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Cognitive Learning Skills and the Addiction of Violent Video Games By David G. Caban, MBA

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Abstract Media violence is a social role model that cultivates the minds by influencing and adapting to a certain culture that reshape our attitude and social behavior. The aim is to target children too become desensitize towards a culture of violence, which affects prosocial development. Since the inception of television children can NOW develop an aggressive and violent behavior at an earlier age. This can affect biopsychosocial development (Jarrett, 2005). For instance, it affects the brain (releasing of dopamine), the heart and the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, this affects children’s cognitive development, which impairs social skills, critical thinking skills, which impedes social development (Chory-Assad, 2003; Jarrett, 2003). However, newer hope has recently suggesting for the educational system to comprise of a virtual computer base video game system too educate children. Since, video games amuse children and adolescent’s educators are now leaning toward a computer base video game system to help educate children (Anand, 2007; Chuang & Chen, 2009).

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Table of Contents Unknown addiction called “The addiction of violent video games” Positive social and aggressive attributes What children learn affects their environment Schematic Theory Legal ramifications Schematic Redefine 10 Cognitive learning and positive affects on video games 10 Conclusion 12 References 13 3 6 6 7 9

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The unknown addiction called “The addiction of Violent Video Games” Violent video game has become an addiction that permeates, and the problematic issues of social violence within our society. There have been several previous studies correlating media violence such as, violent video games, movies and sit-coms with human aggression. But, less studies relating violent video games having any causal affect stimulating aggression, such as, addiction, as well as, an longitudinal analysis analyzing if violent video games stimulating aggression leading to violent behavior. Indeed, there had been previous studies relating video games with aggression, but again, less on addiction. In the past social scientist ad researchers on the field of psychology and sociology related drug addiction with crime had enormous amounts of literature. Similarity with drug addiction there is Internets and media addictions, such as, violent video games. Usually, individuals, such as, children, adolescents and young adults spend and average of 10-20 hours a day interacting with violent video games (Anand, 2007, pg. 553). Excessive interaction can potentially develop a habitual practice with violent video games can potentially become an addiction. Mot just an addiction, but becoming more expose to other areas within the Internet that posit a risk in relational situations. For instance, most violent video games portray characters of a sexual nature, such as, prostitutes, and even allow the player to murder the prostitute as a means of pleasure. Therefore, stemming the likelihood for children and adolescents a newer attitude and social behavior explore through the Internet, such as, pornographic liking websites and interacting violently throughout the Internet (cyberbullying) (Anand, 2007, pg. 553; Huesmann, Moise-Titus, Podolski, and Eron, 2003; Xie and Lee, 2008, Pg. 278). Usually, individual addiction to alcohol and drugs spent more time practicing his or her habitual addiction practices than spending time with prosocial development (Anand, 2007, pg. 553; Huesmann, Moise-Titus, Podolski, and Eron, 2003; Chumbley & Griffiths, 2006). As a result, potentially developing negative social consequences resulting infringes in relationships, employment and other prosocial development that benefits the environment, such as, school academia, poor performances, habitual lying, anti-socialism and dropping out of social groups (clubs & sports). Violent video games are a favorite entertainment system that attracts certain vulnerable segments of the human populations, such as, children and adolescents (Anand, 2007; Huesmann et al., 2003). Children become aware of violent video games within his or her primary residents, such as, the home. Because of the fact, children main environment is the home it becomes the social ground of observational learning (Huesmann et al., 2003). For instance, children observed his or her parental role modeling, such as, physical and social behavior, as well as, other social role modeling portrayed within the home front. Such as, older siblings, friends and other extended family members that children would learn first hand how to behave (Huesmann et al., 2003, Levin & Carlsson-Paige, 2003).

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Characters portray throughout the media are also social role models within the home, because of what the character portray is condoned by parents. Because of the fact, other social role models approved the behavior portrayed by the media character. Media character portray in violent video games continuously portray aggressive violent scripts without any script of human rationale (Coyne & Archer, 2005; Huesmann et al., 2003). The concept of introducing media characters as social role models to children is first introduce by the parent (Chumbley & Griffiths; Levin & Carlsson-Paige, 2003). Once children and the media character are introducing children as most individuals would observe and learn through role modeling. For instance, an adult learning a new job or skill learn not just step by step but also role modeling. Eventually, the new employee could develop his or her technique, which is equally the same as children and adolescent learning a new behavior. Therefore, as children and adolescents brain are within the development process would begin to learn how to interact within his or her social environment (Chumbley & Griffiths, 2005; Huesmann et al., 2003; Levin & CarlssonPaige, 2003). The influence of aggressive behavior instills in children adapting aggressive attitude and social behavior is a phenomenon, because depending what factors are involved in children’s environment. For example, children upbringing in an area of violence, and the interesting concept portrayed throughout most newsreels describing the world a violent place (Huesmann et al., 2003; Levin & Carlsson-Paige, 2003). Is there a political agenda to deceive the human population especially children that the world is a violent place? Iterate, because of the fact, it is a phenomenal insight means includes several different types of variables or facets of violence (Grimes, Bergen, Nichols, Vernberg and Fonagy, 2004; Huesmann et al., 2003). The several different types of aggressive traits found in children who witness and exposed to several facets of violence does serve as a future impact on their development, which can potentially affect young adulthood. It is not suggesting that aggressive traits found in children can automatically lead into criminal behavior, but rather, certain aggressive actions can reinforce children to at out aggressively. However, it depends on the children background as well as parental background, because genetic predisposition to violence. In addition, to children suffering from either mental, psychological and social disorders that plays a pivotal role how children relate to aggressive and violent interactions (Huesmann, Moise-Titus, Podalski and Eron, 2003; Grimes, Bergen, Nichols, Vernberg and Fonagy, 2004; Levin and Carlsson-Paige, 2003). According to Feldon (2005) suggested children excessive exposure to media violence would interact socially. As a result, can lead into potential legal ramification. However, pending on the parental background, cultural habits and social stressors would only determine any likelihood of children not just learning criminal behavior, but becoming criminally interacting (Huesmann et al., 2003). For instance, children and or parents background ever involve in criminal activity. Does either parent ever experience policing interaction, and-or ever been arrested? Parental background is vitally important relating variables of aggressive inhibition or predisposition with any media violent attributes portrayed by media characters (Huesmann et al., 2003; Levin & CarlssonPaige, 2003). Once determine the correlation of parental background of criminal elements with media violence becomes as a determinant factor of violence in the home, as well as,

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community violence which can become a greater risk for children (Schiavone, 2008, pg. 99). In other words, parental criminal background can be correlated with children interacting with violent video games. Earlier findings determine the relation with variables such as parental background of criminal activity with either parent and-or children interacting with media violence (Anand, 2007). However, less studies, such as, a longitudinal analysis of correlating violent video games with parental and or their offspring’s criminal background (Anand, 2007). Therefore, suggesting future researchers to search if any correlation exists between violent video games and parental and-or children criminal background with a longitudinal study (Anand, 2007). Children learn aggressive and violent patterns from their parental role modeling, therefore, character portrayal displayed through the media, such as, wrestling, certain sports activity, violent video games the media character reinforces the action of aggressive and violent behavior (Bandura, 2001; Anderson & Bushman, 2002). Excessive interactions with violent video games and other aggressive and violent facets children would tend to become less socially interacting that benefits prosocial development. Instead, children stem the likelihood of becoming anti-social, which can potentially develop anti-socialism. Prosocial developments are attributes that benefit the environment. For example, educational enhancements, positive social interactions within the environment producing quality interacting that benefits the environment (Wilcox, Clyde and Williams, 1990). Positive social and aggressive attributes Positive social and aggressive attributes are information stored into memory. The individual’s cognition process information and is retrieved whenever necessary. For example, similar real life events occur that the individual learned through observation (Wilson, Clyde and Williams, 1990). According to Wilcox, Clyde and Williams (1990), “Schema corrupts has been utilized by cognitive psychologist, who have investigated ways how individual’s process, store, and retrieves information”. The schematic theory asserts individual’s attitude and social behavior is determined how first hand the individual, and the result how it was processed initially stored information. For instance, an individual waking up early in the morning to got to work. Student reminded or assigned homework, and due dates. Soldiers trained for combat situations, and how he or she should react in similar situation if confronted by the enemy (Wilcox, Clyde and Williams, 1990). Media characters portrays attitude and social behavior with aggressive tones, in addition, behaves violently and demonstrates that it is OK’. Therefore, communicating to its audience that aggressive and violent behavior is socially acceptable. It deems to appreciate the action or acting out with role modeling with the simple intent of making it socially acceptable behavior. As a result, children acknowledge from either parent or social surrounding from non-verbal tone approving the conduct and action portrayed by the media character (Huesmann et al., 2003; Guerra et al., 2005, Felon, 2006, Schiavone, 2008). What children learn affects the environment Children learn from role models, such as, parents, friends, older siblings and media characters, as well as storing information into memory (Huesmann et al., 2003).

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Once the information is stored into memory children would have the tendency to act out socially. The social environment allowing violence in the home such as violent video games, sit-coms, movies and children entertainment can become a reinforcement model. Because of the fact, children are closely monitor supposedly, by parents, older siblings, friends and other distance relatives that media violent characters would become the reinforcement model, because the adults within the environment of children condone the acts of violence portrayed by the media character. Does this constitute violence in the home? What type of policing can detect and avoid children exposure to violence? Obviously, those who know what is appropriately allowable behavior could only condone. For instance, parents, older siblings, friends and distance family could comphrensively know the difference between right from wrong. Therefore, aggressive and violent behavior is a cultural acceptable practice that exists within the home. Psychologist and political scientist have suggested for several decades that the primary environment for children is their home. And, not in other locations where parents would take their children, such as, recreation centers, public schools, friends homes and so forth. However, any environment children whether it is in the home or any place for that matter and media and-or social violence is prevalent the parent or guardian assume the responsibility of condoning violence (Anderson & Bushman, 2002; Levine & Carlsson-Paige, 2003). However, if aggressive and-or violent behavior does exist in different areas outside the home, such as, neighborhood and community violence the characters portrayed in the media can become the reinforcement model insinuating that aggressive and violent behavior is socially accepted (Anderson & Bushman, 2002; Huesmann et al., 2003). In addition, parents, guardian, older sibling and caregivers would also provide a violent environment to their children, because they condone the behavior (Schiavone, 2008). If parents or guardians failed to change the environment it may both impede children prosocial development, as well as, infringing proper raising of their children, because of the fact, aggressive and violent nature is a culturally accepted practice within the primary care of their children. For instance, if violent exist in recreation facilities, caregivers, but parents and guardians are aware, therefore, parents and guardians have consented (Huesmann et al., 2003). As a result, children are learning aggressive and violent scripts that have social ramifications (Huesmann et al., 2003; Levine & CarlssonPaige, 2003). Therefore, either parent and-or guardian would be responsible for teaching their children aggressive and-or violent behavior (Huesmann et al., 2003; Guerra, Huesmann and Spindler, 2005; Felson, 2006). Furthermore, other variables need consideration, such as, cultural background of either parent or guardian, economical reasons and the environment (Schiavone, 2009, pg. 99-101). In other words, economic and social stressors may be the rationale why parents upbringing their children within a violent neighborhood and community. Schematic Theory Cognitive psychologist to determine ways how individual process, store and retrieve information used the concept called schematics. Usually, information is retained when it is presented in front or closes proximity to the individual, for instance, watching a violent movie, interacting with violent video games and hearing information through a

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radio or television. The information gather remains in the individual’s mind (brain) for a certain periods of time, and it is retrieved whenever a similar real life event occurs, for instance, a favorite song, taking a school exam and reacting aggressively (aggressive and violent actions (fighting and social aggression)). Therefore, the information received is stored as ready information whenever encounters similar real life events. In comparison, of juveniles witnessing an auto theft. Juvenile’s would not only witness the crime, but would learn how it was performed. First time video game users interacting with violent video games can develop priming aggressive thoughts, because while interacting with violent video he or she, is also learning first hand violent confrontations (Anand, 2007; Huesmann et al., 2003). For instance, Grand Auto Theft San Andreas, the video game player in Hot Coffee would also interact by picking up a prostitute would not only rape her, but also, commit the act of murder. The graphic, imagery and explicit languages of these video games is so real that it influences the player to interact just like the character in the game (Anand, 2007). In addition, the more exposure the player has to these video games the brain would release dopamine, which controls the emotion and levels of aggression in people and animals (Anand, 2007; Fellon, 2006). The imagery exposed to children is stored and process within the children’s cognition (Wilson et al., 1990). As a result, children and adolescents would demonstrate similar characteristics as individual’s addicted to alcohol and drugs (Anand, 2007, p. 552-553; Anderson et al., 2003; Fellon, 2006). For instance, children would tend to lie about excess use of video games, falling asleep in school, less interest with social interactions and dropping out of social group, etc. The information of violent acts of aggression is stored within the children cognition and memory, but the influence of aggression becomes desensitize to children. Therefore, aggressive and violent acts become a part of children thinking process. As a result, of media characters design to allow the player to mimic similar events most especially, children would tend to interact socially (Anand, 2007). Whenever the information is retrieve only the individual (children) can determine the level of severity of its action. In other words, how far will he or she act out? Potentially, it is socially communicated amongst their peers, therefore, reinforcing the conduct of behavior, which has great similarity like children interacting with violent video games (Coyne & Archer, 2005; Huesmann et al., 2003; Guerra et al., 2005; Wilson et al., 1990). Interacting with violent video games the individual’s cognition process what he or she observes, such as, the way media character deal with their aggression, frustrating moments with either their victims and-or foe (Huesmann et al., 2003; Coyne & Archer, 2004, pg. 325; Anand, 2007). Stemming the likelihood of imitating his or her observation that can potentially benefit his or her social interaction (Felson, 2005). In other words, imitating or mimicking media character role-play to resolve any potential social disputes (Anderson & Bushman, 2002). As a result, children stemming the likelihood of becoming more desensitized towards violence, because of the fact, that he or she through the cognitive process believing aggressive and violent behavior is socially accepted (Huesmann et al., 2003). In addition, to other violent factors associating reflecting interacting with violent video games could potentially become a part of children social interacting that affects adolescents through early adult hood. For instance, children with

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the predisposition with violence, and exposed to other facets of violence, such as, neighborhood and community violence. Legal Ramifications Legal ramification determines the amount of time the individual is expose to policing or policing interaction. For instance, the events at Columbine incident, Klebold and Harris interacting with a violent video game called Doom. The video game Doom Klebold and Harris redesigned the game to image or mirror the Columbine incident. Which was an example, of how media violence can be mimic or act out in real life events. However, both Klebold and Harris committed suicide after they both completed their fateful task. This does not suggest that violent video games is responsible for the crime of mass murder, but rather, it is a social role model that reinforces the behavior of aggressive and violent behavior (Huesmann et al., 2003). To suggest the contrary would be incorrect for several reasons, first there are less literature correlation violent video games with prisoners charged with murder. Secondly, it has been suggested for future researcher to construct a longitudinal analysis to determine if there exist any causal effect associating violent video games with individual’s charged for murder as a result after interacting with violent video games (Anand, 2007). There exist several literature associating violent video games, media violence with human aggressive traits. In addition, associating violent behavior with media violence, such as, bullying and social aggression (Anderson et al., 2003; Huesmann et al., 2003; Coyne & Archer, 2005). Furthermore, other aggressive and violent variables such as violence in the home, peer pressure and peer rejection as in the case of both Klebold and Harris researcher were able to determine the association, but not any causal affect with just violent video games, such as, Doom, Quake and Mortal Kombat with violent acts of aggression (Anand, 2007). In addition, to Klebold and Harris is the interaction these two boys had with other social peers who were also rejected by their peers. A group known as the Trench Coat Mafia were still the lies mystery behind the social relationship between this group and Klebold and Harris that local policing either failed to ever revealed or an area that was overlooked. But, it is an area suggested for further study. Klebold, Harris and the Trench Coat Mafia did shared a common interest, however, what was discussed between the members of the Trench Coat Mafia and these two boys is still a phenomenon. Because of the fact, both Klebold and Harris resemble the members of the Trench Coat Mafia, because both Klebold and Harris were active members (Jefferson County Sheriff’s Website, 2009). However, policing uncovered little information relating the Trench Coat Mafia had any influence influencing both Klebold and Harris to commit the Columbine incident (Jefferson County Sheriff’s Website, 2009). Earlier research had already determine a correlation between peer rejection and interrelating with violent video games, because they share a commonality of anger, bitterness and frustration to its opponent and-or victim (Green & Krcmar, 2005; Huesmann et al., 2003). It reinforces the concept to act out aggressively; because it relates to peer rejection that instigates is frustration, bitterness and anger. As a result, violent video games that Klebold and Harris interacted with Doom and Quake

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(especially, the characters that Klebold and Harris and maybe others designed) became the reinforcement model to act out deviant and criminal conduct (Bandura, 2001). Schematics redefined Schematic is defined differently because earlier cognitive psychologist determine schematics to be based on individual knowledge surroundings, therefore, schematics centers on the idea of organize knowledge (Wilson et al; 1990; Huesmann et al., 2003; Green & Krcmar, 2005). Firstly, knowledge is obtained through processed information and it is interpret through a retrieving process of the individual’s interpretation of his or her social environment. According to Wilson et al., (1990), suggested “Schematic is organize knowledge that is stored in memory as a coherent status that influences what one sees, perceives and remember, as well as, how one interprets”. Schema theory is a knowledge obtained that can be utilizes in particular ways, such as, perception, comprehension, remembering and learning problem solving (Wilson et al., 1990; Coyne & Archer, 2005; Green & Krcmar, 2005). Therefore, schematic theory is rooted from the information process theory, which is the fundamental root of process information. For instance, the base root of children cognition is the first step of attaining information that can process and retrieve (Wilson et al., 1990). In the past cognitive researchers perceived that information attain is stored into memory, which is the integral part of social interaction or communication. Schematic originating from information gather through social interaction, such as communication. The information gather through interacting with peers, parents and even media characters is process and the information is encoded, stored and retrieve for later use when encounter with real-life events (Wilson et al., 1990; Anderson et al., 2003; Huesmann et al., 2003). Cognitive learning and positive effects on violent video games Children get expose to media violence at an early age. Parents and educators agreed with the advance technology supercede the traditional role modeling, such as, Internet, video games and media characters portrayed through children’s programming. Children programming not only dominated their attention it has also affect prosocial development, which benefits periods of adolescents through young adulthood (LevinCarlsson-Paige, 2003). The new generation or the baby-boomer of technology attains good level of knowledge interacting with violent video games and computer base programs. Computer base programs are in most toys for children and infants, also, early education programs in preschool, elementary, middle school, and high school (Chuang & Chen, 2009). Recent studies are now viewing from a positive standpoint of utilizing modern technology, such as, violent video games to educate children (Begg, Dewhurst and Macleod, 2005). Because of the fact, of past studies correlating violent video games with cognitive learning children are more objectively to learn (Chuang & Chen, 2009). Therefore, educators and some parents are merging the concept of interrelating a violent video game of learning prosocial development such as educating children on the right path based on past studies how violent video games children can cognitively learn to interact (Chuang & Chen, 2009; Funk, 2001; Begg, Dewhurst and Macleod, 2005).

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If children can learn aggressive and violent behavior interacting with video games and suffer in education, it would be advisable to comprise a system of concept interacting a violent video to educational learning. In other words, merging the two concepts (violent video game and educational development). For instance, learning a computer base video game and the traditional assisted instruction, but the latter seems less desirable than the first (Chuang & Chen, 2009). Because of the fact, children had culturally integrated with video games, therefore, children should be able to educate and learn moiré effectively with a computer base video game system (Chuang & Chen, 2009; Begg, Dewhurst & Macleod, 2005). There has been no success determining whether or not if children could learn successfully utilizing a computer base video game for education enhancement. However, some toy industry had already developed educating materials through CAI, which is abbreviated for computer-assisted instruction (Chuang & Chen, 2009). Thus far, there has been no literature documenting that CAI, computer assisted-instructions nor a computer base program (video game) has ever been successful educating children and adolescents. Though, there has been less literature a longitudinal analysis would be useful to determine it success (Anand, 2007). An experimental exam was recently performed to determine whether or not a complete base program video game could facilitate a learning environment for children (Chuang & Chen, 2009). The exam demonstrated with 136 participants from a local middle school-No age given (Chuang & Chen, 2009). There two set of test or exam and each was estimated forty minutes for each segment. Forty minutes children testing with a computer base video game and forty minutes children with a computer assistedinstructional program, which is a traditional computer program (Chuang & Chen, 2009, pg. 4). The results, for both sets of exam were different, for instance, the computer assisted-instruction exam children did not perform well. Children did performed well with the computer base program with video game. The aim of the study was to determine if computer base program with video game or the traditional computer assistedinstructional could teach and if children could learn cognitive thinking skill (Chuang & Chen, 2009). The key is cognitive learning. If children learn social and cognitive skill interacting with violent video games, though, it was determine of negative social effects impose both on children and society then the educational system should comprise of a fully computer base program using the same technique, but in a more positive approach (Chuang & Chen, 2009; Begg, Dewhurst & Macleod, 2005, Funk, 2001; Huesmann et al., 2003). It appears that violent video games which is a computer base program teaches children cognitive learning skills more than the traditional CAI, abbreviated for computer assisted-Instruction. Suggesting that violent video games affect children cognitive learning skills, because children are always enthuse with the graphics, color and imaging display in video games (Chuang & Chen, 2009; Levin & Carlsson-Paige, 2003). According to Chuang & Chen 2009 suggested, “Apparently, computer base video game playing is effective for improving critical thinking skills and a higher level cognition” (p. 8). Computer base program video games has revealed as a positive tool too teach children enhance knowledge, which can be beneficial. In other words, influencing their social learning skills and ability to enhance educationally, which can benefit

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academically (Chuang & Chen, 2009). Does this suggest the educational system to compose a virtual facilitator to teach children? The positive twist of a computer base video game program is utilized to enhance student’s comprehensive, problem solving and strategy skills. Therefore, providing a positive FIRST time step for children to improve learning ability, which can develop a higher order of thinking (higher education). A higher order of thinking demonstrates potential critical thinking skills, which can benefit society. Achieving a learning factual knowledge goal throughout the education journey benefits the learner (student) to develop problem solving skills and a prosocial cognitive thinking process. Children can develop a positive concept of their environment becoming more rationale within their social interactions. A high level cognitive thinking process is one of the main attributes of prosocial development (Chuang & Chen, 2009). Conclusion Children are the most vulnerable segment of population within any society. The different culture that lies behind children does not matter especially associating violent video games and other facets of violence. Violent video games are a facet of violence. In addition it is the most up to date facet of violence that man has ever contrive. Children as infants learn from social role modeling portrayed by parents. Eventually, children will learn from other types of role modeling such as older sibling, family member, as well as, video characters portrayed through the media. The problematic issue is the cultural acceptance of violence that exists in electrified societies. Adults are responsible for teaching their children aggressive and violent attitudes and social behavior because of the fact; it is a part of our everyday culture and habits. As a result, of children interacting with violent video games derives the concept of children becoming “addicted” to violence, especially, with violent video games. Corporation and organization such as retail has made enormous amount of profits with video game sales as well as marketing advertisement. Marketing advertisement is the number one tool utilize by big monster corporate and the entertainment media to target children. The concept of children becoming addicted to violence has been a less concern to these giants that both manufacture and promote its video games and commodities. The concept of addiction to violent video games and alcoholics and drug addiction does share a similarity. In violent video games the environment resembles the type of culture promoting drugs and alcohol. For example, video games, such as, Grand Theft Auto “San Andreas” and Gear of War, just too name a few. Children, adolescents and young adults spend an average of twenty plus hours a week interacting with violent video games. In addition, it has become a culture of social interaction amongst peers and throughout the media. In addition, to addiction of violent video games especially among children it has also develop a psychological and sociological issues, because children are becoming anti social amongst its peers. It can lead in the concept of antisocial into early adulthood, such as, abstaining away from social gathering that can produce a healthy environment. Instead, adapting to a culture of promoting habitual lying, manipulation and infringing social relation, which promotes acts of violence. Individual cognition is the concept of knowledge base on one’s interpretation of information already stored into memory. However, such information is retrievable to

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resolve a social dispute as in aggressive and-or violent context, which is the problematic issue of learning aggressive and violent scripts from violent video games. In addition, learning from sit-coms and movies were characters portrayed through the media when they lie, cheat and manipulate other characters. The script itself is stored into the audience memory and it affects individual cognition, because of the fact, it is a learning concept. Since the inception of television in the late 1950’s both educators and parents became concern of characters role modeling in the media. Children and adolescents adapted a new culture precipitated to nowadays that has affected prosocial development. As a result, statistic has shown a lessor decline in education performance. Therefore, recent studies suggested a better method to educate children to become more prosocial through a computer base program similar to video games. Studies reveal that children are more enthusiastic of learning and adapting to the education concept while interacting with the computer base program of video games. Does the idea really benefit children, adolescent to motivate them to become better educated? Does it decline the human aggressive trait that can lead into a violent state? Lenin once said, “The best way to control the opposition is to lead it”. References Anand, V., (2007). A study of time management: The correlation between video game usage and academic performance markers. Cyberpsychology & Behavior. Vol, 10, Num. 4 Anderson, C.A. & Dill, K.E. (2000). Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. A Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 772-790. Anderson, C.A. & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Human Aggression. A social on psychology, 53, 27-51. Anderson, C.A., Berkowitz, L., Donnerstein, E., Huesmann, R.L., Johnson, J.D., Linz, D., Malmuth, N.M., Wartella, E., (2003). The influence of Media Violence in Youth, Psychological Science, 4 (3), 81-110. Bandura, Albert (2001). Social Cognitive Theory: An Agentic. Journal on Psychology Annual Review, Vol. 52:1-26 Barkan, S.E. (2001). Criminology: A Sociological Understanding (2nd Ed.). PrenticeHall: Upper Saddle River, N.J. Barkan, S.E. (2001). Criminology: A Sociological Understanding (2nd Ed.). PrenticeHall: Upper Saddle River, N.J. Begg, M., Dewhurst, D., & Macleod, H. (2005). Game-informed learning: Applying

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computer game processes to higher education. Borden, K.S. & Horowitz, I.A. (2002). Social Psychology (2nd Ed.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Brady, S. (2005). Impact of Violence Exposure on Hostility, Physiological Arousal, and Health in Youth (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 2005). Dissertation Abstract International, (UMI No. 3192932). Brown, K. D. & Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine (2005). The influence of violent media on children and adolescents: a public-health approach, 365, 702-711. Chory-Assad, R.M. (2004). Effects of television sitcom exposure on the accessibility of verbally aggressive thoughts. Western Journal of Communications. 68, 431-454. Chuang, T.Y, & Chen, W.F. (2009). Effect of computer-based video games on children: An experimental study. Educational Technology & Society, 12(2), 1-10. Chumbley, J., & Griffiths, M. (2006). Affect and the computer player: The effect of gender, personality, and game reinforcement structure on affective responses to computer game-play. Cyberpsychology & Behavior Vol, 9, pp. 308-316. Coyne, S.M. & Archer, J., (2005). Social Development. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 14 (2), 324-328. Eiden, R.D. (1999). Exposure to violence and behavior problem during early childhood. Journal of interpersonal violence, 14, 1299-1313. Fellon, J.H. (2006). Neuroanatomical Background to Understanding the Brain of the Young Psychopath. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 3, 341-367 Felon, R. B. (1996). Mass Media Effects on Violent Behavior. Annual Review on Sociology, 22, 103-184. Funk, J.B. (2001). Children and violent video games: Are there “high risk” players? Funk, J.B., Baldacci, H.B., Paswold, T., Baumgardner, J. (2004). Violent exposure to real life, videogames, television, movies and the Internet: Is there desensitization? 27, 23-39 Greene, K. & Krcmar, M. (2005). Predicting Exposure to and Liking of Media Violence: A uses and Gratification Approach. Communication Studies, 56, 71-93. Huesmann, R.L., Moise-Titus, J., Podalski, C.L., Eron, L.D. (2003). Longitudinal Relations between Children's Exposure to TV Violence and Their Aggressive and Violent Behavior in Young Adulthood: 1977-1992, 39(2), 201-221.

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Jarrett, C. (2005, Summer). Neural effects of media violence. A British psychological Society, 18, 462-463. Jipguep, M. C. & Phillip-Sanders, K. (2003). The context of violence for children of Color: Violence in the community and in the media. A Journal of Negro Education: Washington. 72, 379-396 Kronenberger, W.G, Mathews, V.P., Dunn, D.W., Wang, E.A., Lowe, M.J., Li, I.Q (2005). Media Violence Exposure and Executive Functioning in Aggression and Control Adolescents. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61 (6), 725-737. Levin, D. E. & Carlsson-Paige, N. (2003). Marketing Violence: The special toll on young Children of color. The Journal of Negro Education: Washington: 72, 427-428 Macionis, J. J. (2000). Society the Basis (5th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall Publishing Co. Murray, J.P. (2001). TV Violence and Brainmapping in children. A Journal in Psychology, 18 (10). Wilson, Clyde, William, Leonard (1990). Taking Stock of Schema Theory. Social Science Journal, 03623319, Vol. 27, Issue 4

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