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WHAT IS CLINICAL PHARMACY ?

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Below you will find a brief outline explaining the profession of Clinical Pharmacy and the important role of a Clinical Pharmacist. The profession requires a complex and developed set of competencies discussed in the following four sections. Clinical Pharmacy - a Definition Clinical Pharmacy - Overall Goal Level of Action of Clinical Pharmacists How to Pursue a Profession in Clinical Pharmacy ?

Clinical Pharmacy - a Definition
Clinical Pharmacy is a commonly used term in pharmacy practice and in pharmacy literature. It is a health specialty, which describes the activities and services of the clinical pharmacist to develop and promote the rational and appropriate use of medicinal products and devices. Clinical Pharmacy includes all the services performed by pharmacists practising in hospitals, community pharmacies, nursing homes, home-based care services, clinics and any other setting where medicines are prescribed and used. The term "clinical" does not necessarily imply an activity implemented in a hospital setting. It describes that the type of activity is related to the health of the patient(s). This implies that community pharmacists and hospital pharmacists both can perform clinical pharmacy activities. How does clinical pharmacy differ from pharmacy?

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the discipline of pharmacy embraces the knowledge on synthesis, chemistry and preparation of drugs clinical pharmacy is more oriented to the analysis of population needs with regards to medicines, ways of administration, patterns of use and drugs effects on the patients.

During the prescription      Counselling activity Clinical pharmacists can influence the attitudes and priorities of prescribers in their choice of correct treatments.The focus of attention moves from the drug to the single patient or population receiving drugs. Level of Action of Clinical Pharmacists Clinical pharmacy activities may influence the correct use of medicines at three different levels: before. making decisions on which drugs deserve to be marketed. Clinical Pharmacy . Clinical pharmacists are also actively involved in clinical trials at different levels: participating in ethical committees. The clinical pharmacist pays special attention to the dosage of drugs which need therapeutic monitoring. using the most effective treatment for each type of patient minimising the risk of treatment-induced adverse events. 3. trying to provide the best treatment alternative for the greatest number of patients. Pharmacists can improve patients' awareness of their treatments. . when over the counter drugs are counselled.e.Overall Goal The overall goal of clinical pharmacy activities is to promote the correct and appropriate use of medicinal products and devices.. i. Before the prescription     Clinical trials Formularies Drug information Clinical pharmacists have the potential to implement and influence drug-related policies. which drugs should be included in national and local formularies. check and improve patients' compliance with their medications.e. adverse reactions ad medication errors through evaluation of prescriptions' profiles.e. These activities aim at:    maximising the clinical effect of medicines.  2.e. monitoring the therapy course and the patient's compliance with therapy minimising the expenditures for pharmacological treatments born by the national health systems and by the patients. study monitoring. Community pharmacists can also make prescription decisions directly.. i. dispensation and preparation of investigational drugs. After the prescription        Counselling Preparation of personalised formulation Drug use evaluation Outcome research Pharmacoeconomic studies After the prescription is written.. i. clinical pharmacists play a key role in communicating and counselling patients. monitor treatment response. which prescribing policies and treatment guidelines should be implemented.. The clinical pharmacist monitors. during and after the prescription is written. 1. i. detects and prevents harmful drug interaction.

and preventive steps like immunization. Clinical pharmacists are frequently granted patient care privileges by collaborating doctors and/or health systems that allow them to perform a full range of medication decision-making functions as part of the patient’s health care team. As members of a multidisciplinary team. including medical centers. Recognize untreated health problems that could be improved or resolved with appropriate medication therapy. wellness. How to Pursue a Profession in Clinical Pharmacy At present Schools of Pharmacy in Europe do not satisfy the minimal requirements for an appropriate education in clinical pharmacy. clinical medicine. These privileges are granted on the basis of the clinical pharmacist’s demonstrated knowledge of medication therapy and record of clinical experience. clinical pharmacists also provide integrated care from 'hospital to community' and vice versa. The majority of new graduates in pharmacy will therefore work either in the community or the hospital setting to learn the skills unique to a Clinical Pharmacist. Advise the patient on how to best take his or her medications. the latter being particularly important for community pharmacists. Membership in ESCP and participation in ESCP courses. or social services concerns as they arise. contributing to better coordination of care. Consult with the patient’s doctors and other health care providers in selecting the me dication therapy that best meets the patient’s needs and contributes effectively to the overall therapy goals. They are still largely focused an old model of pharmacy activity. Johnny Beney (12. This specialized knowledge and clinical experience is usually gained through residency training and specialist board certification. and patients to ensure that the medications prescribed for patients contribute to the best possible health outcomes. e. and a variety of other health care settings.. A few universities have modified and broadened their curriculum including topics as epidemiology. . Clinical pharmacists practice in health care settings where they have frequent and regular interactions with doctors and other health professionals. such as exercise.2010) What is a clinical pharmacist? Clinical pharmacists work directly with doctors. Support the health care team’s efforts to educate the patient on other important s teps to improve or maintain health. The clinical pharmacist is educated and trained in direct patient care environments. pharmacoeconomics. communication skills. based on chemistry and basic sciences knowledge.11.g. other health professionals. conferences and symposia provide important learning platforms for pharmacy graduates wishing to specialise in Clinical Pharmacy. Follow the patient’s progress to determine the effects of the patient’s medications on his or her health. What do clinical pharmacists do? Clinical pharmacists:         Assess the status of the patient’s health problems and determine whether the prescribed medications are optimally meeting the patient’s needs and goals of care. diet. Evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of the patient’s medications. assuring a continuity of information on risks and benefits of drug therapy. clinics. Refer the patient to his or her doctor or other health professionals to address specific health.

adverse effects. community pharmacies. emergency departments. and drug interactions. and safety of the patient’s medication use. doctors’ offices. health care providers will be able to request a clinical pharmacy consult from a member of The Panel of Volunteer Clinical Pharmacists. Consult with the patient’s doctor(s) and other health c are provider(s) to develop and implement a medication plan that can meet the overall goals of patient care established by the health care team. and managed care organizations. dosing. in performing their patient care activities in collaboration with other members of the health care team. communitybased clinics. Beginning in 2014.   How do you find a clinical pharmacist? Clinical pharmacists practice in many different health care environments: hospitals and their affiliated outpatient clinics.How do clinical pharmacists care for patients? Clinical pharmacists:    Provide a consistent process of patient care that ensures the appropriateness. including medication action. . Apply specialized knowledge of the scientific and clinical use of medications. effectiveness. Rely on their professional relationships with patients to tailor their advice to best meet individual patient needs and desires. Call on their clinical experience to solve health problems through the rational use of medications. nursing homes.