc Sb (galomon) [gamon] id. STM I 657, Krm. 271, Y #2259 pJ
'amu 'gadfly' > OJ amu, ltOJ [RJ] abu, J: T abu, K abu, Kg abu S QJ #1512, Mr. 376 DQA #1525 'qalma 'a stinging
insect': Tg, J) ll D: [1] (in McTm) 'nulam- 'mosquito, gnat' > Tm nulamu 'gnat, eye-fly, mosquito', Ml nuramu 'gnat, eye-
fly' D #3715 ?? [2] D 'ummVl- ' stinging insect' > Kn ummuni ' insect', Tu umil - umbli 'mosquito, gnat', Nkr
ummcl 'mosquito' D #638 ll HS: [1] (mt ) S ''namja,l- 'ant', coll. 'namal- > Ar naml- - numl- 'ant(s)', snglt. naml-at-, BHb
el1m1n^ noma'l-a 'ant', pl. MHb Mil5m1n^ noma'l-im 'ants', Sr \omo noma'la 'ant nest', Mh {Jo.} nomil (pl. nomol),
Hrs {Jo.} lomcl (pl. lomol), Sq {Jo.} 'nsmhcl, Ak namalu, namlu, lamattu (< 'la'manatum < 'na'malatum) 'ant' BK II
1349, KB 662, KBR 7O1, Sd. 533, 725, Jo. M 299 [2] S 'nimm- > Ar nimm-at- 'ant, louse' Fr IV 337, BK 1346 The
change 'n...lm- > ' and the mt 'nlm > 'nml are due to the S incompatibility law that rules out a sequence of two
dental sonorants in the same Ch: ? WCh: Su {J} qgum, Ang qgum 'insect' || ECh: Jg {J} lolmo 'ant' J J 114, Stl. ZCh 218
[#68O] ll U: FU 'lXmV - 'nn`oumc 'small fly or mosquito': [1] FU 'lXmV (= lumV?) > pChr {Ber.} 'lum- > Chr: H l+mc,
Y lumcy, M lumiy, B lumc 'a very small fly' || pVg 'l'umoy/'l'umoy 'gnat' > {Knn.}: LK lomoy, MK 'lomoy, P
lomoy - lamoy, Ss lumuy - lomuy id.; [2] Prm 'nomi 'mosquito' > StZ nom / nomy- 'mosquito', Z USs nom 'gnat'
('xomia='), Yz num 'mosquito', Vt nImI 'gnat', Vt C nImI 'mosquito' UEW 262, 71O-1, Ber. 34, LG 193, Lt. 56 ^ Ffd. see N
'nVllV ' insect' [the differentce in the initial nasals ('n- 'q-) is still to be investigated] and N ''hVmP'i 'stinging insect'.
1641. ''qamTV 'to give' > HS: S 'ntn - 'ndn - (?) 'ndy v. 'give' > BHb ntn (pf. na'tan, ip. -ttcn), Amn, Ed, Yd,
OA, IA, BA, JEA, Nbt, Plm, JA, Md ntn G , Ug {OLS, A}, Ph, Pun ytn G , OCn Sn tn, Ar NY S (A SS?) ndy (pf. ?anda,
ip. yandi), JA [Trg.] ntn G 'give, present (Schenken)'" ddy (pf. ?addi ip. yiddi) 'give', Jb ndoh 'give it here!', Akk ndn (inf.
nadanu) 'give' The variant ytn in Ph and Ug goes back to metanalysis of the Cnn ip. '-ttin- < '-ntin- KB 692-4, 175O, KBR
733-5, HJ 478-9, 766-7O, Alb. PSI 44, A #1255, Grd. UT ##1169, 1716, OLS 543-4, Lv. T II 133, Sl. 78O-1, DM 3O7, Jo. J 18O,
Bns. NJ I 191, Sd. 7O1 WCh: pBT {Stl. ZCh} 'un, {Stl. VZCh} 'on v. 'give' > Bl {IL} ono id., Tng oni, Ngm ona, Maha
oni v. 'give' J T 127, Stl. ZCh 247 [#47], Stl. VZCh B #14 ll U: FU 'amta v. 'give' > F anta- v. 'give, give as present', Es
anda- v. 'give', pLp {Lr.} 'vomtc > Lp: N {N} vuov'dc- / -vd-, L {LLO} vuob'tc- - vyogtc- v. 'sell', I {It.} vycbdio, Pa
{TI} uu'_d_c-, Nt {TI} uu_tc- v. 'give' | pMr 'ando- > Er an(o-ando-, Mk an(o- ando- v. 'nourish, feed' | pPrm 'ud- v.
'feed, give to drink' > Z, Prmk ud- id., Vt udI- v. 'give to drink' || Hg ad- v. 'give, give as present' UEW 8, Coll. 72, Db. OS
xxxii, Sm. 541 (FU 'Imta- 'give, sell' > FP 'cmta-, Ugr 'Imta-), LG 295-6, SK 2O, Lr. #144O, Lgc. #8716, TI 7O4, Ker. II 34-
5 ll ? A: pJ {S} 'ataa- v. 'give' > OJ ataa-, J: T atac-, K atac-, Kg atac id.; - OJ atai_i 'price' S AJ 112, 269
[#117], S QJ #117, Mr. 387, 678 S AJ 279 [#1O9], SDM97 (A 'amta 'to give' - rec. based on the external comparison with U)
ll D 'amm- v. 'sell, give away' > Tm ammu v. 'sell, send', Gnd amana, mamana, omm- v. 'sell' D #186 ^ We reconstruct N
'q- on indirect ev.: a N 'q- is the only phoneme responsible for the correlation S 'n- U, D '-.
1642. 'qni 'go (away)' > HS: Eg P/CT nny v. 'go, go away' EG II 276 ll
IE: ( N 'n'ihvV 'to lead'?) Ht nanna-,
nanniya- vi. 'drive, ride in an animal-drawn vehicle', vt. 'drive (animals, persons, evils)' CHD L-N 391-3, T E II 271-3, Sturt.
CG 215, 247 (believed that nanna- is a rdp of nai- 'lead') ll A 'qacni ({DQA} 'qcni) v. 'go' > Tg 'qcnc- 'go, walk' > Ewk
qsnu- 'go (gehen, fahren), walk', Ewk qsns-, Neg, Ud qsns-, Ork qs(n)ns- vi. 'move (somewhere), go', Sln nsns- 'set off, leave
( ornpannr c) )', Lm qsn- " qon- " qon- vi. 'move, go away', Ork qsn- 'go away', Ul qsns-, Nn sns- vi. 'move, go, go away',
WrMc gcnc- 'go, set off' STM I 67O-1, Krm. 273 pKo {S} 'nan(n) 'go, move forward' > MKo nan-, nann-,
nas-/nan-, NKo nas- = nat-, na-Ia- S QK #174, Nam 88, 99, 1O1, MLC 292, 311 pJ {S} 'in- 'go away' > OJ in- id. S
QJ #214, Mr. 697 ? M 'ncu- 'drive the herd to other pasture grounds, trek, nomadize, move from place to place, migrate'
( N 'nEhag'u 'drive, chase', q.v. ffd.) DQA #1533 [A 'qcni 'go (down, away)', incl. Tg, Ko, J, M], S AJ 18, 72, 257,
1643. 'qanV 'take so. with oneself, lead' > HS: S 'nyv > Ar I'Oa ani-n 'captive' BK II 39O-1, Hv. 5O5 ll IE
'nci_L- > NaIE 'nci_(o)-/ 'ni- 'to lead', Ht {CHD} nai-/nc- vt. 'send, dispatch' [ N 'n'ihvV (or 'q'ihvV, 'nqohivV?) 'to
lead, direct (oneself) towards', q.v. ffd.] ll A {DQA} 'qani 'take so. with oneself' > AmTg 'qani- v. 'fetch, go to take so./sth.' >
Nn Nh qant-, Ul qant-/t- 'go to fetch sth. STM I 657 ? pKo {S} 'nin- 'combine, continue' > MKo nin-, NKo is- = it-
S QK #998, Nam 127, MLC 1369 DQA #1529 [A 'qani 'take so. with oneself', incl. Tg, ? Ko] ^ ADb. NN 35 (N
'qAnV 'take so.\sth. with oneself' > IE, A {DQA} 'qani + err. D nan`- 'approach, join').
1644. 'qjVv,anV 'sky, cloud' > HS: CS 'anan- - 'anan- - 'a'vann- 'clouds' > BHb Nn!o1 a'nan 'clouds,
cloud-mass (Gewlk)', BA Nn!o9 "'nan, Sr 'nono0 "na'n-a 'cloud', Ar ann-(at-) 'cloud(s)' [< 'a'vann-], anan- 'rain
cloud' KB 811-2, Br. 533, JPS 42O, BK II 377 ll A {DQA} 'qana {AD} 'sky, clear sky' > Tg 'naqna 'sky' > Ewk, Neg, Orc,
Ud naqna, Lm naqtn " nan, Ork naqna 'sky', WrMc niyaqniya 'sky, clear sky' STM I 634, Krm. 269 T 'a'n > [1]
'a'nar 'cloudless sky' > OT [MhK] {Cl.} ayasz 'clouless, bright', MQp XV ayaz 'clear weather', XIV [CC] ayasz, Chg XV
ayaz 'a clear cloudless night', Qmq, ET ayaz, Tv ayas, Bsh ayao, Chv L uyar 'clear weather', Tkm ayao, Tk ayaz, Az, VTt, Qzq,
Nog, Qq, Qrg ayaz 'frost'; [2] Bsh ayat- 'become clear' (weather), [3] SbTt ay+q 'clear' (of weather); ? [4] 'ayniq- 'become
clear' (of sky, weather)', 'recover (from illness), get sober' > Qzq, Qq, Qrg ayiq- id. ( T 'aoi- represented by OT aoiy sober')
Cl. 46, 276, ET Gl 1O2-3, TL 13, Rl. I O, 218 ?? pJ {S} 'amai_ 'sky, rain' > OJ amc, J: T amc, K amc, Kg amc, Ns
amI, Sh ami, Ht ami, Y ami S QJ #59, Mr. 381 DQA #1526 'qana 'clear sky'll D 'van`a 'sky, cloud, rain' > Tm
van, vanam, Gnd KM {BB} vana id., Ml van(am), Kt vanm, Td on - fon, Kn ban(a), bana, Tu bana, bana, Krg
ban`a 'sky', Tl vana, Klm vana, Nk vana, Prg van-i, Gdb vayin 'rain' D #5381 Cp. D 'vin` 'sky' < 'vEynV
- 'vEnyV 'daylight' (q.v. ffd.) ^ ADb. NN 34 (N 'qa'nV 'sky' > A, D).
1645. 'qch'Ur'i 'light, fire' > HS: CS 'nhr 'light', v. 'shine' ( N 'nahcrV 'day, sun, daylight' and N 'nuRV 'become
very hot, shine'?) > BHb nhr v. 'shine, be radiant', er!e1n^ noha'ra 'light' ('Licht, heller Schein'), BA ar!&en^ noho'ra, JA
r&en^ no'hor, em. noho'ra, Sr owu nuh'r-a (cs. .h no,hor), Md nhura 'light', Sr, Md nhr v. 'give light, shine', Ww
?nhr v. Sh

'illuminate', Plm nhyr 'illustrious' JI 72O-1, KB 639-4O, 1744, KBR 676-7, BDB 626, Br. 417-8, DM 291, Nld. MG
118 ll A [1] 'qcrV 'light (lux)' > Tg 'qcri 'light' > Ewk qsri, Lm qsri - qsrin n. 'light (lux)', adj. 'light (hell)', Sln nsri
'daybreak (aurora)', Nn Nh qsrun- v. 'be dawning' STM I 671-2 Pp. IAL 25, S AJ 18, DQA #1439 [pA 'qcra 'day, sun,
light': Tg + unc. T, M and Ko roots that belong to N 'nahcrV '', q.v. ffd. + ?? J 'ari- 'dawn'] l [2] A: M (d ?) 'nurma 'hot
cinders, embers; bonfire' ( N 'nuRV '') > WrM nurma, HlM nypax, nypxa 'hot cinders, embers; bonfire, campfire', WrO
nurma 'cinders, ashes', Kl nypx nurm, Brt nypxa 'hot cinders, embers' MED 59, Krg. 229, KRS 386, Chr. 333 ll D: [1]
'nc'yur- > Krx niyur 'embers, live cols, brand', Mlt narc 'flame' || Ml ncri 'heat, burning, pungency', Tm ncruu, Ml
ncriu - ncriu 'fire', Kt, Td nc 'live coal' || Tl niu 'fire', Nkr nirIi- v. 'kindle', Gdb niriI- - niruI- v. 'light a lamp', Gnd
nirvana vt. 'burn', Kui drc 'ignition, a flare' D #811 l ? [2] 'crji,- 'fire', vi. 'burn' > Tm cri 'fire', cri- vi. 'burn', Ml cri 'heat,
burning, pungency', Kt crv- vi. 'shine brightly' (of anything except sun), Td cr- 'be very bright', Kdg cri- 'have burning\astringent
sensation' (of mouth), Tu cri 'the glare\heat of fire', criyu- 'glare, be hot', Tl criyu v. 'burn, grieve', Klm, Nkr, Nk crI- v. 'light
(fire)', Prj cri- 'burn the mouth', Gnd crs-"ars- v. 'taste pungent', Knd, Ku cr-, Kui cra v. 'kindle, light' D #2929 ^ IS II
85-6 [#32O] ('nara 'fire; to flame'; does not dustinguish between the reflexes of 'qch'Ur'i and those of 'nahcrV 'day, sun'
1646. 'qaqasa 'nose' > HS: the S root 'n_s ('nose'?) is attested in a derived noun meaning 'bone of the nose': Mh
ns_sis, Jb E ns_scs, Jb C na_'scs, Hrs nn_sis id. Jo. M 3O8-9, Jo. J 199, Jo. H 1OO ll IE 'ncus-, in oblique
cases 'nuos- 'nose' ('u = traditional 'H) > OI 'nasa f. 'nose' (Vd [RV] gen. du. na's-oh, [AthV] instr. sg. na's-a), OPrs acc.
naham, Av naqha - (?) nah-, BdSgd nns || L naris 'nostril' (pl. narcs 'nostrils, nose'); OL nasum, L nasus ({WH}: < ex.
gem. 'nasso-) || Gmc: ON nos, Nr nos, Dn nosc, Sw nasa 'nose', Sw nos 'muzzle, nose', OHG nasa, NHG Nasc, OFrs, MDt
nosc, Dt ncus, AS nosu 'nose', NE nosc || Lt nosis 'nose', Ltv nass 'nostril', Pru nozy ({En.}: = '[nosi]) 'nose' | Sl
'nos+ id. > OCS uet+ nos+, Blg, R noc, Uk n c, SCr, Slv nos, Cz, Slk, P nos The structure of the word and its paradigm
were reconstructed by Lub. on the basis of archaic forms: nom. 'ncus- > Ltv nass, Vd du. 'nasa, acc. 'ncus-m > Ltv
nasi, OPrs naham, L narcm, obl. 'nuos- > ChS, OR uet+, Vd gen. du. na'soh WH II 143, 145-6, Lub. AP*a 6O, P 755,
EI 395 (''Hnas-s - ''Hnas / 'Hna's-os), Mn. 827, M K II 146, 157, M E II 3O-1, Gersh. G 39, 139, Bai. 21O, WH I 143-4, Kb.
716, OsS 64O, KM 5O3-4, Ho. 238, Vr. N 469, Vr. 415, Hlq. 7O7, 717-8, Frn. 5O9, En. 217, ESSJ XXV 212-6, Glh. 44O-1 ll A
'qaIsa 'nose' > Tg 'qi_aIs'a, 'qi_aIsi-n 'nose' > Nn qoqso 'nose', Orc qiqso, Ud {Krm.} quho - qoh, Ork naqsa, Ul
qaIsa - vaqsa id., Lm A ncs - qcs 'nose, beak', Neg nasin '(bear's) nose' STM I 587, 636, Krm. 273, S AJ 218 [#173]; on
the reflexes of Tg 'i_a and 'Is cf. Ci. 1O6-8, 194-7, 229 pKo 'nnch 'face' > MKo nnc" - nns, NKo nac" [nat] id. S AJ
257 [#182], S QK #182, Nam 1OO-1, MLC 313 ?? M 'naIcar-: derivates with this denote some part of the nose: WrM
nagcarqai - nagcirqai, HlM nagcirhay 'posterior (internal) nostrils', Kl naIcr_
'bridge of the nose', Brt naicaiap 'having a
flat bridge of the nose' ( Cev. 362, Luv. 258, KW 27O, Chr. 317, KRS 367, S AJ 244 [#24O]), the cns. 'c in M seems to go back
to a sx. and not to belong to the pA stem (unless we accept SDMs hyp. of a pA 'c > M 'c and Tg 's) SDM97 (A 'qaIca),
S AJ 18, 293 [#454]), DQA #1538 (pA 'qi_aIcV 'nose, some part of the nose') ^ The IE reflex 'n- (rather than the expected
'In-) may be due to the presence of a lr. The a-coloured IE lr.'u points to a N vw. 'a after 'q. ADb reconstructs the N etymon as
'nayqICV 'nasopharynx' ^ Cf. AD PNPh, AD AltAD #8.
1647. ?? 'qEtH'a ' sharp instrument, sharp tooth; to bite\cut' > A 'qnat`a (- 'qnit`a??) ' knife' > NaT '|aj:,t 'big
knife; weapon' > Osm {Rh.} 'Ya yat 'arms, weapons; armour', Tk yat 'armour', as well as possibly d : Tk yatagan, Az yatayan
' long knife' Rs. W 192, Rh. 2179, AzRL I 516, Rl. III 19O, 199 less plausible (??): NaT '|itig 'sharp' > OT |itig, |it(t)i,
K/Qb/Qc {Rl.} |idig id., Xk ctttg, Tv cidig Cl. 889, Rl. III 526-7 pKo {S} 'nat > MKo nat 'sickle', NKo nas nat id.,
'scythe' S QK #4O9, Rm. SKE 162, Nam 94, MLC 311 pJ {S} 'nata > J: T nata - nata, K nata, Kg nata 'hatchet' S
QJ #416, Mr. 494 ? M 'nitul- v. 'cut' > MM [S] {H} nitul- 'cut' ('ab-\durch-schneiden'), WrM nitula-. HlM n rna- 'kill,
slaughter (cattle)', Ord nut`ul- 'kill' H 117, MED 586, Ms. O 5O3 SDM97 (A 'nct`a > T, M, Ko, J), Rm. SKE 162 (Ko, J),
DQA #1461 [A 'nit`a 'sharp weapon', ' knife': Ko, J, M, T '|iti] ll IE: NaIE 'Incd- / 'Icnod- 'bite, cut with a sharp
tooth\instrument' > Gk kveoev (gen. -ovto)) 'sword' (originally an acp. *'biting'), pl. kveoovtc) 'two projecting teeth on the
blade of a hunting spear' || Lt Iasti (1s prs. Iandu) 'to bite' [< 'Ionod-], Ltv Iost (1s prs. Iozu, Iodu) id., 'be sharp, cut', Lt
Iandis n. 'bite, sting' P 56O, F I 887-8, Ch. 349-5O, Frn. 227 The apophonic grade 'Icnod- (< 'IcnHd-) is a
secondary formation based on 'IncHd- The IE form suggests a mt 'qEtH'a >'qEht'a ll HS: Ch '?adV 'bite; eat (hard
food)' (in some lgs. contamination with the reflex of N '?itE 'to eat' [q.v.]) > AG: Su {J}, Gmy at, Tal at, Ang {ChL} ?at, Cp
{ChL} ?st 'bite' | BT: Grm {Sch.} ad- 'bite', Dr {J} ad-, Krf {ChC} adda-vo, Pr {Frz.} addo 'eat (hard food)', ? Krkr
{Lk.} had- id. || CCh: BB: BtG {Mch} ado, Bcm {Sk.} ado, Gudu {ChL} o:du, ? Nz '?id- 'bite' || ECh: Brgt {J} ?addi
'eat (hard food)', Mkl {J} ?adima / ?adi id., ?a?ida 'bite' ChC, ChL, J LM 55-6, Frz. P 18 ^ The emphatic cns. in A
('t`) and Ch ('d) goes back to the cluster 'tH.
1647a. ???? 'qitU 'worm(s), maggot(s), nit' > NaIE 'Inid- - 'Inid- 'nit, louse' ( 'IENitV 'louse, nit') ll HS: S
'Vtt- > Ar SL att- 'moth, tick, mite' Hv. 451 WCh: AG: Gmy nit, Chip niyct 'worm' ChC, ChL ll A: M 'otun
'worms, maggots' (unless with 'q-) > WrM otu(n), HlM ' r id., Kl ' rn oton, Brt ry( n) 'worm(s); M 'otu- v. 'develop
maggots' > WrM otu-, HlM ' r' - id., Brt ry- id., 'begin to breed' (of maggots\worms), Kl ' r- ot- id., {KW} 'ot

'Wrme haben' The absence or presence of pM 'q- cannot be checked on the extant data. M 'o- < 'i- (as. infl. of '-U) MED
646, Chr. 516, KRS 427, KW 3O2 ^ Qu., because IE 'Inid- - 'Inid- has a good alt. et. and with the extant data the absence of
pM 'q- cannot be proved.
1648. ? 'qav'i 'dead, dead person' > HS: S 'nyv > Ar ny (pf. oaNa naa, ip. -niy-) v. 'declare so. dead,
announce the death of so.' (the direct obj. being the dead prs.) BK II 13OO ll IE: NaIE 'nau_- 'dead body; death' > ON na-r
'corpse', Gt nau-s (gen. navis) 'dead person', AS nc(o) id., 'corpse', ncobcdd 'death-bed' || Sl 'navi, 'navi|c > ChS, OR uoai
navi, SCr nav, R nan 'dead person', OCz nav (gen. navi) 'grave; next world', d unaviti v. 'kill', Slv nav 'soul of a dead
person', Slv nav|c, Blg ) nann 'souls of unbaptized children', Blg ) nann ' evil spirits' | Ltv navc 'death', Pru novis
"Leib" 'body' ( *'corpse'); ? Lt novc' 'death, pangs of death', novyti 'destroy, torture to death' ( novc' 'Bedrckung',
novyti 'bedrcken') P 756, EI 15O (''nch_vi-s 'corpse'), Fs. 372, Vr. 4O5, Ho. 232, Frn. 5O9, En. 217 (novis 'trunk of the
body'), Vs. III 35, ESSJ XXIV 49-52 ll A {SDM97} 'qavc ({DQA} 'qni_abi) 'dead person' > Tg 'qi_abi- 'dead person' >
Ewk qcvi id., 'spirit of a dead ancestor', Lm qsbi 'invisible person', Ul nsvu- - nsu- v. 'bury', nsuvi 'burial' STM I 658 ?
pJ {S} 'ms or 'mu_a (or 'ms, on the ev. of modern J ds ) > OJ mju_,o, J: T mo, K/Kg mo 'funeral, mourning' S QJ
#1O71, Mr. 484 SDM97 (A 'qavc 'dead man'), DQA #1539 [Tg, J < A 'qi_abi 'deceased') S, Md., ADb. (SDM97) and
DQA adduce here an alleged pT {SDM, DQA} '|cbcg (i.e. '|cbcg) 'cemetery, grave', presumably yielding Yk sibian 'ghost'
and Chv s+va 'cemetery, grave', which is unt. : in fact Chv s+va is akin to OT |oy 'funeral feast' < pT '|og < ppT 'oog, as
attested by the Gk gloss ooio [MenP, 3rd c.]); cp. OChv 'suva (1 R c na 'Chuvash cemetery' [Dal IV 382]) ( Rs. W 197,
Cl. 895, Jeg. 2O4, Fed. II 89, Mrv. II 112) ^ ADb. NN 35 [A, IE + unc. SD 'nav-ai_- 'be troubled, perish' and an unc. OHg-F
parallel: OHg nyuvad- vi. 'ersticken, ertrinken' and F nuutua 'be tired' cf. EWH 1O49, SK 4O6].
1649. ?? 'qjuv,ayV 'long hair' > HS: CCh: Mrg q"i 'beard' ChL ll A 'quyc- 'long hair (of animals)' > Tg
'quyc-lsc, 'quyc-n 'long hair under the neck' > Ork qivslts - nivslts 'long hair under reindeers neck', Lm Sk qo'yysldo', Lm
M qo'ysldo, Lm O qo'yslls - no'ysllo, Lm Ol mo'yslro - qo'yslro, Ewk muyalls " muyslls " muyalrs id.,
muyan " muysn id. STM I 551 ?? pJ {S} 'bs ( 'bu_a) 'tail' > OJ vo, J: T/Kg o, K o, Sh yu id. S AJ 267 [#75],
S QJ #75, Mr. 5O3 DQA #1545 [Tg, J < A 'quyc 'long hair'] ll U 'vaya 'long hair (of animals)' > Chr H
vaya {Szil.} 'die lngeren Haare an Fellen', {Rm.} 'Verbrmung aus Lammfell' Sm: StNe T cnrc-, Ne T BZ {Lh.}
ttc-, Nn F |i_cyys- v. 'adorn with long white hairs of a reindeer', '(mit Renntierbart) Muster sticken', Ne T O {Lh.}
tt`c- '(mit Garn) Muster sticken' UEW 562, Ter. 91-2, Lh. 1O7 ^ ADb. NN 34 [N 'qAyV 'long hair of an animal' > A
'qoyc, U].
165O. 'quhy'a 'to rest, lie, repose' (> 'to sleep') > HS: S (att. in EthS) 'nhy 'repose, be quiet', (?) 'lie down to sleep' > Gz
nhy v. G (pf. nohya, js. -nhay) 'repose, feel relieved, be quiet; recover', Tgy nhy - nhv G (pf. nvhayv - nvhavv) 'feel
relieved, relaxed', Har nc?a 'sleep', Amh annv v. Sh

'put to sleep', Grg {L} (v. G 3a pf.): Ch nsya, Ez nsyyv, Ed nv?v, Gt
ni?v, En nc?v 'sleep, lie down to sleep' L G 394, L EDG III 466 ??? AdS of Eg fMK v v. 'sleep', Eg {Mks.} v n. 'sleep,
drowsiness' (< 'avjy,V 'avi?V 'to spend the night, sleep' [q.v.]) EG I 169, Mks. I #O587 & II #O647 C: Bj {R} nay-
scv. 'spend the night, sleep, rest' R WBd 187 Ch: WCh: Klr {J} na vi. 'lie, sleep', Sha {J} na (pf. nah-i) vi. 'sleep', {IL}
na vi. 'lie (liegen)', ? Dr non 'sleep' || CCh: Mtk {Sb.} nunc 'to lie (liegen)' || ECh: Tmk {Cp.} ncq 'se coucher' J R 267,
354, ChC, ChL ll A 'q'uj:,ya-, {S} 'quya- vi. 'sleep' > Tg {S} 'qujy,a- v. 'sleep' > Ork qua-, Ud {Shn.} qu a-, {Krm.} qua-
id., d ? Ewk nina- " nina- id. STM I 597, 666, Krm. 272, S AJ 221 [#227] M 'noyir n. 'sleep; drowsiness' > MM [S] {H}
noyir n. 'sleep', [MA] {Pp.} noyur 'sleepy', WrM noir, HlM, Brt nonp n. 'sleep; drowsiness', Klm n' p nor, {Rm.} nor, Mnr
H/M {T/SM} nor, MMgl [Z] {Iw.} no?ir, Ba {T} nor, Dx {T} no n. 'sleep', Mgl {Rm.} noir - ncir id., 'drowsiness' Pp. 26O,
H 12O, Ms. H 8O, SM 284, T 352, T DgJ 158, T DnJ 13O, T BJ 144, Chr. 329, KRS 384, KW 28O, Rm. M 34 NaT 'u n.
'sleep' > OT uj:,, Xlj u, Yk u id. Cl. 2, 42-3, Pek. 3O64-5, DT 2O9 T 'u may be (but not necessarily is) somehow connected
with T 'uoi- v. 'sleep' ('u -'uoi or bf : 'uoi -'u??); cp. N 'huodjV,?V 'be motionless, sleep' pJ {S} 'ui n. 'sleep', 'ui-
v. 'sleep' > OJ i n. 'sleep, dream', vi-na- v. 'sleep', ltOJ [RJ] vi-ncburi, J: T incburi - incburi, K incburi, Kg incburi
'drowsiness', T nc- (< 'i-nc-) v. 'sleep' S QJ #15O, Mr. 697 DQA ##1551 (A 'quyu 'to sleep', incl. M, Tg, J) ll U
'nuj:,qV 'take the rest, repose, sleep' [ N 'nuqV 'rest, slumber, sleep', q.v. ffd.].