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Daffodil Lab

You will need (per person): 1 daffodil flowerlarge flowers are best; avoid small flowers or doubles 1 paper plate 1 copy of arts of t!e Daffodil: Daffodil "otany Drawing# from t!e $D% web site at www&daffodilusa&org'references (ptional items: 1 entire daffodil plant wit! bulb and roots 1 pair of scissors per person (may be blunt nose) 1 pair of twee)ers per person magnifying glasses or microscope(s) 1 scalpel per person (useful for ma*ing t!in slices to view under a microscope) 1& +ntroduction a& "iology,t!e branc! of science t!at studies life i& "otany,branc! of biology t!at studies plants 1& lants are divided into -lasses .& /!ere are two -lasses of seed producing plants a& 0ymnospermsplants t!at do not produce flowers; includes plants t!at produce seeds in cones1 suc! as pine and fir trees b& $ngiospermsplants t!at produce flowers i& 2ave participants name some flowering plants& (Don3t forget flowering trees1 fruits and vegetables&) ii& Daffodils are $ngiosperms& .& 4ame t!e main parts of a daffodil plant& 5!at does eac! part do6 a& 7ootabsorbs water and minerals from t!e soil and transports t!em to t!e stem; anc!ors t!e plant; stores food

b& "ulb i& t!e basal plate at t!e bottom is a modified stem; carries food1 water and minerals; supports t!e leaves and flowers ii& t!e bulb proper or t!e main part of t!e bulb consists of modified leaf s!eat!es; stores food c& Leaf bladescontains c!lorop!yll1 t!e green pigment t!at absorbs sunlig!t; ma*es food (p!otosynt!esis) d& 8lower stem , carries food1 water and minerals; supports t!e flower e& 8lowerreproductive structure; can ma*e more of t!e plant 9& Dissect a flower a& %afety i& +f using s!arp scissors1 only use w!en told; don3t wave t!em around ii& +f using scalpel (very s!arp)1 only use w!en told; ma*e cuts carefully wit! blade down on t!e paper plate and fingers out of t!e way b& %temuse scissors to cut t!roug! t!e flower stem in various directions: across1 down1 diagonal1 and compare wit! eac! ot!er& 5!at do you see6 (c!annels or openings in t!e stem1 water) c& Line up t!e stem slices on a paper plate& i& /!e :ylem c!annels transport water and nutrients up t!e stem& ii& /!e p!loem c!annels transport food made by t!e leaves to all growing parts of t!e plant& iii& /!e stem stores surplus food for growt! during t!e season and over winter to support new growt! in t!e spring& iv& "ulbs are modified stems and also store food for t!e plant& d& Does your daffodil !ave sepals6 (t!e outer ring of flower parts1 usually green1 t!at protects t!e young flower bud) i& +n daffodils t!e sepals are fused to t!e outer flower petals& ii& Do t!e outer petals loo* different t!an t!e inner ones6 2ow6 iii& 5!en sepals and petals loo* similar t!ey are called tepals& e& 2ow many petals does your daffodil !ave6 (normally ;9 outer1 9 inner1 unless it is a double1 w!en eit!er or bot! groups can be doubled) i& 4otice t!at t!e bottoms of t!e petals (or tepals) and t!e cup are fused toget!er& /!is is called t!e flower tube& ii& <se your fingers to pull off eac! petal or cut t!em off wit! your scissors& iii& Line up t!e petals on your paper plate& f& <se your scissors or fingers to cut down t!e sides of t!e cup and remove t!e cup& i& 5!at is t!e purpose of t!e flower petals and cup6 (to attract pollinators1 suc! as bees and ot!er insects by color and scent) g& /!e reproductive part of t!e flower is w!at you !ave left& i& Loo* at t!e stamenmale part of t!e flower 1& 2ow many stamens can you count6 (n a daffodil t!e stamens are all of t!e stal*s e:cept for t!e taller1 different one in t!e center& .& %tamens consist of a filament (stal*) wit! an ant!er (pollen sac) on top& 9& %tamens are t!e outer male structures t!at surround t!e center female part&

8ilaments support t!e ant!ers& $nt!ers contain and release t!e pollen& 2ow many stamens does your flower !ave6 (;) <se your twee)ers1 scissors or fingers to remove t!e stamens on your flower& /ry to leave t!e taller1 center female part of t!e flower& @& /ouc! t!e stamens and see if any pollen comes off and stic*s to your finger& /!is !appens to insects t!at visit t!e flower searc!ing for pollen or nectar& A& Line up t!e stamens on your plate& ii& Loo* at t!e female partt!e pistil or carpel& 1& %tigmat!e top end of t!e tallest structure .& %tylet!e tube t!at supports t!e stigma 9& (varyt!e oval s!aped structure at t!e bottom of t!e style a& -ut open t!e ovary in any direction: across1 down1 or diagonal and compare wit! eac! ot!er& 5!at do you see6 (ovules or immature egg cells) b& 2ow many ovules can you count6 $fter an ovule is pollinated it becomes a seed& iii& ollinationt!e transfer of pollen from t!e male to t!e female part of a flower1 w!ic! can result in seed being formed in t!e ovary& 1& /ouc! t!e top of t!e stigma& +t may be stic*y so pollen will stic* t!ere& .& -an you guess !ow t!e pollen gets from t!e stigma to t!e ovary6 (it grows down t!e style) =& (ptional: Loo* at flower parts under a magnifying glass or microscope& a& +f using microscopes1 review !ow to use t!e microscope first& b& 2ave students loo* at very small pieces of flower parts1 li*e pollen1 ovules1 or a small bit of petal or stem $dditional terms t!at can be introduced >& !otosynt!esismeans putting toget!er wit! lig!t# a& /!e c!lorop!yll in leaves uses t!e energy from sunlig!t plus water and carbon dio:ide to manufacture simple sugars or food t!e plant needs to survive& b& /!is process gives off o:ygen& ;& erfect flowers!ave all t!e standard parts including male and female organs& $re daffodils perfect flowers6 (yes)

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?& /!ere are two subclasses of angiosperms a& Bonocots i& /!ey !ave flowers wit! petals in numbers of t!ree& ii& /!ey !ave one seed leaf or cotyledont!e first leaf to appear after t!e seed sprouts& b& Dicots i& /!ey !ave flowers wit! petals in numbers of four or five& ii& /!ey !ave two seed leaves or cotyledonst!e first leaves to appear after t!e seed sprouts& c& $re daffodils monocots or dicots6 (monocots)