International and National Situation & Our Tasks

International Situation

1.1 The world order is undergoing “great disorder”. Explosion of financialeconomic crisis and failure of “global war on terror” has brought about end of unipolar world and rise of multipolar world. All contradictions of imperialist system are intensifying on this new basis. Contradictions among imperialist powers over grabbing and controlling natural resources, share of market and investment zones, are sharpening and wars are raging in different regions of the world. New alliances are taking shape while older ones are being remoulded. Uncertainty is the only certainty. Change is in the air and different forces are vying for their kind of change. Different class forces and different regions are thrusting forward to participate in this change. March of history continues belying prophesies of its end. Imperialist countries and third world countries, oppressors and oppressed, capital and labour, reactionaries and revolutionaries are locked in struggle in all continents and in all regions of the world. We are living through interesting times pregnant with great possibilities and posing great challenges and trials for the revolutionary forces. 1.2 World financial-economic crisis which had shaken the imperialist system to the core continues. Starting from the largest imperialist economy, the USA, the crisis engulfed all parts of the world. Beginning in the later half of 2007, the financial-economic crisis assumed big proportions leading to shrinking of economic activities in imperialist countries, burgeoning unemployment and underemployment, stagnant and falling wages of workers, growing private and public debt. This grave economic crisis in imperialist countries reached all parts of the globe worsening the already serious conditions of the people in third world countries. Large scale infusion of public funds to save private profits played a role in converting this crisis into sovereign debt crisis with many European economies suffering contraction of economy, bank failures and high unemployment. Lot of the workers and common people continues to worsen as neoliberal and neokeynesian saviours of capitalism alternate as dominant economic soothsayers. Austerity remedy, shifting burden of profligacy of rich onto the backs of poor, proved worse than the malady drawing millions into struggle.

1.3 There is growing food insecurity in the world with prices of food items escalating, taking the basic means of survival out of the reach of larger number of people, particularly in third world countries. Diversion of food crop land in third world countries to other uses including biofuels, inadequate attention to developing sustainable agriculture and declining purchasing power of the overwhelming majority of the people in these countries has pushed large number of people in these countries into the abyss of starvation and hunger. The overall mood of people in third world countries is of disillusionment and anger. 1.4 The rulers of imperialist countries have intensified attacks on third world countries and on working class in their own countries. People’s money is being thrown into service of big finance capital. Workers, unemployed youth and students have come into the streets in European countries targeting their govts. and banks. The reactionary regimes in third world countries are resorting to increasing suppression of people’s struggles and increasing fascicization of state machinery even as they collaborate with imperialists in bailing out their crisis ridden economies. In this situation struggles of people are rising sharply. While old areas of armed struggle largely continue to subsist, there are outbreaks of armed conflicts in new areas besides growth of popular movements on a number of issues. 1.5 “Global war on terror” launched by US imperialism to secure its world hegemony in face of its declining economy was grounded by national struggles of the people subject to its armed aggression. Neo-con effort to secure the realm through use of military power met its match in the armed resistance of freedom loving people. National wars of people of Iraq and Afghanistan exposed the limit of power of US imperialism. This global war ended in achieving what it sought to avoid. With the increasing financial burden of war and escalating casualties on the battle-field, the domestic support for the imperialist wars of occupation declined. Labels like “War on terror” “axis of evil” “Islamic terrorism” “pre-emptive strikes” were quietly dropped. Drawing down of this war became imperative for US imperialism. Osama bin Laden was eliminated and Barak Obama declared “victory” in May 2013 to start bringing the curtain down on this phase of war. 1.6 While the first Gulf War (1991) inaugurated the unipolar world, the launching of second Gulf War (2003) initiated its decline. In the backdrop of national wars of people of Iraq and Afghanistan, the defeat of USsupported Israeli war in Lebanon by Hezbollah led resistance signalled a new era in Middle-East accelerating the demise of the unipolar world. The



US supported military offensive of Georgia and swift military attack by Russia (2008) in which US could just be a spectator and divisions in Europe on the issue, heralded end of unipolar world. US could no longer be sole arbiter of war and peace in different parts of the world though still being the most powerful military and economic imperialist power in the world.US and its allies withdrew their Armies from Iraq and now defeat stares them in Afghanistan and they have announced withdrawal of their combat forces from there too. Events of Syria and larger middle-east clearly proved this change where US could not carry out its threatened bombing of Syria. Divisions among its allies in the middle-east came into open and US had to talk to Iran on its nuclear programme.

huge economic and military costs that have brought about the decline of US imperialism and ushered in the multipolar world. These wars have played a decisive role in undermining the strength and prestige of US imperialism the world over, shaken its leading role and split its allies. 1.10 The great recession and wars against imperialist occupation and struggles of third world people have greatly intensified all the contradictions of the imperialist system namely the contradiction between imperialism and oppressed countries and peoples, the contradiction among imperialist powers and the monopoly groups and the contradiction between capital and labour in imperialist countries. There is sharp escalation in the contradiction between reactionary rulers backed by imperialists and people in third world countries. Contradiction between imperialism and oppressed countries and peoples continues to act as the principal contradiction at present and continues to decisively influence other contradictions in the world. The struggle of the people of third world countries for new democratic revolution targeting imperialism and domestic reaction and struggle of workers of imperialist countries for socialist revolution continue to be the two streams of the world proletarian revolution, each facing concrete conditions in their countries but each being part of the world people’s struggle to overthrow imperialism. 1.11 It is obvious that the development of productive forces has long reached a stage where needs of the people of the world can be effectively met with judicious and sustainable utilization of the available resources. However, the conditions of the people of the world are abysmal. More than 1.4 billion people live on less than $1.25 a day and more than a billion people sleep hungry, over 1.2 billion are malnourished. The diseases for which cures are available since long, continue to kill a large number of people. Over a billion people have no access to safe drinking water. It is obvious that despite great advances in science and technology, the conditions of people cannot be improved without overthrowing imperialism, which is devouring the natural resources of the globe and labour power of the multitude to increase the wealth of a few. Change of the system has been on agenda since a long time but this system will not go by itself. It has to be overthrown by the determined struggle of the people.

1.7 While drawing down in Iraq, Obama’s adoption of Afghanistan as the main theatre of ‘necessary’ “war against terror”, the new US Admn. focused their war on South Asia, merging this theatre with Central Asia and West Asia. Af-Pak as the central arena overlooks Indian subcontinent to the south, China to the east, Central Asia and Russia to the north and Iran and Middle-east to the west. US imperialism sought to strengthen its stranglehold on Asia. The Indian rulers have been its willing accomplices. South Asia is also an arena of the inter-imperialist contradictions. But with Afghanistan the US imperialist rulers and their British accomplices had bitten more than they could chew. This historical graveyard of empires run amok, snapped their war sinews with its labyrinthine valleys and fiercely freedom loving people. This David has again defeated a Goliath. With US announcement of its proposed withdrawal in 2014, different powers are repositioning themselves in Central Asia and South Asia.

1.8 The imperialist countries are trying to overcome their great recession through intensification of loot and plunder of third world countries. They are trying to further force open investment and trade with third world countries through completion of Doha round of WTO, they are trying to cripple industrial growth in third world countries, particularly its large economies, through imposing carbon caps taking present level as the basis. On the other hand they are trying to impose discriminatory NPT on third world countries which secures their monopoly over nuclear weapons.

1.9 People of third world countries are waging valiant struggles against imperialism and domestic reactionaries. These struggles, emanating from the principal contradiction of the present times, are the most potent challenge to the imperialist system. It should be borne in mind that it is primarily the national wars of the people of Iraq and Afghanistan with their

Explosion of Financial-Economic Crisis
1.12 Since 2007, a serious economic crisis engulfed the imperialist world. It started from the biggest economy of the world USA. The immediate



cause of the crisis was the decline in the value of residential houses which had grown enormously over the past years. In fact this balloon was deliberately inflated by the low interest rates and leverage granted to investment banks with commercial banks. The total value of residential property in developed countries rose by more than 30 trillion dollars to over 70 trillion dollars over five years upto 2007, an increase equivalent to the combined GDP of these countries. This property, mostly given on mortgage irrespective of the paying capacity and record of the mortgagee (subprime lending), was sliced and packaged as investments and sold to banks and through them to financial institutions the world over. The insurance of loans enabled them to be recycled. This debt driven consumption was not the only one, there are many more of the kind like credit card, car loans, student loans etc. So long as the value of the houses kept ballooning, the financial sharks kept making money but when the balloon burst, they started going under. The investment banks were the first to fall. From them the crisis went to big commercial banks on whose balance sheets these overpriced properties were kept as assets, and from them to other financial institutions including mutual funds, pension funds and similar others. While the investment banks started collapsing due to weight of these toxic assets, the commercial banks started faltering with a good number of them going under. Credit started drying up impacting the real economy i.e. production of goods and services. Unemployment rose as housing construction declined by a third. House equity dropped to 41% with 1.9 million foreclosures and erosion of household wealth by $ 14 trillion. Consumption came down with retail sales falling. A number of industries faced closure with huge automobile sector virtually going bankrupt. Number of unemployed rose sharply. Registered unemployment rose to 9.5 percent with a good number giving up looking for jobs and hence falling out of this calculation. Number of working hours of the employed also registered a fall over this period. Wages of still employed remained stagnant.

industrial production declining, the financial services had seen the major growth over the past decades. 1.14 Similar collapse in the value of residential property occurred in other western countries too with similar effect of eroding the capital of the banks which needed to be recapitalized by the Govts. Germany, France, England, Japan and other major economies embarked on their own bailouts. With credit and capital investments falling and market shrinking, the economies of several European countries went into free fall. Iceland, the banking heaven, went bankrupt. 1.15 Under the impact of failure of banks in US and European countries, the share market plummeted losing huge values in market capitalization and hence in the ability of the capitalists to raise money from the market. The financial-economic crisis affected the whole world firstly by loss in value of the securities, decline in markets of US and Europe, fall in industrial activities leading to fall in the prices of raw materials and also by drying up of credit. The manufacturing output fell and global consumption of electricity declined for the first time since 1945. World trade diminished sharply. 1.16 While this crisis was the immediate result of the bursting of housing bubble, its proximate cause was in the military drive of US imperialism. Industrial production has been declining in US with increasing sectors going over to other countries due to low cost of production there. US economy has grown to be largely dependent on financial services and military industrial complex. On the other hand there has been no significant rise in wages since 1970s thereby affecting consumption of the people. It was sought to be addressed by debt driven consumption with house hold debts and financial sector debts all growing to enormous proportions. Cheap goods were supplied by other countries and financed by loans. The debts did not result in high inflation with Govt. T-bills being bought over by other countries, principally China, Japan and oil rich Gulf countries. In a way these countries supplied the materials and accepted T-bills in exchange. The US economy could weather these effects due to dollar being the international currency and hence getting absorbed the world over. 1.17 The economic crisis of imperialism had hit the superpowers the most as their lopsided military expenditure placed heavy burden on the economy. At the time of collapse of Soviet Social imperialism, Political Resolution of our party Congress had analyzed, “The creeping economic crisis has hit the superpowers with their monstrous military industrial complexes, the most. Over past decades their share in the world production

1.13 US Admn. moved to bail out the banks. Trillions of dollars were pumped into banks raising the ire of the people. In the name of saving jobs and rescuing economy, the US Admn. pumped in huge public money to shore up banks i.e. saving the financial sector. Interest rates were brought to near zero to shore up credit. The preachers of market’s infallibility became saviours of fallen markets. US admn.’s drive to bail out financial sector has to be seen in the background of rising share of financial services in the national income of USA. Its share had risen to 41% of the corporate incomes by 2007 (merely 16% upto 1985) themselves 65% of national income. With



and trade was steadily going down. Their astronomical military expenditure could not be sustained by their crisis ridden economies….. One with narrower social base and weaker economy has come down and the other is facing increasing difficulties.” (April, 1992) Rather than heeding the lessons of the collapse of Soviet social imperialism, the US imperialists intensified their military drive as the sole superpower, trying to secure their world hegemony through control of energy sources, trade and supply routes and having their military bases in all parts of globe. There came to be a synergy between militarist drive and bubble economy based on the dominance of dollar as international currency. 1.18 The ultimate cause of the present crisis is in the very nature of capitalism where ever increasing production cannot be absorbed due to inadequate purchasing power of the people. Crisis of overproduction is simultaneously a crisis of under-consumption, the failure of goods and services to find their consumer in the market, a consumer who not only has need but also the power to purchase them. The unsold goods and lengthening inventories are matched by destitute, starving, naked and homeless humanity. As Marx had observed, “The ultimate reason of all real crises always remains the poverty and restricted consumption of the masses as opposed to the drive of capitalist production to develop the productive forces as though only the absolute consuming power of the society constituted the limit.” 1.19 This crisis is indeed a crisis of finance capital. Though it is based on commodity production, it has brought it totally under the control of finance capital. The rise of banks has been instrumental in converting industrial capitalism into finance capitalism. As Lenin noted, “This transformation of numerous modest middlemen into a handful of monopolies is one of the fundamental processes in the growth of capitalism into capitalist imperialism.” Accumulation of capital through appropriation of surplus value has to find avenues for profitable investment i.e. opportunity to further appropriate surplus value. Finance capital, through its enormous concentration, subordinates and extracts maximum surplus from the real producers. In US, the three top banks – Citigroup, Bank of America and JP MorganChase- have consolidated assets of 5.6 trillion dollars, roughly 40% of the GDP of that country. Top 19 banks in US have 2/3rd of total deposits showing the extent of concentration of finance capital. This enormous concentration of finance capital has to find avenues for its self-expansion in the milieu of sluggish growth of production. It shifts to speculation. Sometimes “The economy becomes a bubble on a whirlpool of speculation.” (Keynes) Resolution of our last Congress (2004)

had noted “Its (speculative capital’s) role in the economic life of different countries is increasing and it has come to acquire the capacity to devastate the whole economies.” (p. 2) 1.20 Hence, the speculative bubble economy was no accident but a necessary culmination of the accumulation of capital. It was their attempt to extract the maximum profit by inflating the value of speculated commodity and extracting its share by trading it against other commodities. US economy had seen a large number of such bubbles and their bursting, only this time it was on a large scale and had worldwide ramification aggravated by imperialist globalization. Crisis after all, as Marx said, is but “momentary and forcible solution of the existing contradictions. They are violent eruptions which for a time restore the disturbed equilibrium.” 1.21 The explosion of the financial economic crisis undermined the Washington consensus. Neoliberalism suffered a setback with imperialist economies pumping public money to save private profits, undertaking economic stimuli. going for unprecedented fiscal deficits and undertaking public works to boost demand. Keynesians and neo-Keynesians were resurrected while crisis undermined the capitalist propaganda against socialism. With the crisis putting burden also on the middle classes and undermining of the economic model pedalled by US imperialism in particular, there has been growing middle class assertion both in the developed capitalist countries as well as third world countries including India. 1.22 With Govts’ spending increasing to save the banks and shore up employment, sovereign debts increased many fold and with it the Govts’ liabilities. Larger economies could still hold out despite decline but the smaller economies with smaller share of exports, particularly in Europe where common currency Euro did not allow them to use monetary measures to tide over, started falling e.g. Greece, Portugal, even Spain and Italy. With deficits increasing sharply, European Central Bank in league with IMF imposed austerity programme as condition for bailouts, cutting down Govt. expenditure, closing down several govt. departments, cutting down retirement benefits and other social security measures and even bringing down wage rates both in public and private sector, to boost competitiveness. These programmes led to contraction in the economies (Greek economy contracted by a third) and high unemployment rates. Unemployment rose to 26.654 million by October 2013 in European Union and to 19.298 million in 17 Eurozone countries. Greece had an unemployment rate of 27.3% and Spain 26.7%. The deepening debt crisis in Europe has led to sharp struggle



of the people against austerity programmes being imposed as well as attempts by European powers led by Germany to bring about closer union and fiscal discipline as a price for bailouts.

Hazaras. US is trying to draw India into sharing military responsibilities in Afghanistan with obvious hesitation on part of India to increase its role though not wanting to let Pakistan become dominant there. 1.26 Failure of war in Afghanistan has prompted US Admn. to kill Osama bin Laden in Abbotabad, in a house near Military Academy, where he was living with the knowledge of Pakistan Army and also of US. Bush feigned ignorance of his presence as he wanted to continue the war and Obama killed him with Pakistan Army’s connivance to show victory in the war on terror, prior to announcing an end to combat role in Afghanistan. In May 2013, Obama announced that goals of war on terror had largely been met and Al Qaeda had been irreparably damaged.

1.23 World financial economic crisis affected third world countries with their rulers implementing imperialist dependent economic model, producing for the market of imperialist countries and dependent on imperialist capital for economic development. The decline in demand in western imperialist countries and attempts by western countries to further open third world economies to goods and services from imperialist countries, affected third world countries pushing a large number of people into unemployment, destitution, malnourishment and other hardships. The crisis has sharply aggravated the principal contradiction i.e. between imperialism and oppressed nations and peoples.

Decline of US Imperialism
1.27 Faced with financial economic crisis and getting bogged down in two wars, US imperialism had to change its rhetoric and tactics. Gone are the neocon abrasiveness, Bush’s unilateralism and doctrine of pre-emptive strikes. In 2008 Presidential election Barak Obama secured nomination of the Democratic Party on the strength of his opposition to Iraq war (when he was Illinois Senator) tapping the anti-war sentiments of its support base and defeated his Republican opponent on the people’s antipathy to Bush’s rule with explosion of financial-economic crisis helping in securing an easy victory. However, Obama Admn. in the first term changed the form but not the essence of Bush policy. On the financial economic crisis, Obama had rescued the banks with their toxic assets. His economic stimulus had tax cuts with increased Govt. expenditures, in the latter aspect differing from Bush policies. Obama policies did not and could not address the basic cause of this crisis. His economic policies increased Govt. debt while having a limited effect on unemployment and could not address the issue of stagnant wages. Obama could not address the underlying decay of the manufacturing sector in US though resorting to protectionism in jobs and trade which was more for rhetoric as for every 10 jobs created by US companies abroad, 4 high paid jobs are created in US because R&D and financial management of these companies is concentrated in USA. 1.28 In international arena Obama continued from where Bush left. Obama’s all important appointees to handle foreign policy were hawks. He intensified war in Afghanistan. In Iraq he tried to get Bush’s status of forces agreement signed failing which US withdrew from Iraq in 2011. On Iran too, the policy of his admn. was built on emphasis on denying Iran right to

War on terror grounded

1.24 Utilizing 9/11 attacks the US rulers had embarked on global war to secure world hegemony. They invaded Afghanistan and Iraq but met with stiff armed resistance from the patriotic people of these countries. Over 4000 US soldiers were killed in Iraq and over 30,000 seriously wounded. Economists have estimated the total cost of war in Iraq to have gone beyond 3 trillion dollars. People of Iraq remain steadfast in their opposition to the presence of foreign troops in Iraq and forced US to withdraw its military from Iraq in 2011. Their invasion of Iraq, despite utter devastation of this cradle of civilization, was a failure of their colonial drive. 1.25 Despite troop surge, US attempts to subdue Afghanistan have failed with defeat staring in the face of imperialist aggressors. Afghan armed resistance controls most of the rural areas of Afghanistan. US attempts to maintain its presence in Afghanistan post end of combat role through negotiations with Taliban, has come a cropper. Domestic support for war in Afghanistan is declining in US. In fact, the power game in this centre of Asia, the most populous continent of the world, has started moving fast to fill the ‘vacuum’. While US installed Karzai is making opposition noises, Pakistan - which cooperated with US imperialism in war against Pakhtuns who form the core of Afghan resistance and who constitute a significant section of its population, inhabiting Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, FATA and northern areas of Balochistan - has started sensing possibility of bringing its supporters to power in Kabul. Russia is consolidating its hold in northern areas of Afghanistan, which are inhabited by Tazhiks and Uzbeks while Iran is trying to strengthen its influence in western part inhabited by Shi’ite



enrich Uranium under NPT. Obama made much noise about approaching the Muslim countries, in particular about addressing the question of Palestine. However, his approach had been high on rhetoric and low on content. Even the two state solution being propped up by US Admn. hinges on withdrawal of Israel to pre-1967 borders and honouring the right of Palestinian refugees to return home as guaranteed by relevant UN resolution. On both these questions, Obama has made no commitment. The right wing govt. of Israel denies the national rights of Palestinians and wishes to secure ‘peace’ by terrorizing the Palestinians. Obama has not changed attitude towards Hamas which had been elected by Palestinians in the last election or towards Hezbollah which is a major force in Lebanon. The alliance led by Hezbollah had polled more than 53% votes in the last election though it failed to get majority due to electoral system there.

West European Imperialist Countries, Russia & Japan
1.32 Among European countries, UK has suffered the most in financialeconomic crisis as well as due to its participation in US led invasions. Financial services constituted 8% of its GDP and 15% of its corporate income. It also went through debt fuelled consumer spending. Its Govt. had to invest heavily in failing banks. Its borrowing needs are expected to grow to £ 703 billion by 2013-14. Its dreams of recapturing old colonial empire hanging onto coat-tails of US imperialism have come a cropper. 1.33 Germany, the economic power house of Europe, has also suffered with collapse of housing market and bank failures. Its economy also stagnated due to financial economic crisis. However, it is better placed than other European countries as exports account for 46% of GDP. This dependence on exports however makes it vulnerable to changes in the international economic climate. With several European countries facing severe crisis, Germany is pushing for closer Union and fiscal discipline. The crisis has increased its influence in European Union. However, with debt crisis deepening and economy shrinking, Germany too is going to face the heat as all these countries absorb large share of German imports. Germany is trying to increase exports to third world countries to offset this, China being one of its main targets. 1.34 France faced economic decline but slightly less due to larger share of agrarian products. However, its industrial sector is faring badly. To overcome its economic crisis, French Govt. is trying to increase its colonial loot and arms sales. It is adopting aggressive postures against third world countries and particularly in Africa, it has sent Army to Mali and is intervening in several African countries. 1.35 Italy too is in decline with national debt well over GDP. Irish, Greek, Spanish and Portuguese economies are in free fall due to collapsing housing market while Spain’s economy has also suffered decline. 1.36 Russia had suffered big financial slump prior to great recession. Its economy declined further during recession but could tide over due to less penetration of western financial institutions and its huge petroleum resources. Domination of state enterprises in the petroleum sector and large industries continues while some stabilization occurred after turbulent period. Condition of workers and pensioners had deteriorated in the earlier period and capitalists had amassed wealth by loot of public resources. Russian exports continue to be mainly of natural resources and arms. Unemployment continues to be

1.29 In Latin America too Obama Admn.’s approach had been only to change the language but not the approach. US Admn. supported coup in Honduras and recently in Paraguay.

1.30 Though Obama Admn. continued with earlier US policies, failure of its military adventures and deepening economic crisis and consequent war weariness among the people and economic hardships faced by them, Obama’s economic stimulus programmes, health care reforms and giving up neo-con aggression abroad, carried him to an easy victory over Republican Mitt Romney in 2012 presidential election. Romney’s reversion to Bush era policies was not supported by US people. There is increasing opposition to unilateralism, aggressions abroad and neoliberal policies at home. Tea Party movement launched against Govt. spending particularly health care reforms, has not embraced large sections. However, differences between Republicans and Democrats particularly on health care reforms led to Govt. shutdown for over two weeks. Besides there is gradual demographic shift with Hispanics, Blacks and Asians constituting a sizable section of population among whom Republican right does not enjoy much support.

1.31 While there is decline in the US position in the world, it has not given up its hegemonist ambitions. While it is not directly engaging in new wars, it is supporting and aiding its allies in unleashing war. Its role in NATO attacks on Libya to overthrow Gaddafi regime and in wars raging in Africa are clear examples. Besides, attacks on individual liberties in US and other countries have continued. There has been big exposure of US surveillance programmes against civilians in US and other countries and also on Govts. of other countries.



high while power continues to be wielded by representatives of bureaucrat bourgeoisie along with private big capitalists.

1.37 Japan, third largest economy of the world, experienced long time stagnation and sharp fall during financial economic crisis. Japan’s economy is particularly illustrative of failure of bubble economy including housing bubble. Heavily dependent on exports, its economy went through stagnation in 1990s and attempts were made to come out of this through reduction in interest rates. Public debt has risen to more than double of GDP with Govt. undertaking large fiscal stimulus. Japanese economy reached a plateau with falling wages and falling exports leading to anaemic demand. Unemployment has reached 5.7% with over one third of workers on temporary contracts. After the crisis of 1990s, the ruling party tried to buttress support evoking national chauvinism, greater participation in US led military adventures and further privatization. While there is growing domestic opposition to its participation in US led wars, Japan is the second biggest military spender. Shinzo Abe Govt. is increasing military spending with over $232 billion in new purchases over next five years.

resulted in people’s upsurge in Arab world in Western Asia and North Africa. These upsurges starting from Tunisia in December 2010 soon engulfed a number of Arab countries, notably Egypt, and spread to Yemen, Bahrain, Jordan, Syria, Saudi Arabia and Libya. This upsurge also called “Arab Spring” targeted the autocratic regimes and was essentially for democratic rights abetted by the worsening conditions of the people. It overthrew military despots in Tunisia and Egypt and became quite widespread in Bahrain and Yemen. Most of these regimes were pro-US. Gulf monarchies with high oil revenue and low population with most of the workers immigrant. These were shaken by this upsurge and besides doling out money to citizens, suppressed people’s movements. 1.41 Gulf monarchies aided by US and Israel, tried to utilize people’s upsurge against regimes not part of US led middle-east. Hence, US, other western imperialist powers and Gulf monarchies directed it against Libya and Syria. They pumped in lots of arms, money and fighters from outside. In Libya they could overthrow Gaddafi through their air strikes and military intervention and by utilizing divisions including tribal divisions among people. But in Syria, their plans could not succeed as the regime had a wider support base and also Russia and China did not allow UN platform for their offensive action and Russia moved to counter their offensive action. Gulf monarchies, US and Israel also tried to drown this spring in the blood bath of Shia-Sunni conflict targeting Iran as the main enemy in the region. Saudi rulers are apprehensive of Iranian influence as their neighbor Bahrain is a Shia majority state and even in Saudi Arabia, there is sizable Shia population in eastern province where most of the oil wealth of the kingdom is located. Gulf monarchies and their western patrons want to build an oil pipeline through Syria and Turkey to supply Gulf oil to West European countries thereby reducing their dependence on Russian oil. For Russia Syria is the only Arab ally left. Hence, Russia came out strongly against military intervention in Syria. In the meanwhile, conflict between Saudi led Gulf monarchies and Qatar, Turkey and Muslim Brotherhood came out into open which led to military overthrow of Morsi Govt. in Egypt and clashes among Syrian rebel forces. With US ultimately throwing its weight behind Saudi Arabia, Emir of Qatar where headquarter of US Central Command is situated, was forced to abdicate hours after Morsi was overthrown. Saudi rulers are apprehensive of Muslim Brotherhood for its opposition to Saudi ruling family. Middle east is seething with contradictions which are internal to these societies as well as with the inter-imperialist contradictions. With US plan to attack Syria which was as much for keeping its allies in fold as

1.38 Australian economy, which had experienced 17 years of uninterrupted growth due to booming mining sector, is facing problems due to slump in global commodity prices due to economic slowdown in China and other importers of its products.

1.39 Countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) once part of earlier Soviet empire suffered big decline. These countries have, with support of US and west European powers, embarked on the course of development with imperialist capital flows from these countries and by producing for their markets. Exports were the key forming 80 to 90% of GDP of Czech, Hungary and Slovakia with Eurozone their biggest market. Net private capital flows have fallen while their exports declined. These countries have high level of external debt and massive current account deficits. Due to EU crisis, demand in west European countries is sluggish while there is increasing resistance to absorb immigrants from east European countries. While EU is not admitting Turkey, its attempts to dictate terms to Ukraine have been rejected by the Govt. there which has reached an agreement with Russia.

Upsurge of people of Arab Countries

1.40 Rule of despotic regimes backed by imperialist countries and their following of neoliberal economic policies putting the burden on the people,



to change the ground situation of civil war there, foiled, US was forced to start talks with Iran where Rouhani had become the new President. With US failing to launch offensive against Syria and starting talks with Iran, Saudi rulers and the rebel forces have started attacking rival factions among rebels in Syria. Free Syrian Army has suffered heavy losses. Saudis have patronized an Islamic Front there to keep Al Qaeda at bay and increase their influence in Syria. US dream of birth of new middle-east is being realized but in a way not to their liking.

1.42 In Arab countries, the two dominant social forces are military and clergy and they have wielded power alternately in Egypt. Military remains a power centre and had come to power in the period of Arab national awakening in post-second world war period. However, in post Camp David period these military dictatorships aligned themselves with US imperialism thereby losing whatever popular appeal they had. Progressive forces, though playing their role in Arab upsurges, are yet not a decisive force like military and clergy aligned with business interests. Trade Unions played a major role in the movement in Tunisia. Recently in Tunisia, GATT (Confederation of trade unions) forced the political parties to come to an agreement after recent killings of progressive leaders made people demand resignation of Ennahda Govt. there. In Egypt progressive youth and workers were a force but Army has staged a comeback to power ostensibly against Muslim Brotherhood utilizing people’s disenchantment with MB agenda. The progressive forces in Arab countries are bound to increase if the people’s participation in shaping the developments in these countries continues and increases.

forcing further opening up of the markets of third world countries without allowing corresponding benefits to the products from third world countries, they wish to continue their agricultural subsidies while forcing third world countries to abolish them, they wish to open the financial sector of third world economies to increase their profits, in brief to further prospects for their investments. Obviously this offensive is being opposed by people of third world countries. Even govts. of some of these countries are opposing some aspects of this offensive. Recently in Bali, imperialist countries were able to force their way on trade facilitation while giving only conditional and time bound relaxation in agricultural subsidies to meet the requirements of existing food security measures. Their concern for Least Developed Countries is only token. 1.45 There is increasing drive of giant MNCs of imperialist countries to take over areas of rich natural resources and also to take over land in third world countries for agriculture. Subservient govts. of third world countries are collaborating in this. Between 2006 to 2009, either directly through govts. or through companies or funds, they had grabbed 37 to 49 million acres of farm land in developing countries. Imperialist countries particularly USA, are trying to dominate the world food market pushing in GM crops which have ill-effects on the health of people. 1.46 Imperialist countries are trying to throw the burden of addressing climate change onto the shoulders of third world countries and are devising strategies to continue their domination of the world markets. It is the western imperialist powers who are mainly responsible for the damage to the climate as they are the main emitters of greenhouse gases. Turning a cold shoulder to discussion on climate change during Bush years, US Admn. joined the international talks. Imperialist countries propose curbs on the emission of greenhouse gases taking the present status as the starting point, blame China and third world countries including India. Their proposals go against the third world countries in general and countries like China and India in particular. How lopsided are their proposals can be seen from the fact that even now average greenhouse gas emission in India per capita is one fifth that of European countries and only one tenth of that of America. USA with only 5% population of the world is responsible for 25% emission of greenhouse gases. Moreover they are pushing carbon bank whereby developed capitalist countries can trade off their greenhouse gases’ emissions against payment to oppressed countries thereby keeping them backward and dependent. Imperialist countries are the main stumbling block

Offensive against third world countries

1.43 Beset with their deep-seated economic crisis, the western imperialist powers are intensifying their offensive against third world countries. Continued crisis has exposed their mutual divisions on the one hand, their incapacity to address the crisis all alone on the other. G-8 has been expanded to G-20 (including EU) to rope in some other important economies. This is a recognition of the declining influence of western imperialist powers and also of their desire to push the burden of the crisis onto the shoulders of other countries.

1.44 While in the immediate aftermath, there was some flight of imperialist capital to parent countries as banks and companies withdrew money to balance their books, imperialist capital has to seek and is seeking more profitable avenues for their investments. They wish to conclude Doha round



in addressing climate change and the recent UN conference in Warsaw was limited to formal work for a proposed accord in 2015.

1.47 Climate change is obviously an issue which needs to be addressed. Greed of capitalists has been the main cause of devastation of environment. Last two centuries of unbridled, unplanned and wasteful exploitation of nature has resulted in such unsustainable conditions while earlier centuries had had relatively little effect. It is here that inadequacy of capitalist system and dangers posed by its insatiable greed stand exposed. Socialist system, with its emphasis on needs of the people and planned approach towards production and development, is immensely superior to capitalist system in addressing climate change. Determined struggle is needed to thwart the conspiracy of western imperialist countries to impose their will on third world countries while overthrow of the imperialist system is necessary for addressing the issue in entirety. Humanity has reached a stage where natural resources necessary for human life are not practically unlimited and inexhaustible. Hence the struggle to overthrow imperialism must gain urgency even on this score.

the govts. opposing its domination. US has reached a deal with Colombia allowing it to set up military bases in that country to be used against other countries and revolutionary movements. At stake is the rising popular opinion to not let US monopolies extract huge profits from their resources. US has vast influence in these countries and big sections of propertied classes brought up on the loot and plunder by US companies are pro-US. Besides it has influence in the leadership of armed forces in these countries. US has large investment in Latin America (over 300 billion dollars) and is the biggest trade partner though other imperialist powers are also increasing their share and that too rapidly. 1.50 Africa with its vast resources of oil, gas, timber, uranium, diamonds, gold and mineral resources has become the new hotspot of imperialist aggressions and inter-imperialist contradictions. Imperialist countries are utilizing tribal divisions and pitting one country against the other to loot and plunder this vast continent. Northern and northeastern part of Africa are contiguous with West Asia and are Arab dominated. The sharpening inter-imperialist contradictions have resulted in raging wars in this continent. Central Africa, West Africa and northeast Africa- almost all regions of Africa are aflame. France invaded Mali. Imperialist powers are behind all the clashes and wars in the continent. US, UK, France and China are major players in the region though Russia and other imperialist countries also have big stakes. 1.51 Third world countries have suffered heavily due to their dependence on imperialist capital and export led growth. Toil of their people and their natural resources are being robbed by imperialists in league with their comprador rulers. Even in Arab countries rich with petroleum two out of every five people live on less than $ 2 per day. Economic exploitation and plunder, military aggression, subversion and intimidation are being resorted to by imperialist countries resulting in abysmal and deteriorating conditions of the overwhelming majority of the people of these countries.

1.48 Imperialist countries particularly US imperialism are continuing to target third world countries resisting their diktats. Non-proliferation, human rights, democracy are the catch words applied to suit their strategic objectives. North Korea and Iran are being targeted for their nuclear programme. While US has stationed a huge stockpile of nuclear weapons on Korean peninsula and is continually threatening North Korea, it is trying to isolate that country for standing up to US threats. With regard to Iran, US and western imperialist powers attempt to prevent Iran from developing nuclear technology. But their attempts have not succeeded as recent interim agreement was reached in Geneva where temporary freeze of nuclear programme by Iran and partial lifting of sanctions by western powers were agreed to pending a final agreement to be reached within a year. Western powers have been forced to agree to enrichment rights of Iran within an agreed framework. In fact the whole dispute about Iran’s nuclear programme should be seen in the background of US and its allies’ desire to keep the oil rich region under their control. It is also noteworthy that US ally Israel has large nuclear arsenal. Israel and pro-US kings are the two pillars of US domination over this biggest producer and reservoir of petroleum in the world.

Intensifying contradictions among imperialist countries in Multipolar World
1.52 In the backdrop of the declining condition of US imperialism, the contradictions among imperialist powers are intensifying. Contradictions among imperialist powers, which were earlier mainly confined to trade and economic spheres, are now coming into military sphere. Other imperialist powers are coming forward to challenge US imperialism. The unipolar world

1.49 In Latin America, US imperialism is trying to counter a massive anti-US wave sweeping these countries. US is supporting pro-US regimes like Colombia, Peru, Panama, Mexico and the like while conspiring against



has given way to multipolar world though US continues to be the biggest economic and military power among the imperialist countries. It is the national struggle of the people of the countries which are victims of US aggression which has hastened this change though the underlying cause is the steady decline of economic power of the US over the decades. It is the operation of the principal contradiction at present which has been responsible for this change. US continues to be the main trouble maker in the world and hence main target of world people’s struggle.

1.53 Contradictions among imperialist powers are developing on all fronts. While western imperialist powers have unity on the question of pushing trade pact unfavourable to third world countries and in attacking oil rich countries like Libya, they have their sharp differences too. G-20 summits clearly demonstrated these differences where Germany and France strongly opposed US-UK drive to push through enhanced economic stimulus, rather they focused on regulation of bank bonuses and tax havens. European countries also differed when America wanted them to retaliate against Russia for its war with Georgia. West European countries are dependent on Russia for large part of supplies of gas which is vital for them. West European countries with US support are trying to develop alternate route of supply of Caspian oil. France has difference of interest with USA in Africa while it is trying to enlarge its role in middle-east utilizing the difficulties of US imperialism there.

1.56 Different imperialist powers are mounting challenge to US efforts to dominate different regions of the world. While old European powers want to secure their control over unified Europe through European Union and strive to increase their share in the world market and resources through NATO as well as on their own, Russia is seeking to get control over as much part of old Soviet empire as possible. It also seeks to play a greater role in different parts of the world. China has emerged as another centre of power, enlarging its role in east, southeast and central Asia while going all out to secure its energy sources and mineral resources.

1.54 In the aftermath of financial-economic crisis, there is increasing attack on the domination of US dollar as the international currency. Govts. of different countries held 61.9% foreign currency reserves in dollar with Euro accounting for 23.8% and Yen 3.8% (Q2, 2013) among allocated reserves. In the G-20 meeting, China and Russia mooted the proposal to float international currency in place of dollar on the lines of IMF’s SDR with increased weightage to their currencies. Replacement of dollar as international reserve currency will put a lot of strain on US economy.

1.57 Russia, on the strength of its rich oil and gas resources and weakened position of US imperialism, has started to assert itself. Military retaliation against Georgia signalled end to retreat by Russian imperialism. It has revived the superpower era practice of global voyage by its military aircrafts. With virtual taking over of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, Russia has extended its control to very close to alternative oil pipeline from Caspian Sea. Russia is exerting all efforts to ensure its monopoly over supply of oil and gas to European countries and is utilizing its oil and gas supplies to Europe to divide the European countries in their opposition to Russia. In Ukraine with its close historical and economic ties to Russia, contradiction between Russia and western imperialist powers is getting acute. Russia’s recent buying of Ukrainian bonds worth $15 billion and reducing gas prices by one third, are part of its efforts to bring Ukraine back into its fold. Russia has also increased its military expenditure though it still lags far behind USA in this respect.

1.55 The drive of US and other western imperialist countries to shift the burden of their crisis onto other countries utilizing their domination over world markets and financial institutions and increasing protectionism in their own markets, has led to rise of economic bloc of different countries in which Russia, China and some of the larger third world economies- India, Brazil and South Africa are participating. BRICS is playing an increasing important role though there are also divisions among its participants on their attitude to western imperialist powers.

1.58 While Europe continues to be the main arena of Russian imperialist interest, Russia has increased its efforts to expand its influence in other parts of the world. Russia along with China and including central Asian republics has floated Shanghai Cooperation Organization to counter the influence of US and its allies. With its geographical and historical ties with Central Asia, Russia is well placed to counter US attempts to increase its influence in Central Asia. With US and its allies drawing down their war in Afghanistan. Russia is increasing its role and in particular trying to dominate the northern part. Russian imperialists have no sympathy for the national war of Afghans, they wish to enlarge their own role in the region.

1.59 In the middle-east Russian assertion has been much in evidence and Russia has gained initiative. It has stood against US intimidation and threats to Syria, increased its military presence in Mediterranean and played an important role in dissuading US from launching airstrikes against Syria.



It also forced US and western countries for Geneva II meeting on Syria. It has close ties with Iran and has played an important role in recent interim agreement on Iran’s nuclear programme. Russian govt. is planning to convene a peace conference on Middle-east to tap the anger among Arab countries against US policies. Russia has also increased its initiative to expand its influence in Latin American countries and is forging closer military ties with countries whose rulers are opposed to US imperialism. It has revived its ties with Cuba while forging closer ties with Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador and Nicaragua. Russia is also trying to increase its influence in Africa where contention among imperialist powers is becoming particularly acute. Reviving its ties with earlier soviet-era allies in Africa it is trying to reach out to other African countries. Though middle-east developments may show some elements of old bipolarity, Russia is not in a position to singly contend for world hegemony and moreover other countries have emerged. 1.60 USA is facing increasing competition from China. While US forges closer relations to share in the cheap labour and vast markets of China, it is also strategically trying to shore up alliances to contain the rise of Chinese influence. Indian rulers along with Japan, South Korea, Australia have been part of the US led drive to contain Chinese influence and set up PSI (proliferation security initiative). 1.61 While talking of peace, the imperialist countries are developing their armed forces and modernizing their nuclear arsenals. Global military spending is estimated to have reached $ 1,756 billion in 2012, roughly 2.5% of the world’s GDP. US military accounts for 39% of world’s total followed by China (9.5%), Russia (5.2%), UK (3.5%) and Japan (3.4%). Russian expenditure is less than during its superpower days. US imperialists are the biggest arms merchants with its companies Boeing and Lockheed Martin among the biggest sellers of arms in the world. Its global arms sales amounted to $9.984 billion in 2011 while that of Russia $7.874 billion and France $2.437 billion. They are selling arms to third world countries and fomenting troubles in the world. While World War is not imminent, its danger is very much there.

of revisionists in CPC was complete in Third plenary session of eleventh Central Committee in 1978 as summarized in our 1992 political resolution. With a series of measures dissolving communes and privatizing the land, encouraging the private entrepreneurs and inviting imperialist capital doling out cheap labour and vast market as the bait, capitalism was restored in China. China now has a vast private sector with largest number of persons joining the list of billionaires in the world.

1.63 In the decades following the restoration of capitalism, Chinese ruling bourgeoisie focused on appropriating the surplus of vast Chinese working class and toiling peasantry. They systematically built up private industries, opened SEZs to short-circuit the gains made by the people in the socialist era to intensify exploitation and oppression of the workers. Chinese rulers stressed on economic development and political stability to complete restoration of capitalism which they called market socialism with Chinese characteristics but which in fact was capitalism with Chinese characteristics. They had learnt the lessons from the restoration of capitalism in erstwhile Soviet Union and stressed on the evolution of Chinese private capitalists to develop them as a ruling class. With revisionist Deng Xiaoping Theory and later frankly bourgeois theory of three represents practically replacing Marxism Leninism Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese ruling bourgeoisie utilized its control over the vast public sector to ‘enrich itself’. They opposed the revolutionary communists, though some among them followed the lead of Chinese revisionists turning into revisionist outfits themselves. In the earlier decades the ruling bourgeoisie followed the policy of collaborating with the imperialist powers in the name of securing stable international environment for the growth and development of capitalism in China. They supported intervention and aggression of imperialist powers against third world countries.

China Becomes Social-imperialist
1.62 Soon after the death of Com. Mao, the rightists in CPC seized control of the Party and the state, reversed the earlier direction of CPC, called off GPCR and targeted the revolutionaries inside the Party. Victory

1.64 Gradually usurping the fruits of labour of the toiling masses of China and collaborating with imperialist capital in extracting surplus, the Chinese bourgeoisie backed by the Socialist era development of vast human resources, infrastructure and markets, utilized cheap labour and vast natural resources to develop China into a workshop of Chinese and foreign companies flooding world markets with cheap Chinese goods of mass consumption. China has become the largest automaker surpassing USA. Imperialist capital migrated to China on a large scale with China outstripping other countries as the favourite destination of FDI. With trade surplus burgeoning Chinese bourgeoisie invested it in securities and T-bills of US



and other imperialist countries. GDP of China surpassed that of a number of imperialist countries and it became the second largest economy in 2010 though in terms of per capita GDP it still remains low.

1.65 While the lot of Chinese workers and peasants continued to worsen, Chinese bourgeoisie kept on growing in league with imperialist powers. With time the Chinese bourgeoisie grew fairly powerful amassing huge surplus and started looking for avenues for investment of this surplus to secure raw materials, energy sources and markets for their products. China joined the league of imperialist powers in subjugating the economies of third world countries to its own interests supplying China with oil, gas, timber, minerals and other raw materials and China in turn supplying them with finished goods and machinery. Bourgeoisie of a number of third world countries too invest in other countries but they do so in league with imperialist bourgeoisie to take a share in the exploitation while Chinese investments are in the interest of Chinese capitalism and in a way in competition with the monopoly bourgeoisie of other imperialist countries.

of goods since 2009. Chinese investments are primarily in resource development, communication, information system and other IT services and wholesale and retail trade. Chinese have invested in oil exploration and development of oil and gas fields in Middle-east and African countries. In Middle-east China has emerged as a big trading partner (8.3% of market share in 2005) and is in contention with western imperialist powers. Iran is the top oil exporter to China from middle-east and China has emerged as its second biggest trade partner. 1.68 China has paid much attention to African countries and has already emerged as their third largest trade partner after USA and France. Africa with abundant supply of oil, timber, copper, minerals and diamonds is a lucrative investment area for Chinese bourgeoisie. China hosted Africa Summit in 2000 which was attended by leaders of 48 African countries and China committed $ 5 billion in loans and aid to African countries. More than 500 Chinese companies are active in African countries. Chinese trade with Africa has registered many fold increase with close relations with Sudan, Chad, Nigeria, Angola, Zimbabwe, Algeria, Gabon and Guinea. 1.69 China has also strengthened its relations with Latin American countries and has sharply increased its investment. Its investment has increased to $ 8 billion and its trade with Latin American countries was third largest at $ 50 billion in 2005 and has grown much since. It has emerged as the largest trading partner of Brazil and Chile. Though its investment is small as compared to US ($300 billion) but its rate of growth is very high. China has developed trade and investment in Chile, the largest producer of Copper, with $ 4.6 billion of Chilean goods, mostly copper, coming to China. China has also developed trade and investment in Bolivia, Venezuela and other Latin American countries mostly in oil and minerals. 1.70 Having restored capitalism in China, the Chinese ruling bourgeoisie has embarked on developing zones of investments for its capital mainly to secure energy, minerals, timber and the like natural resources. Its international role is also undergoing a change. Its status as a permanent member of the Security Council also helped it in securing influence in a number of countries. It is a major player in Shanghai Cooperation Council it set up with Russia and Central Asian republics which is challenging the US attempts to increase its influence in the region. It is opposing further US sanctions against Iran and North Korea and has opposed US on Syria. 1.71 China is developing its armed forces and sharply increasing

1.66 Over the last decade the Chinese trade surplus grew enormously. Chinese trade surplus with US was $ 84 billion in 2000 which grew to $ 266 billion in 2008 and remained high even thereafter. Foreign exchange reserves of China grew to $3.557 trillion as on June 20, 2013. Exports constitute roughly 41% of the GDP, only Germany and earlier Japan had a larger share of exports in their GDP. With domestic consumption accounting for only 36% of GDP, conditions of Chinese workers and toiling masses is abysmal. Real demand emanating from domestic source continues to be low. People earning less than $1 a day doubled in China over the last decade with more than 400 million seeing their incomes decline. However Chinese economy relied more on production and less on income from financial services and the impact of the world financial economic crisis is due to shrinkage in demand in western economies. Chinese rulers embarked on huge economic stimulus with 1/4th to 1/3rd of this new lending going to stock market and real estate speculation with a construction boom.

1.67 With huge trade surplus and accumulation of money capital, Chinese bourgeoisie have systematically invested in third world countries. Their investments abroad grew 30% in 2012 and are expected to rise further in 2013 by 15% to 88.7 billion dollars. Their global investments and contracts have totaled 688 billion dollars. In 2012 China surpassed USA as the biggest trading country of goods with total exports and imports worth $3.87 trillion compared to $3.82 trillion of the USA. China has been world’s largest exporter



expenditure on military. It is developing a string of ports in Indian Ocean to secure its trade routes. It is stationing its navy in Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea and off the African coast while increasing its control over South China Sea and parts of Pacific. China is becoming assertive in relation to its neighbours particularly in relation to its control over South China Sea and maritime areas. China is developing alliances with other countries to foil US attempts to encircle it. Its increased opposition to US manoeuvres is also in the interest of securing its imperialist interest- raw material and energy sources and markets. Its role has assumed global dimensions and it has joined the league of imperialist powers.

witnessing rise of Han chauvinism which Com. Mao continuously warned against. National minorities in China are facing marginalization as Chinese Han bourgeoisie monopolize all sectors of economy and Hans migrate in large numbers to areas of national minorities threatening demographic change and marginalization of their national characteristics. Uprisings of Uighurs in Sinkiang and Tibetans while having international backing also has roots in the national oppression in China.

South Asia a hotspot of inter-imperialist contradictions
1.75 US invasion of Afghanistan had little to do with Al Qaeda or terror threat though US imperialism used 9/11 for this. They launched this aggression to capture the strategic centre of Asia. Contradiction between US imperialism and Taliban rulers had been growing over the dispute over oil pipeline from Caspian sea. Subsequent invasion of Iraq further proved that this war had little to do with eliminating ‘terror’ but everything to do with strategic objectives of US imperialism to secure its world hegemony. With the then unipolar world other imperialist powers did not confront US imperialism but chose to be part of this aggression and carve out their share in the US dominated world e.g. Russia sent its troops to the northern parts of Afghanistan. The main thrust of this war has been to dominate South Asia and make a strong US military base to check the influence of Russia and China. But the fiercely independence loving people of Afghanistan which has been the burial ground of world conquering ambitions from Alexander and Chengis Khan to British colonialists and Soviet social imperialists, delivered devastating blows to the invading imperialist forces. Taliban rulers, faced with a vastly superior military force, chose not to engage in positional warfare but prepared for the guerilla warfare which suited the balance of forces and terrain. Like with invaders earlier, conquest was easy but the subduing of the people extremely difficult with porous border and strong tribal ties among Pakhtuns on both sides of border (carved out by British colonial rulers of India after conquering plain areas inhabiting Pakhtuns). With war against foreign invaders developing, Pakhtun areas in Pakistan too became targets of US led military attacks. With the connivance of Pakistan govt. and army, US launched drone attacks in Pakistani areas killing a large of civilians. Gradually this war involved Pakhtun areas of Pakistan as well and it became war of Pakhtuns on both sides of the border. 1.76 The PPP Govt. which came to power in 2008 after US brokered agreement between Musharraf and PPP leadership, continued cooperation with US led invasion and Pakistan army participated in the war on their

1.72 In the recently held third plenum, CPC leadership has decided to continue with its capitalist policies with a new starting point, giving “decisive role” to the market in resource allocation and focusing on “innovative corporate structure” to handle state enterprises. This plenum also dealt with financial reforms for faster development of equity, bond and derivative markets and lower equity barrier to allow private capital to enter financial markets, thereby allowing greater participation of private capital in finance capital of China. Giving final burial to remnants of rural collective land, the plenum decided to allow its transfer and develop land markets for business by 2015. This plenum assumed significance as the contradictions in Chinese society are sharpening and getting reflected in CPC as well, hence it became necessary for the CPC leadership to reiterate the course taken by it.

1.73 Capitalist China has emerged from the degeneration of a socialist state. Chinese bureaucrat bourgeoisie had seized the centralized economy while private monopoly bourgeoisie has also risen speedily. These monopolies concentrate industrial production in their hands. Chinese banks concentrating money capital are also under their control and in their service. With this banking and industrial monopoly, the financial oligarchy in China plays a decisive role in its economic life. Chinese bourgeoisie are exporting capital and carving out zones of investment in Asia, Africa and Latin America. They are trying to carve out their sphere of influence in the world. As China is a new entrant in this arena, it has to contend with already established powers having their areas of influence, going somewhere in collaboration with some imperialist powers and contending with other imperialist powers at other places. It has developed into a social-imperialist country i.e. socialism in word and imperialism in deed as China calls itself a socialist country. With capitalist restoration of China, multinational China is




side of the border. The US led war started being characterized as Af-Pak war involving both Afghanistan and Pakistan which signifies US designs to bring Pakistan, armed with nuclear weapons and having delivery capacity, too under their direct control. People of Pakistan strongly opposed this war. However the growing national war in Afghanistan brought large areas under the control of the forces fighting against foreign invasion and rule of US imposed Govt. reduced to around capital Kabul and some other towns.

redirect this anger of workers and unemployed youth into anti-immigrant and national chauvinist channels. 1.80 With the explosion of world financial-economic crisis and its effects on the workers - losing jobs and attacks on their rights –and the subsequent sovereign debt crisis and austerity measures closing down govt. departments, cutting down pension and other social security benefits, wages both in govt. and private sector, there have been big movement of workers, unemployed youth and students. Unemployment reached double digits and dim prospects for future drew students into movement. A series of riots erupted in Latvia, Lithunia, Bulgaria against this crisis while people’s protests forced Iceland govt. to resign. A big movement of workers, youth and students erupted in Greece. Lakhs of people joined in demonstrations while workers observed unprecedented strikes. France observed big demonstrations with schools, railroads and banks closed. Millions of workers came out demanding wage increases, purchase power parity and repeal of tax reforms. In Britain workers demonstrated against job losses demanding jobs for British workers. Big demonstrations of workers were held in Russia against the effects of crisis on working class. Working class movements and rallies were held in Italy, Spain and other European countries as well. 1.81 For the last few years May Day has become a day of workers’ protest against burden of the crisis being thrown on to working masses with slogans against capitalism renting the air with millions of workers participating. In France, Germany and other European countries, banks were attacked during May Day demonstrations. In Greece economic crisis has led to political crisis ultimately forcing all ruling class parties to come together to fulfill the terms of bailout while opposition of the people remains strong. In Italy as well anti-austerity movement has gained strength. However, even where anger of the people brought about changes through elections, the parties coming to power on their strength betrayed the workers. 1.82 Despite such big protests, struggle of workers in developed capitalist countries remains concentrated on economic issues- job losses and attacks on social security. This anger is sought to be channelized into chauvinism by ruling classes targeting immigrant workers. There is rise of neo-fascist parties in Europe. The workers’ struggle in these countries has to come out of narrow economic confines and target the imperialist system itself. Ruling bourgeoisie of imperialist countries had reached social compact with their workers for class peace to intensify exploitation of third world

1.77 Obama Admn. increased its troops in Afghanistan. Casualties among the invading troops rose while their retaliatory attacks against civilians led the overwhelming people to oppose this invasion. In face of this ‘unwinnable’ war, the domestic support for this surge evaporated. In this situation Obama announced end to combat operations from 2014 but would like to keep some troops and military bases in Afghanistan and is proposing Bilateral Security Agreement for the purpose. Indian rulers are opposing US decision of withdrawal. They had sent some troops there in the name of providing protection to ‘development’ works undertaken by them. Though new Govt. has come to power, US drone strikes continue within Pakistan. China on the other hand is trying to work through Pakistan to contain disturbances in Sinkiang and to exploit mineral wealth of Afghanistan.

1.78 US imperialism is increasing its military presence in the Indian Ocean. For this they are pursuing Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) which is outside the ambit of UN. In the name of checking ships for preventing transport of weapons and parts that can be used for them, they wish to control the sea routes of Indian Ocean. US Admn. has roped in Indian rulers in this along with Japan and Australia. Obviously, this move is aimed against China which is taking counter measures. South Asia is becoming a hotbed of intensifying contradictions among imperialist powers. Indian rulers’ participation in US drive to contain China is one of the main causes behind this.

Workers’ Movement in Capitalist countries

1.79 Struggle of working class in developed capitalist countries, particularly of Europe, had been going on against the attack of monopolies on the wages, social security and rights of the workers. These movements had targeted meetings of international financial institutions e.g. IMF, World Bank and G-8 meetings and there were big mobilizations in these demonstrations in which social democratic parties and NGOs also participated. However, the ruling classes of these countries sought to



countries. Workers of developed capitalist countries must not accept crumbs thrown from the large parties of loot and plunder and must forge alliance with national struggles and liberation movements of people of third world countries. It is these struggles which are delivering serious blows to imperialist system. They must strike against their own bourgeoisie and oppose their exploitation and oppression of people of oppressed countries. They must realize that maximum profits gained by imperialist monopolies in third world countries allows their ruling bourgeoisie to continue their oppressive and exploitative rule over them. The national struggles and liberation movements of oppressed countries are preparing the ground for intensification of workers’ struggle in developed capitalist countries. “If you want to avoid civil war, you must become imperialists” said Cecil Rhodes. For the workers of imperialist countries it is imperative to oppose imperialism to launch revolutionary war.

have adopted redistributive strategies without changing the state structure. A section of their elites opposes this. While these regimes are adopting anti-US policies forging closer relations with other powers and diluting the power of the elite aligned to US imperialism, they are at best reformists and their reformism has limits. The Govt. of Brazil, the biggest country in Latin America, though winning elections on anti-US platform, has been pursuing a compromising policy towards US imperialism even while trying to enlarge its role in Latin America. Obama Admn. has given up some earlier rhetoric and eased some sanctions against Cuba. 1.85 In a number of countries like Colombia, Peru and Argentina revolutionary forces have some strength and have presence in almost all the countries of Latin America. After some setbacks and loss of some established leaders, FARC in Colombia has regrouped and controls large parts of the country. Despite strong US military aid and all out attack, Colombian govt. is not able to seriously dent their strength. Struggles of workers and agricultural labourers are continuing in Argentina and Brazil and those of peasants in Peru. 1.86 In Africa people continue to groan under abysmal level of poverty and destitution despite the continent being rich in natural resources. Long history of colonialism and loot of mineral wealth and labour, tribal, religious and ethnic divisions exploited by imperialist powers, rule of comprador rulers who have continued and developed dependence on imperialist countries, are responsible for these conditions. The regimes that are not willing to dance to the baton of US and other western imperialists e.g. Zimbabwe, Sudan, Somalia are demonized and sanctions imposed on them. International institutions are being used to pressurize govts. of these countries and western powers are using their internal division to the same end. Somalia is an example where US is trying to militarily control this strategically situated country. While it had to withdraw its own troops it encouraged neighbouring Ethiopia and then Kenya to invade the country. In African countries there is struggle to control their own resources. Intensifying contradictions among imperialist powers is being used to an extent by the rulers for this purpose. South Africa, the largest economy of the continent, is contracting and the condition of the people is deteriorating. There are struggles of workers and govt. employees in some of these countries. 1.87 Middle-east continues to be the arena of US drive to control the oil and gas resources of the region and in this region US domination is facing serious challenge from the people and also some govts. Israel continues

Struggle of people of oppressed countries

1.83 Oppressed countries and nations of Asia, Africa and Latin America continue to be the storm centres of world revolution. The struggle of the people of these countries is assuming varied forms. There are liberation struggles of the people led by the revolutionary communists, there are national wars of the people of the countries subject to imperialist aggression and there are struggles of the sections of ruling classes in these countries against imperialist subversion, intimidation and blackmail. All these struggles form the totality of their struggle against imperialism. The struggles of the first category are the most steadfast struggle against imperialism and reaction while struggles of second category have dealt the most serious blows at imperialism, particularly US imperialism.

1.84 Latin American countries have become a front against US imperialism. While US imperialism continues to wield considerable influence and has a number of govts. run by their supporters, a massive wave of anti-US anger sweeps Latin American countries successively electing a number of govts. opposed to US imperialism e.g. Venezuela, Bolivia, Nicaragua, El Salvador and to some extent several other govts. resist US domination. These countries have developed relations with other imperialist countries i.e. European powers, Russia and China. They have also forged closer relations with Cuba and some of them with Iran also. It is an index of change of mood of the people that Organization of American States (OAS) adopted a resolution inviting Cuba to be a member revoking a decision of 1962. These countries, backed by rising prices of their natural resources,



to be the mainstay of US policy while autocratic kings are the other pillar of the US influence. Israel’s brutal war against Hamas ruled Gaza, killing over one thousand unarmed civilians, was not even condemned by US and western powers. The struggle of Palestinians for their national rights continues to be the touchstone of people’s struggles in the region and is winning support of the Arab masses. There is a strong bipartisan support to Israeli expansionism in the US congress. However it is the struggle of Palestinian people, strength of Hezbollah and anger in the Arab street which is forcing US Admn. to address the issue in the first place. Besides upsurge in the Arab people’s struggles, failure of the US, its western imperialist allies, Israel and Gulf monarchies to topple Assad in Syria and to isolate Iran has led to divisions among US allies in the region which have increased difficulties of US imperialism.

struggles against imperialism and their domestic reactionary allies are led by revolutionary communists though these are at different stages of development. In the present international situation, these two types of struggles have both unity and struggle i.e. unity against imperialism and struggle against reaction. Thus revolutionary communists face a complex though favourable situation for developing revolutionary movement. 1.91 With imperialism mired in deep financial-economic crisis, the failure of economic models being projected by it and exposure of its economic theories, the decline of US imperialism and resultant advent of multipolar world, intensification of contradictions among imperialist powers and their scrambling for sources of raw materials, zones of investment and markets, the intensification of the offensive of imperialist powers against third world countries and their own workers and resultant intensification of struggles of people of third world countries and the upswing in the movement of workers in developed capitalist countries are the characteristics of the present international situation. The situation is turning increasing favourable for the growth of revolutionary movement though it poses a number of questions to be solved by communist revolutionaries. While boldly seizing the opportunity and developing the people’s struggle including people’s war, communist revolutionaries should address themselves to the problems being posed by the present day world. Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought, the most advanced ideology at present, is not a dogma but guide to action, action of changing the present exploitative and unjust imperialist world and bringing about socialism and communism.

1.88 In Asian countries the people’s struggles are advancing. There is growing struggle of the workers in east and southeast countries like South Korea and Philippines. Struggle of the people is advancing in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and other countries. People’s war in Nepal followed by People’s Movement led to abolition of monarchy there. In India the people’s struggles and resistance to armed attacks of reactionaries is advancing and rallying the people in revolutionary movement. Revolutionary communists are increasing their strength and initiative. The struggle of the workers and peasantry are unfolding in a number of Asian countries against imperialism and domestic reactionaries. People of Pakistan continue to oppose US led war and drone strikes.

1.89 Govts. of several countries are resisting pressure of imperialist powers particularly US imperialism. In several third world countries the contradiction between imperialism particularly US led western imperialists and the nation on the one hand and the contradiction between ruling group and the people as well as the contradiction between sections of ruling elites are being played out. While we support the Govts in their resistance to imperialism, we also support the struggle of the people against these regimes.

International Communist Movement
1.92 The world communist movement is developing in the background of intensifying contradictions in the world. Revolutionary communist parties and organizations continue to develop their strength in the movements opposing imperialism and reactionaries. While the influence of revisionist parties is declining, that of revolutionary communists is on the rise. While earlier areas of movement largely continue to subsist and also advance, some centres and areas of struggle are gaining in strength and recognition. 1.93 There are concrete problems in advancing revolutionary movement in today’s world which has undergone changes in the objective situation and balance of forces. There are also problems relating to assessment of the historical experiences of the dictatorship of proletariat. International communist movement is trying to negotiate these conditions to advance.

1.90 Imperialism is going through deep crisis and inter-imperialist contradictions are intensifying. However there is no socialist country/ies or world revolutionary centre. The struggle of the people of third world countries are intensifying and also assuming different forms. These are also being led by different class forces. Wars and struggles against imperialist aggressions, subversion, intimidation and blackmail are of one kind and have different class forces even comprador sections, while



1.94 Different streams of revisionists like Khruschevites, Brezhnevites, Hoxaites have dwindled in strength and relevance. Even the influence of Dengism has gone down as those subscribing to it have mostly degenerated into ruling class parties and Chinese revisionist rulers themselves have lost interest in peddling influence among the revolutionaries. On the whole the influence and strength of revisionists are going down though not their attempts or cunning in sabotaging the revolutionary communist movement. There is a ‘rise’ of a new brand of ‘socialism’ based on some redistribution of income derived from natural resources and opposition to diktats of US imperialism from within the existing ruling structure epitomized by Hugo Chavez of Venezuela. However, this is reformism and not socialism. Besides in European countries and also US and Canada, Trotskyites and anarchists are active. Trotskyites, basing themselves on an admixture of social democracy and economic struggles of workers without targeting the imperialist system, have gained some following in some European countries.

imperialism and reactionaries. However there is no situation of building Comintern type of organization at present. RIM’s experience is quite illustrative in this regard. The proper form of organization at present is on the lines of ICMLPO though the same should be made more regular, effective and responsive to the needs of the movement. 1.97 There is some talk about the forces in China, as there was earlier about some forces in Russia. But it should be clearly understood that so long as these forces confine themselves to nostalgia for the past, harbour illusions about forces in the ruling revisionist party correcting these parties and do not draw up concrete plan of building of revolutionary communist party and intervening in the class struggle in their given conditions, they would not be able to make much advance and will wither away. 1.98 While we must maintain close relations with parties following Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought/Maoism, we must pay attention to other struggling forces wielding considerable influence in their countries. An example of such force is FARC in Columbia which has been waging war against the reactionary govt. there for over past four decades and controls over one third of the country. There are such forces worthy of our attention in Iran, Myanmar and other countries. We should try to engage with them where-ever possible. 1.99 We should continue to focus our attention on the parties of South Asia. Though the movement in a number of these countries is fragmented and has suffered losses (SAMA in Afghanistan), we should try to draw closer to them. In Bangladesh a number of revolutionary communist organizations are active and we should develop our relations with them, particularly with those who have some base among the people. 1.100 In our neighbourhood, Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) had made significant advance and established itself as the dominant political force in Nepal. On the strength of People’s War launched by them in 1996, they were able to control much of rural Nepal. They combined military and political offensives well and displayed requisite flexibility. Their successes enthused revolutionaries throughout the world. However, they have the task of making revolution in a landlocked small country which has to counter the Indian reactionary rulers besides their own reactionaries. After a decade long people’s war they forged alliance with parliamentary parties when the then King Gyanendra seized executive power in 2005 and played an important role in the People’s Movement II in 2006. They were instrumental in

1.95 Taken as a whole, in the world communist movement, the forces following Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought/Maoism, have gained precedence. Teaching of great revolutionary Mao Zedong has gained increasing acceptance among the communist revolutionary forces and struggling sections in the period of intensifying neocolonial exploitation and plunder. Mao’s teachings give invaluable insight into problems of socialist construction and class struggle continuing under socialism. Mao had enriched and developed theory and practice of dictatorship of proletariat to a higher plane i.e. of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought. Though some communist revolutionary organizations have adopted Maoism in place of Mao Zedong Thought they, except RCPUSA, do not differentiate between the two in any significant way and ascribe the change to the need to demarcate themselves from the forces adopting revisionism while formally adhering to Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought. The difference between the two formulations in practice is therefore not basic. However, RCP leader has come up with his “new theoretical synthesis” revising the past lessons and advocating a non-class approach to the problems of the revolutionary movement.

1.96 As the revolutionary communist parties and organizations increase their strength in respective countries and increase their influence among workers and toiling masses, there is increasing need for discussing theoretical problems facing the revolutionary communist movement, learning from one another’s experiences and coordinating their blows against



abolishing monarchy and emerged as the leading political force in the elections to the Constituent Assembly. A number of other revolutionary communist organizations merged with them. While their achievements were noteworthy, they committed some serious errors of principle which led them away from the path of revolution. The base of these errors was in their wrong estimation of imperialism which they considered as a global state and underestimating the inter-imperialist contradictions thereby underestimating the possibility of revolution. Their understanding about democracy in 21st century was nebulous and that of multi-party competition left vague the question of state power. Their criticism of socialist states in Soviet Union and China were not based on concrete conditions obtaining in those countries nor did they advance their criticism taking into account theoretical articulations of the problems by the leaders of world proletariat namely Stalin and Mao. After Gyanendra seized power, they unnecessarily conceded many points in forging alliance with parliamentary parties including the return of the land and properties seized during people’s war. Their leadership considered revolution to be largely accomplished and did not give due importance to the continuation of old state i.e. Army, police, bureaucracy. They suffered from lack of firm commitment to the path of protracted people’s war and wanted short cuts. In order to cover up their leaving this path, they talked of people’s revolt.

1.103 In Latin America there are a number of revolutionary communist parties. Of them, Revolutionary Communist Party of Argentina has some following among workers and unemployed youth. Revolutionary forces are active in many Latin American countries including Peru. 1.104 In European countries, communist revolutionary forces are gaining following among workers, youth and students. They are playing an increasingly important role in anti-Govt. demonstrations in these countries. Particularly noteworthy is the rise of Syriza in Greece which is an alliance of radical left including ML party there. It has gained substantial base among workers, youth and students and emerged a close second in the last elections eclipsing socialist PASOK. It has taken a consistent position against the austerity programme being implemented in Greece by an alliance and main ruling class parties. Its programme and activities have drawn attention worldwide, particularly in European countries. 1.105 While the revolutionary communists are trying to utilize the favourable revolutionary situation to advance the revolutionary movement in their countries, they are disunited owing to lack of a socialist country or world revolutionary centre, differences over assessment of experiences of Soviet Union and China in building socialism and in their assessment of the challenges before the world revolutionary movement. While putting in efforts for playing our role in the international fora of the revolutionary communists, we should pay particular attention to developing relations with revolutionary forces in our neighbouring countries.

1.101 After emerging as the largest party, they did not use that position to accelerate the revolutionary movement. They went about forming and running the Govt. befriending the old parties and Indian Govt. Their abandonment of revolutionary orientation demoralized their ranks leading to split in their Party. Com. Mohan Vaidya led section (CPN-M) has raised the banner of NDR but has yet to concretize its position. PrachandaBaburam section (UCPN-M) has not much to differentiate from CPN(UML). In the recently held CA elections UPCN-M has been reduced to a distant third force while CPN-M call of boycott was largely ignored.

National Situation
2.1 Since returning to power in 2009, Congress led UPA-II has been embroiled in mega corruption scandals of loot and plunder of natural resources, increasing MNCs’ stranglehold over different sectors of economy even opening up sectors in which they were not permitted till now, in drawing India closer to US and its allies particularly to Israel specially in defense deals, in executing offensive against communist revolutionary forces as its war against people and in continuing military suppression of Kashmiri people’s struggle for self-determination. This period has also been marked by large-scale mobilization of the people, particularly middle classes, against corruption scandals, sharp and broad based movement of people of Telangana for a separate state, opposition to war against people, continuing movements of the tribals and other peasants against displacement, women, students and youth mobilization against increasing

1.102 Communist Party of Philippines continues to wage armed struggle against neo-colonial rule while combining it with whatever legal avenues of struggle are available. CPP also continues to play an important role in the gathering of ML forces internationally and is the moving spirit behind International League of People’s Struggle, a platform of revolutionary mass organizations. Sprouting of communist organization in Indonesia where communists had suffered biggest massacre in history, is also a positive development.



attacks on women, opposition to opening of new sectors to MNCs particularly retail trade and continuing movements of workers and peasants against exploitation, oppression and suppression.

this second most populous country of the world. Even the Govt. has admitted in Food Security Act that two thirds of Indians are hungry. 2.4 Alongside this India where overwhelming majority is abysmally poor, there is the India of the rich, shining and developing. The big bourgeoisie of the country has increased its wealth at a very high pace while landlords continue to rule the roost in the vast countryside. Indian comprador big bourgeoisie is also participating in loot and plunder of other third world countries as a junior partner of MNCs of imperialist countries. Indian ruling classes are partners of imperialist powers in loot and plunder of this vastly rich and gifted country. The gap between rich and poor has increased sharply. Cheap labour and vast natural resources of the country are being squandered for the profits of the MNCs and comprador big business houses and are not being used to develop the country and uplift its people from poverty and backwardness. The deepening economic crisis is manifesting in growing indebtedness of the country, rising fiscal deficit and declining expenditure on the welfare of the people. 2.5 While world financial-economic crisis and deepening economic crisis in India are exposing the hollowness and anti-people character of the economic policies pursued by the ruling classes, they are making all out efforts to expedite their pro-imperialist economic policies like privatization of public sector enterprises, opening of the vast mineral resources of the country to the loot and plunder of MNCs and comprador big bourgeoisie, cutting the expenditure on rural development and people’s welfare programmes, in brief to intensify implementation of failed economic policies which have only benefited the foreign companies and a small sections of the people here at the expense of the vast multitude. 2.6 The ruling classes are unable and unwilling to address the effects of world financial-economic crisis which has devastated many sectors as this puts into dock the export led model of development which was imposed by the imperialist countries on the oppressed countries to make them produce cheap goods for their markets and in turn import high value capital goods from imperialist countries. Indian ruling classes pursuing FDI dependent growth are unable and unwilling to take steps to do away with the dependence on imperialist countries, the root cause of these devastating effects. 2.7 Indian ruling classes have abandoned land reforms and are even reversing them in some states while land ownership is highly skewed with just over 5% of land owners owning nearly 44% of the land and nearly 60%

2.2 Economic growth rate has declined over the last years. Unable to hide decline in growth rate, Central Govt. is pushing for increasing foreign investment though the real reason is lack of domestic demand and it has been on a spree to create the most favourable conditions for foreign capital. It has further opened telecom sector, defense production etc. while it has diluted parliamentary Act regulating liability in case of nuclear accident- all to invite foreign capital. The most damaging decision has been allowing entry of FDI in retail trade which provides employment to nearly 50 million people. While it may create some 3 to 5 million low wage employments, it will deprive employment to people many times over. The clamour for FDI is backed by comprador corporate who are particularly alarmed by the fall in price of Rupee against US $ as it makes their loans and bonds costlier, makes machinery imports costlier. While trade gap is rising, corporate and media controlled by them is demanding cut in subsidies on food, fuel and fertilizer which are any way meagre and if the taxes levied on them are taken into account, in fact negative. The Govt. is going on further opening sectors to MNCs which though bringing foreign capital, further erodes employment and domestic demand. This foreign investment led growth model is, in the long run, a road to ruin.

2.3 Economic crisis is deepening both as part of the world financialeconomic crisis as well as the one resulting from the economic policies being pursued by the ruling classes of the country. Its impact is being felt in the deteriorating conditions of the people, in increase in the number of destitute and hungry with food becoming dearer while purchasing capacity of the overwhelming majority of the people is declining, in the rising number of unemployed both in rural and urban areas. India stood 63rd among 88 countries in global hunger index, lowest even in South Asia. Starvation and hunger stalk vast areas with handicraft workers and rural poor falling prey to starvation deaths. Its impact is being felt in peasant suicides and further growth in the indebtedness of the peasantry, in the declining growth in the productivity of agriculture. Due to the economic policies pursued by the successive govts. our country is home to the largest number of malnourished children with 60 million children grossly malnourished, 40% of the world’s total. Over 56% of women in child bearing age suffer from anaemia (lack of blood). A serious food crisis is developing endangering



of the country’s population owning less than 5% of land. They have instead brought up a scheme of rural employment to jettison land reforms and divert attention from neglect of agriculture. It suffers from low wages and high corruption even in making job cards and very low utilization with job seekers turned back as demonstrated by meagre allocation of funds. The lot of peasants and agricultural workers is worsening due to neglect of agriculture. Rural poor are seething with anger though ruling classes have extended their penetration through different schemes.

2.12 Indian rulers sold the dream of India becoming a ‘superpower’ with the support of US imperialism and a section of middle classes fell victim to this bogus propaganda. The aim of this is to gain acceptance for intensification of exploitation and plunder of the vast natural resources and cheap labour of this country. US imperialists wish to utilize India as a counterweight to China and so egg on Indian ruling classes’ ambitions to be a regional hegemon and an important power in Asia and Indian Ocean. 2.13 With little job prospects at home a large number of youth are forced to migrate. They suffer from racism and xenophobia in western countries and were targets for attacks as in Australia and Canada. 2.14 While Indian people move in struggles against anti-people policies and rule, Indian rulers move to crush these struggles. They have armed themselves with draconian laws and are increasing paramilitary and police forces to crush the people’s struggles. They have declared Naxalites as the biggest threat to the security of the country which actually means to their anti-people rule. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh put the issue clearly in his speech in Parliament, “If left wing extremism continues to flourish in parts which have natural resources of minerals, the climate for investment would certainly be affected.” It is clear that it is the left wing extremists whom the ruling classes consider as the main enemy to their loot and plunder of the natural resources of the country. The struggles of the peasants particularly tribals against forcible displacement in mineral rich areas pose a concrete challenge to the implementation of the new economic policies particularly of exploitation and plunder of the natural resources of the country. 2.15 The struggles of the people of the country continue to advance despite consensus of the ruling class parties in favour of new economic policies. As the ruling class parties do not dominate these struggles, the ruling class media demonizes these struggles to prepare the ground for fascist repression. When they are not able to keep these struggles out of the consciousness of the people, they resort to distorting them and conduct slanderous propaganda against them. 2.16 The alliance of imperialism and reactionary ruling classes is becoming more and more open. The attacks of the ruling classes against the people are becoming more and more fierce and brazen. The contradiction between the alliance of imperialism, comprador capitalism and feudalism on the one hand and the broad masses of the people on the other, the principal contradiction in our country, is intensifying.

2.8 Food Security Act is first an admission that two thirds of the people of the country are so poor as to need help for even meeting food needs. Further it is just a joke as the new bill actually reduces entitlement from 35 kg per family per month to 25 kg per family per month for most of them. Moreover, the Act only repackages the already existing schemes. It is clear from the expected expenditure of 1.25 lakh crores while various schemes are already spending 1.13 lakh crores, i.e a meagre increase of 12 thousand crores only.

2.9 Indian people suffer from all round corruption and high rise in prices of essential commodities, particularly food grains, which has been in double digits over the past years. High taxes contribute much to the high prices of these commodities in addition to hoarding, forward trading etc. while corruption works as illegal taxes levied on the people by the rich and powerful.

2.10 Despite being home to largest number of poor, hungry and destitute much in excess of its share in world population, Govt. of India’s expenditure on armed forces is staggering and that too on imports. India is the largest importer of weapons with $3.337 billion spent in 2010 alone and accounting for 10% of global arms imports over the last five years, of nearly $12.7 billion. While India suffers from huge trade deficit, Indian Govt. imports over two third of its arms requirements. It has been the biggest purchaser of Russian arms and the third biggest purchaser of US arms during last year.

2.11 Indian ruling classes are suffering from political instability. For over past two decades no single party has gained majority of seats in Indian parliament. Ruling classes have sought to overcome this through alliances of ruling class parties. It has been possible as all ruling class parties, its right, centre and left wing, have consensus on the basic policy framework. While it has helped the ruling classes gain some sort of political stability, it has pushed the people’s issues outside the pale of ruling class politics.



2.17 Revolutionary situation continues to grow. Vast sections of people are disillusioned with ruling class parties and are taking to militant struggles to secure their rights. People are not prepared to be ruled in the old way and rulers are also not able to rule in the old way.

Deepening Economic Crisis

of growing pulses and oil seeds etc. Food availability declined while Govt. spokesmen made light of food security claiming to get it from the international market. Govt. routinely increases prices of petrol and diesel even when the prices in the international market are low. This rise has a chain effect raising the prices of all commodities. A large part of these prices are Govt. taxes which the Govt. does not reduce even when prices are high. 2.22 Industrial crisis has been continuing exemplified by decline, stagnation and very low growth during the past years. Automobile sector slowed down and many sectors of infrastructure registered slow growth. Manufacturing, which is a big contributor to providing industrial employment, has been particularly hard hit. Even the growth of service sector which is the biggest contributor to GDP is slowing down. Share of agriculture which provides employment to 59% of the people declined to one seventh of GDP. 2.23 Growth of employment in organized industries has been negative with 92% of the employment provided by informal sector. Total employment in the organized sector had fallen from 28.2 million in 1977 to 26.4 million in 2004 and the trend continues. Gujarat and Maharashtra, being projected as the models of industrialization, are among the slowest growing states in term of employment in non-agricultural jobs. 2.24 Agrarian crisis in the country continues to be quite deep with agricultural production virtually stagnant. Implementation of imperialist dependent green revolution based on maximum exploitation of land and water with high use of chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) has led to decline in growth of agricultural productivity so that the growth of agricultural production is not keeping pace with increased inputs. Punjab, Haryana and western UP, considered the grain bowl of the country accounting for overwhelming proportion of marketable surplus, are suffering from this with peasant indebtedness increasing. Agriculture continues to be rainfed and carried on with backward means in the large part of the country. Irrigation projects particularly small and medium continue to lie incomplete while maintenance of canals is neglected. 2.25 The basic cause of agricultural stagnation is semifeudal agrarian relations which ruling classes maintain and sustain. Land reforms have remained only on paper with only 1.25% of the cultivable surplus land having been distributed. Since the advent of new economic policies, even the talk of land reforms has stopped and they are being reversed in some states. The vast multitude of poor landless peasants and agricultural labourers do

2.18 Economic crisis in the country i.e. industrial-agrarian crisis, is deepening and growth rate declining. India has had severe impact of the world financial-economic crisis. While the toxic assets were not parked in Indian banks to any significant degree except in ICICI, not because of the Indian Govt. but despite it, the severe impact was felt due to decreased demand in US and European countries. Several sectors suffered and are yet to overcome the slowdown. Indian Govt., which initially denied any impact of the crisis, was slow to recognize the same and still slower in taking corrective measures to save industries. These measures rather than addressing the root causes were only temporary measures which only increased debt burden.

2.19 While Govt. was slow to act to save the export dependent industries, it was quick to act to save Indian big business. With foreign credit drying up, govt. quickly moved to pump in lakhs of crores to shore up the credit flow and SBI guaranteed bonds were floated to pay for the loans. Indian rupee declined vis-à-vis the dollar. Fiscal deficit rose sharply due to falling revenue collection and largesse given to big business houses. The Govt. cut expenditure on welfare schemes with ministries spending less than budgeted.

2.20 Indian big business raised loans in the international market particularly external commercial borrowings with their higher interest rates. Besides, India was forced to take in mandatory exports under WTO, allow repatriation of profits by MNCs under TRIMs. These in addition to current account deficit put a lot of pressure on Indian rupee which fell in relation to US$ leading to further clamouring for FDI by Indian Govt.

2.21 Prices of food and other essential commodities like cooking gas, kerosene etc. rose sharply bringing serious hardships for the common people who spend a large part of their earnings on food. Prices of pulses, vegetables, sugar and cereals rose sharply and price rise of food items averaged 13 to 15%. This was a result of gross neglect of agriculture, diversion of fertile land for other purposes including biofuels and declining increase in productivity due to short sighted policies of the Govt., neglect



not have even the hope of getting agricultural land and are subject to exploitation and oppression of landlords. Land distribution has been restricted to house sites and that too not implemented. Ruling classes conduct propaganda of non-viability of small plots while all experience points to the increase in productivity if land reforms are carried out. But what can be expected by the big bourgeois big landlord ruling classes when their own interests are involved?

2.26 Agrarian output has remained stagnant or registered minor growth leading to decline in per capita food availability. The agrarian crisis is deepening with no respite for landowning peasantry and no hope for land starved peasantry.

closed and there has been no attempt to revive them. Even the workers’ dues and benefits have not been paid. Plight of the workers of closed and crisis-ridden industries is really serious. Workers’ dwellings continue to be attacked in the name of beautifying cities while even minimum amenities like water and electricity are not provided. Even where they are provided, they have been privatized and rates hiked. Hawkers are being removed from roads in big cities depriving large number of toilers of their livelihood and common people sources of goods within their means. 2.29 UPA Govt.’s callousness is conspicuous in its approach to peasant suicides. Manmohan Singh announced Vidarbha package updating the bank books and announcing some big irrigation projects. No measure has been taken to address indebtedness what to talk of the causes underlying it. Indebtedness to private money lenders, which accounts for most of the loans of peasants, has not at all been addressed. Suicides continue. On the other hand the cost of inputs keeps rising. There has been rise in the prices of fertilizers and peasants throughout the country faced shortage of fertilizers. Govt. is working for the profits of fertilizer companies while pushing through micronutrients. Govt. procurement of agricultural produce at a support price is being diluted and peasants have to regularly agitate for the same. The support price is declared much later leaving no choice to the peasants about crops. 2.30 UPA Govt. is dithering on defending the interests of Indian agriculture in Doha round of negotiations. Rather than standing firmly on the side of the third world countries, Indian Govt. tried to reach agreement with imperialist countries at the expense of other third world countries. In recent 9 th WTO Ministerial Meeting in Bali, Indian Govt. not only ditched other third world countries but compromised Indian interests on trade facilitation for a half baked concession on subsidies for Food Security programme. This is an interim concession for four years and that too only on existing levels with a proviso that it should not distort trade. This has been a surrender by Indian Govt. and isolated India from other third world countries. 2.31 UPA Govt. has totally abandoned land reforms. Even the earlier pending cases relating to disputes are lying in the courts and there has been no progress on distribution of surplus and bhoodan lands. Even in the states where commissions were appointed on this problem, their reports were consigned to the dustbin. K. Ranga Rao committee appointed by Congress govt. of A.P. and D. Bandopadhyay commission appointed by

UPA Govt.’s Attack on the People & Deteriorating Conditions of the People

2.27 While UPA Govt.’s second term has been marked by exposure of big corruption scandals, both its terms have been abject failures in terms of doing anything to address the problems of the people. The only concern of Manmohan Singh Govt. has been to deepen strategic partnership with US imperialism and intensification of new economic policies though running a coalition govt. did impose some limitations. US –India Nuclear Deal had little to do with meeting the power needs of the country but was a means of deepening relations with US imperialism. The agreement on civilian nuclear cooperation and Hyde Act passed by the US Congress showed that this was to bring Indian nuclear programme under US supervision and for selling US nuclear reactors to India. The agreement did not confer enrichment and reprocessing rights to India but talked of separate agreement for the same. G-8 resolution for preventing ENR to non-NPT countries has given a lie to the claims of the Indian Govt. in this regard.

2.28 UPA govt. has done little to improve the conditions of workers. The workers in unorganized sectors continue to be denied basic labour rights and their struggles to secure the same are being crushed. No attempt was made to provide even basic facilities like ESI, PF and minimum wages to these workers. There has been increasing emphasis on replacing regular workers with contract workers who get one fourth to one fifth of the wage of regular employees in the big industries. The report of VIth Pay Commission envisaged privatization of Group D and C services and granted little increase to these categories of employees. Their pay does not keep pace with rising cost of living in metropolitan cities. A large number of industries are lying



JD(U)-BJP Govt. in Bihar met this fate. Even BSP Govt. in UP had paid no attention to even giving possession of patta lands to landless what to talk of carrying out land reforms. While there was no will to distribute even the available land to the poor landless people, the same is being allotted to MNCs and big business houses in the name of setting up industries.

state ministers have been found to be running drug rackets in league with police officers and smugglers. 2.37 Neglect of Govt. hospitals and encouragement to private hospitals continues with basic health care going out of the reach of common people. Hospitals are being handed over to private parties and govt. hospitals are being neglected. Such an abysmal state results in deaths of hundreds and thousands in outbreaks of communicable diseases. Drug prices are increasing making treatment costlier. Health and education continue to be accorded very low priority by the govt. 2.38 Corruption continues to scale new heights and permeate all corners of life. In the govt. depts. corruption is all pervading. In police, judiciary, govt. procurement, PDS, schools and colleges, hospitals and dispensaries, municipal and local authorities, gram panchayats and cooperatives, banks and development works, even in getting certificates for birth and death, the goddess of corruption is the presiding deity blessing all, sparing none. Common people face enormous difficulties while a section of middlemen has emerged in all spheres of govt. activity. This corruption is presided over by the most corrupt ruling establishment, ruling politicians and bureaucrats, judges and senior officers of police and Army. This corruption in high places takes the form of robbing the people of their land and livelihood and handing them over to MNCs and big business houses, favouring them in defrauding the state exchequer and simply eating away of the public money. 2.39 Black money has assumed enormous proportions while ruling politicians and bureaucrats stash away huge sums of money in foreign banks. Ruling class opposition parties raise this issue periodically but they are non-serious over this. Even the names of those stashing away money abroad are not disclosed as these are mostly ruling class politicians. Sums of such money are enormous but the successive govts. have brushed it under the carpet. 2.40 While the Govt. makes so much noise on meagre subsidies on food, fuel and fertilizer (which in fact are in negative if taxes levied on them are taken into account) huge subsidies are given to big business. Corporate media and ruling class politicians keep mum over them. Over the last five years over 21 lakh crore rupees were doled out to them in taxes foregone. While common man is squeezed, the rich are given largesse while the cry over budget burden of subsidies rises ever shriller.

2.32 Lot of share-croppers continues to be abysmal. In most of the states their existence is not even recorded and hence they have no rights including when land is acquired. They cannot get any bank loans for agriculture. Even where they are to some extent recorded, there has been no move to grant ownership rights to them.

2.33 AP state govt. is proposing cooperative farming by big companies and has brought an Ordinance to AP Reforms (Ceiling) Act, 1972. This is nothing but tying the peasants to companies and robbing them of their land and labour. This proposal has met stiff resistance from organizations of peasants and agricultural labourers. In Bihar Nitish Govt. has amended Agricultural Marketing Act laying the basis for corporate agriculture to be brought.

2.34 Public Distribution system is facing total collapse. It is seeped in corruption with provisions reaching markets and not the card holders. Prices of essential items will increase a lot for those not covered under FSA. Govt. is in fact planning to do away with it trying to bring in cash transfer in place of providing rations to needy which will have serious deleterious effect on the nutritional level of the poor of the country.

2.35 UPA Govt. has continued the privatization and commercialization of education, raising steeply fees for higher education. Educational institutions are being handed over to private parties. Higher education has gone out of reach of even middle classes what to talk of poor people further marginalizing dalits, most backwards and women from higher studies. There has been increasing opening of foreign universities, bringing courses of Indian universities in line with them. On the other hand, there is widespread distortion of history in text books and obscurantist ideas are taught to the students.

2.36 Situation of unemployment continues to be grave with over forty million on employment exchange registers when only a small minority gets themselves registered. Young people at large have no meaningful prospects for the future. On the other hand, ruling classes promote lumpenization of youth and propagate such values which result in growing criminal activity. In several parts there is growth in drugs consumption by youth. In Punjab,



2.41 Elections are marked by widespread use of money, muscle and media. Election Commission also made elections costlier outlawing cheaper means of propaganda. In the last elections 306 members elected to Lok Sabha are themselves crorepatis while number of criminals among the elected MPs too went up. Similar trend is observed in state assembly elections.

2.42 Though the Congress fought last elections on its concern about common man, highlighting NREGA, Forest Act, loan waiver and earlier bank nationalization, Manmohan Singh Govt. took it as a mandate to intensify implementation of new economic policies. The Govt. has been pumping for FDI removing all obstacles in its way. FDI was introduced in retail trade despite widespread opposition in the country.

Political Instability Continues

2.43 2009 election results were projected by ruling class media as an end to political instability but political instability continued. UPA-II unravelled with TMC leaving on the question of FDI in retail trade and DMK on the question of Sri Lankan Tamils, leaving the UPA Govt. much short of majority but the Govt. survived on the strength of two regional parties of UP- SP and BSP and unwillingness of the main parliamentary opposition BJP to depose the Govt. Parliament remained paralyzed but did pass anti-people legislations. FDI was permitted in telecom, defense production while workers’ PF was permitted to be invested in share market with entry of FDI. In Rajya Sabha UPA-II is well short of majority. Other ruling class parties are ruling in major part of the country. Such is the state of instability that every state elections is perceived as a referendum on the Govt.

corporate, bureaucrats and even media persons. Large scale corruption in Commonwealth Games, 2G scam, Coalfield allocation scandal, Adarsh Society scam, UP NRHM scam, mining scandal of Karnataka, KG basin scam and scandals involving Robert Wadra and Nitin Gadkari are just a few more publicized ones. CAG reports on corruption in Commonwealth Games and 2 G scam shook the people and brought them into the streets. Anna Hazare led anti-corruption movement with its projected solution through Lokpal and support from the media extended to this campaign, galvanized the people, particularly middle classes of metropolitan cities particularly Delhi. The Govt. move to ban the protest and arrest Anna Hazare brought lakhs of people into the streets. Anna Hazare broke his fast on promises made by the PM as a part of Parliamentary commitment to enact Lokpal. This vast mobilization of people prompted corporate and the media controlled by them, to complain of negativity and lack of governance due to such movements, and to advocate that anti-corruption movement should take to parliamentary, not movemental, route fighting elections and fighting corruption from within. Anna Hazare led team’s attempt to restart the movement from Mumbai could not succeed largely due to change of the attitude of the corporate media. On the question of forming a party, there was split among these long term non-party activists with a section of Anna team deciding to form a political party, Aam Admi Party, which contested elections in Delhi emerging as the second largest party. 2.46 After severe defeat in assembly elections in four north Indian states, Congress got the Lokpal Act passed by Parliament incorporating suggestions of parliamentary select committee into the Govt. Bill. CBI has not been brought under Lokpal, but an investigating officer cannot be transferred without Lokpal’s approval and methods of selection of Lokpal and CBI director are prescribed. Protection to whistle blowers and citizens’ charter are to be dealt through separate Acts. Anna Hazare, who was on fast in his village, expressed satisfaction with the Act. So far as fighting corruption goes, leaving fighting corruption to corrupt would ensure that nothing would come out of it. 2.47 However, the anger of middle classes and its alienation from ruling classes is more deep seated. It burst forth on the issue of corruption as well as on violence against women and earlier on acquittal of the accused having links with power. AAP channelized this anger into electoral channel helped by corporate contributions and corporate media. However, it also proved that once the framework was laid, anger of the working people too

2.44 Another sign of political instability is rising conflict among the state institutions, between judiciary and executive, between political and bureaucratic executive, between CBI and IB, between CAG and Govt., in fact between different wings of the state. Such is the state of political instability despite continuation of Govt. that it cannot even pursue foreign policy without intervention of states as evidenced by last minute cancellation of Manmohan Singh’s visit to Colombo and failure to sign accord with Bangladesh.

Anti-corruption Upsurge and Alienation of Middle Classes

2.45 UPA’s second stint in power has been marked by exposure of mega corruption scandals exposing a deep nexus between ruling politicians,



got channelized resulting in drubbing of Congress and defeat of BJP. Ruling class design is to keep this anger within ruling class parliamentary confines as the lot of the people continues to worsen. Agenda of middle classes is nebulous and attempts are being made to fit it into right wing ‘development’ plank.

anti-democratic propaganda. 2.50 Decadent imperialist and feudal culture is propagated through media, particularly TV channels. They glamourize feudal values and practices. They propagate themes of the upper classes while ignoring the lives, sorrows and pleasures of the vast multitude of Indian masses. 2.51 Particularly remarkable is the growth of social media which has acquired deep penetration especially among middle classes. They have made communication easier and speedier and have played significant role in mass mobilizations both in India and abroad. Internet connectivity has increased tremendously and reached distant corners. While it still remains under the control of big money and under surveillance of Govts, it has potential to be used for dissemination of the information and message of the revolutionary forces.

Role of Judiciary

2.48 In our earlier resolutions we have noted the leading role being played by the higher judiciary in furthering implementation of new economic policies in the backdrop of lack of parliamentary majority. It has been totally unaccountable in its conduct and pronouncements. Higher judiciary continues to serve the interests of dominant classes as shown by its bias against landless poor peasants and its attempts to whitewash the corrupt politicians, shield the corporate and police. While some pronouncements have been in favour of people’s rights, generally they have been in favour of ruling classes.


Struggle Against Forcible Displacement a challenge to proimperialist economic policies
2.52 Since the last Party Congress the struggles of peasantry against forcible displacement have emerged sharply. Colonial rulers earlier and domestic reactionary rulers after 1947 have been displacing the peasants, particularly tribals, for setting up industrial enterprises and for exploitation of mineral wealth of the country. But the displaced peasants, nearly 40% of them tribals, robbed of their only means of livelihood were left to fend for themselves. A large number of them were forced to migrate and lost in the vast slums of urban India, their daughters turning into housemaids, or else were forced to become low paid casual workers in the industries that came up on their own land while all regular jobs and businesses were monopolized by the outsiders. Their experience of displacement in the name of development was unmitigated disaster. They gave up their land on promises which turned out to be empty. They became destitute, poor and unemployed waiting for rehabilitation. Several struggles of the people so displaced continued in the face of apathy, sheer callousness and deliberate conspiracies of the rulers. 2.53 Indian ruling classes on the other hand, intensified their drive to forcibly displace the peasantry to grab their land for extraction of mineral ores, for setting up of industrial enterprises, for urbanization and for setting up of SEZs. The SEZ Act was passed unanimously by the Parliament to deprive peasants of their land, workers of their rights under labour laws

2.49 Media, the big newspapers, periodicals and TV channels, controlled by big business and otherwise also dependent on corporate for huge incomes, are performing a vital role for the ruling classes by trivializing the issues of the people and emphasizing the issues favourable to the ruling classes. They also prescribe the mode of protest and try to lay down the parameters of opposition. They show scant regard for the concerns of the common people and even when they do so, they present a distorted picture. They try to cover up brutalities by the police and security forces. It is not that the other side is not covered at all, but is swept in the plethora of onesided propaganda. They take the positions of the ruling classes and imperialists as the only positions. For them people waging national war against imperialist invaders are all proven terrorists. For them the resistance of the people against atrocities also falls under terrorism. Press freedom is not people’s right to know but the right of media barons to tell. They espouse national chauvinism, upper caste chauvinism and majority communalism in the main. Their role is commensurate with the interests of their owners and their sources of income. Their reach and power has tremendously increased. From influencing the agenda of political discourse and showing their preference for certain ruling class options, they have moved to a very shaping of this agenda. Their increased role reflects the increase in influence of corporate including MNCs, and their potential to become vehicles of



and public exchequer of the taxes. Even the law of the land was not supposed to operate in these exclusive enclaves. Highly productive land was allotted for these SEZs and industrial enterprises as MNCs and big business houses wanted land with abundant water sources close to rivers, with good transport facilities and plain land needing no expenditure on working up. And they wanted to grab land far in excess of the requirements of the proposed industries. Indian rulers paid scant regard to food availability for the people while taking away such fertile land singing praises of industrial development providing employment. But these enterprises destroyed employment many times over the number they created. With exhaustion of mineral resources in developed world, the attention of the MNCs was driven to countries like India. With comprador rulers of the country intent on plunder and with all ruling class parties sharing the table with approval of higher judiciary ‘public purpose’ became a euphemism for private greed. A new offensive of pro-imperialist policies was launched with much fanfare with state govts. competing in signing MOUs. The Indian ruling classes which had done little for the poor, landless peasants and agricultural labourers rolling out red carpet for imperialist capital, the great party of loot and plunder was set in motion targeting land owning peasants enlisting the support of landlords, local contractors and mafia. However this created a broad based alliance to oppose this forcible displacement.

in Jagatsinghpur against POSC0, Keonjhar against Mittals, Niyamgiri against Vedanta in Odisha, in several places in Jharkhand like Singhbhum and Dumka, in Chhattisgarh, in Singur, Nandigram and Dankuni in West Bengal, Gangavaram, Kakrapally and Sompeta in AP and many other centres said no to forcible displacement. Everywhere the fighting peasants were ready to lay down their lives. Of these struggles, people’s upsurge against CPM goondas and police attacks in Nandigram was most notable which uprooted the oppressive machinery and forced the state govt. to give up the SEZ project. Tatas had to abandon Singur. As these struggles also had land owning peasantry, seeing the mass upsurge, some ruling class parties too joined the fray. Then marginalized in Bengal politics, Mamata Banerjee led Trinamool saw a chance of revival of its electoral fortunes and led the struggle in Singur and Nandigram. Some other ruling class parties became locally active. The communist revolutionaries were steadfast in their support to struggles against forcible displacement and exercised some influence on the struggles. These struggles could face the onslaught of police and ruling party goons, mobilize the support of democratic opinion and force the issue of land acquisition on the national agenda. 2.56 These struggles posed a concrete challenge to the rulers’ drive to expedite implementation of new economic policies and grounded many of their projects. The anti-displacement movements have expanded particularly in the hinterland. Tribal peasants in West Godavari District in AP thwarted the attempt of the state govt. to take away land they were cultivating in the name of aforestation to compensate extension of open cast mining in Singareni coalfield. People have come out against Polavaram project opposing digging of canals, blocking settlement pattas and village resettlement. The coastal corridor in AP, envisaged on lakhs of acres of land, faced stiff resistance from the people. Similarly movements against nuclear power plants have been continuing in Jaitapur etc. while movement against coal-based power plants in Srikakulam and Allahabad districts are also continuing. 2.57 Movements of tribals and other peasants against forcible displacement have been continuing and at some places scored victories. While movement in Nandigram and Raigarh led to scrapping of SEZs, in stopping displacement in Govindpura and Halwara in Punjab, those in Singur and Kalinganagar resulted in unwilling peasants’ land not being taken (In Singur, the land is yet to be given back due to litigations). In Niyamgiri

2.54 With the patience of displaced getting exhausted in waiting for rehabilitation and seeing the lot of past displaced, struggle of tribal peasants of Kalinganagar in Odisha became a turning point. Discarding the bogey of relief and rehabilitation and building up on earlier struggles e.g. of Kashipur, they raised the battle cry of “no to displacement” and offered supreme sacrifices for their conviction to save their land and livelihood. Two old and two very young died in the first skirmish on land for Maharashtra Seamless in May 2005. But the major battle was fought on the land to be given to Tata for a Steel Plant. On January 2, 2006 Odisha Govt. unleashed its police on the tribals opposing displacement. 14 died in the firing, 12 on the spot. But the determined tribals with their dead, blocked Paradeep Highway. The blockade continued for over 14 months. This massacre of tribals created widespread anger. While ruling class parties tried to confine the issue to firing, it was communist revolutionaries who gave unstinted support to the struggle of tribals against displacement.

2.55 Kalinganagar struggle inaugurated a new phase of struggle against forcible displacement. Peasants in Raigarh in Maharashtra, in Dadri in UP,



tribals scored a singular victory when Supreme Court authorized tribals to decide the fate of Bauxite mining by Vedanta through their Gram Sabhas. 12 pallisabhas unanimously rejected the mining proposal in which rejection our Party played a leading role.

liable to be used by non-tribal exploiters. Even the resettlement packages for forest land are being given to non-tribals. 2.61 Anti-displacement movements have unleashed their energy as they defend their land and livelihood. Brutally suppressed by police, these movements usually ban the entry of police in the movement areas. Often these movements turn to attempts at re-establishing tribal way of life and they articulate their demands according to their percepts of justice. 2.62 While tribals have displayed unparalleled heroism in antidisplacement movements in a number of places, there have been militant movements with big mass participation in South Odisha for reclaiming their land from the illegal possession of non-tribals. In Narayanpatna block of Koraput district, tribals re-occupied their lands from the illegal occupation of non-tribal landlords and withstood attacks from landlords and their goondas. They are facing severe repression from the state which killed tribal activists, has deployed paramilitary forces for suppressing them and has foisted false cases against them. 2.63 In West Bengal in Lalgarh in West Midnapur district, tribals and other rural people rose against tortures, arrests and beatings by the police in the wake of a mine blast on the route of the Chief Minister and Union Minister of Steel who had gone to Salboni to inaugurate SEZ of Jindals. Police unleashed a reign of terror in Lalgarh which is at some distance from Salboni. Roads were dug up, police posts were raided and police made to flee from the areas. CPM leaders, whose big houses stood in the background of the mass of huts and who had been running the area employing even violent means, became the targets of attack. Mass upsurge of tribals had a spontaneous element but the CPI (Maoist) working in nearby areas for several years provided the impetus and were part of leadership. Lalgarh movement unmasked the character of revisionist CPM rule which was forced to admit that it had done nothing for the tribals in then 32 years of its rule. It also laid bare the character of Indian ruling classes who unleashed the might of Indian state through its elite paramilitary forces against the tribals. Lalgarh movement suffered a setback due to massive repression unleashed by Mamata Govt., illusions created by CPI (Maoist) towards Mamata and their one-sided armed activities targeting even other progressive and revolutionary forces and failure to understand the nature of Lalgarh movement which mobilized the people including tribals on mass scale against police and CPM atrocities.

2.58 Pressurized by corporate for acquisition of land and facing strong resistance from peasants including tribals, the Central Govt. and ruling class parties have brought a new law amending the colonial Land Acquisition Act, 1894. This new law, somewhat enhancing the compensation for the land acquired, has not met the basic demand of the people that there should be no forcible displacement. It has provision to elicit consent of 70% of affected people in cases of acquisition for private companies which is prone to much misuse and other provisions for doing away with it. It makes bureaucrats the ultimate arbiters. It has not prohibited acquisition of agricultural land for industries nor has it prohibited land to foreign corporate. This Act is a jugglery of words aimed at forcibly displacing the peasants.

Struggles of Tribals

2.59 Tribals are among the most oppressed in India. Inhabiting the hills and forests they make their living from the forest produce. Successive govts. have been attacking their traditional rights while making no provision for the elementary facilities needed for human existence. Their lands have been taken away by non-tribals despite the law in states prohibiting such transfers. Their social life based on equality, honesty, mutual help and cooperation, high regard for women and elders and respect for nature is under continuous threat. They are oppressed and terrorized by the nontribal elite, contractors, police and forest officials. They have been prey to forcible displacement as the land they live on is rich in mineral ores. They have been struggling against their oppressors mostly under the leadership of communist revolutionaries. In Godavari Valley tribals have waged land struggles and captured 8 lakh acres of land.

2.60 Faced with the continuing struggle of the tribals for their right on forest land and forest produce, The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act 2006 was enacted. This Act recognizes their rights on the lands already occupied by them and under their possession for a long time and also on forest produce. But this Act rather than extending their rights, actually seeks to curtail them both with regard to size of the land as well as the use of forest produce while making them liable to be prosecuted for failure to protect forests. It is also



2.64 Tribals’ struggles, a direct challenge to the rule of reactionaries, is full of revolutionary potential. Such movements should be built, developed and supported.

Struggle Against Caste Oppression

With few recruitments in govt. and public sector and emphasis on privatization and support to private sector, there is need to build movement on this issue. The issue of reservation for Dalit Christians which also comes up periodically, is also being ignored by the Govt. 2.69 National Commission for Scheduled Castes has few powers and even less willingness to intervene in cases of discrimination.

2.65 Dalits and other backward castes continue to be oppressed which has its roots in their lower socio-economic status. Beating and killing of dalits, rape of their women and parading them naked is still common. Many incidents of sexual assaults on dalit girls and women have come to light in Haryana. A violent campaign is being run in Tamilnadu against dalit boys marrying Vanniyar girls and such campaign is common in other states and communities. Where-ever their condition improves and they object to being treated in oppressive way, they are physically attacked, their houses and properties are burnt. Khairlanji (Maharashtra) and Luxmipet (Andhra) are examples of continuation of murderous attacks on dalits. Even the parties based on particular caste groups subjected to oppression and backwardness do little to change the situation.

Attacks on Minorities
2.70 Minorities in India, particularly Muslims, continue to be oppressed and discriminated against. Their condition continues to be dismal irrespective of the ruling class party ruling in the state. Their share in higher education, govt. jobs, bank loans and other Govt. facilities is much below their population. Sachar Committee brought out some aspects of the neglect faced by Muslims in the country. Discrimination against minorities continues in a myriad of ways. While some ruling class parties bring up the question of reservation for Muslims at the time of elections, when in power they do precious little to ensure that Muslims get their due share in govt. services and in facilities. 2.71 Besides discrimination and oppression, Muslims are subjected to attacks on their lives and properties which brings to the fore not only lack of commitment to their safety on the part of the ruling class parties, even those which claim adherence to secularism, but also gross communalization of police and administration. RSS-BJP have intensified attacks on Muslims with an aim to create communal polarization, particularly in UP. Recent violent attacks on Muslims in Muzaffarnagar have displaced over fifty thousand Muslims from their villages. Of particular mention is the role of SP Govt. which has made Muslims sign affidavits swearing never to go back to their homes nor claim any compensation for loss of their land and houses after receiving govt. compensation. This shows that Muslims are no more than mere votes for them. While Muslims are seething in anger over the failure of the Govt. to protect them or arrest the culprits of murders, SP Govt. is banking on leaders of religious organizations to deliver their votes. 2.72 Over a thousand Muslims were massacred in Gujarat in 2002 and the cases related to that massacre are still lingering. Muslim youth are being targeted in the name of tackling terror. They are indiscriminately arrested and killed in cold blood. Muslim youth, particularly in educational institutions, are being targeted as in Bihar after Patna blasts. Police officers

2.66 The recent rise in Punjab of dalit deras and attacks on them by upper caste Sikh clergy has its roots in the relative rise of these institutions which are supported by their NRI followers. There was widespread disturbances in Punjab after a Dera Sachkhand pracharak was killed in Vienna. Such incidents show resistance by the dalits and backwards to their lower status in society and attempts by upper castes to suppress this resistance.

2.67 UPA Govt. had announced reservation in the Central universities and premier institutions for OBC students. An agitation supported by leaders of Congress and BJP was launched against this while these parties officially supported the reservation. This agitation was particularly sharp in professional institutions particularly medical colleges. The higher judiciary displayed its chauvinist stance by helping the agitation going against its otherwise disdain for strikes. Ruling class parties try to deepen divisions among the people for their electoral interests. On the other hand the implementation of reservation is tardy with candidates not being selected despite seats lying vacant. Govt. attempts to undermine under various pretexts. There is a need of penal provision for punishing those who subvert reservation or fail to implement it.

2.68 There has been longstanding demand for reservation in private sector which is being continuously sidelined by the ruling class parties.



committing these crimes are rewarded and promoted. Courts do not entertain their petitions and NHRC turns a blind eye to them. Several such fake encounters have taken place. In Batla house two Muslim youth were gunned down and a large number of youth from Azamgarh were rounded up without any evidence.

they so adamant on not allowing a sub-quota for women from backward castes? In fact both sides to the dispute only make a show of support but are not serious about the issue. 2.76 Molestation and sexual assault on women has been the practice to humiliate and suppress a community. Such assaults have also been reported in violence against Muslims in Muzaffarnagar. Women are subjected to sexual assault and murder by police and security forces in their suppression of various movements. Women in Kashmir and Northeast are being repeatedly subjected to sexual assaults and murder. Three years back a prostitution ring was exposed in Kashmir which was run by Army officers and ruling politicians. Progressive women’s organizations have demanded repeal of AFSPA which is used to protect armymen guilty of sexual attacks on women. 2.77 Equality at work and safety at work place continue to elude women. While they deserve 50% reservation in all spheres of employment, they are relegated mostly to least paid jobs. The culture being promoted by the ruling classes commercializes women’s bodies including mushrooming of beauty contests. Women married to NRIs are often subjected to harassment and exploitation. 2.78 National Commission for Women as well as state commissions never stir to any activity despite so many crimes against women except in some cases highlighted by media. 2.79 However women are active participants in all the progressive movements despite repression. They are participating in the nationality struggle in Kashmir and Nagaland, in movement against police atrocities in Manipur, in anti-displacement movements and in the revolutionary movement in villages and cities. We should focus on the issues of working women and of the women of toiling sections.

2.73 Justice is yet to be delivered in the cases pertaining to genocide of Sikhs in Delhi and elsewhere in 1984.

Upsurge in the struggle against violence on women

2.74 While women in India continue to be exploited, oppressed and subjected to discrimination and marginalization, there has been an upsurge in the struggle against violence on women drawing women, youth and students onto the streets. Delhi erupted over the brutal rape of a woman paramedical student on December 16, 2012, and it extended to different parts of the country. The issue galvanized women and students and their organizations to come out on the streets in a big way and brought the issue of rising attacks on women into focus. Govt. and ruling classes responded with their shrill cries of capital punishment and castration for offense of rape while their judicial and administrative machinery keeps on acquitting the accused in a big way. Progressive organizations of women kept on insisting that the real issue is of certainty of punishment and not of enhancing it and exposed the police, administrative and judicial connivance in the crimes against women. The issue highlighted the brutal treatment of women, of poor and dalit women in the countryside besides attack on even middle class educated women in cities. Sexual harassment of women at work places continues unabated and the Govt. and judiciary’s approach remains formal, passing a few bills and judgements but caring little for getting them implemented. On this issue approach of Govt. and of ruling classes is of tokenism while safeguarding the social structure and values underlying these attacks. However, post-Dec. 16 upsurge and people’s outrage at such incidents in different parts of the country have brought the issue of violence on women onto the agenda and women, particularly urban educated women, feel emboldened to come forth with their complaints.

Struggles of Nationalities are being suppressed
2.80 Struggles of Kashmiris and of Nagas for self-determination continue. Peace talks with NSCN(IM) continue to be in limbo as the Govt. is not willing to concede the rights of Nagas for their own homeland. 2.81 Struggle of Kashmiri people for right to self-determination continues as also the military suppression of their struggle. Killing of youth and rape and murder of young women are routine in Kashmir. The armed strikes by militants which were low in preceding years, have again revived while mass

2.75 Despite commitment of all ruling class parties the Bill to reserve one third of seats for women in Parliament and state assemblies has not yet been passed. The differences among the ruling class parties pertain to the demand for reserving seats from this quota for OBC women. If the main ruling class parties are keen to reserve seats for women, why are



movement continues. Indian Govt. and Army label all these strikes as being backed by Pakistan Army. Indian Govt. has no plan of addressing the democratic aspirations of the people of Kashmir but the people of Kashmir are repeatedly demonstrating their support for right to selfdetermination through series of struggles. Recent disclosures by former Army Chief, V.K. Singh, go to prove that what are shown to be people’s initiatives or participation are in fact orchestrated and financed by Army.

2.82 In Manipur too, people continue their protest against killings by the Army and against AFSPA.

driven by the state Govt. and ruling class parties. TDP, which had a strong cadre base in Telangana, made many flip flops. Jagan came out strongly against Telangana particularly after Congress announced its decision. CP has been supporting and participating in the movement. While there is no anti-Telangana mood among the common people of other two regions, they remain apprehensive of the fallout of the division particularly in relation to irrigation water and also to employment in Hyderabad. TRS’s provocative statements have added to their worries. While steps to form Telangana must be expedited, there is also a need to address the concerns of people of Rayalaseema, the most backward region of the state.

2.83 In all the areas where AFSPA is in force, its draconian character is on open display. Public opinion and mass protests are building up for repeal of AFSPA. The Govt. of India is resisting the pressure to repeal the Act while proposing to make some cosmetic changes.

Struggle for Separate States

2.84 Since 2009, people of Telangana have come out on a mass scale for realization of their demand for separate province. Spurred by a GO, the movement picked up in November 2009 which led to declaration on December 9, 2009 for formation of Telangana. However, it was soon followed by pressure from coastal Andhra businessmen and politicians and the Central Govt. went back on the earlier announcement and constituted Sri Krishna Commission. The Commission, while giving ample facts to support the case of Telangana, recommended united Andhra Pradesh as the most favoured option. Movement for separate Telangana resumed with vigour and overwhelming proportion of the people of Telangana supported the demand. A large number of students and youth committed suicide in support of the demand. However, Congress Govt. remained opposed to the demand while all ruling class parties including Congress suffered division. All party meetings became futile as most of the ruling class parties fielded both the opinions and did not give clear position. After the death of Rajshekhar Reddy in 2009, his son Jagan Mohan Reddy left Congress against his marginalization by the Congress leadership and carved out a strong base in coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions. Finding its prospects anyway doomed in the above two regions and general elections close by, Congress conceded the demand for Telangana. CWC meeting on July 30, 2013 passed a resolution supporting the demand and Central Govt. initiated steps to form the separate state. Since then a movement opposing bifurcation of the state has sprung up in coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema but it is mostly

2.85 Our Party participated actively in the movement, made decisive interventions at several junctures and suffered repression. We have been part of political JAC. We intervened in protests when KCR was being shifted from Khammam after he had broken his fast, in Warangal protests agains Jagan’s meeting, in Million March in Hyderabad. Our participation has been noteworthy all through particularly in Sakala Janula Samme, in Sagarhara and by public meeting in Khammam.

2.86 After the decision on Telangana, many ruling class parties are raising the spectre of such movements in other parts of the country. In fact whereve such demands have people’s support, these are longstanding demands o the people e.g. Gorkhaland is being raised since 1909. Gorkhaland agitation is continuing with mass support and we have been supporting it since mid eighties as a democratic demand as Gorkha people constitute a differen nationality and the economy of the area is quite distinct. The leadership o Gorkhaland movement has been hobnobbing with ruling class parties which have been using them but doing little in furtherance of Gorkhaland. GJM spearheading the agitation, reached an agreement on Gorkhaland Territoria Administration (GTA) which does not fulfill their demand for separate state While Mamata Bannerjee and CPM are both opposed to Gorkhaland, both GNLF earlier and GJM now are not steadfast on this demand, set much store on ruling class parties and do not take other pro-Gorkhaland forces with them

Growth and Development of People’s Struggles

2.89 Despite all attempts of ruling classes at repression, deception and division, people’s struggles are continuing and growing. Different sections of people are coming forward to defend and safeguard their rights and livelihood and to acquire their due rights. Police intervention in struggles is increasing and democratic rights are being attacked through deployment o



paramilitary forces, arbitrary arrests, foisting of false cases and also fake encounters.

2.90 Poor peasants and agricultural labourers are continuing and developing their struggles for land and wages, braving attacks from landlords, their goons and police. Poor peasants and agricultural labourers are waging different forms of struggle against semifeudal exploitation and oppression. They are also raising issues of backwardness and unemployment. Poor rural masses are participating in large numbers in these struggles. In Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Odisha and UP struggles for better wages and against semifeudal exploitation are being fought. Land struggles are being conducted in AP, Bihar, Odisha, Punjab and other states facing attacks by the landlords and state machinery.

their rights, for new agreements on wages, against contractualization and casual labour, against cut in wages and for better wages, for safety at work place, for implementation of basic legal rights. Govt. employees are protesting against privatization and discrimination against group C and D employees. 2.96 People are struggling against rise in prices of essential commodities and against corruption in govt. offices. 2.97 Of all the struggles of the people, the struggle to build, develop and extend areas of sustained resistance are the most important. Basing on the experiences of the past movements and on the concrete conditions in our country, development of resistance struggle is being undertaken to mobilize the peasant masses in struggle while defending themselves from the attacks of enemies and continuing to advance the movement facing such attacks thereby preparing the ground for launching armed struggle to establish base areas as part of protracted people’s war. 2.98 The general struggles against new economic policies are continuing. The implementation of the new offensive of these policies has been thwarted to an extent by these struggles especially anti-displacement movements. 2.99 Revolutionary situation in the country has grown favourable for the building and growth of the revolutionary movement. People are getting disillusioned with the ruling class parties and turning to communist revolutionaries where-ever they are present and intervening in struggles. At many places people are willing and ready to offer resistance to the attacks of class enemies and state forces. While features of overall revolutionary situation are unmistakable, this situation in our vast and semifeudal semi-colonial country is unevenly developed in different regions. There is uneven level of movement and also different types of struggles. While participating in all levels of movements and all types of struggle, building and developing areas of sustained resistance is the need of the hour and the situation is favourable for it.

2.91 In AP in a large area, rural people are fighting since a long time and continuing their struggle facing such attacks resisting attacks of these enemies with appropriate defence measures. In Bihar in some areas, struggle is being waged confronting these attacks. In other states as well struggling peasant masses defend their movement.

2.92 Peasants are fighting against high cost of agricultural inputs and for remunerative price for their produce. In Punjab, AP, Maharashtra, West Bengal, UP such struggles are being conducted. These issues are being raised by peasants in other states as well. There have been many struggles of peasants against shortage of fertilizers, rise in their prices and corruption in procurement. Peasantry is also fighting against indebtedness in many states especially in Punjab, A.P. and Maharashtra.

2.93 Anti-displacement struggles have risen in Odisha, West Bengal, AP, Punjab, UP and Maharashtra. In West Bengal and Odisha they reached a higher level in resistance to attacks by police and goons of the ruling parties.

2.94 Tribals are waging struggles for their land, livelihood and self-rule. Dalits are fighting against caste oppression and for self-respect. Women are fighting against violence and sexual assaults on them, gender discrimination and patriarchy and sexual harassment at work place. Youth are fighting against unemployment and for meaningful life, students are campaigning against high fees and for good education and against attacks on Indian students abroad. Workers are waging struggles for defending their jobs and securing

Ruling Class Parties
2.100 Despite no single party having won majority in Lok Sabha, ruling class parties have forged alliances to run govts. It has been possible to do so as there are no major differences among ruling class parties on basic issues, a situation of “political instability with policy consensus.” Their main differences are on share in power as well as on account of support




base in case of regional parties. All these parties represent the interests of big bourgeois big landlord classes and serve the interests of imperialism. They are all votaries of national chauvinism and oppose the movements of nationalities. They are deeply mired in corruption. While being in opposition they may raise certain issues for public consumption but they implement similar policies while in power. All these parties unleash repression on the genuine struggles of the people though they may shed crocodile tears while in opposition. Of late some of these parties are openly siding with certain industrial houses and are clashing with each other due to conflict of interests of their favourite industrialists.

fascist suppression of minorities particularly of Muslims and of people’s movements. It openly advocates draconian laws. It is a strong supporter of pro-imperialist new economic policies and of strategic alliance with US imperialism and deepening relations with Zionist Israel.

2.105 After 2004 electoral defeat and ill-health of A. B. Vajpayee, BJP leader L.K. Advani was projected as the PM candidate. To wash away his earlier crimes against Muslims, during his visit to Pakistan he hailed Jinnah as secular which drew flak from all the ruling class parties, from RSS, Congress and even CPM. But his new found secularism is one of expediency.


2.101 Congress has been the largest party of the ruling classes in terms of votes. In 2004 Congress despite decline in its vote share came to power as leader of UPA due to its electoral alliances. Congress led UPA has defended the interests of big bourgeoisie and big landlords and has served imperialism particularly US imperialism. It came back to power with increased seats as head of UPA though with only marginal increase in votes taking credit of what little was done and blaming allies for what was not.

2.102 Congress is trying to assert itself as the main party of economic reforms initiated by it, which are pro-imperialist though compulsions of coalition continue to operate. While opposing BJP’s Hindutva, Congress practices soft Hinduism. Like BJP it pursues hard line towards Pakistan. It has made pursuing strategic alliance with US imperialism as its main foreign policy thrust.

2.106 BJP has a number of state govts. and these are implementing antipeople policies. Sensing people’s opposition to ruling Congress, BJP-RSS have projected Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi as their prime minister candidate. Modi combines Hindutva with all service to corporate at the expense of workers and peasants with low wages and land acquisition- the Gujarat model of development, though this is singularly anti-people and in fact no model of development. Corporates both foreign and Indian are lining up behind him to intensify implementation of new economic policies. Cases of fake encounters besides pending cases of Gujarat anti-Muslim violence, continue to haunt him.

2.103 Congress party is controlled by Nehru family. Sonia Gandhi could not become PM due to opposition to her foreign origin. Rahul Gandhi is being projected as the next leader, made vice-president of Congress and allowed to run the organization. But he is displaying inaptitude in political affairs despite having all the advantages of power and parentage which matter in semifeudal India. Congress, a party of status quo, is finding it difficult to meet new challenges of the situation. Increasing hardships of the people due to policies pursued by its Govt. and rampant corruption in the Govt. have increasingly turned people against it.

2.107 With an eye on coming elections, RSS-BJP are trying to communally polarize the people, particularly in UP, project development as a new mantra and win over middle classes. It has broken its alliance with JD(U) in Bihar with a design to increase its tally on strength of communal polarization, going for allies after elections. RSS-BJP campaign has once again brought struggle against Hindu communalism as one of the main agenda of movements.

Regional Parties of Ruling Classes


2.104 Despite their loss in 2004 elections, BJP has been repeatedly trying to drum up majority communalism to come to power. It openly propagates

2.108 There are a number of regional parties of ruling classes which are either organized on regional basis or draw most of the support from certain regions. These parties are mostly organized either on the basis of region/ nationality or religion or caste/s. These parties have been gaining in strength. Even in 2009 elections they increased their overall vote share though their seats declined. These parties, while articulating the aspirations of the elite of their constituencies, serve to maintain the present semifeudal, semicolonial order serving the interests of the big bourgeois big landlord classes.



2.109 The biggest such party in terms of vote share is BSP which has support in many states polling third highest votes after Congress and BJP. Enjoying good support from Dalits, the Party has also attracted leaders of other castes. Its leader Mayawati is obsessed with any how grabbing power and has done little to improve the conditions of dalits. Her Govt. in UP did nothing for distribution of surplus and govt. land to the landless, mostly dalits, as it had been proclaiming earlier. She resorted to tokenism of Ambedkar villages, erecting gates, putting up poles and statues without giving dalits what they need most – land and means of livelihood. However she still enjoys their support compared to other ruling class parties.

with BJP on the question of Modi being named the leader of 2014 campaign, his Govt. is being criticized by the media. 2.114 Mamata Banerjee’s TC has emerged in Bengal as the main party thanks to her role in anti-displacement movement particularly Nandigram which started upsurge of people’s struggles against CPM misrule and roll back of its ‘cadre raj.’ TC won parliamentary elections in 2009 and assembly elections in 2011 in alliance with Congress and subsequently panchayat and urban bodies elections alone. Mamata Bannerjee’s rule, a mix of populist slogans and fascist repression, rhetoric and suppression, continues as CPM continues to symbolize all that is hated by people of West Bengal. TC withdrew from UPA on the issue of FDI in retail trade. 2.115 In AP, besides TDP, YSR Congress has emerged in coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions marginalizing Congress in these regions. TDP is trying for alliance with BJP. The rule and role of regional parties is no different from main parties. 2.116 Akali Dal and DMK (along with AIADMK) are the oldest regional parties of ruling classes. Akali Dal has been ruling in Punjab in alliance with BJP. Its rule is suppressing workers and peasants and has encouraged mafia in all sectors. Many of its leaders are accused in running drug cartel in Punjab. DMK which lost power in Tamil Nadu to AIADMK, has earned a lot of infamy due to corruption scandals of its leaders. It is now trying to capitalize on Sri Lankan tamils’ issue to recover lost ground.

2.110 Caste based parties, when in opposition, are able to forge alliance of a number of castes, but once in power, power is exercised by elite of a certain social group alienating other social groups and the alliance is fractured. Even with regard to the main social support group of the party, it is only the elites who benefit while common people are neglected. BSP’s alliance with Brahmin landlords and elites who dominated its admn. alienated backward castes and dampened the enthusiasm of dalits as these were the very forces against whom they were fighting.

2.111 Samajwadi Party of Mulayam Singh Yadav won assembly elections in UP in 2012. He broke his alliance with Kalyan Singh, villain of Babri Masjid demolition, which had alienated sections of Muslims. Since coming to power, its Govt. has unleashed Mafia violence against the people. Several incidents of communal violence against Muslims have taken place in last one year. SP is relying on Muslim religious organizations for keeping Muslim votes intact.

Defeat of Revisionist Parties and Decline of Parliamentary Path
2.117 Massive defeat of CPM led ‘Left’ Front in 2009 parliamentary elections and 2011 assembly elections is the electoral manifestation of erosion in support of these parties. Since their degeneration into ruling class parties these parties had been serving as the ‘left’ wing of the ruling classes and articulating some reforms within the framework of ruling class politics. Emerging out of the right wing of old communist movement, these parties had converted the old base of the communist party among workers, peasants and intelligentsia into their electoral base. In fact the main electoral bases of these revisionist parties had once been the areas of militant peasant movements and armed struggle. National Democratic Front of CPI with Congress and Kerala-Bengal road of CPM were the political programmes of their coming to power within the system and sharing power with other ruling class parties. In Thiruananthapuram conference, CPM diluted some of its earlier positions and virtually embraced Dangeism in almost totality.

2.112 Ram Vilas Paswan’s LJP failed to win any seats while LalooYadav’s RJD was significantly reduced. It was again defeated in assembly elections in 2011. Lalu has been sentenced in fodder scam. With the breakup of JD(U) and BJP, RJD is again smelling victory and is keen on having electoral tie-up with Congress, primarily to consolidate Muslim votes.

2.113 Naveen Patnaik snapped ties with BJP on the issue of seat sharing but projected Kandhmahal violence by Sangh outfits for the break-up thereby washing away his own crimes in aiding Sangh outfits. He went on a signing spree promising mineral rich land to MNCs and big business houses. JD(U) of Nitish Kumar tried with the help of upper caste dominated media, to have an image of good governance and gave extensive powers to police and bureaucracy to suppress the people’s movements. Since his break



2.118 In 2004 with simultaneous good performance in both Bengal and Kerala, CPM led Left Front had notched up a good number of Lok Sabha seats. They became the main prop of Congress led UPA Govt. They relegated their third front into reserve and supported the Congress led UPA. In fact keeping BJP out of power and supporting Congress for that avowed objective and forging third front with regional parties of ruling classes, have been their political platforms for sharing power and increasing their share in power. They were the supporters of NF-LF Govt. in 1989 (from outside), propped up UF Govt. from 1996 to ’98 with CPI participating in it. After 2004 elections they chalked up Common Minimum Programme (CMP) and set up UPA-Left Coordination Committee to run the Govt. Their people packed the various govt. committees and state bodies though they did not take up ministerial positions. In over four years of their association with UPA in running the Govt. these revisionist parties were partners of the UPA Govt.’s anti-people policies and repression of the people’s movements.

too were subjected to violence if they did not accept the diktats of the big brother. 2.121 With UPA Govt.’s offensive for the implementation of pro-imperialist policies hitting the road block of land acquisition, CPM through Govt. in West Bengal came forward to show the way and thereby emerge as the leader of ruling classes and saviours of MNCs and big business houses. Drunk with power and confident of their cadres subduing peasant resistance, CPM allotted fertile land of Singur to Tatas, a land of their choice and far in excess of their declared requirement. They invited Salim Group of Indonesia belonging to the family of notorious anti-communist Suharto for developing SEZ in Nandigram. They had bitten the very hand that fed them. It was peasantry which had kept them in power, they chose to strike at them. 2.122 Nandigram erupted. They successfully resisted CPM goondas aided by police. March 14, 2007 became a symbol of defeat of CPM machinery. 14 people were killed but the peasants stood their ground. CPM could not capture the area. Second attempt at ‘recapture’ in November 2007 was again eventually beaten back though with heavy casualties. CPM asked for and UPA Govt. sent central paramilitary forces to quell the peasants. Nandigram resistance took the lid off the people’s anger as invincibility of CPM’s cadre raj stood exposed. Attacks on CPM offices for PDS and panchayat corruption took place, people protested against shielding the guilty in Rizvanur murder case, protests kept rising against misrule of CPM. Nandigram was also significant in the fact that the majority of peasants there were Muslims. Then came the shattering report of Sachar committee which exposed the myth of minority friendly CPM as it lagged behind most other states in minority welfare. They were long wielding their secularism to corner the votes of Muslims, nearly one fourth of electorate in West Bengal, but did nothing to help their conditions. 2.123 In Kerala, the other large base of CPM, faction fighting had been going on for a long time, of late between factions of state secretary Vijayan and Achuthanandan. The content of this fight is between old revisionist line and new leaders more in tune with new revisionist line. 2.124 UPA Govt. propped up by ‘Left’ parties implemented anti-people policies with some reformist measures not unusual for ruling class parties. This govt. pursued strategic relations with US imperialism and further developed relations with Israel. It deployed security personnel in Afghanistan while twice voting against Iran in IAEA. Even on US-India Nuclear Deal

2.119 With the increasing instability of ruling class politics and rise of regional parties, CPM leadership started vying for greater role in power at the centre. Old strivings gave way to new as old aging leadership yielded place to a younger lot. Since 2004 CPM leadership viewed itself as the main power broker at the centre articulating arrogance and projecting itself as the main architect of UPA policies. With enjoying power within this system continuously for 34 years in West Bengal and periodically in Kerala, corruption had seeped into its ranks from top to bottom. There is practically little difference with other ruling class parties in its basic positions or composition and conduct of its leaders at various levels.

2.120 In West Bengal in particular the continued long run in power had given rise to total identification of govt. structure with that of the Party. Not only were CPM cadres recruited into police and administration in large numbers, the administration at local level especially in rural areas was run by the CPM cadres in league with police and bureaucracy. This came to be called the ‘cadre raj’. Panchayati institutions were controlled by them, PDS outlets were controlled by them, hiring out of labour was controlled by them, even issuing of certificates was controlled by them, to name a few. Controlling the police and administrative machinery CPM unleashed reign of terror against their political opponents particularly communist revolutionaries. They were intimidated, beaten and killed. Their activities were brutally curbed and if they did not accept it, they were ejected from their areas. CPM did not spare even its ‘left’ Front allies and their cadres



CPM leaders had been expressing full agreement with Manmohan Singh’s statements and agreed with Indian Govt. approaching IAEA for India specific safeguards. With over four years in power it was only with elections approaching that CPM chose to withdraw support from UPA Govt. on Nuclear Deal to capture opposition space during the elections.

Political Situation in Neighbouring Countries and Attitude of Indian Rulers : Foreign Policy
2.130 Since the disintegration of the erstwhile Soviet Union and socialimperialist camp, Indian rulers have drawn close to US imperialism and these relations have progressively strengthened though Indian rulers maintained relations with other imperialist powers too. When US imperialism launched its ‘global war against terror’ Indian rulers tried to jump onto this band wagon. They sought to emerge as a regional hegemon under the tutelage of US imperialism. The ‘Left’ supported UPA Govt. that came to power in 2004 continued with developing strategic partnership with USA. While USA considered India as a useful ally against China and the Muslim countries, Indian Govt. sought to establish its regional domination and larger role in Asia under the US umbrella. They have participated in PSI related meetings with US, Japan and Australia, repeatedly voted against Iran in IAEA, refused permission at the behest of US imperialism to North Korean planes to fly over Indian air space and even voted for US backed resolutions on Syria in Security Council. Under pressure of US imperialism the Govt.backed out of Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline though it is in India’s interest. 2.131 Over last decades India has strengthened military relations with US and Israel though Russia continues to be the main supplier of defense equipment. Large purchases of arms were made from Israel. A large number joint military exercises have been conducted by India and US. US warships were give facilities on Indian ports and fuelling facility to US warplanes was extended on a regular basis. Indian Govt. is opposing proposed US withdrawal from Afghanistan. With the decline of US power and influence in the world, Indian Govt. is trying to improve its relations with other powers. However, it continues to be part of “Contain China” policy of USA. Indian Govt. has continued with big brotherly bullying attitude towards small neighbouring countries. However, increasing inter-imperialist contradictions in South Asia and Indian Ocean are impacting Indian Govt.’s attitude towards its neighbourers. 2.132 Nepal has witnessed big changes in this period. After Gyanendra assumed executive power an understanding was reached between Maoists and parliamentary parties facilitated by Indian Govt. After Jan Andolan II Gyanendra had to relinquish power and restore the Parliament. Under the pressure of CPN(M) monarchy was abolished. In the elections to the

2.125 Its decline in West Bengal has importance beyond an electoral defeat. It is a decimation of cadres controlling administrative machinery. Many of the anti-socials supporting them have switched over to TMC. However, its leaders are rebutting the real reasons for its decline. Decline and decay of CPM is decay of revisionist party which had degenerated into a ruling class party and wanted to emerge as one of the main ruling class parties.

2.126 Other parties of ‘Left’ front- CPI, RSP, Forward Bloc had long ceased to have any independent line or practice. They are dependent on CPM for getting representation in Parliament and have since long been used to crumbs of power. CPI has progressively declined and cannot look beyond parliamentary representation. However with decline of big brother, these parties feel more inclined to voice their differences. CPI has tried to take certain initiatives while keeping its alliance with CPM intact.

2.127 CPI(ML)-Liberation has for quite some time been propagating for unity with revisionist CPI and CPM. In 2009 parliamentary and 2011assembly elections it could succeed in forging electoral front with CPI and CPM in Bihar and Jharkhand. But the performance of this ‘Left’ Front has been dismal even compared to their own performance earlier. With this alliance Liberation has lost in people’s perception whatever claim it had as a revolutionary organization. The cherished dream of Liberation of left confederation was realized at least in elections and turned sour.

2.128 SUCI could get a seat in Lok Sabha in 2009 in alliance with Trinamool while in 2011 it could win only one assembly seat despite alliance. SUCI is very cagey about joint action on people’s issues but has little hesitation in striking deals with ruling class parties during elections.

2.129 One of the most significant feature of the past election has been the decline of revisionist parties and their parliamentary path. It is not that they would give up their path or that this trend will die, but that illusions among the people about these parties and their parliamentary alternatives and path will be less and more easy to dispel. In that respect too the prospects of people’s struggles have improved.



Constituent Assembly Maoists emerged as the single largest party but were short of majority. In a way, old parties were down but not out. Old order had been weakened but not decisively defeated and revolutionary forces had been strengthened but were not decisively victorious. With electoral victory CPN-M (later UCPN-M) considered the political task of the revolution completed while old state structure remained intact. Indian Govt. kept on interfering in the internal affairs of Nepal and mobilizing the old parties for keeping Maoists on the leash. A succession of Govts. led by UCPN-M and UML leaders formed with Indian interference failed to break the deadlock in constitution writing. With UCPN-M giving up revolutionary orientation and taking up the task of consolidating multi-party democracy, question of federalism became the main question. Ultimately, CA was dissolved leading to elections. In this period, UPCN-M got divided. In the ensuing election, UCPN-M emerged as distant third with NC as the leading party and UML a close second. In a way the old parties have come back in strength and even royalist RPP-Nepal has recuperated strength. In a way, the only gain of the people’s war and Jan Andolan II has been to abolish the monarchy and clear the bottlenecks of 1991 Constitution. Recent elections will not do away with political uncertainty and Indian ruling classes’ interference will continue.

represents the same comprador capitalists and landlords like PPP and no major change of direction is expected. Pakistan senses an opportunity to increase its influence in Afghanistan with US’s proposed withdrawal and is deepening its relations with China and Saudi Arabia. However, US has close relations with Pakistan Army and ruling elite of Pakistan. 2.134 In Bangladesh, Sheikh Hasina and Begum Khalida Zia have been ruling alternately over the past two decades. With the support of western powers and Indian govt. Army took reins of power and put the two leaders behind bars on corruption cases. This Army takeover was not criticized even by the perennial advocates of democracy. After nearly two years of Army rule, elections were held and Sheikh Hasina came to power. The real reason of the military take over and its support by India and western powers was the alliance Begum Khalida had with Islamic parties and their opposition to America and India. Sheikh Hasina Govt. constituted tribunals to try those accused of murders and rapes in 1971 war in collaboration with Pakistan Army. Verdicts of these tribunals indicting main leaders of Jamat-e-Islami have created divisions in Bangladesh society. The main ruling class parties are pitting Bengali nationalism and political Islam against each other while people continue to groan under the misrule. Workers of garment factories, sweatshops, have launched big strikes and demonstrations against inhuman conditions, while MNCs getting their brands produced there deny their liability. This sector, the biggest foreign exchange earner of Bangladesh and largest industrial employer, continues to be the mainstay of workers movement. Indian Govt. is backing Sheikh Hasina in the present conflict. 2.135 In Sri Lanka, Rajapaksa Govt. launched a full scale military attack against LTTE bases in North and East Sri Lanka using the rivalry between different powers for control over trade routes in Indian ocean in which Sri Lanka occupies a crucial position. It is well known that Indian Govt. has been openly interfering in Sri Lanka on the pretext of Tamil interests. They had armed and trained LTTE and having browbeaten the then Jayawardene Govt. sent Indian Army to Sri Lanka to suppress LTTE. India does not want independent Tamil Elam as it fears encouragement to Indian tamils for similar course. China and Pakistan started forging close relations with Sri Lanka and started supplying arms and ammunition to the Govt. India, to prevent China and Pakistan becoming main suppliers, offered and forced the Sri Lankan Govt. to take arms and also trained personnel from India. Rajapaksa Govt. sensed an opportunity of scoring military victory and launched an all out war. LTTE arms supplies were stopped and Tamil

2.133 People of Pakistan are seething with anger against Pakistan Govt.’s participation in US led war and continued US drone strikes in northern areas of Pakistan. Military dictator Musharraf dragged Pakistan into this war and attacked higher judiciary. He faced a powerful people’s movement which forced him to come to an agreement with PPP. In the elections PPP emerged biggest party with PML-Nawaz second largest party. Musharraf was ousted and he fled the country. PPP Govt. continued with participation in US led war in Afghanistan and drone strikes in Pakistan, indulged in widespread corruption while earlier corruption cases were pending. Condition of people worsened while Army continued to exercise real power. In the elections held in 2013, on the strength of people’s anger against Pakistan’s participation in US led war and drone strikes, corruption of PPP led Govt. and growing hardships of people, PML-Nawaz came to power while Imran Khan’s PTI also did well. However, since coming to power Nawaz Govt. has neither stopped drone strikes nor improved the lot of the people. To dilute the power of the Army establishment, Nawaz is talking of improving relations with India but the dominant establishment in both countries is not in favour of an improvement in bilateral relations. Nawaz Govt. also



diaspora’s financial support was blocked with western powers enforcing the ban stringently. LTTE was isolated. They however continued to wage positional warfare against much stronger enemy. They had a lot of faith in ruling class parties in Tamilnadu which shed crocodile tears for them. This illusion was to prove costly. LTTE should have changed its war tactics appreciating the changed international and regional melieu. Leaders of LTTE including its Chief Prabhakaran died fighting Sri Lankan Army. A large number of civilians were callously killed by Sri Lankan Army in the closing stages of war. After the war, Sri Lankan Govt. carried out witch hunting of tamil activists and did not address the democratic aspirations of Sri Lankan tamils. Recent elections in tamil areas, swept by TNA, have once again proved that the issue of democratic aspirations of tamil people continues to agitate Sri Lankan tamils and needs to be addressed.

2.140 With the increasing burden on the people and the deterioration of their conditions, marginalization of rural poor and anger sweeping them, deepening economic crisis and no help to the people, Govt.’s drive to displace people from their land and sources of livelihood and peasants’ resistance to it, Indian Govt. is apprehensive of the growth of the revolutionary movement and senses danger to the rule of big bourgeois big landlord classes subservient to imperialism from this growth. Leaders who are inspired by the colonial rule over India can have no other vision of India nor any feeling for the country and its people. They know that people are deeply unhappy and growth of revolutionary movement will bring them to change the system. While their expansionist ambitions have made them gendarme of South Asia, their own feet of clay lead to their aggressiveness against the revolutionary movement. 2.141 It is to intensify the war against ‘left wing extremism’ that huge funds were allotted, large forces, nearly a lakh, were assembled and specially trained besides police forces. Responsibility of this training was given to the Army. Air Force was also being roped in. Hills and forests are the prime scene of action and tribals’ land with its resources, prime prizes of war. 2.142 Though the Govt. mentions CPI (Maoist) as their main target and has imposed a ban on it under UAPA, this is an offensive against the revolutionary movement as a whole, against those who are working and defending the interests of tribals and rural poor. Salwa Judum type organizations were formed, armed, financed and sustained by the state to recruit tribals to kill tribals. Special police forces, Grey hounds, CRPF etc. are deployed in large number in forest areas, rewards declared on the heads of leaders of revolutionary organizations. 2.143 War against people was opposed by wide sections of people, particularly by progressive intelligentsia seeing it as a move to grab mineral resources located in Central and Eastern India. Meeting with widespread opposition and resistance by the people attacked, Central Govt. has pursued this attack with over a lakh paramilitary forces with logistic support from the Army centred on Chhatisgarh. Rather than all out attack, Central forces are surrounding and pressing them out. Besides this paramilitary attack, Central and State Govts. have arrested and kept under detention thousands of people in false cases using the draconian provisions of UAPA. Besides CPI (Maoist) leaders, a large number of tribals from Chhatisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand and Wear Bengal are in jails.

2.136 Sri Lankan tamils have been living in the island for thousands of years. Sri Lankan tamils have had their own rule over long periods of history and for quite some time ruled over the whole of Sri Lanka. They live in contiguous areas of north and east, have their homogenous economy, have their own language and culture. They are a nationality of Sri Lanka inhabiting this island for as long as majority Simhalas. They have a right to selfdetermination and it is upto them to decide what form this takes including Tamil Elam. We must extend support to their right while opposing Indian Govt.’s attempt to exercise domination over Sri Lanka.

2.137 Defeat of LTTE has emboldened the ruling classes of India and other countries particularly of South Asia as they confront armed resistance from different quarters. While lessons need to be learnt from the military defeat of LTTE, the euphoria of ruling classes is misplaced.

2.138 Maldives, an island country in Indian ocean, witnessed political upheaval over past years and Indian Govt. interference in their internal affairs was called into question.

Govt.’s War against Revolutionary Movement

2.139 Manmohan Singh has been articulating for many years that ‘left wing extremism’ is the main security threat for the country. Before that L.K. Advani, when he was Deputy PM, had said that Naxalites are the enemy of the India of his dreams. Both Manmohan Singh and Advani want to facilitate the loot and plunder of the country specially its mineral resources and find ‘left wing extremism’ or Naxalites as main obstacle in that.



Communist Revolutionaries are the only alternative

2.144 In view of the deepening crisis and its disastrous effect on the people, people’s yearning for change is growing. On the other hand there is consensus among the parliamentary ruling class parties on the policies which have brought this about and on how to respond to it. Only communist revolutionaries have a programme for real change and the path for bringing it about. Only they are working among the people with the orientation to bring about revolutionary change and are leading their struggles.

exercise vigilance to combat false theories and wrong practices. To develop revolutionary orientation, deepen revolutionary understanding and rally the whole party to complete the present tasks, we should wage relentless struggle against rightist understandings prevalent in the whole party and in different states. We must fight against right and ‘left’ deviation in our work taking right deviation as the main danger at present and wage ruthless struggle against left phrases and rightist practice. 2.150 To undertake our responsibilities in the present situation Party would have to change its present work style and form of organization. We have to remould ourselves in accordance with requirements of advancing the movement as outlined in our Party documents. And change to be meaningful would involve giving up many practices we have become used to and acquiring new style of work which would require effort. The time to change is here and now.

2.145 To bring this about urgent and vigorous efforts should be undertaken to build, develop and extend areas of sustained resistance. We should pay serious attention to build and develop fighting capacity of the people, develop armed volunteers from peasants, preserve and develop self-defense squads and other fighting defence units. In the concrete conditions of the country at present, building and extending such areas gives the requisite initiative to develop the movement and requisite strength to intervene on the national scene.

Immediate Tasks
i. Develop and build areas of sustained resistance in the countryside with the perspective to build base areas through armed struggle. Develop the fighting capacity and militant strength of the peasant masses to resist landlord-goonda-police violence and continue to expand the areas of resistance struggle despite their attacks. Take this task as the key task at present. ii. Mobilize the people against pro-imperialist economic policies. Build struggles of different sections of people against WTO dictated policies and WB agreements. Build struggles against opening different sectors to FDI, particularly retail trade, telecom, defense production, financial services and PF. Build struggle against surrendering the interests of the country in Doha round of negotiations. Oppose giving land to the MNCs for mining, industrial projects and corporate agriculture. iii. Develop and build struggles of poor peasants and agricultural labourers for land and wages, against eviction of tenant peasants, against usury, backwardness and unemployment and against all forms of semifeudal oppression. Intensify struggle on land issue on different types of lands and mobilize vast sections of peasantry in its support. Expose corruption and inadequacies of MNREGS and fight for adequate employment to rural poor. iv. Develop struggles of peasantry against rise in costs of agricultural inputs, for Govt. procurement of agricultural produce at remunerative prices,

2.146 We should draw broad masses of revolutionary classes into struggle and to that end we should build and develop struggles of different sections of people and also intervene in their ongoing struggles.

2.147 To be able to do that - particularly building, developing and extending areas of sustained resistance - the whole party should unite firmly to implement the line of the Party. We should wage relentless struggle against sloth, passivity, routinism and all other trends opposed to undertaking the tasks before the Party. For developing the resistance struggle party cadres at all levels should be imbued with the orientation and spirit of armed struggle. Though the tasks are different but without such orientation and preparedness resistance struggle cannot be built as it is a step towards launching of armed struggle in the concrete conditions of our country.

2.148 To play our role in developing the revolutionary movement and meeting the requirements of the situation, cadres at all levels must combine revolutionary perspective with concrete work, combine acquisition of theoretical knowledge with undertaking greater responsibilities and combine initiative with hard work avoiding no hardship and fearing no risk and never being complacent, self-contented and conceited.

2.149 Cadres at all levels must wage determined struggle against revisionism and rightism and develop necessary understanding to spot and



for declaration of MSP before sowing of crops, for crop insurance against all causes, against privatization of water and electricity and cut in fertilizer subsidy, for their rights over seeds. Struggle for free power for agricultural operations and domestic use of peasants and rural poor.

of Muslims in the name of fight against terrorism. Fight for proper representation of minorities in govt. services and govt. facilities. Fight against communalism of all hues taking majority communalism as the main danger. xi. Develop struggles against violence on women, for ensuring punishment to all guilty of sexual assault against women and their harassment in all forms including at work places, for equality for women in all walks of life, their equal participation in economic, social and political life of the country at all levels, for 50% reservation in all spheres of employment. Intensify struggles of women against patriarchy and oppression and discrimination in all forms. xii. Develop struggles of students and youth for uniform, scientific, progressive and good education, against privatization and commercialization of education and for employment for all. Build their struggles against communalization of syllabi, against distortions of history, against entry of foreign universities and tailoring of Indian education to facilitate such entry. xiii. Develop and strengthen movement for civil liberties and democratic rights, against use of Army and paramilitary forces against the struggles of people and revolutionary movement and for removal of their camps, against black laws and for their repeal. Struggle against bans on organizations under oppressive laws; against custodial deaths, fake encounters, foisting of false cases, arbitrary arrests and denial of bail, against arrests under black laws and against all prohibitions of freedom of speech, assembly, organization and struggle. Oppose restrictions on the exercise of democratic rights. Cooperate with other forces to defend civil liberties and democratic rights. xiv. Build struggles against decadent imperialist and feudal culture and struggle for democratic and progressive culture. Take measures for propagation of the same. Oppose entry of foreign capital in print and electronic media. xv. Support the struggle of Kashmiris and Nagas for self-determination. Struggle against unequal treatment of nationalities and languages and backwardness of the regions. Support the formation of separate states of Telengana and Gorkhaland. xvi. Fight against rise of prices of essential commodities and strengthening of PDS to reach out to all the people. Fight against reduction of entitlements under FSA.

v. Develop struggles of peasantry against indebtedness and for better terms for agriculture. Struggle for relief to the indebted peasantry.

vi. Build, develop and support struggle of peasant masses against forcible displacement, and for rights over their land, livelihood and cultural rights. Build and support their resistance against forcible displacement. Build and develop democratic opinion against such displacement. Build movement for scrapping of SEZs.

vii. Develop the struggles of workers against attacks on jobs and rights, against increasing contractualization and for their regularization in service, for implementation of labour laws, for safety at work place, against disinvestment and privatization, for better wages and against freeze and cut in wages. Oppose discrimination against blue collared workers, casual workers and group C and D employees in wage agreements and pay commissions. Build struggle against closure of industries and removal of workers’ dwellings in the name of beautifying cities. Give due emphasis to work among contract and casual workers. Develop Party organization among workers. Wage determined struggle against reformism, economism and legalism in the working class movement.

viii. Develop struggles of tribals for their rights over land, water and forest produce, for their livelihood and cultural rights and against exploitation and oppression by landlords, contractors, forest officials, police and ruling class parties. Build their struggles against their displacement from their habitat, for restoration of their lands occupied by non-tribal landlords and for their self-rule in their areas.

ix. Develop struggle against caste oppression and violence against dalits and oppressed castes, sexual assaults against women of these sections and for their equality. Build struggles for proper implementation of reservation in jobs, promotions and education and for reservation in private sector. Struggle against upper caste chauvinism. Make struggle against caste oppression and for implementation of reservation part of the democratic movements of different sections.

x. Oppose and struggle against attacks on lives, properties and religious places of minorities and their displacement and police persecution



xvii. Fight for abolition of indirect taxes and for implementation of progressive direct taxes.

neighbouring countries and for equitable distribution of river waters. Oppose attempts of Indian Govt. to unleash war hysteria against Pakistan. xxviii. Mobilize the people in support of the national liberation struggles being waged by the people of third world countries. Vigorously support the revolutionary armed struggle being conducted in some countries. Mobilize the people against Indian Govt.’s support to reactionary rulers against revolutionary movements in other countries, particularly neighbouring countries. xxix. Mobilize the people against wars of aggression being conducted by US imperialism and other imperialist powers. Support the wars of the people of Afghanistan and a number of African countries against foreign imperialist invasion. xxx. Support the struggle of Palestinian people against Zionist aggressors and for their national rights. Support the upswing in the struggle of Arab people against imperialist supported autocratic regimes and for democratic rights. xxxi. Support the struggle of Govts. of third world countries against imperialist subversion, intimidation and blackmail e.g. Iran, North Korea, Venezuela, Cuba, Syria, Bolivia, Nicaragua etc. Support the struggle of people in different countries against imperialist exploitation, oppression, intimidation and plunder of their resources. While opposing all imperialists, take US imperialism, the biggest and still most aggressive imperialist power, as the main target of attack. xxxii. Mobilize the people in support of the struggle of different sections of people in different countries against imperialism and domestic reactionaries. xxxiii. Support the struggle of workers in developed capitalist countries for jobs and rights and against attacks by MNCs. Support their struggles against placing the burden of the present crisis on them including “austerity measures”. xxxiv. Intensify ideological offensive against imperialism, their economic theories and in defense of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought. xxxv. Forge closer fraternal relations with Communist Parties following Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought/ Maoism and develop closer relations with revolutionary forces engaged in revolutionary struggles in their own countries.

xviii. Expose high expenditure on defense budget and on repressive police and paramilitary machinery.

xix. Mobilize the people in fight against corruption at all levels and for ensuring punishment to corrupt. Fight for protection to whistle blowers and for ensuring services to common people.

xx. Build joint struggles on people’s burning issues with a view to draw them into struggle with emphasis on joint struggle at lower levels.

xxi. Undertake joint actions with communist revolutionaries against the repression on people’s movements and for projecting an alternative before the people of the country.

xxii. Intensify efforts for unification of communist revolutionaries in a single Party of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought upholding programme of NDR and path of protracted people’s war basing on revolutionary mass line.

xxiii. Intensify efforts to take revolutionary politics to the masses. Improve quality, quantity and regularity of party organs. Pay attention to using different means of propaganda available for dissemination of the message of revolutionary change.

xxiv. Establish Party deep in the struggles of the people. Change the orientation, work style to devote main energy to the key task of the Party. While developing different forms of struggle and organization, take developing a strong secret Party as an important task on the organizational front. Imbue the Party ranks with the spirit of self-sacrifice, devotion to hard work and total commitment to the people.

xxv. Build and develop struggles of the people against strategic alliance with US imperialism and various agreements which are part of deepening such alliance e.g. Nuclear Deal, participation in PSI etc.

xxvi. Mobilize the people against Indian support to US aggression in Afghanistan and to US moves against Iran and North Korea.

xxvii. Mobilize the people for friendly relations with neighbouring countries and to oppose the big brotherly attitude towards them and interference in their internal affairs. Oppose Indian Govt.’s expansionist designs against