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# DIMENSIONAL ENGINEERING

Based on the ASME Y14.5M1994 Dimensioning and Tolerancing Standard

Tolerances of Form

Straightness (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.1)

Flatness (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.2)

Circularity (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.3)

Cylindricity (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.4)

Extreme Variations of Form Allowed By Size Tolerance
25.1 25

25 (MMC)

25.1 (LMC)

25.1 (LMC)

25 (MMC)

MMC Perfect Form Boundary

25.1 (LMC)

Internal Feature of Size

Extreme Variations of Form Allowed By Size Tolerance
25 24.9

24.9 (LMC)

25 (MMC)

24.9 (LMC)

MMC Perfect Form Boundary

25 (MMC)

24.9 (LMC)

External Feature of Size

Straightness
(Flat Surfaces)
0.5 0.1

25 +/-0.25

0.1 Tolerance 0.5 Tolerance

Straightness is the condition where an element of a surface or an axis is a straight line

Straightness
(Flat Surfaces)
0.5 Tolerance Zone

25.25 max 24.75 min

0.1 Tolerance Zone

In this example each line element of the surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two parallel lines separated by the specified tolerance value applied to each view. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of size and the applicable straightness limit.

The straightness tolerance is applied in the view where the elements to be controlled are represented by a straight line

Straightness
(Surface Elements)
0.1

0.1 Tolerance Zone MMC

0.1 Tolerance Zone MMC

0.1 Tolerance Zone MMC

In this example each longitudinal element of the surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two parallel lines separated by the specified tolerance value. The feature must be within the limits of size and the boundary of perfect form at MMC. Any barreling or waisting of the feature must not exceed the size limits of the feature.

Straightness (RFS)
0.1

0.1 Diameter Tolerance Zone MMC

Outer Boundary (Max)

Outer Boundary = Actual Feature Size + Straightness Tolerance

In this example the derived median line of the feature’s actual local size must lie within a tolerance zone defined by a cylinder whose diameter is equal to the specified tolerance value regardless of the feature size. Each circular element of the feature must be within the specified limits of size. However, the boundary of perfect form at MMC can be violated up to the maximum outer boundary or virtual condition diameter.

Straightness (MMC)
15 14.85 0.1
M

15 (MMC)

0.1 Diameter Tolerance Zone

15.1 Virtual Condition 14.85 (LMC) 0.25 Diameter Tolerance Zone

15.1 Virtual Condition
Virtual Condition = MMC Feature Size + Straightness Tolerance

In this example the derived median line of the feature’s actual local size must lie within a tolerance zone defined by a cylinder whose diameter is equal to the specified tolerance value at MMC. As each circular element of the feature departs from MMC, the diameter of the tolerance cylinder is allowed to increase by an amount equal to the departure from the local MMC size. Each circular element of the feature must be within the specified limits of size. However, the boundary of perfect form at MMC can be violated up to the virtual condition diameter.

Flatness
0.1

25 +/-0.25

0.1 Tolerance Zone 0.1 Tolerance Zone

24.75 min

25.25 max

In this example the entire surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes separated by the specified tolerance value. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of size and the flatness limit.

Flatness is the condition of a surface having all elements in one plane. Flatness must fall within the limits of size. The flatness tolerance must be less than the size tolerance.

Circularity
(Roundness)
0.1

90 0.1 90

0.1 Wide Tolerance Zone

In this example each circular element of the surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two concentric circles separated by the specified tolerance value. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of size and the circularity limit.

Circularity is the condition of a surface where all points of the surface intersected by any plane perpendicular to a common axis are equidistant from that axis. The circularity tolerance must be less than the size tolerance

Cylindricity
0.1

0.1 Tolerance Zone

MMC

In this example the entire surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two concentric cylinders separated by the specified tolerance value. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of size and the cylindricity limit.

Cylindricity is the condition of a surface of revolution in which all points are equidistant from a common axis. Cylindricity is a composite control of form which includes circularity (roundness), straightness, and taper of a cylindrical feature.

Form Control Quiz
Questions #1-5 Fill in blanks (choose from below)

1. The four form controls are ____________, ________, ___________, and ____________. 2. Rule #1 states that unless otherwise specified a feature of size must have ____________at MMC. 3. ____________ and ___________ are individual line or circular
element (2-D) controls.

4. ________ and ____________are surface (3-D) controls. 5. Circularity can be applied to both ________and _______ cylindrical
parts.

straightness straight perfect form

cylindricity angularity flatness tapered profile circularity true position

Answer questions #6-10 True or False

6. Form controls require a datum reference. 7. Form controls do not directly control a feature’s size. 8. A feature’s form tolerance must be less than it’s size
tolerance.

9. Flatness controls the orientation of a feature. 10. Size limits implicitly control a feature’s form.

Tolerances of Orientation
Angularity (ASME Y14.5M-1994 ,6.6.2)

Perpendicularity (ASME Y14.5M-1994 ,6.6.4)

Parallelism (ASME Y14.5M-1994 ,6.6.3)

Angularity
(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)
20 +/-0.5 0.3 A 30
o

A
19.5 min 20.5 max

30

o

30

o

A

0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone

A

0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented at the specified angle to the datum reference plane.

Angularity is the condition of the planar feature surface at a specified angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum reference plane, within the specified tolerance zone.

Angularity
(Feature Axis to Datum Surface)
NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS
0.3 A

0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone

0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone

60

o

A

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a cylinder equal to the length of the feature, oriented at the specified angle to the datum reference plane.

A

Angularity is the condition of the feature axis at a specified angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum reference plane, within the specified tolerance zone.

Angularity
(Feature Axis to Datum Axis)
NOTE: Feature axis must lie within tolerance zone cylinder
0.3 A

NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS

A
0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone 45 o

0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone

Datum Axis A
The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a cylinder equal to the length of the feature, oriented at the specified angle to the datum reference axis.

Angularity is the condition of the feature axis at a specified angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum reference axis, within the specified tolerance zone.

Perpendicularity
(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)
0.3 A

A
0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone 0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone

A

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented perpendicular to the datum reference plane.

A

Perpendicularity is the condition of the planar feature surface at a right angle to the datum reference plane, within the specified tolerance zone.

Perpendicularity
(Feature Axis to Datum Surface)
0.3 Diameter Tolerance Zone

NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS
0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone

C
0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone 0.3 C

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a cylinder equal to the length of the feature, oriented perpendicular to the datum reference plane.

Perpendicularity is the condition of the feature axis at a right angle to the datum reference plane, within the specified tolerance zone.

Perpendicularity
(Feature Axis to Datum Axis)
NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS
0.3 A

A

0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone

Datum Axis A
The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented perpendicular to the datum reference axis.

Perpendicularity is the condition of the feature axis at a right angle to the datum reference axis, within the specified tolerance zone.

Parallelism
(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)
0.3 A

25 +/-0.5

A
0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone 0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone

25.5 max

24.5 min

A

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented parallel to the datum reference plane.

A

Parallelism is the condition of the planar feature surface equidistant at all points from the datum reference plane, within the specified tolerance zone.

Parallelism
(Feature Axis to Datum Surface)
NOTE: The specified tolerance does not apply to the orientation of the feature axis in this direction

NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS
0.3 A

0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone

A

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented parallel to the datum reference plane.

A

Parallelism is the condition of the feature axis equidistant along its length from the datum reference plane, within the specified tolerance zone.

Parallelism
(Feature Axis to Datum Surfaces)
0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone

B

NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS
0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone 0.3 A B 0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone

B

A

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a cylinder equal to the length of the feature, oriented parallel to the datum reference planes.

A

Parallelism is the condition of the feature axis equidistant along its length from the two datum reference planes, within the specified tolerance zone.

Parallelism
(Feature Axis to Datum Axis)
The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a cylinder equal to the length of the feature, oriented parallel to the datum reference axis. NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS
0.1 Circular Tolerance Zone 0.1 A

A

0.1 Circular Tolerance Zone

Datum Axis A

Parallelism is the condition of the feature axis equidistant along its length from the datum reference axis, within the specified tolerance zone.

Orientation Control Quiz
Questions #1-5 Fill in blanks (choose from below)

1. The three orientation controls are __________, ___________, and ________________. 2. A _______________ is always required when applying any of
the orientation controls.

3. ________________ is the appropriate geometric tolerance when
controlling the orientation of a feature at right angles to a datum reference.

4. Mathematically all three orientation tolerances are _________. 5. Orientation tolerances do not control the ________ of a feature. perpendicularity datum feature angularity datum target location identical datum reference parallelism profile

Answer questions #6-10 True or False

6. Orientation tolerances indirectly control a feature’s form. 7. Orientation tolerance zones can be cylindrical. 8. To apply a perpendicularity tolerance the desired angle
must be indicated as a basic dimension.

9. Parallelism tolerances do not apply to features of size. 10. To apply an angularity tolerance the desired angle must
be indicated as a basic dimension.

Tolerances of Runout
Circular Runout (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.7.1.2.1)

Total Runout (ASME Y14.5M-1994 ,6.7.1.2.2)

Features Applicable to Runout Tolerancing
Internal surfaces constructed around a datum axis

External surfaces constructed around a datum axis Datum axis (established from datum feature

Angled surfaces constructed around a datum axis

Datum feature

Surfaces constructed perpendicular to a datum axis

Circular Runout
Total Tolerance Circular runout can only be applied on an RFS basis and cannot be modified to MMC or LMC.

Maximum

Minimum

0

+

-

Measuring position #1 (circular element #1)

Full Part Rotation

Measuring position #2 (circular element #2)

When measuring circular runout, the indicator must be reset to zero at each measuring position along the feature surface. Each individual circular element of the surface is independently allowed the full specified tolerance. In this example, circular runout can be used to detect 2dimensional wobble (orientation) and waviness (form), but not 3-dimensional characteristics such as surface profile (overall form) or surface wobble (overall orientation).

Circular Runout
(Angled Surface to Datum Axis)
0.75 A A

50 +/-0.25 o
o

50

+/- 2

As Shown on Drawing Means This:
Allowable indicator reading = 0.75 max. Full Indicator Movement

(

)
0

+

The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual measuring position along the feature surface. Collet or Chuck

When measuring circular runout, the indicator must be reset when repositioned along the feature surface.

Datum axis A

360 o Part Rotation NOTE: Circular runout in this example only controls the 2-dimensional circular elements (circularity and coaxiality) of the angled feature surface not the entire angled feature surface

Single circular element

Circular Runout
(Surface Perpendicular to Datum Axis)
0.75 A A

50 +/-0.25

As Shown on Drawing Means This:
The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual measuring position along the feature surface. 0

Single circular element

+

When measuring circular runout, the indicator must be reset when repositioned along the feature surface. Allowable indicator reading = 0.75 max.

360 o Part Rotation

Datum axis A NOTE: Circular runout in this example will only control variation in the 2-dimensional circular elements of the planar surface (wobble and waviness) not the entire feature surface

Circular Runout
(Surface Coaxial to Datum Axis)
0.75 A

A

50 +/-0.25

As Shown on Drawing Means This:
The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual measuring position along the feature surface.
+
0

-

Allowable indicator reading = 0.75 max.

When measuring circular runout, the indicator must be reset when repositioned along the feature surface.

Single circular element 360 o Part Rotation Datum axis A

NOTE: Circular runout in this example will only control variation in the 2-dimensional circular elements of the surface (circularity and coaxiality) not the entire feature surface

Circular Runout
(Surface Coaxial to Datum Axis)
0.75 A-B

A

B

As Shown on Drawing Means This:
The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual measuring position along the feature surface.
+
0

-

Allowable indicator reading = 0.75 max.

When measuring circular runout, the indicator must be reset when repositioned along the feature surface.

Machine center

Single circular element Datum axis A-B

360 o Part Rotation

Machine center NOTE: Circular runout in this example will only control variation in the 2-dimensional circular elements of the surface (circularity and coaxiality) not the entire feature surface

Circular Runout
(Surface Related to Datum Surface and Axis)
A 0.75 A B 50 +/-0.25 B

As Shown on Drawing Means This:
The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is located against the datum surface and rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual measuring position along the feature surface. Single circular element
Allowable indicator reading = 0.75 max.

Stop collar 360 o Part Rotation
+
0

-

Collet or Chuck

Datum axis B

When measuring circular runout, the indicator must be reset when repositioned along the feature surface.

Datum plane A

Total Runout
Total Tolerance Total runout can only be applied on an RFS basis and cannot be modified to MMC or LMC.

Maximum

Minimum

+

0

Full Part Rotation

Indicator Path
0

+

-

When measuring total runout, the indicator is moved in a straight line along the feature surface while the part is rotated about the datum axis. It is also acceptable to measure total runout by evaluating an appropriate number of individual circular elements along the surface while the part is rotated about the datum axis. Because the tolerance value is applied to the entire surface, the indicator must not be reset to zero when moved to each measuring position. In this example, total runout can be used to measure surface profile (overall form) and surface wobble (overall orientation).

Total Runout
(Angled Surface to Datum Axis)
0.75 A A

50 +/-0.25 o
o

50

+/- 2

As Shown on Drawing Means This:
When measuring total runout, the indicator must not be reset when repositioned along the feature surface.

0

0

+

The tolerance zone for the entire angled surface is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator positioned normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated about the datum axis and the indicator is moved along the entire length of the feature surface.
Allowable indicator reading = 0.75 max. (applies to the entire feature surface)

+

Collet or Chuck

Full Part Rotation

Datum axis A

NOTE: Unlike circular runout, the use of total runout will provide 3-dimensional composite control of the cumulative variations of circularity, coaxiality, angularity, taper and profile of the angled surface

Total Runout
(Surface Perpendicular to Datum Axis)
0.75 A 10 35 50 +/-0.25

A

As Shown on Drawing

Means This:

The tolerance zone for the portion of the feature surface indicated is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator positioned normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated about the datum axis and the indicator is moved along the portion of the feature surface within the area described by the basic dimensions.

-

0

+ +

10 35 Full Part Rotation

-

0

When measuring total runout, the indicator must not be reset when repositioned along the feature surface.

Allowable indicator reading = 0.75 max. (applies to portion of feature surface indicated)

Datum axis A
NOTE: The use of total runout in this example will provide composite control of the cumulative variations of perpendicularity (wobble) and flatness (concavity or convexity) of the feature surface.

Runout Control Quiz
Answer questions #1-12 True or False

1. Total runout is a 2-dimensional

control.

2. Runout tolerances are used on rotating parts. 3. Circular runout tolerances apply to single elements . 4. Total runout tolerances should be applied at MMC. 5. Runout tolerances can be applied to surfaces at right
angles to the datum reference.

6. Circular runout tolerances are used to control an entire
feature surface.

7. Runout tolerances always require a datum reference. 8. Circular runout and total runout both control axis to
surface relationships.

9. Circular runout can be applied to control taper of a part. 10. Total runout tolerances are an appropriate way to limit
“wobble” of a rotating surface.

11. Runout tolerances are used to control a feature’s size. 12. Total runout can control circularity, straightness, taper,
coaxiality, angularity and any other surface variation.

Tolerances of Profile

Profile of a Line (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.5.2b)

Profile of a Surface (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.5.2a)

Profile of a Line
20 X 20 A1 B 20 X 20 A3 20 X 20 A2

C

1 A B C

17 +/- 1
A

2 Wide Size Tolerance Zone 18 Max 16 Min.

1 Wide Profile Tolerance Zone

The profile tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel lines oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The profile tolerance zone is free to float within the larger size tolerance and applies only to the form and orientation of any individual line element along the entire surface. Profile of a Line is a two-dimensional tolerance that can be applied to a part feature in situations where the control of the entire feature surface as a single entity is not required or desired. The tolerance applies to the line element of the surface at each individual cross section indicated on the drawing.

Profile of a Surface
20 X 20 A1 B 20 X 20 A3 20 X 20 A2

C

2 A B C

23.5

A

2 Wide Tolerance Zone Size, Form and Orientation Nominal Location

23.5

The profile tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The profile tolerance zone is located and aligned in a way that enables the part surface to vary equally about the true profile of the feature.

Profile of a Surface is a three-dimensional tolerance that can be applied to a part feature in situations where the control of the entire feature surface as a single entity is desired. The tolerance applies to the entire surface and can be used to control size, location, form and/or orientation of a feature surface.

Profile of a Surface
(Bilateral Tolerance)
20 X 20 A1 B 20 X 20 A3 20 X 20 A2

1 A B C

C 50

1 Wide Total Tolerance Zone

B

0.5 Inboard 0.5 Outboard 50
C

Nominal Location

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The profile tolerance zone is located and aligned in a way that enables the part surface to vary equally about the true profile of the trim. Profile of a Surface when applied to trim edges of sheet metal parts will control the location, form and orientation of the entire trimmed surface. When a bilateral value is specified, the tolerance zone allows the trim edge variation and/or locational error to be on both sides of the true profile. The tolerance applies to the entire edge surface.

Profile of a Surface
(Unilateral Tolerance)
20 X 20 A1 B 20 X 20 A3 20 X 20 A2

0.5 A B C

C 50

0.5 Wide Total Tolerance Zone

B

C

50

Nominal Location

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The profile tolerance zone is located and aligned in a way that allows the trim surface to vary from the true profile only in the inboard direction. Profile of a Surface when applied to trim edges of sheet metal parts will control the location, form and orientation of the entire trimmed surface. When a unilateral value is specified, the tolerance zone limits the trim edge variation and/or locational error to one side of the true profile. The tolerance applies to the entire edge surface.

Profile of a Surface
(Unequal Bilateral Tolerance)
20 X 20 A1 B 20 X 20 A3 20 X 20 A2

0.5 1.2 A B C
C 50

1.2 Wide Total Tolerance Zone

B

0.5 Inboard 0.7 Outboard 50
C

Nominal Location

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The profile tolerance zone is located and aligned in a way that enables the part surface to vary from the true profile more in one direction (outboard) than in the other (inboard). Profile of a Surface when applied to trim edges of sheet metal parts will control the location, form and orientation of the entire trimmed surface. Typically when unequal values are specified, the tolerance zone will represent the actual measured trim edge variation and/or locational error. The tolerance applies to the entire edge surface.

Profile of a Surface

0.5 A 0.1 25

Location & Orientation Form Only

A 0.1 Wide Tolerance Zone 25.25

24.75

A

Composite Profile of Two Coplanar Surfaces w/o Orientation Refinement

Profile of a Surface
0.5 A 0.1 A 25 Location Form & Orientation

A 0.1 Wide Tolerance Zone 25.25

A 24.75

0.1 Wide Tolerance Zone

A

Composite Profile of Two Coplanar Surfaces With Orientation Refinement

Profile Control Quiz
Answer questions #1-13 True or False

1. Profile tolerances always require a datum reference. 2. Profile of a surface tolerance is a 2-dimensional control. 3. Profile of a surface tolerance should be used to control
trim edges on sheet metal parts.

4. Profile of a line tolerances should be applied at MMC. 5. Profile tolerances can be applied to features of size. 6. Profile tolerances can be combined with other geometric
controls such as flatness to control a feature.

7. Profile of a line tolerances apply to an entire surface. 8. Profile of a line controls apply to individual line elements. 9. Profile tolerances only control the location of a surface. 10. Composite profile controls should be avoided because
they are more restrictive and very difficult to check.

11. Profile tolerances can be applied either bilateral or
unilateral to a feature.

12. Profile tolerances can be applied in both freestate and
restrained datum conditions.

13. Tolerances shown in the lower segment of a composite
profile feature control frame control the location of a feature to the specified datums.

Profile Control Quiz
Questions #1-9 Fill in blanks (choose from below)

1. The two types of profile tolerances are _________________, and ____________________. 2. Profile tolerances can be used to control the ________, ____, ___________ , and sometimes size of a feature. 3. Profile tolerances can be applied _________ or __________. 4. _________________ tolerances are 2-dimensional controls. 5. ____________________ tolerances are 3-dimensional controls. 6. _________________ can be used when different tolerances are
required for location and form and/or orientation.

7. When using profile tolerances to control the location and/or orientation of a feature, a _______________ must be included
in the feature control frame.

8. When using profile tolerances to control form only, a ______ __________ is not required in the feature control frame. 9. In composite profile applications, the tolerance shown in the upper segment of the feature control frame applies only to the ________ of
the feature.

composite profile bilateral virtual condition profile of a surface primary datum orientation datum reference unilateral profile of a line location true geometric counterpart form

Tolerances of Location
True Position (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 5.2)

Concentricity (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 5.12)

Symmetry (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 5.13)

Notes

Coordinate vs Geometric Tolerancing Methods
8.5 +/- 0.1 Rectangular Tolerance Zone 10.25 +/- 0.5 B 8.5 +/- 0.1 1.4 A B C Circular Tolerance Zone 10.25

10.25 +/- 0.5

10.25

C

A

Coordinate Dimensioning
+/- 0.5

Geometric Dimensioning

1.4 +/- 0.5

Rectangular Tolerance Zone

Circular Tolerance Zone

57% Larger Tolerance Zone

Circular Tolerance Zone

Rectangular Tolerance Zone

Increased Effective Tolerance

Positional Tolerance Verification
(Applies when a circular tolerance is indicated)

X
Z
Feature axis actual location (measured)

Positional tolerance zone cylinder Actual feature boundary

Y
Feature axis true position (designed)

Formula to determine the actual radial position of a feature using measured coordinate values (RFS) Z= Z X2 + Y2 positional tolerance /2

Z = total radial deviation X2 = “X” measured deviation Y2 = “Y” measured deviation

Positional Tolerance Verification
(Applies when a circular tolerance is indicated)

X
Z
Feature axis actual location (measured)

Positional tolerance zone cylinder Actual feature boundary

Y
Feature axis true position (designed)

Formula to determine the actual radial position of a feature using measured coordinate values (MMC) X2 + Y2 +( actual - MMC) Z 2 = positional tolerance Z = total radial deviation X2 = “X” measured deviation Y2 = “Y” measured deviation Z =

Bi-directional True Position
Rectangular Coordinate Method
2X
1.5 A B C

2X

0.5 A B C

C

A

10 10 35

B
2X 6 +/-0.25

As Shown on Drawing

Means This:
1.5 Wide Tolerance Zone True Position Related to Datum Reference Frame

C

10 10 35

B
0.5 Wide Tolerance Zone

Each axis must lie within the 1.5 X 0.5 rectangular tolerance zone basically located to the datum reference frame

Bi-directional True Position
Multiple Single-Segment Method
2X 6 +/-0.25
1.5 A B C 0.5 A B

C

A

10 10 35

B

As Shown on Drawing

Means This:
1.5 Wide Tolerance Zone True Position Related to Datum Reference Frame

C

10 10 35

B
0.5 Wide Tolerance Zone

Each axis must lie within the 1.5 X 0.5 rectangular tolerance zone basically located to the datum reference frame

Bi-directional True Position
Noncylndrical Features (Boundary Concept)
2X 13 +/-0.25 1.5 M A B C BOUNDARY 2X 6 +/-0.25 0.5 M A B C BOUNDARY

C

A

10 10 35

B

As Shown on Drawing

Means This:
Both holes must be within the size limits and no portion of their surfaces may lie within the area described by the 11.25 x 5.25 maximum boundaries when the part is positioned with respect to the datum reference frame. The boundary concept can only be applied on an MMC basis.
True position boundary related to datum reference frame

5.75 MMC length of slot -0.50 Position tolerance 5.25 maximum boundary

12.75 MMC width of slot -1.50 Position tolerance 11.25 Maximum boundary

C
90 o
10 10 35

B

A

Composite True Position
Without Pattern Orientation Control
2X 6 +/-0.25
1.5 A B C 0.5 A

C

A

10 10 35

B

As Shown on Drawing

Means This:
0.5 Feature-Relating Tolerance Zone Cylinder
pattern orientation relative to Datum A only (perpendicularity)

1.5 Pattern-Locating Tolerance Zone Cylinder
pattern location relative to Datums A, B, and C

C

10 10 35

B

True Position Related to Datum Reference Frame

Each axis must lie within each tolerance zone simultaneously

Composite True Position
With Pattern Orientation Control
2X 6 +/-0.25
1.5 A B C 0.5 A B

C

A

10 10 35

B

As Shown on Drawing

Means This:
True Position Related to Datum Reference Frame 1.5 Pattern-Locating Tolerance Zone Cylinder
pattern location relative to Datums A, B, and C

C

10 10 35

B

0.5 Feature-Relating Tolerance Zone Cylinder
pattern orientation relative to Datums A and B

Each axis must lie within each tolerance zone simultaneously

Location (Concentricity)
Datum Features at RFS
6.35 +/- 0.05 0.5 A

A

15.95 15.90

As Shown on Drawing
Means This:
Axis of Datum Feature A 0.5 Coaxial Tolerance Zone

Derived Median Points of Diametrically Opposed Elements Within the limits of size and regardless of feature size, all median points of diametrically opposed elements must lie within a 0.5 cylindrical tolerance zone. The axis of the tolerance zone coincides with the axis of datum feature A. Concentricity can only be applied on an RFS basis.

Location (Symmetry)
Datum Features at RFS
6.35 +/- 0.05 0.5 A

A

15.95 15.90

As Shown on Drawing
Means This:
Center Plane of Datum Feature A 0.5 Wide Tolerance Zone

Derived Median Points Within the limits of size and regardless of feature size, all median points of opposed elements must lie between two parallel planes equally disposed about datum plane A, 0.5 apart. Symmetry can only be applied on an RFS basis.

True Position Quiz
Answer questions #1-11 True or False

1. Positional tolerances are applied to individual or patterns
of features of size.

2. Cylindrical tolerance zones more closely represent the
functional requirements of a pattern of clearance holes.

3. True position tolerance values are used to calculate the
minimum size of a feature required for assembly.

4. True position tolerances can control a feature’s size. 5. Positional tolerances are applied on an MMC, LMC, or
RFS basis.

6. Composite true position tolerances should be avoided
because it is overly restrictive and difficult to check.

7. Composite true position tolerances can only be applied
to patterns of related features.

8. The tolerance value shown in the upper segment of a
composite true position feature control frame applies to the location of a pattern of features to the specified datums.

9. The tolerance value shown in the lower segment of a
composite true position feature control frame applies to the location of a pattern of features to the specified datums.

10. Positional tolerances can be used to control circularity 11. True position tolerances can be used to control center
distance relationships between features of size.

True Position Quiz
Questions #1-9 Fill in blanks (choose from below)

1. Positional tolerance zones can be ___________, ___________,
or spherical

2. ________________ are used to establish the true (theoretically
exact) position of a feature from specified datums.

3. Positional tolerancing is a _____________ control. 4. Positional tolerance can apply to the ____ or ________________ of
a feature.

5. _____ and ________ fastener equations are used to determine
appropriate clearance hole sizes for mating details

6. _________ tolerance zones are recommended to prevent fastener
interference in mating details.

7. The tolerance shown in the upper segment of a composite true position feature control frame is called the ________________
tolerance zone.

8. The tolerance shown in the lower segment of a composite true position feature control frame is called the ________________
tolerance zone.

9. Functional gaging principles can be applied when __________ ________ condition is specified surface boundary floating feature-relating pattern-locating rectangular cylindrical 3-dimensional basic dimensions projected location maximum material fixed axis

Notes

Notes

Fixed and Floating Fastener Exercises

Floating Fasteners
In applications where two or more mating details are assembled, and all parts have clearance holes for the fasteners, the floating fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate hole sizes or positional tolerance requirements to ensure assembly. The formula will provide a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance

2x M10 X 1.5
(Reference)

General Equation Applies to Each Part Individually

A B

H=F+T or T=H-F
H= Min. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter

2x

10.50 +/- 0.25 ?.? M

Calculate Required Positional Tolerance

T=H-F
H = Minimum Hole Size = F = Max. Fastener Size = 10.25 10

A
Calculate Nominal Size

T = 10.25 -10 T = ______
2x ??.?? +/- 0.25 0.5 M
remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC hole size to obtain the correct nominal value.

H = F +T
F = Max. Fastener Size = T = Positional Tolerance = 10 0.50

B

H = 10 + 0.50 H = ______

Floating Fasteners
In applications where two or more mating details are assembled, and all parts have clearance holes for the fasteners, the floating fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate hole sizes or positional tolerance requirements to ensure assembly. The formula will provide a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance

2x M10 X 1.5
(Reference)

General Equation Applies to Each Part Individually

A B

H=F+T or T=H-F
H= Min. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter

2x

10.50 +/- 0.25 0.25 M

Calculate Required Positional Tolerance

T=H-F
H = Minimum Hole Size = F = Max. Fastener Size = 10.25 10

A
Calculate Nominal Size

T = 10.25 -10 T = 0.25
2x 10.75 +/- 0.25 0.5 M
remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC hole size to obtain the correct nominal value.

H = F +T
F = Max. Fastener Size = T = Positional Tolerance = 10 0.5

B

H= H=

10 + .5 10.5 Minimum

REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC

Fixed Fasteners
In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have equal positional tolerances, the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerance required to ensure assembly. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance. (Note that in this example the positional tolerances indicated are the same for both parts.)

APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED
2x M10 X 1.5
(Reference)

General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Equal 10

A B

H=F+2T or T=(H-F)/2
H= Min. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter
remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC size to obtain the correct nominal value.

Calculate Required Clearance Hole Size.

2x

??.?? 0.8 M

+/- 0.25

A
2X M10 X 1.5 0.8 M P 10
Nominal Size (MMC For Calculations)

H = F + 2T
F = Max. Fastener Size = T = Positional Tolerance = 10.00 0.80

H = 10.00 + 2(0.8) H = _____ B

Fixed Fasteners
In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have equal positional tolerances, the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerance required to ensure assembly. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance. (Note that in this example the positional tolerances indicated are the same for both parts.)

APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED
2x M10 X 1.5
(Reference)

General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Equal 10

A B

H=F+2T or T=(H-F)/2
H= Min. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter
remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC size to obtain the correct nominal value.

Calculate Required Clearance Hole Size.

2x

11.85 0.8

+/- 0.25

M

A
2X M10 X 1.5 0.8 M P 10
Nominal Size (MMC For Calculations)

H = F + 2T
F = Max. Fastener Size = T = Positional Tolerance = 10.00 0.80

H = 10.00 + 2(0.8) H = 11.60 Minimum B

REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC

Fixed Fasteners
In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have equal positional tolerances, the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerance required to ensure assembly. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance. (Note that in this example the positional tolerances indicated are the same for both parts.)

APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED
2x M10 X 1.5
(Reference)

General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Equal 10

A B

H=F+2T or T=(H-F)/2
H= Min. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter
remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC size to obtain the correct nominal value.

Calculate Required Clearance Hole Size.

2x

11.85 0.8

+/- 0.25

M

A
2X M10 X 1.5 0.8 M P 10
Nominal Size (MMC For Calculations)

H = F + 2T
F = Max. Fastener Size = T = Positional Tolerance = 10 0.8

H = 10 + 2(0.8) H = 11.6 Minimum B

REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC

Fixed Fasteners
In applications where two mating details are assembled, and one part has restrained fasteners, the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate appropriate hole sizes and/or positional tolerances required to ensure assembly. The formula will provide a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance. (Note: in this example the resultant positional tolerance is applied to both parts equally.)

APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED
2x M10 X 1.5
(Reference)

General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Equal 10

A B

H=F+2T or T=(H-F)/2
H= Min. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter

2x

11.25 +/- 0.25 0.5 M

Calculate Required Positional Tolerance . (Both Parts)

A
Nominal Size (MMC For Calculations)

T = (H - F)/2
2X M10 X 1.5 0.5 M P 10 H = Minimum Hole Size = F = Max. Fastener Size = 11 10

T = (11 - 10)/2 T = 0.50

B
REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC

Fixed Fasteners
In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have unequal positional tolerances, the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerances required to ensure assembly. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance. (Note that in this example the positional tolerances indicated are not equal.)

APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED
2x M10 X 1.5
(Reference)

General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Not Equal

10

A B

H=F+(T1 + T2)
H = Min. diameter of clearance hole F = Maximum diameter of fastener T1= Positional tolerance (Part A) T2= Positional tolerance (Part B) 2x ??.?? 0.5 M
+/- 0.25 remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC hole size to obtain the correct nominal value.

Calculate Required Clearance Hole Size.

A
2X M10 X 1.5 1 M P 10
Nominal Size (MMC For Calculations)

H=F+(T1 + T2)
F = Max. Fastener Size = T1 = Positional Tol. (A) = T2 = Positional Tol. (B) = 10 0.50 1

H = 10+ (0.5 + 1) H = ____ B

Fixed Fasteners
In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have unequal positional tolerances, the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerances required to ensure assembly. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance. (Note that in this example the positional tolerances indicated are not equal.)

APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED
2x M10 X 1.5
(Reference)

General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Not Equal

10

A B

H= F+(T1 + T2)
H = Min. diameter of clearance hole F = Maximum diameter of fastener T1= Positional tolerance (Part A) T2= Positional tolerance (Part B) 2x 11.75 0.5 M
+/- 0.25 remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC hole size to obtain the correct nominal value.

Calculate Required Clearance Hole Size.

A
2X M10 X 1.5 1 M P 10
Nominal Size (MMC For Calculations)

H=F+(T1 + T2)
F = Max. Fastener Size = T1 = Positional Tol. (A) = T2 = Positional Tol. (B) = 10 0.5 1

H = 10 + (0.5 + 1) H = 11.5 Minimum B
REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC

Fixed Fasteners
In applications where a projected tolerance zone is not indicated, it is necessary to select a positional tolerance and minimum clearance hole size combination that will allow for any out-of-squareness of the feature containing the fastener. The modified fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size required to ensure assembly. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at the extreme positional tolerance.

APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS NOT USED
H P F

A B

D

H= Min. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of pin T1= Positional tolerance (Part A) T2= Positional tolerance (Part B) D= Min. depth of pin (Part A) P= Maximum projection of pin

Calculate Nominal Size

2x

??.?? +/-0.25 0.5 M

remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC hole size to obtain the correct nominal value.

A
2x 10.05 +/-0.05 0.5 M

H= F + T1 + T2 (1+(2P/D))
F = Max. pin size = 10 = 0.5 T1 = Positional Tol. (A) T2 = Positional Tol. (B) = 0.5 D = Min. pin depth = 20. P = Max. pin projection = 15

B

H = 10.00 + 0.5 + 0.5(1 + 2(15/20)) H= __________

Fixed Fasteners
In applications where a projected tolerance zone is not indicated, it is necessary to select a positional tolerance and minimum clearance hole size combination that will allow for any out-of-squareness of the feature containing the fastener. The modified fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size required to ensure assembly. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at the extreme positional tolerance.

APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS NOT USED
H P F

H= F + T1 + T2 (1+(2P/D))
H= Min. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of pin T1= Positional tolerance (Part A) T2= Positional tolerance (Part B) D= Min. depth of pin (Part A) P= Maximum projection of pin

A B

D

Calculate Nominal Size

2x

12 +/-0.25 0.5 M

remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC hole size to obtain the correct nominal value.

A
2x 10.05 +/-0.05 0.5 M

H= F + T1 + T2 (1+(2P/D))
F = Max. pin size T1 = Positional tol. (A) T2 = Positional tol. (B) = Min. pin depth = Max. pin projection = 10 = 0.5 = 0.5 D = 20 P = 15

B

H = 10 + 0.5 + 0.5(1 + 2(15/20)) H= 11.75 Minimum

REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC

Rules and Definitions Quiz
Questions #1-12 True or False

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Tight tolerances ensure high quality and performance. The use of GD&T improves productivity. Size tolerances control both orientation and position. Unless otherwise specified size tolerances control form. A material modifier symbol is not required for RFS. A material modifier symbol is not required for MMC. Title block default tolerances apply to basic dimensions. A surface on a part is considered a feature. Bilateral tolerances allow variation in two directions. A free state modifier can only be applied to a tolerance. A free state datum modifier applies to “assists” & “rests”. Virtual condition applies regardless of feature size.

FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE

Material Condition Quiz
Fill in blanks

Internal Features
10.75 +0.25/-0 23.45 +0.05/-0.25 123. 5 +/-0.1 .895 .890

MMC

LMC

10.75 23.2 123.4 .890
MMC

11 23.5 123.6 .895
LMC

External Features
10.75 +0/-0.25 23.45 +0.05/-0.25 123. 5 +/-0.1 .890 .885

10.75 23.5 123.6 .890

10.5 23.2 123.4 .885

Calculate appropriate values

Datum Quiz
Questions #1-12 True or False

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Datum target areas are theoretically exact. Datum features are imaginary. Primary datums have only three points of contact. The 6 Degrees of Freedom are U/D, F/A, & C/C. Datum simulators are part of the gage or tool. Datum simulators are used to represent datums. Datums are actual part features. All datum features must be dimensionally stable. Datum planes constrain degrees of freedom. Tertiary datums are not always required. All tooling locators (CD’s) are used as datums. Datums should represent functional features.

FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE

Datum Quiz
Questions #1-10 Fill in blanks (choose from below)

1. The three planes that make up a basic datum reference
frame are called primary, secondary, and tertiary.

2. An unrestrained part will exhibit 3-linear and 3-rotational degrees
of freedom.

3. A planar primary datum plane will restrain 1-linear and 2-rotational
degrees of freedom.

4. The primary and secondary datum planes together will restrain five degrees
of freedom.

5. The primary, secondary and tertiary datum planes together will
restrain all six degrees of freedom.

6. The purpose of a datum reference frame is to restrain movement
of a part in a gage or tool.

7. A datum must be functional, repeatable, and coordinated. 8. A datum feature is an actual feature on a part. 9. A datum is a theoretically exact point, axis or plane. 10. A datum simulator is a precise surface used to establish a
simulated datum.

restrain movement five coordinated repeatable tertiary two 3-rotational primary 2-rotational three functional one datum simulator 1-linear datum feature datum secondary 3-linear six

Form Control Quiz
Questions #1-5 Fill in blanks (choose from below)

1. The four form controls are straightness, flatness,
circularity, and cylindricity.

2. Rule #1 states that unless otherwise specified a feature of
size must have perfect form at MMC.

3. Straightness and circularity are individual line or circular
element (2-D) controls.

4. Flatness and cylindricity are surface (3-D) controls. 5. Circularity can be applied to both straight and tapered cylindrical
parts.

straightness straight perfect form

cylindricity angularity flatness tapered profile circularity true position

Answer questions #6-10 True or False

6. Form controls require a datum reference. 7. Form controls do not directly control a feature’s size. 8. A feature’s form tolerance must be less than it’s size
tolerance.

FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE

9. Flatness controls the orientation of a feature. 10. Size limits implicitly control a feature’s form.

Orientation Control Quiz
Questions #1-5 Fill in blanks (choose from below)

1. The three orientation controls are angularity, parallelism,
and perpendicularity.

2. A datum reference is always required when applying any of
the orientation controls.

3. Perpendicularity is the appropriate geometric tolerance when
controlling the orientation of a feature at right angles to a datum reference.

4. Mathematically all three orientation tolerances are identical. 5. Orientation tolerances do not control the location of a feature. perpendicularity datum feature angularity datum target location identical datum reference parallelism profile

Answer questions #6-10 True or False

6. Orientation tolerances indirectly control a feature’s form. 7. Orientation tolerance zones can be cylindrical. 8. To apply a perpendicularity tolerance the desired angle
must be indicated as a basic dimension.

TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE

9. Parallelism tolerances do not apply to features of size. 10. To apply an angularity tolerance the desired angle must
be indicated as a basic dimension.

Runout Control Quiz
Answer questions #1-12 True or False

1. Total runout is a 2-dimensional

control.

FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE

2. Runout tolerances are used on rotating parts. 3. Circular runout tolerances apply to single elements . 4. Total runout tolerances should be applied at MMC. 5. Runout tolerances can be applied to surfaces at right
angles to the datum reference.

6. Circular runout tolerances are used to control an entire
feature surface.

7. Runout tolerances always require a datum reference. 8. Circular runout and total runout both control axis to
surface relationships.

9. Circular runout can be applied to control taper of a part. 10. Total runout tolerances are an appropriate way to limit
“wobble” of a rotating surface.

11. Runout tolerances are used to control a feature’s size. 12. Total runout can control circularity, straightness, taper,
coaxiality, angularity and any other surface variation.

Profile Control Quiz
Questions #1-9 Fill in blanks (choose from below)

1. The two types of profile tolerances are profile of a line, and profile of a surface. 2. Profile tolerances can be used to control the location, form,
orientation, and sometimes size of a feature.

3. Profile tolerances can be applied bilateral or unilateral. 4. Profile of a line tolerances are 2-dimensional controls. 5. Profile of a surface tolerances are 3-dimensional controls. 6. Composite Profile can be used when different tolerances are
required for location and form and/or orientation.

7. When using profile tolerances to control the location and/or orientation of
a feature, a datum reference must be included in the feature control frame.

8. When using profile tolerances to control form only, a datum
reference is not required in the feature control frame.

9. In composite profile applications, the tolerance shown in the upper
segment of the feature control frame applies only to the location of the feature.

composite profile bilateral virtual condition profile of a surface primary datum orientation datum reference unilateral profile of a line location true geometric counterpart form

Profile Control Quiz
Answer questions #1-13 True or False

1. Profile tolerances always require a datum reference.

FALSE

2. Profile of a surface tolerance is a 2-dimensional control. FALSE 3. Profile of a surface tolerance should be used to control
trim edges on sheet metal parts.

TRUE FALSE TRUE

4. Profile of a line tolerances should be applied at MMC. 5. Profile tolerances can be applied to features of size.
controls such as flatness to control a feature.

6. Profile tolerances can be combined with other geometric TRUE 7. Profile of a line tolerances apply to an entire surface.

FALSE

8. Profile of a line controls apply to individual line elements. TRUE 9. Profile tolerances only control the location of a surface. FALSE 10. Composite profile controls should be avoided because
they are more restrictive and very difficult to check.

FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE

11. Profile tolerances can be applied either bilateral or
unilateral to a feature.

12. Profile tolerances can be applied in both freestate and
restrained datum conditions.

13. Tolerances shown in the lower segment of a composite
profile feature control frame control the location of a feature to the specified datums.

True Position Quiz
Answer questions #1-11 True or False

1. Positional tolerances are applied to individual or patterns TRUE
of features of size.

2. Cylindrical tolerance zones more closely represent the
functional requirements of a pattern of clearance holes.

TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE

3. True position tolerance values are used to calculate the
minimum size of a feature required for assembly.

4. True position tolerances can control a feature’s size. 5. Positional tolerances are applied on an MMC, LMC, or
RFS basis.

6. Composite true position tolerances should be avoided
because it is overly restrictive and difficult to check.

7. Composite true position tolerances can only be applied
to patterns of related features.

8. The tolerance value shown in the upper segment of a
composite true position feature control frame applies to the location of a pattern of features to the specified datums.

9. The tolerance value shown in the lower segment of a
composite true position feature control frame applies to the location of a pattern of features to the specified datums.

FALSE

10. Positional tolerances can be used to control circularity 11. True position tolerances can be used to control center
distance relationships between features of size.

FALSE TRUE

True Position Quiz
Questions #1-9 Fill in blanks (choose from below)

1. Positional tolerance zones can be rectangular, cylindrical,
or spherical

2. Basic dimensions are used to establish the true (theoretically
exact) position of a feature from specified datums.

3. Positional tolerancing is a 3-dimensional control. 4. Positional tolerance can apply to the axis or surface boundary
of a feature.

5. Fixed and floating fastener equations are used to determine
appropriate clearance hole sizes for mating details

6. Projected tolerance zones are recommended to prevent fastener
interference in mating details.

7. The tolerance shown in the upper segment of a composite true
position feature control frame is called the pattern-locating tolerance zone.

8. The tolerance shown in the lower segment of a composite true
position feature control frame is called the feature-relating tolerance zone.

9. Functional gaging principles can be applied when maximum
material condition is specified

surface boundary floating feature-relating pattern-locating rectangular cylindrical 3-dimensional basic dimensions projected location maximum material fixed axis

E N D

Notes

Notes

Notes

Extreme Variations of Form Allowed By Size Tolerance
25.1 25 25 24.9

25 (MMC)

25.1 (LMC)

24.9 (LMC)

25 (MMC)

25.1 (LMC)

24.9 (LMC)

25 (MMC)

MMC Perfect Form Boundary

25 (MMC)

25.1 (LMC)

24.9 (LMC)

Virtual and Resultant Condition Boundaries
Internal and External Features (MMC Concept)

Virtual Condition Boundary
Internal Feature (MMC Concept)
14 +/- 0.5 1M A B C

C
XX.X

A

B

XX.X

As Shown on Drawing
Virtual Condition Inner Boundary Maximum Inscribed Diameter 1 Positional Tolerance Zone at MMC

(

)

True (Basic) Position of Hole Other Possible Extreme Locations Boundary of MMC Hole Shown at Extreme Limit True (Basic) Position of Hole Axis Location of MMC Hole Shown at Extreme Limit

Calculating Virtual Condition 13.5 1 12.5 MMC Size of Feature Applicable Geometric Tolerance Virtual Condition Boundary

Resultant Condition Boundary
Internal Feature (MMC Concept)
14 +/- 0.5 1M A B C

C
XX.X

A

B

XX.X

As Shown on Drawing
Resultant Condition Outer Boundary Minimum Circumscribed Diameter 2 Positional Tolerance Zone at LMC True (Basic) Position of Hole Other Possible Extreme Locations Boundary of LMC Hole Shown at Extreme Limit True (Basic) Position of Hole Axis Location of LMC Hole Shown at Extreme Limit

(

)

Calculating Resultant Condition (Internal Feature) 14.5 2 16.5 LMC Size of Feature Geometric Tolerance (at LMC) Resultant Condition Boundary

Virtual Condition Boundary
External Feature (MMC Concept)
14 +/- 0.5 1M A B C

C
XX.XX

A

B

XX.X

As Shown on Drawing
1 Positional Tolerance Zone at MMC

(

Virtual Condition Outer Boundary Minimum Circumscribed Diameter

)

True (Basic) Position of Feature Other Possible Extreme Locations Boundary of MMC Feature Shown at Extreme Limit True (Basic) Position of Feature Axis Location of MMC Feature Shown at Extreme Limit

Calculating Virtual Condition 14.5 1 15.5 MMC Size of Feature Applicable Geometric Tolerance Virtual Condition Boundary

Resultant Condition Boundary
External Feature (MMC Concept)
14 +/- 0.5 1M A B C

C
XX.X

A

B

XX.X

As Shown on Drawing

(

Resultant Condition Inner Boundary Maximum Inscribed Diameter

)

2 Positional Tolerance Zone at LMC

True (Basic) Position of Feature Other Possible Extreme Locations Boundary of LMC feature Shown at Extreme Limit True (Basic) Position of Feature Axis Location of LMC Feature Shown at Extreme Limit

Calculating Resultant Condition (External Feature) 13.5 2 11.5 LMC Size of Feature Geometric Tolerance (at LMC) Resultant Condition Boundary