Capitalism K Generic

Dartmouth 2K9

1

Capitalism K Index – DDI 2009 Generic: Sausage Edition
Capitalism K Index – DDI 2009 Generic: Sausage Edition...................................................................................................1 Capitalism K 1 C S!ort S!ell "1#.........................................................................................................................................$ Capitalism K 1 C S!ort S!ell "2#.........................................................................................................................................% Capitalism K 1 C S!ort S!ell "&#.........................................................................................................................................' Capitalism K 1 C (ong S!ell "1#.........................................................................................................................................9 Capitalism K 1 C (ong S!ell "2#.......................................................................................................................................10 Capitalism K 1 C (ong S!ell "&#.......................................................................................................................................11 Capitalism K 1 C (ong S!ell ")#.......................................................................................................................................12 Capitalism K 1 C (ong S!ell "*#.......................................................................................................................................1& Capitalism K 1 C (ong S!ell "$#.......................................................................................................................................1) Capitalism K 1 C (ong S!ell "%#.......................................................................................................................................1* Capitalism K 1 C (ong S!ell "'#.......................................................................................................................................1$ (in+ – ,egemon- "1#..........................................................................................................................................................1% (in+ – ,egemon- "2#..........................................................................................................................................................1' (in+ – K .//: .0 0urn........................................................................................................................................................19 (in+ – K .//s......................................................................................................................................................................20 (in+ – 1el/are "1#..............................................................................................................................................................21 (in+ – 1el/are "2#............................................................................................................................................................... 22 (in+ – 1el/are 2e/orm.......................................................................................................................................................2& (in+ – State inter3ention.....................................................................................................................................................2) (in+ – Immigration.............................................................................................................................................................2* (in+ – ati3es..................................................................................................................................................................... 2$ (in+ – Identit- 4olitics........................................................................................................................................................2% (in+ – Gender "1#................................................................................................................................................................2' (in+ – Gender "2#................................................................................................................................................................29 (in+ – 5eminism: .0 0urn.................................................................................................................................................&0 (in+ – Democrac- "1#.........................................................................................................................................................&1 (in+ – Democrac- "2#.........................................................................................................................................................&2 (in+ – Democrac- "&#.........................................................................................................................................................&& ........................................................................................................................................................................................... && (in+ – Democrac- ")#.........................................................................................................................................................&) (in+ – 4u6lic ,ealt! Care...................................................................................................................................................&* (in+ – Et!ical78oral 96ligation.........................................................................................................................................&$ (in+ – 8oral 96ligation......................................................................................................................................................&' (in+ – :,elp 0!em;............................................................................................................................................................&9 (in+ – 8ulticulturalism.......................................................................................................................................................)0 (in+ – .6ortion "1#............................................................................................................................................................. )1 (in+ – .6ortion "2#............................................................................................................................................................. )2 (in+ < En3ironment............................................................................................................................................................. )& (in+ < ,ealt! Care..............................................................................................................................................................)) (in+s – 4risons "1#............................................................................................................................................................. )* (in+ – 4risons "2#................................................................................................................................................................)$ (in+ – 4risons "&#................................................................................................................................................................)% (in+s < ,=D........................................................................................................................................................................)' (in+ < 4ostal Ser3ice "1#......................................................................................................................................................)9 (in+ – 4ostal Ser3ice "2#.....................................................................................................................................................*0 (in+ – .ssets Discourse "1#................................................................................................................................................*1 (in+ – .ssets Discourse "2#.................................................................................................................................................*2

1

Capitalism K Generic

Dartmouth 2K9

2

(in+ – .ssets Discourse "&#.................................................................................................................................................*& (in+ < .ssets Discourse ")#.................................................................................................................................................*) (in+s < Competiti3eness Discourse "1#...............................................................................................................................*$ (in+ – Competiti3eness Discourse "2#.................................................................................................................................*% (in+ – (a>.......................................................................................................................................................................... *' ........................................................................................................................................................................................... *' (in+ – En3ironmental sustaina6ilit-....................................................................................................................................*9 (in+ – En3ironmental ?ustice "1#.........................................................................................................................................$0 (in+ – En3ironmental ?ustice "2#.........................................................................................................................................$1 (in+ < En3ironmental ?ustice – .lt sol3es "&#......................................................................................................................$2 (in+ – Internet..................................................................................................................................................................... $& (in+ – @road6and "1#..........................................................................................................................................................$) (in+ – Internet7@road6and "2#.............................................................................................................................................$* (in+ < Internet7@road6and "&#..............................................................................................................................................$$ (in+ – 0!e State "1#.............................................................................................................................................................$% (in+ < 0!e State "2#............................................................................................................................................................$' (in+ – 8ental ,ealt!...........................................................................................................................................................$9 (in+ < 8ental ,ealt!..........................................................................................................................................................%0 Capitalism Impacts – 1ar "1#..............................................................................................................................................%1 Capitalism Impacts – 1ar "2#..............................................................................................................................................%$ Capitalism Impacts – 1ar "&#..............................................................................................................................................%' Capitalism Impacts – Ecos-stem "1#...................................................................................................................................%9 Capitalism Impacts – Ecos-stem "2#...................................................................................................................................'0 Capitalism Impacts – Ecos-stem "&#...................................................................................................................................'1 Capitalism Impacts – Ecos-stem ")#...................................................................................................................................'2 Capitalism Impacts – Democrac- "1# .................................................................................................................................'& Capitalism Impacts – Democrac- "2# .................................................................................................................................') Capitalism Impacts – Democrac- "&# .................................................................................................................................'* Capitalism Impacts – (aundr- (ist "1# ...............................................................................................................................'$ Capitalism Impacts – (aundr- (ist "2# ...............................................................................................................................'% Capitalism Impacts – Extinction "1# ...................................................................................................................................'' Capitalism Impacts – Extinction "2# ...................................................................................................................................'9 Capitalism Impacts – 4o3ert- "1# .......................................................................................................................................90 Capitalism Impacts – 4o3ert- "2#........................................................................................................................................92 Capitalism Impacts – 4o3ert- "&#........................................................................................................................................9& Capitalism Impacts – 4o3ert- ")#........................................................................................................................................9* Capitalism Impacts – 4o3ert- "*#........................................................................................................................................9$ Capitalism Impacts – 4o3ert- "$#........................................................................................................................................9' Capitalism Impacts – 4o3ert- "%#........................................................................................................................................99 Capitalism Impacts – 4o3ert- "'#......................................................................................................................................101 Capitalism Impacts – 4o3ert- "9#......................................................................................................................................102 Capitalism Impacts – Aalue to (i/e "1#..............................................................................................................................10& Capitalism Impacts – Aalue to (i/e "2#..............................................................................................................................10) Capitalism Impacts – 8ental ,ealt! "1#............................................................................................................................10* Capitalism Impacts – 8ental ,ealt! "2# ...........................................................................................................................10$ Capitalism Impacts – Genocide72acism "1#.......................................................................................................................10% Capitalism Impacts – Genocide72acism "2#.......................................................................................................................111 Capitalism Impacts – Econom- "1#...................................................................................................................................112 Capitalism Impacts – Econom- "2#...................................................................................................................................11) Capitalism Impacts – Et!ics "1#.........................................................................................................................................11* Capitalism Impacts – Social Ser3ices "1#..........................................................................................................................11%

2

Capitalism K Generic

Dartmouth 2K9

Capitalism Impacts – Social Ser3ices "2#..........................................................................................................................11' .lt – BiCe+......................................................................................................................................................................... 119 .lt – 1allis "in s!ell#........................................................................................................................................................121 .lt – ,erod........................................................................................................................................................................122 .lt – C!r-ssostalis.............................................................................................................................................................12& .lt – ,armen..................................................................................................................................................................... 12* .lt sol3enc- – re?ection "1#...............................................................................................................................................12$ .lt sol3enc- – re?ection "2#...............................................................................................................................................12% .lt sol3enc- – re?ection "&#...............................................................................................................................................12' .lt sol3enc- – re?ection ")#...............................................................................................................................................129 .lt sol3enc- – re?ection "*#...............................................................................................................................................1&0 .lt sol3enc- – re?ection "$#...............................................................................................................................................1&1 ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 1&& .lt sol3enc- – ret!in+ politics "1#.....................................................................................................................................1&& .lt sol3enc- – ret!in+ politics "2#.....................................................................................................................................1&) .lt sol3enc- – ret!in+ politics "&#.....................................................................................................................................1&* .lt sol3enc- – de6ate "1#...................................................................................................................................................1&$ .lt sol3enc- – de6ate "2#...................................................................................................................................................1&% .lt sol3enc- – de6ate "&#...................................................................................................................................................1&' .lt sol3enc- – discourse "1#..............................................................................................................................................1&9 .lt sol3enc- – discourse "2#..............................................................................................................................................1)0 .lt sol3enc- – discourse "&#..............................................................................................................................................1)1 .lt sol3enc- – representations...........................................................................................................................................1)2 .lt sol3enc- – li6eralism7compassion...............................................................................................................................1)& .lt sol3enc- – action no> "1#............................................................................................................................................1)) .lt sol3enc- – action no> "2#............................................................................................................................................1)* .lt sol3enc- – moral o6ligation........................................................................................................................................1)$ .lt sol3enc- – indi3idual ad3ocac-...................................................................................................................................1)' .lt sol3enc- – local trans/ormation...................................................................................................................................1)9 .lt sol3enc- – ontolog- ....................................................................................................................................................1*1 .lt sol3es en3ironment......................................................................................................................................................1*2 .lt sol3es po3ert-..............................................................................................................................................................1*& .lt sol3es 3iolence............................................................................................................................................................1*) .lt sol3es aut!oritarian control.........................................................................................................................................1** .lt Sol3es – 5eminism......................................................................................................................................................1*$ .0: Cap Ine3ita6le "1#.......................................................................................................................................................1*% .0: Cap Ine3ita6le "2#.......................................................................................................................................................1*' .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 1*9 .0: Cap Ine3ita6le "&#.......................................................................................................................................................1$0 .0: Cap Ine3ita6le ")#.......................................................................................................................................................1$1 .0: Cap decreases po3ert- "1#..........................................................................................................................................1$2 .0: Cap decreases po3ert- "2#..........................................................................................................................................1$& .0: Cap decreases po3ert- "&#..........................................................................................................................................1$) .0: Cap sol3es social di3isions.........................................................................................................................................1$* .0: Cap Ke- to Space.......................................................................................................................................................1$$ .0: 4ragmatism................................................................................................................................................................ 1$' .0: 4erm "1#.....................................................................................................................................................................1$9 .0: 4erm "2#.....................................................................................................................................................................1%0 .0: 4erm "&#.....................................................................................................................................................................1%1 .0: 4erm ")#.....................................................................................................................................................................1%&

Capitalism K Generic

Dartmouth 2K9

!

.0: 4erm "*#.....................................................................................................................................................................1%) .0: 4erm "$#.....................................................................................................................................................................1%* .0: 4erm "%#.....................................................................................................................................................................1%$ .0: 4erm "'#.....................................................................................................................................................................1%% .0: 4erm "9#.....................................................................................................................................................................1%' .0: 4erm "10#...................................................................................................................................................................1%9 .0: 4erm "11#...................................................................................................................................................................1'0 .0: 4erm "12#...................................................................................................................................................................1'1 .0: 4erm "1&#...................................................................................................................................................................1'2 .0: 4erm "1)#...................................................................................................................................................................1'& .0: 4erm "1*#...................................................................................................................................................................1'* .0: 4erm "1$#...................................................................................................................................................................1'$ .0: 4erm "1%#...................................................................................................................................................................1'% .0: 4erm "1'#...................................................................................................................................................................1'' .0: 4erm "19#...................................................................................................................................................................1'9 .0: 4erm "20#...................................................................................................................................................................190 .0: 4erm "21#...................................................................................................................................................................191 .0: 4erm "22#...................................................................................................................................................................192 .0: Aague .lternati3e......................................................................................................................................................19& .0: o alternati3e.............................................................................................................................................................19) .0: 4lan is good cap.........................................................................................................................................................19$ .0: Gi6son<Gra!am "1#....................................................................................................................................................19% .0: Gi6son<Gra!am "2#....................................................................................................................................................19' .0: Gi6son<Gra!am "&#....................................................................................................................................................199 .0: Gi6son Gra!am ")#.....................................................................................................................................................200 .0: Gi6son<Gra!am "*#....................................................................................................................................................201 .0: Gi6son<Gra!am "$#....................................................................................................................................................202 .0: ,o>ard<,assmann.....................................................................................................................................................20& .0: Cap Sustaina6le "1#....................................................................................................................................................20) .0: Cap Sustaina6le "2#....................................................................................................................................................20* .0: Cap Good "1#..............................................................................................................................................................20$ .0: Cap Good "2#..............................................................................................................................................................20% .0: Socialism @ad............................................................................................................................................................20' .0: Case out>eig!s "1#.....................................................................................................................................................209 .0: Case 9ut>eig!s "2#....................................................................................................................................................210 .0: 2ole<pla-ing ..............................................................................................................................................................211 .0: 0ime/rame ................................................................................................................................................................. 212 .0: 4ostmodern 8arxism "1#............................................................................................................................................21& .0: 4ostmodern 8arxism "2#............................................................................................................................................21) .0: 4ostmodern 8arxism "&#............................................................................................................................................21* .0: 4ostmodern 8arxism ")#............................................................................................................................................21$ .0: 4ostmodern 8arxism "*#............................................................................................................................................21% .0: 4ostmodern 8arxism "$#............................................................................................................................................21' .//irmati3e < Cap ine3ita6le "1#........................................................................................................................................219 .//irmati3e < Cap ine3ita6le "2#........................................................................................................................................220 .//irmati3e < Cap ine3ita6le "&#........................................................................................................................................221 .//irmati3e < Gi6son<Gra!am "1#......................................................................................................................................222 .//irmati3e < Gi6son< Gra!am "2#.....................................................................................................................................22& .//irmati3e < 4erm sol3enc- "1#........................................................................................................................................22) .//irmati3e < 4erm sol3enc- "2#........................................................................................................................................22* .//irmati3e < 4erm Sol3enc- "&#.......................................................................................................................................22$

!

..............................uman rig!ts turn.......................................................")#.........2&% .......2&$ .......................................................................................2)1 .....................................................2)0 ......................................................................................................................................................................................2&) .....2&0 ............................."1#...............................................................................................................................................//irmati3e – .//irmati3e < ........................................Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 " ..........................................................................//irmati3e < Cap sol3es po3ert.........//irmati3e < 4o3ert.........................................22% .................2&' .........//irmati3e < ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2: 2oot Cause......229 ................................."&#.................................................................2&* ...................................................//irmati3e – En3ironment turn "172#...............//irmati3e < ...........................................//irmati3e – Cap leads to peace..2)2 " ......//irmati3e < Democrac.......................................................................................................//irmati3e < Cap pre3ents po3ert.....................................................................2&& ..........//irmati3e < 4o3ert...............//irmati3e < En3ironment turn "272#..............2&1 .................................................."2#..............................................................................................0urn "172#................................................//irmati3e < Aalue to (i/e turn.......................2: Cap not moral......................................lternati3e 5ails......................................................turn.........................//irmati3e < Cap pre3ents po3ert.................2&9 ..............................................................................0urn "272#....................................//irmati3e < Cap pre3ents po3ert.............2&2 ..................................

Cities o/ 0omorro>.relations as t!ese appear in ur6an space.*9 @utD since capitalism also >is!es to circumscri6e state planning as /ar as possi6leD t!ere is an in6uilt contradiction: planningD 6ecause o/ t!is in!erent inadeFuac-D al>a-s sol3es one pro6lem onl. .merican Coning limited t!e po>ers o/ industrialists to locate at t!e most pro/ita6le locations.8arxist explanations come close to 6eing pluralistD al6eit >it! a strong structural element.College (ondon.$0 0!usD sa.clearances in 4aris created a >or+ing<class !ousing pro6lemG .patternsD is t!e result o/ capital in pursuit o/ pro/it.o6?ecti3es: to /acilitate continued capital accumulationD 6. recreating the la-or /orce and replacing one social pro-lem 0ith man.all 4ro/. 0o descri6e it adeFuatel.political contro3ersies and dilemmasH.productionD and 6.nd planning can ne3er do more t!an modi/.remed-ing disorganiCation in commodit.e capitalism – this turns case -.t!e 8arxistsD nineteent!<centur.creating anot!er.interestsD and complex alliances ma. # .in/rastructure and certain 6asic ur6an ser3icesD and to reduce negati3e externalities >!ere6.H @ut in t!e processD Ht!e more t!at t!e State inter3enes in t!e ur6an s-stemD t!e greater is t!e li+eli!ood t!at di//erent social groups and /ractions >ill contest t!e legitimac. 19'9.no means !omogenousG di//erent /ractions o/ capital ma.response to t!e sel/< disorganiCing tendencies o/ pri3atiCed capitalist social and propert. 4gs.guaranteeing and legitimating capitalist social and propert. @ecause capitalism is doomed to recurrent crisesD >!ic! deepen in t!e current stage o/ late capitalismD capital calls upon t!e state D as its agentD to assist it 6.College (ondonD 29 4eter .some parameters o/ t!e land de3elopment processG it cannot c!ange its intrinsic logicD and so cannot remo3e t!e contradiction 6et>een pri3ate accumulation and collecti3e action.ensuring rational allocation o/ resourcesG 6.HI In particularD it see+s to guarantee collecti3e pro3ision o/ necessar.J . 4lanning and 2egeneration at 0!e @artlettD =ni3ersit.itsel/D including its land<use and acti3it.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 # Capitalism K 1$C Short Shell %1& '( )in* – Social ser+ices legitimi.s Dear and Scott put it: HIn summar-D planning is an !istoricall-<speci/ic and sociall-<necessar.in3aded 6.>ould reFuire a course in 8arxist t!eor-. =r6an li/e as a >!ole 6ecomes progressi3el.relations. It t!us tries to ac!ie3e certain necessar.6e /ormed in conseFuenceG t!usD latter<da.!a3e di3ergentD e3en contradictor. &&*<&)1 .o/ its decisions.t t!e same timeD a speci/icall.J 5urt!erD t!e Kcapitalist class is 6.assisting t!e reproduction o/ t!e la6our /orce t!roug! t!e pro3ision o/ social ser3icesD t!us maintaining a delicate 6alance 6et>een la6our and capital and pre3enting social disintegrationG and 6.certain acti3ities o/ capital cause losses to ot!er parts o/ t!e s-stem .8arxian 3ie> o/ planning emerged in t!e Englis!<spea+ing >orld.6.aiding t!e reproduction o/ t!e la6our /orce. others( 1allD pro/ E =ni3ersit. @utD in inadeFuate summar-D it states t!at t!e structure o/ t!e capitalist cit.

economic or in primaril. Suc! ad?ustments consisted in side<steppingD as it >ereD t!e encountered o6stacles and resistances >!en capital >as una6le to /rontall.oneD /or instance<6ut in all its /undamental dimensionsD Fuestioning its 3ia6ilit.>it! limited ad?ustmentsD and e3en t!ose onl.political /orm< in t!e course o/ t!e gi3en societ-Ls expandoed reproduction.o/ controlling t!e production o/ >ealt!. 9 8olitical :heor.extract and accumulate surplus<la6our<>!et!er in directl.lending mone-# and >inning t!e 6attle o3er t!e Haliena6ilit.J 0!an+s to a 3er. .o>e3erD it is one t!ing to o3ercome and su6due pro6lematical "e3en o6scurantist# constraints and o6staclesD and Fuite anot!er to institute t!e positi3e principles o/ sustaina6le social de3elopmentD guided 6. It is t!ere/ore not too di//icult to imagine t!e implications o/ a s-stemicD trulstructural crisisG i.altoget!er as a social reproducti3e s-stem.re3eal itD including t>o >orld >ars "not to mention numerous smaller con/lagrations#.nd >orse stillD on account o/ necessaril.o/ SussexD EnglandD :@e-ond Capital: 0o>ard a 0!eor. 9nceD !o>e3erD t!is d-namic process o/ expansion and accumulation gets stuc+ "/or >!ate3er reason# t!e conseFuences must 6e Fuite de3astating.and !o> a6solutiCed in terms o/ t!e pre3ailing 3alue s-stem o/ societ. ./ter allD capital at /irst appeared as a strictl.7 9" Ist3an 8esCarosD 199*D 4ro/essor at =ni3ersit. 5or e3en under t!e Mnormalit-L o/ relati3el.o/ t!e capital s-stem are /ar /rom reassuring toda.e.o/ Hpro/it upon alienationHD >!ic! reall.< against itsel/D ele3ating its mode o/ meta6olic control to t!e po>er o/ a6solute dominance as a /ull.>as in /act one o/ t!e most important /actors t!at secured capitals irresisti6le ad3ancement and ultimate 3ictor-D >!ic! it !ad to accomplis! despite t!e earlier mentioned /act t!at capitalHs mode o/ meta6olic control constituted t!e exception and not t!e rule in !istor-. one t!at a//ects t!e glo6al capital s-stem not simpl.su6ordinate /orce in t!e course o/ !istorical de3elopment.under one i/ its aspects<t!e /inancial7monetar. .t!e !ig!est religious aut!orities: t!e 4apac. It could not 6ecome t!e dominant /orce o/ t!e social meta6olic process 6e/ore s>eeping out o/ t!e >a. Suc! a determination constitutes 6ot! a /ormerl.sancti/ied <pro!i6ition on Husur-H "contested under t!e categor.limited c-clic distur6ances and 6loc+ages t!e destruction t!at goes >it! t!e ensuing socioeconomic and political crises can 6e enormousD as t!e annals o/ t!e t>entiet! centur.and its S-nods. . =nder t!e conditions o/ capitalHs structural crisis its destructi3e constituents come to t!e /ore >it! a 3engeanceD acti3ating t!e spectre o/ total uncontrolla6ilit./or as long as it could continue to pursue in one /orm or anot!er t!e d-namics o/ sel/<expansion and t!e process o/ accumulation.meant: retaining control o3er t!e monetar-7/inancial capital o/ t!e ageD in t!e interest o/ t!e accumulation processD and at t!e same time securing pro/it 6. 1it! regard to its innermost determination t!e capital s-stem is expansion oriented and accumulation<dri3en.sancti/ied pro!i6ition under t!e /eudal s-stem# >it!out >!ic! t!e emergence o/ capitalist agriculture <a 3ital condition /or t!e triump! o/ t!e capital s-stem in general >ould !a3e 6een Fuite inconcei3a6le.o/ 0ransition.s >e s!all see in C!apter &D capital >as near amena6le to proper and dura6le control or rational sel/<restraint.unimagina6le d-namism and a /ate/ul de/icienc-.>!en t!e need /or restraints is conceded < at least in t!e /orm o/ t!e elusi3e desideratum o/ Hsel/<regulationH < e3en 6t!e s-stemHs most uncritical de/enders.demolis! t!em. 0!is c!aracteristic o/ uncontrolla6ilit.su6ordinating Huse<3alueH < t!at isD production /or !uman need < to t!e reFuirements o/ sel/<expansion and accumulationD capital in all o/ its /orms !ad to o3ercome also t!e odium o/ 6eing considered /or a long time t!e most HunnaturalH >a.in a /orm t!at /ores!ado>s sel/<destruction 6ot! /or t!is uniFue social reproducti3e s-stem itsel/ and /or !umanit. In t!is senseD as a s-stem o/ social meta6olic control capital is Fuite irresisti6le /or as long as it can success/ull.extended glo6al s-stem.implicated in Hmortal sinH in more >a-s t!an oneD and t!ere/ore !ad to 6e outla>ed as H!ereticH 6./ul/illing o6?ecti3esD as opposed to t!e 6lind pursuit o/ capitalHs sel/<expansion.o/ landH "againD t!e su6?ect o/ a6solute and religiousl.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 3 Capitalism K 1$C Short Shell %2& 4( Impact – Capitalism5s dri+e /or material ma*es crisis and extinction ine+ita-le( 6es.t!e criteria o/ !umanl.in general.ccording to t!e ideological con/rontations o/ medie3al timesD capital >as /ate/ull. 0!us t!e implications o/ t!e sel/same po>er o/ uncontrolla6ilit>!ic! in its time secured t!e 3ictor.aros7 pro/ 8hilosoph. . 3 .large extent to its uncontrolla6ilit-D capital succeeded in o3ercoming all odds < no matter !o> po>er/ul materiall. 5or it >as compati6le onl.t!e a6solute < and religiousl.

cite o/ resistance – our a-ilit. at Colum6ia =D o3em6er 200': 0!e 8ont!l. 1!ere t!e pri3ate and t!e ci3ic dimensions >ould merge >ould 6e in de3eloping a /ull<scale class anal-sis o/ responsi6ilit. ones.can do is to tr-O/ollo>ing t!e cue o/ t!ose >!o plunged us all into t!is /ixOto /end indi3iduall.2e3ie> :Capitalist and Socialist 2esponses to t!e Ecological Crisis. ./or t!e current crisis andD >it! itD a mo3ement >!ic! could pose a s-stemic alternati3e.t t!is pointD it is clear t!at t!e purc!ase on :realism. @ut >!at ma+es t!e situation re3olutionar. @ut t!is 3er.on t!e e//ecti3eness o/ prior consciousness<raising and partl.mix o/ persuasion and coercion >ill necessarilappl-Ot!e 6alance o/ t!ese t>o met!ods depending partl.do not understandD >!ose scope t!e. resist capitalism through a process o/ re+olutionar. >it! t!eir relentless insistence on coaxing an ecological cure out o/ a s-stem in!erentl.!istorical lessons !a3e alread.rts 4ro/essor at =C @er+ele-D 4!D.committed to trampling e3er-t!ing in its pat!D !a3e lost all sense o/ realit-. 5ortunatel-D !o>e3erD it >ill not 6e a matter o/ starting /rom scratc!. =ntil t!is !appensD t!e inertial impact o/ t!e pre3ailing ideolog>ill se3erel. ExposNs li+e GoreLs !a3e called attentionD /or exampleD to t!e role o/ particular oil companies in sponsoring attac+s on scienti/ic /indings related to climate c!angeD 6ut t!e idea t!at t!ere could 6e an antagonism 6et>een capitalism and t!e en3ironment as suc! !as not -et made its >a.su//icient num6ers o/ peopleD an intense le3el o/ grassroots organiCing >ill alread.7 8hD( at Colum-ia A(7 02 "Aictor 1allisD (i6eral .sit precariousl. 0!e. !ttp:77mont!l-re3ie>. .prior de3elopment.re3olutionar.stemic alternati+e to the capitalist political /rame0or* inherent in the plan( :his de-ate is the *e.limit t!e scope o/ an. proposals >ill not pro3ide a solution.p!p# . 0!ere are positi3e models as >ell.into general pu6lic de6ate.on t!e >indo> o/ time a3aila6le /or t!e reFuired steps.t!ing t!e.realistic ones# or >!et!er its mem6ers >ill !a3e remained so encased >it!in t!e capitalist paradigm t!at t!e onl. In order /or t!e scope o/ t!e needed measures to 6e grasped 6.3ie> it >it! a siege mentalit-D see+ing a6o3e all to assure t!eir o>n sur3i3al.are to accomplis! t!eir purposeD >ill !a3e to ad3ance /urt!er t!e 3er.cannot imagineD and o3er >!ic! t!e..on t!e part o/ t!ose /orces is also an expression o/ t!eir >ea+ness.ina6ilit. 0!e steps so /ar ta+en in t!is direction !a3e 6een limited.6egin to en3isage t!e speci/ic c!angesD >!ic! >ill primaril. 5rom our present 3antage point >e can onl. !as c!anged !ands. 0!e :moderatesD.org70'110&>allis.&'# .do sense t!e gra3it. "9rD i/ t!e.concrete recuperati3e measures.is t!e 3er. 0!e Fuestion no> 6ecomes >!et!er t!e !it!erto misgo3erned populace >ill 6e prepared to pus! t!roug! t!e radical measures "6.o/ t!e situationD t!e.e<ect the a//irmati+e in order to radicall.atop a process t!e. persuasion( :he =realistic proposals> o/ the 1ac cannot pro+ide a s.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2 Capitalism K 1$C Short Shell % & C.!a3e to 6e under>a-. c!aracteristicall.o>e3erD t!e measures t!emsel3esD i/ t!e.&% 0!e situation is compara6le to t!at surrounding an.to political /orces >!ic!D >!ile una6le to design a response commensurate >it! t!e scale o/ t!e pro6lemD !a3e not -et 6een displaced /rom t!eir positions o/ po>er. to use persuasion and sho0 the =antagonism -et0een capitalism and the en+ironment> is uni?ue to starting a re+olution( @allis7 8ro/essor at AC 4er*ele./or t!emsel3es.6een learnedD and not all o/ t!em are o/ t!ings to a3oid.prospecti3e re3olution: until a certain critical point !as 6een reac!edD t!e onl.process t!at put t!em on t!e agenda to 6egin >it!. o dimension o/ li/e >ill 6e untouc!ed. :he 'lternati+e – . 0!is is t!e con?uncture t!at all our e//orts !a3e 6een 6uilding /orG it >ill pro3ide t!e ultimate test o/ !o> >ell >e !a3e done our >or+.t!e onl. 1!at gi3es t!ese proposals a 3eneer o/ reasona6leness is no more t!an t!eir accepta6ilit.can !a3e no control.no> clearl.in3ol3e a re3ersal or undoing o/ t!e more >aste/ul and !arm/ul structures 6eFueat!ed 6. 8an. 2 ./act t!at t!e moderate or :realistic.demands t!at appear to !a3e a c!ance o/ acceptance are t!e :moderate.

College (ondon. Cities o/ 0omorro>.political contro3ersies and dilemmasH.aiding t!e reproduction o/ t!e la6our /orce.merican Coning limited t!e po>ers o/ industrialists to locate at t!e most pro/ita6le locations. .all 4ro/.*9 @utD since capitalism also >is!es to circumscri6e state planning as /ar as possi6leD t!ere is an in6uilt contradiction: planningD 6ecause o/ t!is in!erent inadeFuac-D al>a-s sol3es one pro6lem onl.$0 0!usD sa.o/ its decisions. 4gs. @ecause capitalism is doomed to recurrent crisesD >!ic! deepen in t!e current stage o/ late capitalismD capital calls upon t!e state D as its agentD to assist it 6.in3aded 6. It t!us tries to ac!ie3e certain necessar.relations as t!ese appear in ur6an space.productionD and 6.patternsD is t!e result o/ capital in pursuit o/ pro/it.relations.8arxian 3ie> o/ planning emerged in t!e Englis!<spea+ing >orld.t!e 8arxistsD nineteent!<centur. =r6an li/e as a >!ole 6ecomes progressi3el. others( 1allD pro/ E =ni3ersit.certain acti3ities o/ capital cause losses to ot!er parts o/ t!e s-stem .6.e capitalism – this turns case -. 4lanning and 2egeneration at 0!e @artlettD =ni3ersit.no means !omogenousG di//erent /ractions o/ capital ma.s Dear and Scott put it: HIn summar-D planning is an !istoricall-<speci/ic and sociall-<necessar. 9 .in/rastructure and certain 6asic ur6an ser3icesD and to reduce negati3e externalities >!ere6.!a3e di3ergentD e3en contradictor.itsel/D including its land<use and acti3it.t t!e same timeD a speci/icall.some parameters o/ t!e land de3elopment processG it cannot c!ange its intrinsic logicD and so cannot remo3e t!e contradiction 6et>een pri3ate accumulation and collecti3e action.clearances in 4aris created a >or+ing<class !ousing pro6lemG . &&*<&)1 . @utD in inadeFuate summar-D it states t!at t!e structure o/ t!e capitalist cit.College (ondonD 29 4eter .response to t!e sel/< disorganiCing tendencies o/ pri3atiCed capitalist social and propert.assisting t!e reproduction o/ t!e la6our /orce t!roug! t!e pro3ision o/ social ser3icesD t!us maintaining a delicate 6alance 6et>een la6our and capital and pre3enting social disintegrationG and 6.J .H @ut in t!e processD Ht!e more t!at t!e State inter3enes in t!e ur6an s-stemD t!e greater is t!e li+eli!ood t!at di//erent social groups and /ractions >ill contest t!e legitimac.interestsD and complex alliances ma.ensuring rational allocation o/ resourcesG 6.6e /ormed in conseFuenceG t!usD latter<da.>ould reFuire a course in 8arxist t!eor-.8arxist explanations come close to 6eing pluralistD al6eit >it! a strong structural element.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 9 Capitalism K 1$C )ong Shell %1& '( )in*s 1( Social ser+ices legitimi. recreating the la-or /orce and replacing one social pro-lem 0ith man.nd planning can ne3er do more t!an modi/.J 5urt!erD t!e Kcapitalist class is 6. 0o descri6e it adeFuatel.guaranteeing and legitimating capitalist social and propert.o6?ecti3es: to /acilitate continued capital accumulationD 6.creating anot!er.remed-ing disorganiCation in commodit. 19'9.HI In particularD it see+s to guarantee collecti3e pro3ision o/ necessar.

(inda Da3ies and 4eter (eonardD 4g x par 1 – par 2 .lt!oug! all social >or+ers and social >or+ educatorsD including t!ose >!o practice /rom a critical positionD are dail. Social >or+ can 6est de/end itsel/ D it is suggestedD 6.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 10 Capitalism K 1$C )ong Shell %2& 2( :he current structure o/ social ser+ices /or impo+erished people commodi/ies their ser+ice and extends the capitalist social order Da+ies and )eonardD pro/s E 8cGill =ni3ersit-D 0! (inda Da3ies and 4eter (eonardD pro/essors in t!e Sc!ool o/ Social 1or+ E 8cGill =ni3ersit-D 200) IntroductionG in Social 1or+ in a Coporate Era: 4ractices o/ 4o>er and 2esistance edited 6.it. 0!e classi/ication o/ Hclient pro6lemsH 6ecomes a ma?or tool >it!in t!is scientisric conception o/ social >or+.claiming to 6e a science<6ased pro/ession >it! an important role in t!e monitoring and control o/ pro6lematic populations at ris+ < t!e 6adD t!e madD and t!e di//icult. 2is+ management increasingl. It is a mec!anism o/ o6?ecti/ication and o/ten parallels t!e rei/ication and stereot-ping o/ Hcultural communities.and ma+e more measura6le t!e relations!ip 6et>een state ser3ice pro3iders and t!ose >!o use t!ese ser3ices. Increasing 6ureaucratic controlD toget!er >it! reductions in resourcesD /urnis! t!e ideological and material spaces >it!in >!ic! social >or+ers are expected to practice as ris+ assessors and case managers . 1it!in t!is 3ie>D t!e /uture o/ social >or+ is tied to HmasteingH scienti/ic +no>ledge and ne> tec!nical s+illsD t!ose latest and most glamorous /orms o/ expertise t!at pro3ide t!e grounds on >!ic!D in a >orld o/ uncertaint.and occupational competitionD social >or+ can sta+e its claim to pro/essional competence.1estern countries at t!e present time is t!e extent to >!ic! mar+et relations and t!e commodi/ication o/ social care Hpac+agesH !as permeated social >el/are s-stems. 2egretta6l-D t!ere are also pro/essional discourses >it!in social >or+ t!at appear to 6e eager to adapt to t!is tec!nocratic managerialism and to t!e claims to scienti/ic and o6?ecti3e +no>ledge >!ic! accompan. 10 . stri+ing /eature o/ t!e o6?ecti3es and organiCation o/ social ser3ices in man. 0!e role o/ t!e social >or+er as one >!o engages >it! t!e client in a supporti3eD nurturing encounter appearsD at least o//iciall-D to 6e d-ing.use/ul scienti/ic practice proclaims D in e//ectD its unam6iguous and unre/lecti3e contri6ution to t!e reproduction o/ t!e existing capitalist social order.con/ronted >it! t!eir complicit.H .dominates conceptions o/ !o> parents and c!ildren li3ing in a milieu o/ po3ert-D racism and exclusion are to 6e de/ined and responded to. e> tec!nologies are 6eing introduced into t!e management o/ ser3ices t!at o6?ecti/.in structures o/ domination D t!e perspecti3e t!at cele6rates social >or+ as a sociall.

./ter allD capital at /irst appeared as a strictl.lending mone-# and >inning t!e 6attle o3er t!e Haliena6ilit. =nder t!e conditions o/ capitalHs structural crisis its destructi3e constituents come to t!e /ore >it! a 3engeanceD acti3ating t!e spectre o/ total uncontrolla6ilit.in general.extended glo6al s-stem.o>e3erD it is one t!ing to o3ercome and su6due pro6lematical "e3en o6scurantist# constraints and o6staclesD and Fuite anot!er to institute t!e positi3e principles o/ sustaina6le social de3elopmentD guided 6. 5or e3en under t!e Mnormalit-L o/ relati3el. 11 .o/ controlling t!e production o/ >ealt!. .under one i/ its aspects<t!e /inancial7monetar.demolis! t!em. 9 8olitical :heor.large extent to its uncontrolla6ilit-D capital succeeded in o3ercoming all odds < no matter !o> po>er/ul materiall. one t!at a//ects t!e glo6al capital s-stem not simpl.>!en t!e need /or restraints is conceded < at least in t!e /orm o/ t!e elusi3e desideratum o/ Hsel/<regulationH < e3en 6. 1it! regard to its innermost determination t!e capital s-stem is expansion oriented and accumulation<dri3en.e.< against itsel/D ele3ating its mode o/ meta6olic control to t!e po>er o/ a6solute dominance as a /ull./or as long as it could continue to pursue in one /orm or anot!er t!e d-namics o/ sel/< expansion and t!e process o/ accumulation.unimagina6le d-namism and a /ate/ul de/icienc-.o/ Hpro/it upon alienationHD >!ic! reall.aros7 pro/ 8hilosoph.political /orm< in t!e course o/ t!e gi3en societ-Ls expandoed reproduction.>!ic! in its time secured t!e 3ictor.and its S-nods.o/ landH "againD t!e su6?ect o/ a6solute and religiousl.nd >orse stillD on account o/ necessaril. 0!is c!aracteristic o/ uncontrolla6ilit.J 0!an+s to a 3er.economic or in primaril.o/ t!e capital s-stem are /ar /rom reassuring toda.meant: retaining control o3er t!e monetar-7/inancial capital o/ t!e ageD in t!e interest o/ t!e accumulation processD and at t!e same time securing pro/it 6.o/ 0ransition.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 11 Capitalism K 1$C )ong Shell % & 4( Impacts – 1( Capitalism5s dri+e /or material ma*es crisis and extinction ine+ita-le 6es.7 9" Ist3an 8esCarosD 199*D 4ro/essor at =ni3ersit.in a /orm t!at /ores!ado>s sel/<destruction 6ot! /or t!is uniFue social reproducti3e s-stem itsel/ and /or !umanit. 0!us t!e implications o/ t!e sel/same po>er o/ uncontrolla6ilit. Suc! ad?ustments consisted in side<steppingD as it >ereD t!e encountered o6stacles and resistances >!en capital >as una6le to /rontall. Suc! a determination constitutes 6ot! a /ormerl. .t!e criteria o/ !umanl.t!e s-stemHs most uncritical de/enders.t!e a6solute < and religiousl.su6ordinate /orce in t!e course o/ !istorical de3elopment.oneD /or instance<6ut in all its /undamental dimensionsD Fuestioning its 3ia6ilit.sancti/ied pro!i6ition under t!e /eudal s-stem# >it!out >!ic! t!e emergence o/ capitalist agriculture <a 3ital condition /or t!e triump! o/ t!e capital s-stem in general >ould !a3e 6een Fuite inconcei3a6le. .re3eal itD including t>o >orld >ars "not to mention numerous smaller con/lagrations#.s >e s!all see in C!apter &D capital >as near amena6le to proper and dura6le control or rational sel/<restraint.>as in /act one o/ t!e most important /actors t!at secured capitals irresisti6le ad3ancement and ultimate 3ictor-D >!ic! it !ad to accomplis! despite t!e earlier mentioned /act t!at capitalHs mode o/ meta6olic control constituted t!e exception and not t!e rule in !istor-.ccording to t!e ideological con/rontations o/ medie3al timesD capital >as /ate/ullimplicated in Hmortal sinH in more >a-s t!an oneD and t!ere/ore !ad to 6e outla>ed as H!ereticH 6. It could not 6ecome t!e dominant /orce o/ t!e social meta6olic process 6e/ore s>eeping out o/ t!e >a.extract and accumulate surplus< la6our<>!et!er in directl.>it! limited ad?ustmentsD and e3en t!ose onl.altoget!er as a social reproducti3e s-stem.t!e !ig!est religious aut!orities: t!e 4apac. 9nceD !o>e3erD t!is d-namic process o/ expansion and accumulation gets stuc+ "/or >!ate3er reason# t!e conseFuences must 6e Fuite de3astating.limited c-clic distur6ances and 6loc+ages t!e destruction t!at goes >it! t!e ensuing socioeconomic and political crises can 6e enormousD as t!e annals o/ t!e t>entiet! centur. 5or it >as compati6le onl. In t!is senseD as a s-stem o/ social meta6olic control capital is Fuite irresisti6le /or as long as it can success/ull.su6ordinating Huse<3alueH < t!at isD production /or !uman need < to t!e reFuirements o/ sel/<expansion and accumulationD capital in all o/ its /orms !ad to o3ercome also t!e odium o/ 6eing considered /or a long time t!e most HunnaturalH >a.structural crisisG i.and !o> a6solutiCed in terms o/ t!e pre3ailing 3alue s-stem o/ societ. It is t!ere/ore not too di//icult to imagine t!e implications o/ a s-stemicD trul. ./ul/illing o6?ecti3esD as opposed to t!e 6lind pursuit o/ capitalHs sel/<expansion.o/ SussexD EnglandD :@e-ond Capital: 0o>ard a 0!eor.sancti/ied <pro!i6ition on Husur-H "contested under t!e categor.

!umiliations o/ t!e >or+ing class and t!e poorG t!e strangulation o/ dail..strip mallsD !ig!>a-sD and toxic dumpsG t!e a6use o/ elderl.Capitalism S!ouldnLt @e Sa3ed.pu6lis! a @lac+ @oo+ o/ Capitalism.con/licts t!at simmer along /rom mont! to mont!D -ear to -earD as t!oug! as natural and immuta6le as t!e >axing and >aning o/ t!e moon O in places li+e Dar/urD 2>andaD CongoD .>a-s stands as t!e greatest single impediment to our o>n e//orts to /ind a practical and creati3e solution to t!e present crisis O is capitalismHs /undamental antagonism to>ard democrac-.com7e!ost7detailQ3idR2S!idR10)SsidR11&1*2'e<c$&6<)%'*<'caa< $$c'c1*$/e'aT)0sessionmgr10S6dataRPn pdG=9B1!3c&Ut6Gl2BUT&dT&dVd6Rap!S. .li/e 6./g!anistanD AietnamD and IraFD >!ere millions o/ >retc!edl.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 12 Capitalism K 1$C )ong Shell %!& 2( Capitalism su-ordinates human +alues and produces e+er. !ttp:77>e6.corporatiCationG t!e ceaseless pitc!ing o/ !arm/ul products to our c!ildren and in/antsG t!e o6literation o/ t!e natural landscape 6.t!eir 6illsG and t!e su//ering o/ t!e *0 million to 100 million 3erte6rates t!at die in scienti/ic la6oratories eac! -ear.pornograp!-G t!e corruption o/ !ig!er education 6.s!ould.men and >omen 6.lo><paid >or+ers in sFualid /or< pro/it institutionsG t!e /act t!at millions o/ poor c!ildren are sold into sexual sla3er-D and millions o/ ot!ers are orp!aned 6.and mass +illings committed 6.technic Institute in 6assachusettsD B09 "Po!n San6onmatsuD .poor peopleD or /rom t!e 6om6s dropped /rom t!e automated 6attle plat/orms o/ t!e last sur3i3ing superpo>er. Wet per!aps its most destructi3e /eature O t!e one t!at in man.IDSG t!e /act t!at tens o/ millions o/ >omen turn to prostitution to pa. 0!e.e6sco!ost.poor people die eit!er at t!e !ands o/ ot!er >retc!edl.accounting to 6e made. 5or >!en a mode o/ li/e t!at su6ordinates all !uman and spiritual 3alues to t!e pursuit o/ pri3ate >ealt! persists /or centuriesD t!ere is a lengt!. Capitalism is responsi6le /or all t!isD and more 6esides.mong t!e innumera6le sins t!at !a3e /ollo>ed in capitalismHs long trainD >e mig!t mentionD /or exampleD t!e !idden indignities and dail.89sD t!e telecom companiesD and t!e computer giantsG t!e corruption o/ art and culture 6.mone-G t!e destruction o/ eroticism 6.totalitarian Communist regimes in t!e course o/ t!e t>entiet! centur-.or indirectlrooted in t!e gross material disparities o/ t!e capitalist s-stem O t!e 6lood. at @orcester 8ol. concei+a-le impact( San-onmatsuD 'ssociate 8ro/essor o/ 8hilosoph.ssociate 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!. 12 . 1e mig!t also !ig!lig!t t!e doCens o/ >ars and ci3il con/licts t!at are directl.corporate 6ureaucracies suc! as t!e . 4er!aps a group o/ academics >ill one da. R&9%*&*&&# In 199%D a group o/ European academics pu6lis!ed a 6oo+ called 0!e @lac+ @oo+ o/ CommunismD in >!ic! t!edocumented t!e 6rutalit.at 1orcester 4ol-tec!nic Institute in 8assac!usettsD 8a-7Pune 2009D 0i++un :1!.

!as c!anged !ands.&% 0!e situation is compara6le to t!at surrounding an.is t!e 3er. >it! t!eir relentless insistence on coaxing an ecological cure out o/ a s-stem in!erentl.atop a process t!e.do not understandD >!ose scope t!e./act t!at t!e moderate or :realistic.rts 4ro/essor at =C @er+ele-D 4!D.re3olutionar.sit precariousl. persuasion( :he =realistic proposals> o/ the 1ac cannot pro+ide a s. 0!e steps so /ar ta+en in t!is direction !a3e 6een limited.p!p# @.!a3e to 6e under>a-.realistic ones# or >!et!er its mem6ers >ill !a3e remained so encased >it!in t!e capitalist paradigm t!at t!e onl. 1 . c!aracteristicall.are to accomplis! t!eir purposeD >ill !a3e to ad3ance /urt!er t!e 3er.process t!at put t!em on t!e agenda to 6egin >it!. 0!e.can do is to tr-O/ollo>ing t!e cue o/ t!ose >!o plunged us all into t!is /ixOto /end indi3iduall.7 8hD( at Colum-ia A(7 02 "Aictor 1allisD (i6eral .ina6ilit.2e3ie> :Capitalist and Socialist 2esponses to t!e Ecological Crisis.committed to trampling e3er-t!ing in its pat!D !a3e lost all sense o/ realit-.into general pu6lic de6ate. .t!ing t!e.cannot imagineD and o3er >!ic! t!e. @ut t!is 3er./or t!emsel3es.to political /orces >!ic!D >!ile una6le to design a response commensurate >it! t!e scale o/ t!e pro6lemD !a3e not -et 6een displaced /rom t!eir positions o/ po>er.no> clearl.&'# .6een learnedD and not all o/ t!em are o/ t!ings to a3oid. =ntil t!is !appensD t!e inertial impact o/ t!e pre3ailing ideolog>ill se3erel.on t!e e//ecti3eness o/ prior consciousness<raising and partl. .org70'110&>allis. In order /or t!e scope o/ t!e needed measures to 6e grasped 6.demands t!at appear to !a3e a c!ance o/ acceptance are t!e :moderate. 0!e Fuestion no> 6ecomes >!et!er t!e !it!erto misgo3erned populace >ill 6e prepared to pus! t!roug! t!e radical measures "6. @ut >!at ma+es t!e situation re3olutionar. at Colum6ia =D o3em6er 200': 0!e 8ont!l. 1!at gi3es t!ese proposals a 3eneer o/ reasona6leness is no more t!an t!eir accepta6ilit.prospecti3e re3olution: until a certain critical point !as 6een reac!edD t!e onl.3ie> it >it! a siege mentalit-D see+ing a6o3e all to assure t!eir o>n sur3i3al. "9rD i/ t!e. 0!e :moderatesD.on t!e >indo> o/ time a3aila6le /or t!e reFuired steps.o/ t!e situationD t!e. 1!ere t!e pri3ate and t!e ci3ic dimensions >ould merge >ould 6e in de3eloping a /ull<scale class anal-sis o/ responsi6ilit. 0!ere are positi3e models as >ell.limit t!e scope o/ an. cite o/ resistance – our a-ilit.on t!e part o/ t!ose /orces is also an expression o/ t!eir >ea+ness. !ttp:77mont!l-re3ie>.o>e3erD t!e measures t!emsel3esD i/ t!e. to use persuasion and sho0 the =antagonism -et0een capitalism and the en+ironment> is uni?ue to starting a re+olution( @allis7 8ro/essor at AC 4er*ele./or t!e current crisis andD >it! itD a mo3ement >!ic! could pose a s-stemic alternati3e. resist capitalism through a process o/ re+olutionar.prior de3elopment. o dimension o/ li/e >ill 6e untouc!ed.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1 Capitalism K 1$C )ong Shell %"& C. :he 'lternati+e – .can !a3e no control.in3ol3e a re3ersal or undoing o/ t!e more >aste/ul and !arm/ul structures 6eFueat!ed 6. 5rom our present 3antage point >e can onl.mix o/ persuasion and coercion >ill necessarilappl-Ot!e 6alance o/ t!ese t>o met!ods depending partl.t t!is pointD it is clear t!at t!e purc!ase on :realism.su//icient num6ers o/ peopleD an intense le3el o/ grassroots organiCing >ill alread.t!e onl.6egin to en3isage t!e speci/ic c!angesD >!ic! >ill primaril.!istorical lessons !a3e alread. 8an.e<ect the a//irmati+e in order to radicall.do sense t!e gra3it. proposals >ill not pro3ide a solution. 5ortunatel-D !o>e3erD it >ill not 6e a matter o/ starting /rom scratc!.concrete recuperati3e measures. 0!is is t!e con?uncture t!at all our e//orts !a3e 6een 6uilding /orG it >ill pro3ide t!e ultimate test o/ !o> >ell >e !a3e done our >or+. ExposNs li+e GoreLs !a3e called attentionD /or exampleD to t!e role o/ particular oil companies in sponsoring attac+s on scienti/ic /indings related to climate c!angeD 6ut t!e idea t!at t!ere could 6e an antagonism 6et>een capitalism and t!e en3ironment as suc! !as not -et made its >a.stemic alternati+e to the capitalist political /rame0or* inherent in the plan( :his de-ate is the *e. ones.

0!e point o/ t!e socialist pro?ectD as originall.e/orm is impossi-le C capitalism is structured to ma*e alternati+es seem ta-oo( :here is no chance o/ escaping /rom 0ithin the s.nd t!roug! t!eir sel/<contradictor.t!emsel3es occupiedD as i/ it >as t!eir 6irt!<rig!tD t!e top ec!elons.untena6le< !ad to /ounder 6ecause t!e !ierarc!ical command structure o/ t!e postre3olutionar.>ere /or a long time /alsel.on t!e 6asis o/ a co!erent strategic 3ie> or t!e o3erall social complex can e3en a partial negation o/ t!e existent 6e considered plausi6le and legitimate 5orD t!e alternati3e ad3ance<>!et!er explicitl./acilitate<as indeed 3arieties o/ re/ormism did<t!e continued operation o/ cpaitalLs mode o/ meta6olic control >it!in t!e ne> L!-6ridL s-stemD not>it!standing its crisis."gi3en its >illing acceptance o/ t!e constraints imposed 6t!e parameters o/ Hsel/<re/orming capitalismH# !ad to ta+e t!e /orm o/ totall.>anted to re/orming capitalism >it!out altering its capitalist su6stance<t!e.6ot! represented t!e line o/ least resistance under t!eir speci/ic !istorical conditionsD accommodating t!emsel3es as modes o/ social control to t!e inner demands o/ t!e incorrigi6l.o/ 0ransition.adapted itsel/ to all partial criticism coming /rom t!e socialdemocratic partiesD undermining at t!e same time t!e original socialist 3ision as a strategic alternati3e. 0!usD t!e positi3e appro3al o/ t!e o3erall /rame>or+ and command structure o/ capital 6ecame t!e a6solute premiss o/ all legitimate political discourse in t!e capitalist countriesD and >as >illingl.undermined all 6elie/ in t!e 3ia6ilit.social orderD >it! its aut!oritarian political extraction o/ surplus<la6our ">!ic! s!ould !a3e 6eenD insteadD t!e o6?ect o/ a sustained attac+# >as al>a-s retained 6.t!e >ould<6e re/ormers. 0!e ruling ideolog-<understanda6l. 0!usD on t!e one !andD t!e /ailure o/ t!e socialdemocratic strateg.mirrored capitalHs command structure in its o>n >a-D liFuidatingD toget!er >it! countless militants >!o tried to remain /ait!/ul to t!e originall.t!e re>ards >!ic! t!e ruling order could o//erD and t!e capital s-stem as suc! success/ull.anserious negation o/ t!e gi3en conditions must 6e sustaina6le >it!in it o>n /rame>or+ o/ a social >!oleD i/ it is to !a3e an!ope o/ success against t!e MLincorporatingL po>er o/ t!e potentiall.6ecame !opelessl.ruled Mout o/ courtLD >it! t!e !elp o/ t!e exorciCing pseudo<p!ilosop!ical s>ear>ord o/ M1!olismL "or o/ its se3eral eFui3alents#. .stem( 8esCaros7 4ro/essor at =ni3ersit.o/ SussexD EnglandD :@e-ond Capital: 0o>ard a 0!eor. =nderstanda6l-D t!ere/oreD t!ese t>o principal practical per3ersions o/ t!e international >or+ing class mo3ementD emanating /rom 3er./ragmented 6.identi/ied.and t!e corresponding la6our camps 6ecame 6ot! economicall.preser3ing its o3erall c!aracter as a !ierarc!ical structureD since t!e. It is al>a-s incompara6l.societ. 0!e.means o/ arti/icial states o/ emergenc.concei3edD >as precisel.6.accepted as t!e common /rame o/ re/erence 6t!e socialdemocratic7la6ourite interlocutors. .o/ SussexD EnglandD 9" Ist3an 8esCarosD 199*D 4ro/essor at =ni3ersit.a6andoning in t!e end t!e once !eld socialist aims.or 6. .s time >ent 6-D t!e socialist political ad3ersaries o/ commodit.could not contemplate restructuring t!e esta6lis!ed structure except 6.t t!e same timeD and not>it!standing its 3er6al radicalismD t!e Stalinist s-stem closel. 1! .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1! Capitalism K 1$C )ong Shell %#& &.al>a-s M!-6ridL esta6lis!ed >orld into >!ic! t!e /orces o/ a critiue >ant to ma+e an inroad. .nd on t!e ot!er !andD all e//orts at MrestructuringL t!e Stalinist s-stemD /rom K!rusc!e3Ls Mde<StaliniCationL to Gor6ac!e3Ls Mperestroi+aL<6roug!t a6out >!en running societ.enterprise o/ MrestructuringL >it!out c!anging t!e structure itsel/ as t!e em6odiment o/ t!e !ierarc!ical social di3ision o/ la6our<?ust li+e spcial democrac.MnoL t!an to dra> e3en t!e 6are outlines o/<a positi3e alternati3e to t!e negated o6?ect./rom its o>n standpoint<declared t!at M1!olismL >as t!e odeiological enem-D assured in t!e +no>ledge t!at e3en t!e s!arpest partial criticism 6ecomes Fuite impotent i/ it totaliCing /rame>or+ o/ intelligi6ilit"and potential legitimac-# is categoricall.condemned t!e So3iet s-stem to staggering /rom one crisis to anot!er. In realit-G /ar /rom 6eing co!erent and compre!ensi3e socialist negations o/ t!e esta6lis!ed orderD t!e.en3isaged Fuest /or emancipationD e3en t!e memor. .implication<6.easier to sa.to counterpose suc! a strategic o3erall alternati3e to t!e existentD and not to remed-D in an integra6le >a-D some i/ its most glaring de/ects.and politicall. 5or t!e latter could onl.o/ t!e genuine socialist o6?ecti3es.o/ t!e socialist alternati3e >it! >!ic! t!e.di//erent socio!istorical circumstancesD /ate/ull. 9nl.!ierarc!ical capital s-stem.

toD sa-D an o6?ectD a textD an e3entQ Is not t!is Xinitiati3eL mar+ed not onl. 9n t!e ot!er !andD t!ere is t!e X?udgeL as a normalisingD tec!nocratic /igureD a mere /unctionar. (a> and CritiFue 1$D 200*D pg.s7!e !as o3er t!e material under !is7!er aut!orit-Q .dorno callsD t!e Xt!ing li+e /orm o/ t!e o6?ectL.'' .t!e master.Fuestioning 6ut also ?udgment as one o/ its 6asic tropes.in3ol3e t>o >ell<+no>n Xt-pesL o/ t!e /igure o/ t!e ?udge. 0ith a possi-ilit.pd/# So /arD >e !a3e loo+ed at some o/ t!e >a-s in >!ic! t!e Fuestion o/ t!e Fuestion is 6eing re<situated in a p!ilosop!ical terrain t!at !as 6een radicall. 9n t!e one !andD t!ere is t!e X?udgeL as a so3ereign /igure >!ose capacit. 1$<21D !ttp:77>>>. attempt at sol+enc.t!e instrumentalit.on t!e 6asic XlogicL o/ ?udgement: namel-D t!e operation t!roug! >!ic! t!e particular is su6sumed "and t!us also t!oug!t and +no>n# under t!e rule o/ an alread.o/ t!e particular and /orecloses t!e possi6ilit. 0!ree gestures mar+ t!is re<t!in+ing: /irstD an a6andonment 1" .nd is not t!e role o/ critiFue t!erein precisel.constituted categor-Q'$ 1!at is interesting to note a6out t!ese ?udgemental grammars and logics organising t!e operation o/ t!e critical instanceD'% is t!at t!e su6?ecti3e /orms t!e.seen as antit!etical.t!e critical discourses associated >it! t!e deconstruction o/ su6?ecti3it. 9n t!e one !andD t!e /igure o/ t!e critic in all its dignit-D autonom.all deri3e /rom +risisD t!e Gree+ >ord /or ?udgmentG -etD in additionD and more importantl-D t!e 3er.nd does not t!e 3er.t!e distance 6et>een t!e X?udgeL and t!e X?udgedLD 6ut also 6.o/ a master/ulD rational and rationalising su6?ectQ 8oreo3erD is not t!e su6mission o/ t!e /unctionar. C!r-ssostalisD lecturer at t!e 1estminster sc!ool o/ la>D :0!e Critical Instance M./terL 0!e CritiFue o/ t!e Su6?ectD.Xre<mar+edL 6.to in3est t!e >orld >it! a meaning dra>n /rom a more pro/ound +no>ledge.t!e critiFue or deconstruction o/ ruled 6.ing the limitations implicit in the 1'C5s representations -oth undermines the sta-ilit.compensated 6.?udgmental /igures D grammars and logics.on XclassicalL con/igurations o/ su6?ecti3it-D su6?ecti3it-D a p!ilosop!ical terrain >it!out transcendental guaranteesQ 5ollo>ing >!at >as said earlier in connection >it! t!e Fuestion o/ t!e FuestionD t!e critical is also 6eing re<t!oug!t and re<>or+ed../ter allD is not t!e /igure o/ t!e 0ri6unal o/ 2eason at t!e centre o/ KantLs critical pro?ectQ%9 .o>e3erD t!e critical instance in3ol3es not onl.on t!e p!ilosop!emes t!at organise t!e XclassicalL con/iguration o/ t!e su6?ect: rationalit-D master-D sel/<presenceD identit-D consciousnessD intentionalit-D autonom-D t!e radical di//erence 6et>een su6?ect and o6?ect.o/ t!in+ing somet!ing ne>Q'9 0o return to our initial FuestionD i/ t!e critical instance is >!at !appens to t!e critical >!en reinscri6ed and re<situated in a p!ilosop!ical terrain >!ic! !as 6een Xre<mar+edL 6.springerlin+. o/ success( Chr. .deplo.and so3ereignt-G on t!e ot!erD t!e /igure o/ t!e critic inD >!at .operation o/ t!e critical instance seems dominated 6.6e !opedLQ'0 8oreo3erD /rom t!e Enlig!tenment on>ardsD is not t!e critical practised Xin t!e searc! /or /ormal structures >it! uni3ersal 3alueL'1 t!at >ould /irml.implicated in t!e semantic econom.esta6lis!ed categoriesD in3ol3e a tec!niFueD >!ic! assimilates and neutralises t!e singularit. ena-ling alternati+e +isions o/ politics and social relations to appear( Challenging the a//irmati+e5s assumptions is the onl.com7content7+)n2$t%&tu$&)1*?7/ulltext.nd does not t!e critical instanceD in t!is respectD necessaril.6.ground our +no>ledgeD actionD and aspirationsD and pro3ide t!e criteria /or t!e e3aluation o/ all claims to aut!orit-Q'2 . .turn around a XFuaestio ?urisD t!e ?uridical FuestionD Y>!ic! as+s\ >it! >!at rig!t one possesses t!is concept and uses itLQ'& 5inall-D does not t!e critical moment itsel/ – >!et!er /ound operating in terms o/ /ault</inding "epi<+risis#D') o/ dra>ing distinctions "dia<+risis#D'* or o/ dra>ing comparisons "s-n<+risis# – seem al>a-s to rel.to pass ?udgements on our recei3ed >isdomD dra> distinctions in t!e /ield o/ our +no>ledgeD and set t!e limits o/ >!at can 6e +no>nD means t!e capacit.t!oug!t. 5or does not critical ?udgement in3ol3e in t!is instance an operation o/ t!in+ingD >!ere an alread.o>e3erD >!at s!ould not 6e missed is !o> muc! 6ot! rel.o>Q 0o 6egin >it!D ?udgment is /ound intimatel. 0!ese t>o Xt-pesL can 6e easil.?udgemental grammars and logicsD >!ic! in turn rel.o/ t!e criteriaD >!ic! regulate and organise t!e conceptual gestures o/ our t!oug!t and +no>ledge.esta6lis!ed categor. o/ static epistemological claims and opens the terrain /or a trans/ormati+e sel/Crelationship7 there-.in 5renc! contemporar.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1" Capitalism K 1$C )ong Shell %3& !( Drame0or* C @e -elie+e the ?uestion in this de-ate should -e one o/ competing political strategies( :he per/ormance o/ critici.%' ./orm o/ su6sumptionD >it! its reliance on alread.ssostalis7 principal lecturer at 1estminster sc!ool o/ (a>D 0" "Pulia .gi3en su6?ect ta+es t!e initiati3e o/ appl-ing an alread.o/ t!e critical: critiFueD criticismD criterionD criticG t!e.Xt!at o/ de/ining t!e conditions under >!ic! t!e use o/ reason is legitimate in order to determine >!at can 6e +no>n YconnaZ[tre\D >!at must 6e doneD and >!at ma.

L101 >e are assigned – t!at somet!ing else is possi6leD 6ut not t!at 1# . .!ere t!at an et!ics o/ t!e encounter >it! t!e limit is located in t!at suc! an encounter is a momentD >!ic! oug!t to 6e ac+no>ledged rat!er t!an co3ered o3er 6. . (et us mo3e >it! cautionD t!oug!.Fuic+l.L9) In ot!er >ordsD t!e critical instance ret!oug!t in terms o/ t!e limit as Fuestion does not merel. It is a moment >!ic! s!ould not 6e /oreclosed or assimilated: 5or at sta+e in t!is encounter >it! t!e limitD Xis a matter o/ s!o>ing !o> t!e space o/ t!e possi6le is larger t!an t!e one it is precisel.limitationD as in t!e Kantian critical pro?ectD 6ut as a point o/ Xa possi6le crossing o3erL.in3ol3e a negati3e moment o/ transgression.anot!er meaning o/ t!e Gree+ >ord +risisD into t!e criticalD >!ic! is t!us re<connected >it! t!e notion o/ negati3it. 5or at t!e point o/ t!is >or+ on t!e limits "o/ oursel3es#D t!e et!ico<political promise7possi6ilit. 9ne as+s a6out t!e limits o/ +no>ing 6ecause one !as alread.in t!e ontological sense.100 .o/ trans/ormation opens up – >!ic! is also >!-D at t!is pointD t!e critical instanceD /or 5oucaultD 6ecomes intimatel.9$ 1!ic! is to sa.– negati3it. 0!enD t!oug!D !e continues: @ut i/ t!e Kantian Fuestion >as t!at o/ +no>ing Ysa3oir\ >!at limits +no>ledge Yconnaissance\ must renounce exceedingD it seems to me t!at t!e critical Fuestion toda.must 6e turned 6ac+ into a positi3e one: In >!at is gi3en to us as uni3ersalD necessar-D o6ligator-D >!at place is 0!e point in 6rie/ is to trans/orm t!e critiFue conducted in t!e /orm o/ necessar.92 In ot!er >ordsD 5oucaultLs re<>or+ing o/ t!e critical in3ol3es a notion o/ t!e limit not as necessar.9* (et us no> turn to t!e last gesture in3ol3ed in t!e re<t!in+ing o/ t!e critical: namel-D t!e displacement o/ ?udgemental logics and t!e emergence o/ an et!ics o/ encounter – t!at is to sa-D an encounter >it! one does not dri3e to t!e limits /or a t!rill experienceD or 6ecause limits are dangerous and sex.constraintsQ Fuestion o/ t!e limits o/ our +no>ledgeD or Xs!o>ing t!e limits o/ t!e constitution o/ o6?ecti3it-LD9& in3ol3es also a dimension o/ opening upD o/ trans/ormation and 6ecoming.locating !imsel/ >it!in t!e 6asic parameters o/ t!e Kantian /ormulation o/ t!e critical.D or 6ecause it 6rings us into tintillating proximit.nd it is precisel.s suc!D t!is negati3it. 0!is is a point >!ereD to 6egin >it!D 5oucault a//irms t!at XYc\riticism indeed consists o/ anal-Cing and re/lecting upon limitsLD t!us seemingl.inscri6ing a lac+ in our dislocated positi3itiesD it /uels t!e desire /or ne> social and political constructions.and unrepresenta6ilit-D >!ic! punctuates t!e li/e o/ linguistic creaturesLD9% and at t!e same time a producti3e one: XY6\. 0!e categories 6.Xpatc!ing t!e crac+sL o/ our uni3erse.s suc! t!e t-pe o/ X>or+ done at t!e limits o/ oursel3es mustLD according to 5oucaultD Xon t!e one !andD open up a realm o/ !istorical inFuir-D and on t!e ot!erD put itsel/ to t!e test o/ realit-D o/ contemporar. 9ne o/ t!e clearest statements o/ >!at is at sta+e in t!e re<casting o/ t!e critical in terms o/ t!e Fuestion o/ t!e limitD t!e limit as a FuestionD is to 6e /ound in 5oucaultLs t>o essa-sD X1!at Is CritiFueQL 90 and X1!at is Enlig!tenmentQL91 1it!out going into t!e detail o/ t!e argument de3eloped t!ereD I >ant to /ocus at a point in t!e Enlig!tenment essa-D >!ic! I t!in+ is crucial.consider >!at is in3ol3ed in t!e last t>o gestures. Suc! a recognition is important !ere 6ecause it reinscri6es crisisD >!ic! is actuall.is Xneit!er an o6?ect nor its negation: it is t!e condition o/ possi6ilit-7 impossi6ilito/ o6?ectsLD99 o/ o6?ecti3it.!ereD at t!e moment >!en t!e site o/ t!e pre<t!etic and t!e pre<?udicati3e is glimpsedD t!at t!e t!rust and t!e promise o/ a re<mar+edL critical instance is to 6e /ound.t!at t!e critical instanceD as t!e exposure o/ t!e Xlimits o/ t!e constitution o/ o6?ecti3it-LD also in3ol3es t!e experience o/ t!e dislocation o/ our sedimented positi3itiesD in ot!er >ordsD t!e experience o/ crisis.realit-D 6ot! to grasp t!e points >!ere c!ange is possi6le and desira6leD and to determine t!e precise /orm t!is c!ange s!ould ta+e .run up against a crisis >it!in t!e epistemological /ield in >!ic! one li3es. 0o 6egin >it!D it is important to understand t!at impossi6ilit.>!ic! social li/e is ordered produce a certain inco!erence or entire realm o/ unspea+a6ilit-.>it! e3il.L9' .e3er-t!ing is possi6le.more generall-D indeed o/ all trans/ormati3e action.limitation into a practical critiFue t!at ta+es t!e /orm o/ a possi6le crossing o3er Y/ranc!issment\.nd it is /rom t!is conditionD t!e tear in t!e /a6ric o/ our epistemological /ieldD t!at t!e practice o/ critiFue emergesD >it! t!e a>areness t!at no discourse is adeFuate !ere or t!at our reigning discourses !a3e produced an impasse.>!ate3er is singularD contingentD and t!e product o/ ar6itrar. 5or posing t!e occupied 6.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1# Capitalism K 1$C )ong Shell %2& YC!r-ssostalis 0* continued – no text remo3ed\ o/ ?udgemental grammars and logics G secondD a re<casting o/ t!e critical in terms o/ t!e Fuestion o/ t!e limitG and t!irdD t!e emergence o/ an et!ic o/ encounter ">it! t!e limit #.lin+ed >it! 3irtue. (et us 6rie/l. 0!is negati3it-D as Sta3ra+a+is notesD !as 6ot! a disrupti3e dimension t!at Xre/ers to t!e !oriCon o/ t!e Fuestion o/ t!e limit.

sane person imagineD no matter !o> >ell armored 6.o/ reasons t!ere can 6e no Fuestion a6out t!e importance o/ gro>t! 6ot! in t!e present and in t!e /uture.S.sustaina6le in t!e /uture on a long<term 6asis.contingencies. .pac+aged in t!e !-pocritical concern o3er Jt!e 4redicament o/ 8an+ind.J .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 13 )in* – 1egemon.ccordingl-D t!e =nited States must gra6 to itsel/D 6.ungarian 8arxist p!ilosop!er and 4ro/essor Emeritus at =.solution pu6licl.o/ /reeCing production at t!e le3el attained in t!e earl.nd e3en in t!e 19&0s .>aste/ul and e3en crippling capitalist gro>t! 3isi6le all around usQ 5or gro>t! must 6e also positi3el. %1& AS hegemon.e3en /or a moment t!e panacea o/ Jno gro>t!JQ 9nl. 0!e tendentiousl.in t!e /uture.nd t!e result: t!e diametrical oppositeD in t!e /orm o/ astronomical and still gro>ing inde6tedness. =. 0!e /antas. 0!e pro6lems are muc! deeper. dominated glo6al !egemonic imperialism >ould ta+e seriousl.S.proclaimed 6se3eral =. Could t!en an. 13 .o/ imperialism >asD o/ courseD 3erdi//erent /rom its earlier /orm +no>n to (enin. .org70)0%mesCaros.on account o/ political7militar.domination o/ t!e =nited States << /rom e3er->!ere in t!e >orld. @ut to sa.as >e +no> it up to t!e presentD 6ut also as >e can en3isage its sustaina6ilit.contrastD >e !a3e to /ace up to t!e realit. 0!at 3ariet.mont!l-re3ie>. In our timeD 6.rede/ined imperialism >it! Papan and 8ussoliniHs Ital-. dominated post>ar imperialism. SussexD 3 "4ro/essor Emeritus"Ist3an 8esCarosD .J>illing alliesDJ no> t!roug! a succession o/ genocidal >ars.assert t!emsel3es t!roug! t!e e3er<aggra3ating contradictions o/ t!e capital s-stemHs deepening structural crisis.itler >as still >illing to s!are t!e /ruits o/ 3iolentl.itlerD t!e =nited States as t!e single !egemon is Fuite un>illing to s!are glo6al domination >it! an.!tm# 0!e Fuixotic ad3ocac. 8ont!l. 9ur siding >it! t!e need /or gro>t! cannot 6e in /a3or o/ unqualified growth.2e3ie>D !ttp:77>>>.19%0s >as tr-ing to camou/lageD >it! 3acuous pseudo<scienti/ic model<mongering pioneered at t!e 8assac!usetts Institute o/ 0ec!nolog-D t!e rut!lesslen/orced actual po>er relations o/ =.!is or !er callous contempt /or Jt!e s!i66olet! o/ eFualit-DJ t!at =.anmeans at its disposalD including t!e most 3iolent militar. 5or in (eninHs li/etime at least !al/ a doCen signi/icant imperialist po>ers >ere competing /or t!e re>ards o/ t!eir real and7or !oped /or conFuests.Aia6le Econom-D.a3oided real Fuestion is: >!at +ind o/ gro>t! is 6ot! /easi6le toda-D in contrast to dangerousl./utile << attempt to de3ise a solution to t!at crisis t!roug! t!e most 6rutal and 3iolent rule o3er t!e rest o/ t!e >orldD en/orced >it! or >it!out t!e !elp o/ sla3is!l.arosD pro/ E =. Sussex.nd t!at is not simpl.J 5or a 3ariet. :0!e 9nl.dominant po>er .aggressionD >!ene3er reFuired /or t!is purposeD e3er-t!ing it canD t!roug! t!e trans/er o/ t!e /ruits o/ capitalist gro>t! << t!an+s to t!e glo6al socioeconomic and political7militar.S.S. is a tool to sustain capitalist gro0th through endless genocidal 0ars 6es. .t!e >orst +ind o/ 6ad /ait! could suggest suc! ideasD no matter !o> pretentiousl.ri3al.so must go >it! a proper examination o/ t!e concept o/ gro>t! not onl.<< and t!e let!al dangers << arising /rom glo6al !egemonic imperialismD >it! t!e =nited States as its o3er>!elmingl. presidents >as Jto gro> out o/ it. dominated glo6al !egemonic imperialism is an << ultimatel. 0!e. E3er since t!e 19%0s t!e =nited States !as 6een sin+ing e3er deeper into catastrop!ic inde6tedness.% In contrast to e3en .

1it!in suc! a 3ision o/ t!e !egemonic alternati3e to capitalHs social reproducti3e order t!ere can 6e no room at all /or an-t!ing li+e Jt!e stationar.!tm# 0!e nig!tmare o/ t!e Jstationar. ConseFuentl-D consciousl.itsel/ can 6e ele3ated to a Fualitati3el.!uman need and diametricall.in control. /or sustaina-le gro0th 6es. to each according to his needs!1* 0!ese are t!e overall targets o/ socialist trans/ormationD pro3iding t!e compass o/ t!e ?ourne.org70)0%mesCaros.exercising t!e /ull resources o/ t!eir disposa6le time. %2& :he onl. and all t!e springs o/ co-operative wealth /lo> more a6undantl.stateJ remains a nig!tmare e3en i/ one tries to alle3iate itD as Po!n Stuart 8ill proposedD t!roug! t!e illusor. 5or >it!out t!atD t!e socialist aim o/ turning >or+ into Jli/eHs prime >antJ is inconcei3a6le.and simultaneouslalso t!e measure o/ t!e ac!ie3ements accomplis!ed "or /ailed to 6e accomplis!ed# on t!e >a-. solution to capitalist hegemon.managed in t!e alternati3e social meta6olic /rame>or+. is socialist hegemon. 0!e socialist !egemonic alternati3e to t!e rule o/ capital reFuires /undamentall. 0a.remed.danger o/ uncontrolla6le >asteD 6ringing /ort! genuine << and not narro>l.stateDJ nor /or an.2e3ie>D !ttp:77>>>. di//erent( Enl.ungarian 8arxist p!ilosop!er and 4ro/essor Emeritus at =.Aia6le Econom-D.t!e 3ital importance o/ gro>t! o/ a sustaina6le +ind can 6e recogniCed and success/ull.arosD pro/ E =. >it!in t!e /rame>or+ o/ t!e ne> social meta6olic control oriented to>ard t!e production o/ "co-operative wealthDJ is meant to pro3ide t!e 6asis o/ a Fualitati3el.opposed to /etis!istic Fuanti/ication and to t!e concomitant una3oida6le >aste. 8ont!l.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 12 )in* – 1egemon.and societ. SussexD 3 "4ro/essor Emeritus"Ist3an 8esCarosD .o/ t!e /alse alternati3es associated >it! or deri3ed /rom it.pro/it<oriented material << wealth o/ >!ic! t!e Jric! social indi3idualsJ "8arx#D as autonomous !istorical su6?ects "and ric! precisel. 0!is is >!. 12 .a means o/ li/e 6ut li/eHs prime >ant.inscri6e on its 6anners: From each according to his ability.!ig!er le3elD >it!out an.mont!l-re3ie>.capital as t!e usurper o/ t!e role o/ t!e controlling !istorical su6?ect << must 3anis! /or good.o3ercoming t!e truncated dialectic in t!e 3ital interrelations!ip o/ productionD distri6utionD and consumption. Sussex. a/ter t!e producti3e /orces !a3e also increased >it! t!e all-round development of the individual.t!en can t!e narro> !oriCon o/ 6ourgeois rig!t 6e crossed in its entiret.C 0here our relationship to production is ?ualitati+el. 0!ere can 6e no suc! t!ing as J6etter distri6utionJ >it!out a radical restructuring o/ t!e production process itsel/.di//erent accountanc-: t!e necessar. 0o Fuote 8arx: In a !ig!er p!ase o/ communist societ-D a/ter t!e ensla3ing su6ordination o/ t!e indi3idual to t!e di3ision o/ la6ourD and t!ere>it! also t!e antit!esis 6et>een mental and p!-sical la6ourD !as 3anis!edG a/ter la6our !as 6ecome not onl.o/ J6etter distri6utionJ ta+en in isolation.pursued producti3it. Suc! an alternati3e order o/ social meta6olic control >ould 6e one >!ere t!e antit!esis 6et>een mental and p!-sical la6or << al>a-s 3ital /or maintaining t!e a6solute domination o3er la6or 6.J 0!e all<round de3elopment o/ t!e indi3idualsDJ consciousl.socialist accountanc-D de/ined 6. :0!e 9nl.in t!at sense# are /ull.<< onl.

19 .t!e !elping !and o/ 0radition or ature < toda-Hs su6?ect is per!aps more t!an e3er caug!t in an inexora6le compulsion t!at e//ecti3el. 0!at is to sa-: i/ t!e pro6lem >it! toda-Hs post<politics "Hadministration o/ social a//airsH# is t!at it increasingl. #D all t!is incessant acti3it..Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 19 )in* – K '//: ': :urn :he a//5s attempts to re/ormulate politics /ail to address the root cause o/ capitalism( Fi./unctions "t!e need to cut social >el/areD etc .rig!tsD ecolog-D et!nic minorities . In s!ortD t!e onl.and re/lexi3it-D on >!at ser3es as t!e 3er.remains operati3e >!en all t!e traditional em6odiments o/ t!e s-m6olic 6ig 9t!er disintegrateD 6ut e3en directl.t!e econom.t!at cannot 6e alle3iated 6.o/ a proper political act7 t!is undermining is directl.toda-Hs post<politics cannot attain t!e properl.runs !is li/e. 1e can no> see >!.due to t!e depoliticiCation o/ economicsD to t!e common acceptance o/ Capital and mar+et mec!anisms as neutral tools7 procedures to 6e exploited./rom politiciCation ( 0!e domain o/ glo6al capitalist mar+et relations is t!e 9t!er Scene o/ t!e so<called repoliticiCation o/ ci3il societ.encroac!ing upon t!e le3el at >!ic! long<term decisions t!at a//ect us all are made.e//ecti3el.long<term decisions >ould ensue /rom pu6lic de6ate in3ol3ing all concerned is some +ind o/ radical limitation o/ CapitalHs /reedomD t!e su6ordination o/ t!e process o/ production to social control < t!e radical repoliticiCation o/ t!e econom-H.>a.&* SoD instead o/ cele6rating t!e ne> /reedoms and responsi6ilities 6roug!t a6out 6.resem6les t!e o6sessional neurotic >!o tal+s all t!e time and is ot!er>ise /ranticallacti3e precisel.undermines t!e possi6ilit.precludes t!e sp!ere o/ econom.to 6ring a6out a societ.political dimension o/ uni3ersalit-: 6ecause it silentl. 0!e spectral presence o/ Capital is t!e /igure o/ t!e 6ig 9t!er >!ic! not onl.t!e partisans o/ HidentitpoliticsH and ot!er postmodern /orms o/ politiciCation: all t!e tal+ a6out ne> /orms o/ politics 6ursting out all o3erD /ocused on particular issues "ga. .ad3ocated 6.in order to ensure t!at somet!ing < >!at reall.# is accepted as a simple insig!t into t!e o6?ecti3e state o/ t!ings .motor o/ t!is /luidit-: t!e inexora6le logic o/ Capital.matters < >ill not 6e distur6edD t!at it >ill remain immo6iliCed.t!e Hsecond modernit-HD it is muc! more crucial to /ocus on >!at remains t!e same in t!is glo6al /luidit.causes t!is disintegration: /ar /rom 6eing con/ronted >it! t!e a6-ss o/ t!eir /reedom < t!at isD laden >it! t!e 6urden o/ responsi6ilit..e* 99 "Sla3o? BiCe+D 0!e 0ic+lis! Su6?ect pp &)&<))# 0!e 6ig ne>s o/ toda-Hs post<political age o/ t!e Hend o/ ideolog-H is t!us t!e radical HdepoliticiCation o/ t!e sp!ere o/ t!e econom-: t!e >a.o/ /luidD s!i/ting identitiesD o/ 6uilding multiple ad !oc coalitionsD and so onD !as somet!ing inaut!entic a6out itD and ultimatel.in >!ic! ris+.o>e3erD as long as t!is /undamental depoliticiCation o/ t!e economic sp!ere is acceptedD all t!e tal+ a6out acti3e citiCens!ipD a6out pu6lic discussion leading to responsi6le collecti3e decisionsD and so onD >ill remain limited to t!e HculturalH issues o/ religiousD sexualD et!nic and ot!er >a-<o/<li/e di//erencesD >it!out actuall.

2ecall a /rig!tening detail /rom t!e Cu6an missile crisis: onl.as a ne> 9pium /or t!e masses.6e concei3ed Jnot onl. 0>o o/ t!em said -es and t!e ot!er said no.J 0!is is >!-D >!en con/ronted >it! singular catastrop!ic prospects "sa-D a political group >!ic! intends to attac+ its enem.com7CiCecolog-1.named .distur6ing its run 6.as Su6stanceD 6ut also as Su6?ect.o/ capitalism >!ic! D in t!e case o/ an acute ecological catastrop!e or crisisD can easil.>ill go on.>or+s in precise social conditions: it implies t!e trust into t!e o6?ecti3iCed7Jrei/iedJ mec!anism o/ t!e mar+etHs Jin3isi6le !andJ >!ic!D as a +ind o/ Cunning o/ 2easonD guarantees t!at t!e competition o/ indi3idual egotisms >or+s /or t!e common good. to thin* outside the s.is t!e un!eard<o/ possi6ilit.>it! nuclear or 6iological >eapons#D >e no longer can rel.on t!e standard logic o/ t!e JCunning o/ 2easonJ >!ic!D precisel-D presupposes t!e primac.precludes a mar+et solution < >!-Q Capitalism onl. 0!e o//icers 6egan a /ierceD s!outing de6ate o3er >!et!er to sin+ t!e s!ip.>a.SpearsD :censorsip toda-: Aiolence or Ecolog.can alter and e3en interrupt t!e glo6al !istorical processD so t!atD ironicall-D it is onl.lacan.to /orce it to sur/aceD not +no>ing it !ad a nuclear<tipped torpedo. J.later did >e learn !o> close to nuclear >ar >e >ere during a na3al s+irmis! 6et>een an . 20 . 5or t!e /irst time in !uman !istor-D t!e act o/ a single socio<political agent e//ecti3el. .merican destro-er and a So3iet @<*9 su6marine o// Cu6a on 9cto6er 2% 19$2. 1!at looms on t!e !oriCon toda.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 20 )in* – K '//s Capitalism structures our dail.dominatedD o3erdeterminedD 6.>!o t!reatens us deplo.on t!e sa/eguarding role o/ t!e limited scope o/ our acts: it no longer !olds t!atD >!ate3er >e doD !istor. 200' !ttp:77>>>. gu.r+!ipo3 sa3ed t!e >orldDJ >as a 6itter comment o/ a !istorian on t!is accident.t!at a su6?ecti3e inter3ention >ill inter3ene directl.into t!e !istorical Su6stanceD catastrop!icall.o/ t!e !istorical Su6stance o3er acting su6?ects: >e no longer can adopt t!e stance o/ Jlet t!e enem. li/e and 0hat actions 0e can ta*e( :his /orecloses our a-ilit.its potentials and t!ere6sel/<destruct !imsel/J < t!e price /or letting t!e !istorical 2eason do its >or+ is too !ig! sinceD in t!e meantimeD >e maall peris! toget!er >it! t!e enem-. 0!e destro-er dropped dept! c!arges near t!e su6marine to tr. 0ill no>D !istorical Su6stance pla-ed its role as t!e medium and /oundation o/ all su6?ecti3e inter3entions: >!ate3er social and political su6?ects didD it >as mediated and ultimatel.o>e3erD >e are in t!e midst o/ a radical c!ange .stem( E+en ad+ocacies that seem radical 0ill -e coCopted -ac* into the s. o longer can >e rel.e* 02 "Sla3o? BiCe+ pro/ p!il7sociolog-7ps-c!e E European grad institute and t!e de6ate communit-Ls o>n @ritne.nature o/ t!e ris+ in3ol3ed /undamentall. Aadim 9rlo3D a mem6er o/ t!e su6marine cre>D told t!e con/erence in .into a ne> /ield o/ capitalist in3estment and competitionD t!e 3er.t!e !istorical Su6stance.todat!at >e can sa.!tm# In spite o/ t!e in/inite adapta6ilit.t!at t!e !istorical process s!ould e//ecti3el.stem Fi.a3ana t!at t!e su6marine >as aut!oriCed to /ire it i/ t!ree o//icers agreed.turn ecolog.o/ triggering an ecological catastrop!eD a /ate/ul 6iogenetic mutationD a nuclear or similar militar-< social catastrop!eD etc.

at t!e =ni3ersit. @ut t!is does not ex!aust its /unctionsD /or t!e population also contains indi3iduals t!at are not part o/ t!e >or+/orce. 19%9. . C!ildren /orm t!e >or+/orce o/ t!e next generation and t!is is one reason /or t!e gro>t! o/ state inter3ention in t!is process. o/ Social 4olic.o/ @at!.o/ contemporarcapitalism t!eir producti3e capacities must 6e adapted to c!anging reFuirementsD suc! as t!e c!anging di3ision o/ la6our "see C!apter 2#. 21 . :0!e 4olitical Econom. .are speci/icall.mong t!e social ser3ices D educationD social >or+ and manpo>er programmes are per!aps most speci/icall. :0!e 4olitical Econom.are completel.o/ /amilies t!at at an.or t!e >el/are acti3ities o/ t!e modern stateQ 5or t!e purposes o/ t!is >or+ >e s!all c!aracterise t!e >el/are state as t!e use o/ state po>er to modi/./orms o/ >el/are pro3ision in contemporar. 1or+ in modern capitalist societ.dail. 19%9.ot!er agenciesD suc! as occupational >el/are pro3isionD inso/ar as t!e. So t!e reproduction o/ la6our po>er also in3ol3es a Fualitati3e element<speci/ic patterns o/ socialisationD 6e!a3iourD speci/ic capacities and personalit.directed at t!e minorit.6e determined 6. . .t!e pre3ailing mode o/ production.ere t!e /amil.o/ @at!D 39 Ian Goug! 4ro/. 5urt!ermoreD t!e reproduction o/ la6our po>er clearl.>el/are state modi/ies t!e reproduction o/ la6our po>er >it!in capitalism./or t!e pu6lic domain to encroac! on t!e pri3ateD and t!ere must 6e /e> occupationalD c!arita6le or 3oluntar.@ritainD sa-D t!at are /inanciall. 0!e second arm o/ t!e >el/are state ser3es to maintain non<>or+ing groups in societ-.structures.reproduction 6ut generational reproductionG t!at isD t!e rearing and socialisation o/ c!ildren.capitalist societ-. 0!e ma?or means a3aila6le to t!e state >ere discussed in C!apter *: t!e direct pro3ision o/ 6ene/its and ser3icesD t!e parallel use o/ t!e taxation s-stemD and state regulation o3er t!e pri3ate acti3ities o/ indi3iduals and corporate 6odies. 0!e t-pe o/ la6our po>er reFuired in t!e 19%0s di//ers /rom t!at reFuired in t!e 1'%0s.to 6ring up c!ildren and man. In all t!ese >a-s t!e contemporar.ll societies contain groups t!at are una6le to >or+ /or t!eir li3ing "aside /rom t!ose >!oD in class societiesD do not need to#: c!ildrenD t!e elderl-D t!e sic+ and disa6ledD t!e mentall.>ill predominantl. In t!e rapidl.c!anging societ. o/ Social 4olic.o/ t!e 1el/are State.o/ @at!.allo>ances and insurance 6ene/its o/ 3arious +indsD !ousing policies and !ealt! ser3ices are per!aps more concerned >it! t!e Fuantitati3e aspects.o/ t!e /amil. .!andicapped and so /ort!. 9/ course t!e 6oundaries 6et>een >or+ing and non<>or+ing groups are not /ixedG t!e.in3ol3es not onl. 0!e >el/are state or social polic.does not !ere re/er to 6ene/its >it! similar c!aracteristics t!at are pro3ided 6.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 21 )in* – @el/are %1& @el/are manipulates the 0or*/orce to /urther capitalism GoughD pro/ E =ni3ersit. /or the /unctioning o/ capitalism( GoughD pro/ E =ni3ersit.gi3en time are doing so: not onleducationD 6ut speci/ic !ealt! ser3ices /or exampleG and >it!in maintenance and !ousing policies special regard is gi3en to t!ose /amilies >it! c!ildren.reFuires certain +inds o/ a6ilitiesD moti3ationD sel/<discipline and so /ort!.controls t!e le3elD distri6ution and pattern o/ consumption in contemporar.independent o/ state control. 8acmillan 4ress (0D 1!at t!en are t!e de/ining /eatures o/ social polic.t!e >el/are state.o/ @at!D 39 Ian Goug! 4ro/. 8acmillan 4ress (0D In all t!ese >a-s t!e >el/are state increasingl.directed to t!is end.and t!e la6our o/ !ouse>i3es is still all<importantD 6ut again it is increasinglaugmented and regulated 6.at t!e =ni3ersit.lmost all social policies !a3e a 6earing on t!e capacit.t!e state.o>e3erD as >e noted in C!apter 1 t!ere !as 6een a continual tendenc. 5amil. "0!ese matters are /urt!er de3eloped in C!apter $.o/ t!e 1el/are State.t!e reproduction o/ la6our po>er and to maintain t!e non<>or+ing population in capitalist societies. 0!e s!arp 6oundaries separating >or+ing li/e /rom c!ild!ood on t!e one side and old<age retirement on t!e ot!er are in /act speci/ic to capitalism.# @ut t!e role o/ t!e state in t!e reproduction o/ la6our po>er extends 6e-ond t!ese Fuantitati3e aspects. 0!e remainder o/ t!is section ela6orates t!is approac!.independent o/ and totallunregulated 6. Social ser+ices are necessar.

a +e. 0!e >el/are state is t!e institutional response >it!in ad3anced capitalist countries to t!ese t>o reFuirements o/ all !uman societies. 4ensions and ot!er social<securit.o/ @at!.6odies in t!e more recent past.at t!e =ni3ersit.ot!er non<>or+ing groups are still potentiall.H I @ut t!is is increasingl.o/ state measuresD and t!is constitutes t!e second ma?or area o/ acti3it.o/ @at!D 39 Ian Goug! 4ro/.s >e !a3e notedD t!e /amil. Secondl-D man. .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 22 )in* – @el/are %2& @el/are is a tool to manage la-or( GoughD pro/ E =ni3ersit.o/ la6ourD !ence t!eir maintenance can also 6e included under t!e !eading o/ la6our po>er reproduction.o>e3erD it is /ar /rom 6eing t!e onl.a 3ariet.gainD /amil. .t!e responsi6ilit.o/ !ealt! and >el/are ser3ices pro3ide numerous /orms o/ support in +ind /or t!e elderlor t!e sic+D graduall. o/ Social 4olic.social institution to per/orm t!is role. In 8arxist terms t!ese groups constitute t!e reser3e arm. . 19%9. In /act t!is second role o/ t!e >el/are state cannot 6e s!arpl. :0!e 4olitical Econom.!edged around 6inter3ention /rom t!e state#.o/ toda-Hs >el/are state.in t!e pastD and o/ c!arita6le and 3oluntar.ere t!e process o/ t!eir maintenance 6ecomes /used >it! t!at o/ reproducing /uture la6our po>er. .part o/ t!e >or+/orceD t!e >or+ing<age sic+ or unemplo-ed /or exampleD so t!at t!e /orm o/ trans/er reFuired is rat!er di//erent to t!at /orD sa-D t!e c!ronicall.6eing supplanted or regulated 6. 8acmillan 4ress (0D e3ert!elessD i/ >e accept t!at all societies contain non<>or+ing indi3idualsD it /ollo>s t!at all societies must de3elop mec!anisms /or trans/erring part o/ t!e social product /rom t!e direct producers to t!ese groups. .t!econtinue to do soD 6e-ond as >ell as >it!in t!e nuclear /amil-.distinguis!ed /rom t!e /irstD /or se3eral reasons.sic+.a partD and a /e> >ords are reFuired on t!e interrelations!ip 6et>een t!e capitalist mode o/ productionD t!e /amil. 3ariet.usurping t!e role o/ +ins!ip and communit.role in t!is trans/er in all societies and e3en toda.and +ins!ip structures pla.HH 22 .t!e trans/er o/ resources to t!is particular dependent group is still 6asicall.o/ indi3idual /amilies "t!oug! increasingl. 8oreo3erD in present<da. 8ost important is t!e /act t!at c!ildren are an unproducti3e group 6ut one >!ic! /orm t!e /uture >or+ing population.o/ t!e 1el/are State. e3ert!eless t!e t>o 6asic acti3ities o/ t!e >el/are state correspond to t>o 6asic acti3ities in all !uman societies: t!e reproduction o/ t!e >or+ing population and t!e maintenance o/ t!e non<>or+ing population.capitalist societ.6ene/its are o/ gro>ing importance in trans/erring purc!asing po>er to t!ese groups D alongside personal and occupational pro3ision 3ia insurance and superannuation sc!emes.and >ider +ins!ip structures continue to pla.and t!e >el/are state.

) 5or se3eral decadesD =. .S. Sc!ramD teac!es social t!eor.. It !as gi3en 6irt! to a J1or+ 5irstJ >el/are re/orm regime t!at puts in place a series o/ Jget<toug!J policies designed to reduce t!e pro6lem o/ >el/are dependenc-.c!ampionedO in t!e =nited States.ation discourse through discussions o/ economic competition – this is inherent in discussion o/ 0el/are re/orm SchramD pro/ E @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 0# San/ord 5. 0!e 199$ la> ended >el/are as an entitlementG imposed time limitsD >or+ reFuirementsD and ot!er puniti3e policiesG and e3entuall. 5 "0emporar. 2 .>a.& InsteadD toda-D a more Fuestiona6le one<sided trut! is ascendant: t!e monolit!ic discourse o/ glo6aliCation t!at !as come to dominate political de6ate all o3er t!e >orld 6ut especiall.% 0!e need to attac+ >el/are dependenc.o/ /raming social >el/are polic.and 1or+ 9pportunit2econciliation .and consistentldrenc!ing us in a /ear o/ t!e coming glo6al economic competition and our resultant need to attac+ t!e alleged pro6lem o/ J>el/are dependenc-J and to retrenc! t!e >el/are state.deli6erations Jglo6aliCation discourse . politics !as dro>ned in a torrent o/ glo6aliCation tal+D incessantl.% percent.>!ere I argue it >as originall.5amilies# /ell /rom 1&D2)2D000 in 199* to *D&&)D000 in 2002Oa decline o/ *9.as t!e mid< 19%0sD glo6aliCation discourse 6egan !elping to create t!e pretext /or t!e =.replaced t!e >el/are poor >it! t!e >or+ing poorD e3en t!oug! mano/ t!e >el/are poor >ere >or+ing 6e/ore >el/are re/orm and man.$ 0!e emerging ideolog.s a resultD t!e num6er o/ recipients recei3ing >!at is no> called 0.represented in t!e e3entual passage o/ t!e 4ersonal 2esponsi6ilit.!a3e 6een getting.ct o/ 199$.J 8.represented in a >orld>ide proletariat >!ose actionsD as a class :in<itsel/J acting J/or< itsel/DJ >ere to ser3e as t!e 6asis /or uni3ersal emancipationD according to (eninD as BiCe+ reminds usD andD >e s!ould addD according to 8arx 6e/ore !im.and social polic.6.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2 )in* – @el/are .most aggressi3el.10 .nd >!ile >el/are re/orm !as 6een >idel- declared a successD it !as largel.o/ t!e >or+] ing poor need more social >el/are assistance t!an t!e.ssistance /or eed. >el/are state retrenc!ment.' 0!at retrenc!ment >as most signi/icantl.o/ >el/are retrenc!ment 6ecame a popular corollar.resulted in massi3e declines in t!e num6ers o/ >el/are recipients as gro>ing num6ers o/ t!em ended up in lo><>age ?o6s t!at +ept t!em in po3ert-.in t!is argument.t!en >as >!at came to 6e re/erred to as Jneoli6eralismDJ >!ic! c!ampioned t!e idea o/ /reeing local mar+ets /rom nation<state regulation to pursue greater opportunities /or economic gro>t! glo6all-.argument is t!at starting as earl.e/orm AS politics has -ecome entrenched in glo-ali. I call t!is >a.in t!e Graduate Sc!ool o/ Social 1or+ and Social 2esearc! at @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 200$ C!apter 9neG in 1el/are Discipline: DiscourseD Go3ernanceD and Glo6aliCation 4g 2 par 2 – pg& par 1 0oda-D t!e one<sided nature o/ trut! is not most dramaicall.S.

go a>a.t!ro>ing 6illions o/ dollars at it: In e> Wor+ Cit.ndersonHs 19%' stud. .argueD t!at t!e more t!e state inter3enes to remed. In 19%2 t!at num6er !ad gro>n to 1D2%*D000.!ome it 6uiltOmost o/ t!em to 6e occupied 6.6. 2! . 1!at is its 6alance s!eetQ 0!is Fuestion is a /a3orite o/ li6ertarian economists in disputing t!e 6ene/its o/ t!e >el/are state.alone t!ere >ere &2'D000 >el/are recipients in 19$0. .as a >!oleD t!e num6er o/ people on >el/are !as gro>n /rom $D0*2D000 in 19*0 to 1*D0$9D000 in 19%2.increases. 8artin .2* Is t!is coming to t!e aid o/ t!e poorQ 0!e six -oung aut!ors o/ 0!e Incredi6le @read 8ac!ine re3eal t!e conseFuences o/ tr-ing to ma+e po3ert.middle<and upper<income >!ites 5ormer residents !ad to mo3e a>a-. .o/ large .2$ 1e are /orced to concludeD t!e.6lac+sD /or e3er.merican cities. leads to more po+ert.po3ert-D t!e more po3ert.o/ ur6an rene>al estimates t!at it destro-ed J/our !omesD most o/ t!em occupied 6. In 5ree to C!ooseD 8ilton and 2ose 5riedman discuss /ederal !ousing pro?ects and point out t!at not onl.purc!ased 6.enri (epageD 5renc! EconomistD 19'2D 0omorro>D Capitalism: 0!e Economics o/ Economic 5reedomD 12&# 0!e 1ar on 4o3ert- Suppression o/ t!e g!ettos and reconstruction o/ ur6an centers >as one o/ t!e great pro?ects o/ t!e 19$0sH 1ar on 4o3ert-. and /uels the Capitalist deception( )epageD 5renc! EconomistD B22 ".pu6lic programsD middle< and upper<class /atnilies.>ere more d>elling units destro-ed t!an 6uiltD 6ut t!e c!ie/ 6ene/iciaries o/ ur6an rene>al !a3e not 6een poor peopleD 6ut t!e o>ners o/ t!e propert. In t!e countr.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2! )in* – State inter+ention State inter+ention in po+ert. 1it! one additional result: t!e 6an+ruptc.

0!is is t!e mentalit.on t!e !ousing mar+et.to>ards immigrants is e3er->!ere as great as in @ritainD e3en >!ere t!e immigrants are >!ite.almost in3aria6l. 0oda.are.an !ierarc!ical 3ie> o/ societ.4o>ell in !is racialist campaigns demonstrates !o> dangerous t!e.s!are a common class position and class interests >it! immigrant >or+ers. 0!e presence o/ immigrant >or+ers is one o/ t!e principal /actors contri6uting to t!e lac+ o/ class consciousness among large sections o/ t!e >or+ing class. Suc! a consciousness is t-pi/ied 6.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2" )in* – Immigration .to>ards t!em. 1or+ers o/ten adopt racialism as a de/ence mec!anism against a real or apparent t!reat to t!eir conditions.org7Q3ie>R'00 Discrimination against immigrants is a re/lection o/ >idespread !ostilit.ne>le/tre3ie>. 4aradoxicall-D t!eir 3alue /or capitalism lies in t!eir 3er. 0!e large >or+ing<class /ollo>ing gained 6. It is /eared t!at t!e.sian in @ritain. 0!e 6asic /act o/ !a3ing t!e same relations!ip to t!e means o/ production is o6scured 6. It is indeed t!e strateg. )' 1!ate3er t!e 6e!a3iour o/ t!e immigrant >or+ersO and in /act t!e. 0!e immigrants are regarded not as class comradesD 6ut as alien intruders >!o pose an economic and social t!reat. 2" .increase tension 6et>een indigenous and immigrant >or+ers and >ea+en t!e la6our mo3ement.o/ large sections o/ t!e population is at present directed against 6lac+ people. @.t!e emplo-ers to /orce do>n >ages and to 6rea+ stri+es.o/ S>itCerland is as unpopular as t!e .o/ t!e emplo-ers to use immigration to put pressure on >ages and to >ea+en t!e la6our mo3ement.>ill 6e used 6.and collecti3e action.deca. @ut despite t!isD racialist campaigns ser3e t!e interests o/ t!e ruling class: t!e.o/ t!e >or+ing<class mo3ement. 0!e /unction o/ racialism in t!e capitalist s-stem is o/ten o6scured 6.orientation to>ards ad3ancement t!roug! indi3idual ac!ie3ement and competitionD rat!er t!an t!roug! solidarit.>or+ers no> see t!emsel3es as 6elonging to an intermediate stratumD superior to t!e uns+illed immigrant >or+ers. 0!e reason is clear: a complete acceptance o/ racialism >ould pre3ent t!e use o/ immigrants as an industrial reser3e arm-.and leads to opportunism and t!e temporar.t!e dominant sections o/ t!e ruling class.acism to0ards immigrants is a necessar. 0!is indicates t!at !ostilit.pre3enting >or+ing<class unit-D racialism assists t!e capitalists in t!eir strateg.>it! t!eir indigenous colleaguesOsuc! /ears are not >it!out a 6asis. )* @ut a comparison o/ sur3e-s carried out in di//erent countries s!o>s t!at !ostilit.ma+ing immigrants t!e scapegoats /or t!e insecurit.t!e ?o6s o/ local la6ourD t!at t!e. )% 0!eir principal !istorical /unction >as to split t!e >or+ing class on t!e international le3elD and to moti3ate one section to !elp exploit anot!er in t!e interests o/ t!e ruling class. Instead o/ a dic!otomic 3ie> o/ societ-D in >!ic! t!e >or+ing masses con/ront a small capitalist ruling classD man. 0!e Sc!>arCen6ac! Initiati3e in S>itCerlandO>!ic! called /or t!e deportation o/ a large proportion o/ t!e immigrant populationOis an exampleD *0 as are Enoc! 4o>ellLs campaigns /or repatriation.>ill ta+e a>a.!a3e pett-<6ourgeois leaders!ip and direct t!eir slogans against t!e 6ig industrialists .suc! ideologies !elp to deepen t!e split >it!in t!e >or+ing class in 1est Europe.to t!e immigrantsL di//iculties in adapting to t!e pre3ailing norms o/ t!e M!ost societ-LD and partl.t!e local >or+ersL marginal ad3antages >it! regard to material conditions and status.indigenous >or+ers do not percei3e t!at t!e. )$ 0!e Italian >!o mo3es to t!e neig!6ouring countr. In @ritainD t!is is regarded as Mcolour pre?udiceL or MracialismLD and indeed t!ere can 6e no dou6t t!at t!e !ostilit.s!o> solidarit.o/ Mdi3ide and ruleL. 0!e pro6lems are a6stracted /rom t!e socio<economic structure and reduced to t!e le3el o/ attitudes.is 6ased on t!e position o/ immigrants in societ.o/ t!e la6our aristocrac. 0!e existence o/ a ne> lo>er stratum o/ immigrants c!anges t!e >or+erLs perception o/ !is o>n position in societ-.and not on t!e colour o/ t!eir s+in.and inadeFuate conditions >!ic! t!e capitalist s-stem ine3ita6l. )9 0!e 3ersocial and legal >ea+ness o/ t!e immigrants is a >eapon in t!e !ands o/ t!e emplo-ers.to t!e indigenous populationLs in6red distrust o/ t!e ne>comers >!o can 6e distinguis!ed 6.t!eir s+in colour.pro3ides /or >or+ersD attention is di3erted /rom t!e real causes. Solutions are to 6e soug!t not t!roug! political actionD 6ut t!roug! ps-c!ological and educational strategies. 2acialism and xenop!o6ia are products o/ t!e capitalist national state and o/ its imperialist expansion./ailure to ac!ie3e t!eir declared aims. 2ace relations t!eorists attri6ute t!e pro6lems connected >it! immigration partl. product o/ the capitalist nation state( Castles and Kosac*D Institute o/ 2ace 2elationsD 32 Step!en Castles and Godula Kosac+D 4ro/essor o/ 8igration and 2e/ugee Studies and Institute o/ 2ace 2elationsD 19%2D e> (e/t 2e3ie>D 0!e 5unction o/ (a6our Immigration in 1estern European CapitalismD Step!en Castles and Godula Kosac+D !ttp:77>>>. 0!e presence o/ immigrants is o/ten regarded as t!e cause o/ rising rents and increased o3ercro>ding in t!e cities. It is an incorrect response to a real pro6lem.t!e /act t!at racialist campaigns usuall. 8an. @. 9t!er points o/ competition are to 6e /ound outside >or+D particularl. Suc! demands are opposed 6.and 6.

coloniesD no coloniCing countriesO ation<State 6ut directl.t t!e 6eginning "ideall-D o/ course#D t!ere is capitalism >it!in t!e con/ines o/ a ation<StateD >it! t!e accompan-ing international trade "exc!ange 6et>een so3ereign ation<States#G >!at /ollo>s is t!e relations!ip o/ coloniCation in >!ic! t!e coloniCing countr. o/ respecting indigenous cultures ma*es distancing and cultural imperialism ine+ita-le Fi.point o/ uni3ersalit.anot!er territor.t!e coloniCer treats coloniCed peopleOas Mnati3esL >!ose mores are to 6e care/ull..>ear @anana 2epu6lic s!irts 6ut also li3e in 6anana repu6lics.glo6al positionD treats eac! local culture t!e >a. Is t!ere not a +ind o/ poetic ?ustice in t!is sel/<re/erential turnQ 0oda-Ls glo6al capitalism is t!us again a +ind o/ Mnegation o/ negationLD a/ter national capitalism and its internationalist7colonialist p!ase.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2# )in* – $ati+es 6ulticulturalism as a 0a. 8ulticulturalism is a racism >!ic! empties its o>n position o/ all positi3e content " t!e multiculturalist is not a direct racistD !e doesnLt oppose to t!e 9t!er t!e particular 3alues o/ !is o>n culture#D 6ut nonet!eless retains t!is position as t!e pri3ileged empt..as it >ere cuts its um6ilical cord >it! its mot!er<nation and treats its countr.o>D t!enD does t!e uni3erse o/ Capital relate to t!e /orm o/ ation<State in our era o/ glo6al capitalismQ 4er!apsD t!is relations!ip is 6est designated as Mauto<coloniCationL: >it! t!e direct multinational /unctioning o/ CapitalD >e are no longer dealing >it! t!e standard opposition 6et>een metropolis and coloniCed countriesG a glo6al compan.ot!er particular culturesO t!e multiculturalist respect /or t!e 9t!erLs speci/icit.t!e same attitude as to>ards t!e population o/ 8exicoD @raCil or 0ai>an.studied and MrespectedL. .is t!e 3er.t!at glo6al capitalism in3ol3es t!e paradox o/ coloniCation >it!out t!e coloniCing ation<State metropoleD multi<culturalism in3ol3es patroniCing Eurocentrist distance and7or respect /or local cultures >it!out roots in oneLs o>n particular culture .merican local population exactl.t!e same as t!e relations!ip 6et>een 1estern cultural imperialism and multiculturalism: in t!e same >a. 0!at is to sa-D t!e relations!ip 6et>een traditional imperialist colonialism and glo6al capitalist sel/<coloniCation is exactl. 0!is is >!at distur6s so muc! t!e patrioticall.su6ordinates and exploits "economicall-D politicall-D culturall-# t!e coloniCed countr-G t!e /inal moment o/ t!is process is t!e paradox o/ coloniCation in >!ic! t!ere are onl.o/ t!is glo6al capitalism is multiculturalismD t!e attitude >!ic!D /rom a +ind o/ empt.t!e glo6al compan.to>ards >!ic! !eD t!e multiculturalistD maintains a distance rendered possi6le 6.o/ origins as simpl. In t!e long termD >e t!e ideal /orm o/ ideolog.e* 93 Sla3o? BiCe+D Senior 2esearc!erD Institute /or Social StudiesD (?u6l?anaD 199%D :8ulticulturalismD orD t!e Cultural (ogic o/ 8ultinational Capitalism. .!is pri3ileged uni3ersal position.to 6e coloniCed. In ot!er >ordsD multiculturalism is a disa3o>edD in3ertedD sel/<re/erential /orm o/ racismD a Mracism >it! a distanceLOit MrespectsL t!e 9t!erLs identit-D concei3ing t!e 9t!er as a sel/<enclosed Maut!enticL communit.oriented rig!t<>ing populistsD /rom (e 4en to @uc!anan: t!e /act t!at t!e ne> multinationals !a3e to>ards t!e 5renc! or . t!e coloniCing po>er is no longer a s!all all not onl. ./orm o/ asserting oneLs o>n superiorit-./rom >!ic! one is a6le to appreciate "and depreciate# properl.ndD o/ course D 2# .

u6c. .ge.mind le3els t!e /ormerLs pri3ilege and paradox li+e Da3id . Step!en 0umino !as stated con3incingl. I am interested in t!e >a.. "11%#* So >!ile t!ere is >or+ 6e-ond >age la6orO and nationalit-D raceD and gender could 6e +inds o/ >or+Ot!ere are onl. 0!e silliness o/ (-otardLs :radical proposal.and 6ase7superstructure naturalism: :I/ t!e >or+er is no longer a proletarian 6ut also a citiCenD consumerD and participant in a pluralit. "Contribution 20#.r!etorics "e.o/ 3alueD e3en t!oug! suc! relations are aspects and outcomes o/ exploita6le la6or. 8olitics Docus on identit. ConsiderD /or exampleD t!e >eig!t gi3en to :open articulation.ca7>or+place7issue1*7!tml7>exler. 1e t!en :accept economic ineFualit. since capitalism is cleansed o/ its superstructural contradictions >!ile t!e primar.D to suggest t!at r!etoric mas+s class relations and surplus 3alue is not t!e same t!ing as sa-ing r!etoric is t!e cause.# s!i/t our attention /rom class to nationalismD racismD genderismD and more recentl. in Ernesto (aclau and C!antal 8ou//eLs postmodern radicalismD a radicalism t!at turns its 6ac+ on 8arxist teleolog.post!umanism.educ.contradiction 6et>een o>ners and >or+ers endures.t!at to explain social ineFualit.o/ positions >it!in t!e countr-Ls cultural and institutional apparatus Y.g. "&$#. 23 . politics legitimi.nd no one to m. . I >ould li+e to Fuote !im at lengt!: 0!e r!etoric o/ postmodernism is dangerous /or it a3oids con/ronting realities o/ political econom. !ttp:77cust.and t!e circumstances o/ glo6al po>er. :"ILm# 8aterial (a6or in t!e Digital . Englis! at Cal State ort!ride.o>ners and >or+ersD and t!is contradiction remains t!e principal source o/ 3alue. 0!is ontolog.!tml .stands in star+ contrast to 8arxLs: :0!e mode o/ production o/ material li/e conditions t!e general process o/ socialD politicalD and intellectual li/e .as an integral part o/ !uman societies. contradiction in place( @exlerD pro/ E Cali/ornia State ort!rideD 02 Ste3en 1exler pro/.D :in/ormation societ-. 0!ese 8arxisms spea+ o/ !-6ridit-D in/ormationD di//erenceD and multitude 6ut rarelt!e la6or t!eor.t!at +no>ledge econom.\ t!en t!e relations 6et>een t!em 6ecome an open articulation >!ic! o//ers no a priori guarantee t!at it >ill adopt a gi3en /orm.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 23 )in* – Identit. remo+ing superstructural contradictions 0hile lea+ing the primar.ar3e-. t!at opening up data 6an+s to e3er-one as a prologue to radical re/orm "as i/ >e >ould all !a3e eFual po>er to use t!at opportunit-# is instructi3eD 6ecause it indicates !o> e3en t!e most resolute o/ postmodernists is /aced in t!e end >it! eit!er ma+ing some uni3ersaliCing gesture "li+e (-otardLs appeal to some pristine concept o/ ?ustice# or lapsingD li+e DerridaD into total political silence. 0umino is responding to ne> 8arxisms t!at augment class to a matrix o/ /loatingD discursi3e po>er struggles.es capital -. 200'.in t!ese identarian terms is to :legitimate capitalism.s I argued at 200%Ls 8(. .

0!e result is a sexual li/est-leD as distinct /rom t!e 6ourgeois assumption o/ an interioriCed sexual identit-.disconnected /rom natal reproduction /or t!e population as a >!ole. 2<$9# 22 . reCentrenches capitalism( )o0eD editor o/ 4ositions: East . 9/ positions: east asia cultures critiFue. (o>e. 0!is is t!e o63erse side o/ natal reproduction >it!out sex. o longer respecting t!e outer^ innerD t!e pu6lic7 pri3ate oppositionsD t!e ne> sexual li/est-le is su63erting t!e opposition 6et>een !eterosexual norm and its ot!erD i. 0!en in t!e 19*0sD >it! pu6lic anxiet. "@lan+ 1990D pp a<'# Separated /rom social reproduction sexualit. Immediatel.a/ter 1orld 1ar IID politicians appealed to sexual discipline and repressionD to restore pre>ar social moresD 4u6lic outcr.a<normal.t!us 6ecomes a sign to energiCeD in e//ect to sexualiCeD late< capitalist consumption .state legislatures passed asexual ps-c!opat!J la>s >!ic! increased t!e policing po>er o/ mental !ealt! pro/essionals o3er t!e sexuall. sexual di//erences >it!out sta6le sexual identities. 1it! t!e acceleration and expansion o/ production7consumption and t!e commodi/ication o/ social reproduction in late< capitalism >e no> !a3e a 3er.presupposed t!e pu6lic7pri3ateD ouler7inner oppositions. It rested on t!e structural separation 6et>een production and t!e relati3el.e.D t!e so<called !omosexual 3ice.as<-et<uncommodi/ied social reproduction in industrial capitalism.in (ate Capitalist =S. 1e are 3erging to>ard pol-sexuatit-D (e. @ourgeois sexualit. It cannot 6e too muc! emp!asiCed t!atD >it! tec!nological ad3ancesD sexual pleasure /or t!e /irst time e3er is >!oll.di//erent sexualit-./ocused on t!e H!omosexual menaces as >ell as t!e Jsex o//enderDJ man. "2u6in 19')D p. 199* 0!e @od.. Ed.resumed against t!e menace o/ t!e Jsex o//enderDJ a 6road catc!<all term >!ic! included e3er-t!ing ot!er t!an t!e !eterosexual normD /rom rapists to consenting !omosexuals.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 22 )in* – Gender %1& Docusing o/ sexualit.sia Cultures CritiFueD 9" Donald 8.

(ou . 0!eir applications depend on t!e assumptions and purposes o/ t!e addressers 4!otograp!-D cinematograp!-D and tele3ision do not simpl.came to 6e exploited /or t!e sa+e o/ late<capitalist consumption.D supraD c!apter a..oppositions in 6ourgeois culture >!ic! construct t!e po>er o/ male o3er /emale.reports t!at sixt-</i3e t!ousand sexual re/erences a -ear arc 6roadcast during t!e prime a/ternoon and e3ening !ours on tele3ision alone. 1&0# @ut sadomasoc!ism &*& ritual o/ dominance and su6missionD a t!eater o/ /antas-D reFuires suc! parap!ernalia as !andcu//sD strapsD >!ipsD leat!ersD etc.lex Com/ortHs 0!e Po.arid !istoricall. .essD and Paco6s report t!at S18 t!eaterD pre3iousl.o/ Sex "19%2#D >as su6titled J. S78 o>es its entrance into t!e sexual mainstream to its parap!ernalia: 0!e s-m6ols arid gear precede t!e actual practice into t!e !omes and imaginations o/ millions. 0!usD E!renreic!D .sia Cultures CritiFueD 9" Donald 8. @ut tec!nologies are not neutral. Speci/ic to t!e modern 1est is t!e loo+ constituted as t!e male gaCe<3isuall..repac+age and trans/orm t!e !egemon.in (ate Capitalist =S.. 0!e ne> discourse and semiotics o/ sexual pleasure too+ o// in late capitalism 6ecauseD >it! suc! commodities as t!e oral contracepti3e pill "introduced in 19$0#D and t!en t!e I=DD >e canD /or t!e /irst time e3er D !a3e sex >it!out >orr-ing a6out natal reproduction.e. 199* 0!e @od.o/ sensing. =nderneat! t!is loo+ are all t!e 6inar. 4!otograp!-D cinematograp!-D and tele3ision are t!e tec!nologies o/ t!e loo+D >or+ing to en!ance t!e 3isualiCation o/ sexualit-. 0!e ne> sexualit.2%D 19''# I propose t!at t!e tec!nologies o/ t!e loo+ and t!e rela.merican 3ie>er sees nearl. 0!e loo+ in t!e modern 1est is sexual It is an aspect o/ t!e primac. 5reed /rom social reproductionD t!e ne> sexualit./ourteen t!ousand instances o/ sexual material during t!e popular time slots eac! -ear. (i# are at t!e center o/ t!is semiotics o/ sexualit-.J "Fuoted in E!renreic!D .extend t!e male gaCe. Uuite aptl-D t!e success/ul sex manualD . 5rom a strictl.capitalist 3ie>pointD it is t!e ideal sexual practice . "p.5oucault. .o/ late capitalism /rom t!e 6ourgeois sexual regulations o/ industrial capitalism studied 6. 0!e t>o tec!niFuesD toget!er >it! t!e design and production o/ commodities as pac+ages o/ c!anging product c!aracteristicsD contri6ute to t!e construction o/ sexual li/est-le as a signi/ier /or late capitalist production and accumulation o/ exc!ange 3alue.speci/ic not uni3ersal.o/ sig!t is culturall. 1it! t!eir di//erent tec!niFues o/ s!otsD montageD and narrati3it-D t!e. Cordon @leu Guide to lo3e<ma+ingDJ and its contents >ere organiCed into JStartersJ J8ain CoursesDJ and Sauces S 4ic+les./or t!e ne> sexualit-. including 9 +issesD !ugsD 10 sexual innuendos and 6et>een i and a re/erences eac! to sexual intercourse and to de3iant or discouraged sexual practices. It pu6liciCes t!e promise o/ sexual pleasureD contradicting t!e repressi3e. disciplinar.arris stud.D in 3itro /ertiliCationD arti/icial inseminationD and o3um trans/ers. " e> Wor+ 0imesD Panuar. 0!is is >!at distinguis!es t!e ne> sexualit. JH0!atHs an a3erage o/ 2% an !our.is 3er. or does sex !a3e to 6e 3isual in orientationD since seeing is t!e most distancing o/ t!e /i3e !uman senses. promote capitalism( )o0eD editor o/ 4ositions: East .muc! a masculinist one. 0>cntiet!< centur3 3isualit. 29 .o/ sig!t in t!e modern 1estern !ierarc!..sexualit-.o/ ?uxtaposed images and signs "c/. Ed. ia<s# @esides t!e direct consumption o/ sexual implements.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 29 )in* – Gender %2& Discourses o/ sexualit. sec.essD and Paco6s 19'$D p.stimulate .t!e practice o/ a /e>D is no> a3aila6le to e3en t!e mid>estern !ouse>i/e t!roug! mail<order catalogues.discursi3e and semioticD 6ut also consumptuar-.is not onl.HJ 0!us a t-pical . late<capitalist production7consumption is a6le to tap t!e reser3oir o/ sexual /antas>!ic! t!e ne> semiotics o/ sexualit.o/ t!e mate gaCe in late capitalism. "(o>c toC# 0!is primac. 0!e o63erse side o/ t!is is natal reproduction >it!out sexD i. 4at Cali/ia !as saidD :S78 is not a6out painD 6ut a6out po>er. 9/ positions: east asia cultures critiFue.J e> commodities are pac+aged and produced speci/icall. (o>e.su6?ugating and territorialiCing t!e /emale 6od-.

>ere still expected to maintain t!eir internaliCed gender attri6utes 0!e second /eminist mo3ement responded to t!e resulting contradiction 6et>een traditional gender construction and t!e c!anging position o/ >omen in production consumption and social reproduction. 199* 0!e @od. it promotes suc! re/orms as a//irmati3e actionD special protection /or >omen in t!e >or+placeD reproduction rig!tsD and >el/are.li6eral response to a ne> pro6lem. 0 .1ollstonecra/tD and is concerned >it! t!e pro6lem o/ gender discrimination in t!e pu6lic sp!ere. 0!e 19*0s rein/orced traditional gender attri6ution./or compara6le >or+D . EFual<rig!ts /eminism and radical /eminism >ere t>o suc! responses.does not c!allenge gender construction outside t!e pu6lic sp!ere. contraction o/ capitalism( )o0eD editor o/ 4ositions: East . Ed. (o>e. 9/ positions: east asia cultures critiFue.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 0 )in* – Deminism: ': :urn Deminist mo+ements /ail to sol+e the primar.in (ate Capitalist =S. In t!at senseD it is a customar.6ac+ to 8ar.o>e3erD t!e discourse o/ eFual rig!ts clots not directl.con/ront t!e pro6lems 6et>een traditional gender roles and ne> positions in production and social reproductionD >!ic! man.>omen /ace< EFual<rig!ts /eminismD in up!olding t!e ideal o/ eFualit. @ut in t!e 19$0sD middle<class >omenD trained to /ill dic!otomous gender rolesD /ound t!emsel3es in ne> positions o/ production and social reproductionD and -et t!e. 8ore recentl-D eFual<rig!ts /eminists are arguing /or eFual pa.. EFual<rig!ts /eminism deri3es /rom a li6eral tradition stretc!ing all t!e >a.sia Cultures CritiFueD 9" Donald 8.

o/ capitalism >it!out exploitation t!at >or+s at t!e le3el o/ ideolog. 0o dra> connections 6et>een t!e glo6al expansion o/ capitalism and rising ineFualitis to 6e too reducti3e and trapped in t!e metanarrati3e o/ t!e past "1aters 1'$#. In t!e su6stitution o/ t!e discourse o/ JcultureJ and J3aluesJ /or class relations >!at is placed outside t!e 6oundaries o/ JrealJ discourse 6. 0!is is >!at !as made Jglo6aliCationJ suc! an e//ecti3e concept /or glo6al capitalOit su6stitutes /or economic imperialism a >orld o/ spiritual con/licts and cultural 6argains.o/ spreading Jdemocrac.Collecti3eD 09 2o6 1il+ie.DJ man. 1!at is at sta+e /or 6ot! t!e rig!t and t!e le/t in deplo-ing t!e r!etoric o/ cultural di//erence as a su6stitute /or class di3isions is o6scuring t!e economic realities o/ imperialism in order to maintain t!e illusion o/ t!e possi6ilit.on t!e le/t !a3e simpl. 1 . !ttp:77>>>.o/ glo6aliCation as imperialismD in >!ic! t!e primar.a6andoned t!e t!eor.goal o/ capital expansion is explained as a necessar.ardt and egri put it more succinctl-D Jimperialism is o3erJ "Empire xi3#.t!eor.ppadurai 221#.!tm 0!e 2ed CritiFue.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1 )in* – Democrac. promotion is used to spread glo-al capitalism( @il*ieD mem6er o/ 2ed 0!eor. 9rD as . InsteadD t!e >orld is descri6ed as JmultidimensionalJ "Steger 1)#D J>it!out 6orders and spatial 6oundariesJ "1aters *#D and Ja complexD o3erlappingD dis?uncti3e orderD >!ic! cannot 6e understood in terms o/ existing center<perip!er. 8em6er o/ 2ed 0!eorCollecti3eD 2009.org75all1inter200'7suppl-c!aindemocrac-andcircuitso/imperialism. In t!is contextD >!ile a num6er on t!e rig!t are calling /or reconsideration o/ JimperialismJ as a >a.no longer 6e adeFuate to address t!e present situation Y_>!ic!_\ is less co!erent and less purpose/ul t!an imperialismJ "4ieterse %%#. %1& Democrac.redcritiFue.modelsJ ".e//ect o/ t!e material conditions /or t!e /urt!er accumulation o/ capital.6ot! t!e le/t and t!e rig!t is an.o/ imperialism and argue t!at Jt!e term imperialism ma.to di3ide t!e glo6al >or+ing class against one anot!er and 6ind t!em to t!e capitalist s-stem.

t!e important outcome >as t!at little more t!an a centura/ter t!e process 6egan all o/ t!e ad3anced capitalist democracies !ad similar 3ersions o/ t!e >el/are stateD smaller in scale in t!e case o/ t!e =nited States and PapanD more su6stantial in @ritain and t!e continental European countries.istoricallt!ere can 6e little dou6t t!at as t!e su//rage >as extended in t!e last centur-D and as mass political parties de3elopedD democratic de3elopment impinged signi/icantl.produced an earl>el/are stateD a postponement o/ electoral eFualit.t!e opposite argument can 6e made on t!e 6asis o/ t!e !istorical experience o/ literall. 2 .laid out in a ma?or stud./or redistri6uti3e and regulati3e polic.o/ t!e interpla.merica "5lora and .resulting /rom democratic politicsD as 5riedmanD 9lson and man.all o/ t!e ad3anced capitalist democracies in existence. 0!is !istor.s t!e calculations o/ t!e upper and middle class leaders led t!em to conclude t!at t!e costs o/ suppression exceeded t!e costs o/ concessionD t!e 3arious parts o/ t!e >el/are state 6egan to 6e put in place<accidentD sic+nessD unemplo-ment insuranceD old age insuranceD and t!e lin+.?stor.and parliamentar.>ere increasingl.and capitalism is clearl.earlman!ood su//rage and t!e /ull attainment o/ parliamentar.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2 )in* – Democrac.eiden!eimer 19'1#.con/ronted 6.org7sta6le7)20091 8. %2& Democrac.!as 6een supporti3e o/ capitalism in t!is strategic sense.trade union mo3ements >it! t!e capacit.representation /a3oring /undamental modi/ications inD or t!e a6olition o/ capitalism.t!e upper and middle class leaders and political mo3ements to introduce >el/are measures suc! as accidentD old ageD and unemplo-ment insuranceD >ere strategic decisions. .tends to reduce t!e incenti3es and t!e resources a3aila6le /or ris+<ta+ing and creati3it-. 1e can conseFuentl.o/ t!e interpla. 1!ile t!ere >ere all o/ t!ese di//erences in !istorical encounters >it! democratiCation and :>el/ariCationD.laid out in a ma?or stud.stem and ?uells dissent( 'lmond7 pro/ emeritus Stan/ord7 1991 Ga6riel .adoption o/ t!e institutions o/ t!e >el/are state in @ismarc+ German-D S>edenD and Great @ritain >ere all associated >it! t!e rise o/ trade unions and socialist parties in t!ose countries. Since success/ul capitalism reFuires ris+<ta+ing entrepreneurs >it! access to in3estment capitalD t!e democratic propensit.on capitalist institutions and practices.o/ 6ringing industrial production to a !altD and 6. IndeedD t!e >el/are state is accepted all across t!e political spectrum.6et>een democrac. 0!is !istor.o/ t!e >or+ing classes t!roug! t>o >orld >ars resulted in additional concessions to >or+ing class demands: t!e /illing out o/ t!e social securits-stemD /ree pu6lic education to !ig!er le3elsD /amil.ll o/ t!em >it!out exception are no> >el/are states >it! some /orm and degree o/ social insuranceD !ealt! and >el/are netsD and regulator.in3ol3ing European and . >ould !a3e reFuired a su6stantial repressi3e apparatus.in 9//ice o/ 1ar In/ormationD since deceasedD 972001D !ttp:77>>>./ourt! t!emeD democrac. 0!e. 0!e 6oo+ la-s out t!e relations!ip 6et>een t!e de3elopment and spread o/ capitalist industr-D democratiCation in t!e sense o/ an expanding su//rage and t!e emergence o/ trade unions and le/t<>ing political partiesD and t!e gradual introduction o/ t!e institutions and practices o/ t!e >el/are state.go3ernmentD >!ile t!e (lo-d George 6argain on t!e e3e o/ 1orld 1ar I 6roug!t t!e 6eginnings o/ a >el/are s-stem to @ritain.merican sc!olarsD entitled 0!e De3elopment. 0!e Disraeli 6argain in @ritain resulted in relati3el.on capitalism./rame>or+s designed to mitigate t!e !arm/ul impacts and s!ort/alls o/ capitalism. Contro3ers. to the sustaina-ilit. o/ capitalismC0el/are mas*s the true e+il o/ the s.political parties >it! gro>ing parliamentar.ot!ers argueD tend to reduce producti3it-D and !ence >el/are.as /ostering and sustaining capitalismD is not as straig!t/or>ard as t!e /irst t!ree.ta+es place around t!e edges. . 0!e c!oice t!en >ould seem to !a3e 6een 6et>een democratic >el/are capitalismD and repressi3e undemocratic capitalism. is *e.in3ol3ing European and . 1it!out t!is >el/are adaptation it is dou6t/ul t!at capitalism >ould !a3e sur3i3ed D or rat!erD its sur3i3alD :un>el/ariCedD.allo>ancesD !ousing 6ene/itsD and t!e li+e.merica and . 0!e decisions made 6. I am inclined to 6elie3e t!at capitalism as suc! t!ri3es more >it! t!e democratic >el/are adaptation t!an >it! t!e repressi3e one. 0!us it can 6e argued t!at propensities ine3ita6l.o/ opportunit.ma+e out a strong case /or t!e argument t!at democrac. In t!e =nited StatesD man!ood su//rage came Fuite earl-D t!e later 6argaining process emp!asiCed /ree land and /ree education to t!e secondarle3elD an eFualit. @ut precisel. 0!e earl.lmondD /ormer pro/essor at Stan/ord and WaleD /ormerl.go3ernment.merican sc!olarsD entitled 0!e De3elopment o/ 1el/are States in 1estern Europe and . . 0!e pro6lem o/ maintaining t!e lo-alt. It is in t!at sense t!at >e can argue t!at t!ere is a clear positi3e impact o/ democrac.6et>een democracand capitalism is clearl. Social conditionsD !istorical /actorsD political processes and decisions produced di//erent 3ersions o/ t!e >el/are state.3ersion o/ t!e >el/are state. 9ne mig!t ma+e t!e argument t!at !ad capitalism not 6een modi/ied in t!is >el/are directionD it is dou6t/ul t!at it >ould !a3e sur3i3ed. 0!e @ismarc+ 6argain in German.

0!e extension o/ t!e su//rageD t!e 6ene/its o/ t!e >el/are stateD t!e recognition o/ particularist identitiesD is all part o/ t!e program o/ appeasing t!ese cadresD o/ securing t!eir lo-alt.o/ t!e >orldHs population.>!ic! ma+es it impossi6le /or t!em to !a3e suc! political regimes.little o/ t!e presumed 6ene/itsD >!et!er politicalD or economicD or social.!a3e recei3ed 3er.among all t!e political unitsD 6ut rat!er concentrated in a /e> o/ t!em.is ?ust as deepl. . is good @allerstein7 researc! sc!olar at Wale7 2001 Immanuel 1allersteinD researc! sc!olar at Wale CollegeD &71$72001D :Democrac-D CapitalismD and 0rans/ormation. .la-s claim to a disproportionate s!are o/ t!e >ealt!. 0!ose >!o acFuire >ealt! ot!er>ise t!an 6. @ut >e can also see t!at it !as !ad 3erlittle meaning /or t!e '0TD since t!e. It t!ere6.6u-ing t!eir >a.do t!is Fuite regularl-D !e is eit!er 6eing >ill/ull.militarappropriationD sa. 0!ose >!o are not at t!e top 6ut !a3e s+illsD t!ose >e are calling t!e cadres or middle strata o/ t!e s-stemD are not li3ing in /ear o/ con/iscation. 2epression is not a 3irtue an->!ereD not to spea+ o/ mass slaug!ters.3ia t!e mar+etD are not de/ined as part o/ t!e upper stratum and t!ere/ore li3e in t!e eternal /ear o/ con/iscation.com7`democrac-T2@capitalismS!lRen 0!e ne> r!etoric >ould not !a3e >or+ed i/ t!ere >ere not some empirical 6ases to t!ese claims.a tripartite s-stem di3ided "s-m6olicall-# into 1T at t!e topD 19T >!o are cadresD and '0T at t!e 6ottom.102.nd t!e /act t!at a small group o/ countries !as more >ealt!D and a more li6eral stateD and multipart. (et us t!in+ o/ t!e capitalist >orld<s-stem as sociall. 1it!in t!e 6ounds o/ t!e singular s-stem t!at is t!e capitalist >orld<econom-D t!e 19T are not spread out e3enl.t!e upper strataD >!o need t!eir assistance to maintain t!e political eFuili6rium o/ t!e o3erall >orld<s-stemD t!at isD to !old in c!ec+ t!e dangerous classes. I/ >e ma+e t!ese t>o assumptions < a tripartite strati/ication s-stemD >it! geograp!ical lumpiness < t!en it seems o63ious t!at t!e slogan o/ Jdemocrac-J !as !ad enormous meaning /or t!e 19TD since it implies a real impro3ement in t!eir politicalD economicD and social situation.to a 0!ird 1orld stateD and t!e. 1!en a 1estern leader preac!es t!e 3irtues o/ democrac.pro>ess 6ut 6ecause o/ its past economic pro>ess.t!e r!etoric rings true in some parts o/ t!e >orld< s-stem and seems so !ollo> in ot!er partsD t!e larger parts.into t!e aristocrac-D >!ic! too+ timeD sometimes as muc! as /our generations to complete.s-stems t!at /unction more or less < in s!ortD t!e /act t!at a /e> countries are ci3iliCed < is not t!e cause 6ut precisel.to note t!at t!ese p!enomena are neit!er accidentalD nor t!e result o/ t!e /act t!at certain countries !a3e unci3iliCed culturesD nor certainl. 1!at >ere t!e-Q 0o appreciate t!isD >e !a3e to re/lect on t!e /undamental di//erence 6et>een a capitalist and a pre<capitalist s-stem in terms o/ social strati/ication. I am in no >ade/ending or ?usti/-ing t!e dictators!ips o/ t!e >orld.google. 0!e capitalist >orld<econom.signi/icant degree at all in most o/ t!e >orld.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 )in* – Democrac. 0!en let us add t!e spatial element to >!ic! >e !a3e alreadre/erred. 9ne doesnHt e3en need to demonstrateD >!ic! can 6e doneD t!at democrac-D !o>e3er de/inedD is constrained and limping e3en in t!e so<called li6eral states. re/orm is pressed upon third 0orld countries to mas* capital expansion and create mar*etsC this ta*es out an.10)7sc!olarQFRcac!e:x82/?>B!&G>P:sc!olar. % & Democrac. .t!e conseFuence o/ t!e deep ineFualities in t!e >orld<s-stem as a >!ole. In a pre< capitalist structureD t!e upper stratum !olds po>er 6ecause it controls t!e means o/ 3iolence. 0>o<t!irds o/ t!e >orld do not !a3e li6eral states 6ecause o/ t!e structure o/ t!e capitalist >orld<econom.are in e//ect 6eing constantl.solicited and appeased 6.to t!e o3erall s-stemD and most o/ all o/ o6taining t!eir assistance in maintaining in t!eir place t!e ma?orit. !ttp:77$$. reason democrac. SoD democrac.t!e result o/ t!e insu//icient openness o/ suc! countries to t!e /lo>s o/ capital. It is enoug! to note t!at it is not /unctioning to an.6lind to t!e realities o/ t!e >orld<s-stem or c-nical or asserting !is countr-Hs moral superiorit-. 0!e upper stratum !olds its ran+ not 6ecause o/ its past militar.nd t!is is >!. 0!e. 9n t!e contrar-D t!e.strati/ied as t!e pre<capitalist s-stemsD 6ut t!e relations o/ t!e strata are di//erent.see+ to a3oid t!is /ate 6.1.unrealiCedQ 9/ course. It is simpl.

Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 ! )in* – Democrac. InsteadD struggle among groups to ad3ance t!eir o>n pri3ate interests c!aracteriCes t!e scene o/ contemporar.politicalD economicD and media elites >!ic! manage pu6lic opinion as part o/ s-stems management and social control.a more /undamental role in t!e pri3ate realm and e3er-da. ! .n Inter3ie> 1it! Douglas Kellner.politics.da3idtinapple.=C(. 0!e trans/ormation in3ol3ed pri3ate interests assuming direct political /unctionsD as po>er/ul corporations came to control and manipulate t!e media and state .D !ttp:77>>>. 9n t!e ot!er !andD t!e state 6egan to pla.a6ermasD t!e 4u6lic Sp!ereD and Democrac-: .a6ermas added !istorical grounding to t!e Institute t!eor-D arguing t!at a Jre/eudaliCationJ o/ t!e pu6lic sp!ere 6egan occurring in t!e late 19t! centur-.dominant elites and t!us represented /or t!e most part t!eir particular pri3ate interests. o longer is rational consensus among indi3iduals and groups in t!e interests o/ articulation o/ common goods t!e norm.D :.political de6ate and consensusD in t!e de6ased pu6lic sp!ere o/ >el/are state capitalismD pu6lic opinion is administered 6.C!air at =C(. %!& :he pu-lic sphere is dominated -. 0!usD >!ile in an earlier stage o/ 6ourgeois de3elopmentD pu6lic opinion >as /ormed in open political de6ate concerning interests o/ common concern t!at attempted to /orge a consensus in regard to general interestsD in t!e contemporar.7 2000 Douglas KellnerD 4!ilosop!. .s t!e pu6lic sp!ere declinedD citiCens 6ecame consumersD dedicating t!emsel3es more to passi3e consumption and pri3ate concerns t!an to issues o/ t!e common good and democratic participation.com7coma//7.stage o/ capitalismD pu6lic opinion >as /ormed 6.a6ermasX4u6licXSp!ereXDemocrac-. . capitalist interestsCthis ma*es it impossi-le to get social good /rom it7 turning the ad+antage KellnerD pro/ p!ilosop!.a6ermasHs anal-sisD >as /ormed 6. 1!ile in t!e 6ourgeois pu6lic sp!ereD pu6lic opinionD on .li/eD t!us eroding t!e di//erence 6et>een state and ci3il societ-D 6et>een t!e pu6lic and pri3ate sp!ere.pd/.

Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 " )in* – 8u-lic 1ealth Care $e0 pu-lic health still loc*ed into the moti+ation to support the capitalist s. state economic needs )uptonD lecturer E =ni3ersit.economic concernsD t!e o6?ecti3e o/ !ealt! promotion in ensuring producti3e citiCens still dominates pu6lic !ealt! discourse. pu6lic !ealt! continues to 6e c!aracteriCed 6. 0!e 6ottom<line o/ t!e logic o/ all t!ese :pre3enti3e.and economicall.and corruption.t!e state /or medical treatment and t!e loss o/ !uman po>er due to da-s spent o// >or+ 6ecause o/ illness. it >as argued t!at :a little expenditure to pre3ent ill<!ealt! >ould leadD e3entuall-D to a greater sa3ing o/ mone-.!uman !appiness ac!ie3ed t!roug! t!e minimiCation o/ illness and painD 6.ealt! /or .t!e -ear 2000 or a le3el o/ !ealt! t!at >ill permit t!em to lead a sociall.1estern S-dne-D 199*D 0!e Imperati3e o/ . 5or exampleD .stem -.pu6lic !ealt! mo3ement >as mo6iliCed 6.9 in t!e coming decades s!ould 6e t!e attainment 6. 8u-lic health mo+ement created to ser+e the needs o/ capitalism and di+ert attention /rom halting industriali. 2' 0!e aim o/ C!ad>ic+ and !is li+e<minded re/ormers >as :to rationaliCe t!e principles o/ go3ernmentD to remo3e >asteD ine//icienc.ealt!: pu6lic !ealt! and t!e regulated 6od-D p. .economic rationalities.1estern S-dne-D 199*D 0!e Imperati3e o/ .t!e re/ormers t!at industrialiCation >as 6ene/icial in t!e long run in raising t!e standard o/ li3ing /or all.1estern S-dne-D 9" De6ora! (uptonD Social Sciences (ecturer< =ni3ersit.underpinned 6. 8u-lic health program dri+en -. creating producti+e 0or*ers )uptonD lecturer E =ni3ersit. Suc! acti3ities in3ol3e tec!niFues o/ alignmentD >!ere :go3ernmental strategies tr.n attempt to dra> a distinction 6et>een t!e :old. 2' . Pones descri6es t!is approac! as :!ealt! care as a /orm o/ >ise !ouse+eeping G.to lin+ indi3idual aspirations >it! collecti3e goals.ealt! 9rganiCationLs . and t!e :ne>.e3ident in !ealt! promotion.concerns. " . 0!is is particularl. actions is not simpl. 2' (i+e ot!er caring pro/essions associated >it! li6eralism and t!e >el/are state "/or exampleD social >or+ and !ealt! care 3isiting#D t!e ideologies and practices o/ !ealt! promotion are strongl.. 0!ere >as no suggestion t!at industrialiCation s!ould 6e !alted or scaled do>nG on t!e contrar. pu6lic !ealt! is t!us some>!at di//icult to ?usti/-D as t!e :ne>.ll 6.1estern S-dne-D 199*D 0!e Imperati3e o/ .some approac!es t!at date 6ac+ centuries as >ell as t!ose t!at can 6e more readil.among t!e ne>l.1estern S-dne-D 9" De6ora! (uptonD Social Sciences (ecturer< =ni3ersit.ealt!: pu6lic !ealt! and t!e regulated 6od-D p.identi/ied >it! contemporar.ation )uptonD lecturer E =ni3ersit. in order to ma+e t!e /ree mar+et more e//ecti3e and to maintain and impro3e national prosperit-..all citiCens o/ t!e >orld 6.ealt! promotion is legitimiCed 6ot! 6.prosperous industrialists.s!ton and Se-mour Fuote t!e goal o/ t!e 1orld .preser3ing and redirecting t!e limited resources a3aila6le /or !ealt! care.producti3e li/e..t!e Wear 2000 report issued in 19'1D >!ic! stated t!at :t!e main social target o/ go3ernments and 1.its idealistic searc! a/ter impro3ed !ealt! /or all and its promise o/ reducing t!e amount o/ resources spent 6.1estern S-dne-D 9" De6ora! (uptonD Social Sciences (ecturer< =ni3ersit.it >as argued 6.ealt!: pu6lic !ealt! and t!e regulated 6od-D p. 0!is argument promoted >idespread support /or pu6lic !ealt! measuresD particularl. Pust as t!e earl.

t!e a6undant !orrors o/ t!e 3iolence t!at !as consumed t!e @osnian capital "among ot!er areas# since earl. In t!is context it mig!t 6e saidD HHHCE$:I$AES E$ $EI: 8'GEHHH # .as muc! is not to degrade t!e e3ident su//ering or do>npla. 0!e un6eara6le is t!e /act t!at in a sense t!ere is no di//erence: t!ere are no 6loodt!irst.uniFue a6out @osnia in general and Sara?e3o in particularD t!oug! most assessments attempt to ma+e t!at case: 0!e un6eara6le is not t!e di//erence. @ut ietCsc!e argued t!e danger >as greater t!an t!atD /or !e sa> t!at some JgoodJ persons soug!t o6?ects o/ pit./unctions as an allegoro/ t!e elep!antineD Harc!aicDH and 3iolent !istories o/ external and internal su6alterns.li/eDJ >e are reassured t!at t!e !orrors e3ident o3er t!ere are sa/el. In returnD t!roug! a process o/ Jcultural anaest!esiaDJ >!ic! 6anis!es JdisconcertingD discordantD and anarc!ic sensor. 0!e international communit.issueD esta6lis!ing t!e limit case o/ concern >!en t!e po>er o/ t!e glo6al media is t!ere to gaCe upon t!e plig!t o/ its de3astated peoples.con/ined and our resultant superiorit.J 0!e e//ect can 6e strangel.1992.to !ig!lig!t t!e /unction o/ compassion and >!at it conceals i/ >e are to respond more e//ecti3el-. en/orces us as protectors and them as 0ea* 7 limiting out an. 0!e moment >e ta+e /ull note o/ t!is /actD t!e /rontier t!at separates JusJ /rom Jt!emJ is exposed in all its ar6itrarinessD and >e are /orced to renounce t!e sa/e distance o/ external o6ser3ers.!as /ocused on t!e a6normalito/ t!e con/lict t!roug! an o/t<repeated parade o/ pat!etic images >!ile /inding it di//icult to con/ront t!e normalit.and Su6?ecti3it. In /e> places !as t!is producti3e complex o/ pit. and humanitarian righteousness that these claims gi+e to their plan( :hese roles rigidl. 0!e o6?ects o/ pit. .o/ pit. 0o t!e contrar-D in order to come to terms >it! t!e 3iolenceD it is necessar.o/ t!e current de3elopments in international politics point in t!at direction./or a re3aluation o/ 3aluesD ietCsc!e paid particular attention to JunegoisticJ instincts suc! as pit-.increase t!eir /eeling o/ superiorit-. alternati+e dialougues( Camp-ellD pro/essor at dur!am uni3ersit-D 02 Camp6ellD pro/essor at dur!am uni3ersit-D 2002 Da3id Camp6ellD pro/essor at dur!am uni3ersit-D 2002 :AiolenceD PusticeD and Identit. In Fuestioning moralit.o/ t!e indi3idual t!roug! t!e transmission o/ pain /rom t!e 3ictim to t!e o6ser3er.uni3ersal ideolog.J 0!roug! a peculiar tradeD a piti/ul e-e is cast o3er t!e 3ictimsD consuming t!eir image as a source /or compassion.>ould remain 3ictims regardless o/ t!e amount o/ attention directed t!eir >a-D >!ereas t!e pitiers >ould mar+edl.t!at 5riedric! ietCsc!e >arned against.presences and agents t!at undermine t!e normalising and o/ten silent premises o/ e3er-da.n extreme assessmentD per!apsD 6ut man.com/orting /or t!e 3ie>ing population: Jin t!eir per3asi3e depersonalisationD t!is anon-mous corporealit. So3ereignt. 0o maintain t!e distanceD t!ere/oreD >e emp!asiCe compassion /or t!e 3ictim .con/irmed 0!is is t!e strange moralit.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 # )in* – EthicalG6oral E-ligation :he '//5s claims o/ ethicalGmoral o-ligation are not -ased in some sel/less7 respect /or li/e( :he.as a danger to all rig!t<t!in+ing personsD /or it represented a constraint upon t!e so3ereignt.ssorted 3ictim!oods is t!e onl.J 0o sa.s Sla3o? CiCe+ arguesD >!at distur6s us most is not t!e sense t!at t!ere is somet!ing per3ersel. are merel. ietCsc!e regarded t!e moralit. a sel/Cser+ing protection o/ the po0er7 sa/et. 1!et!er t!e site is SomaliaD t!e /ormer Wugosla3iaD "2>anda# or C!ec!n-a t!e sig!t is /amiliar<Jgeneralities o/ 6odiesOdeadD >oundedD star3ingD diseasedD and !omelessOare pressed against t!e tele3ision screen as mass articles.so as esta6lis! t!e possi6ilit.as a means to increase t!eir o>n position and contro1.o/ pit. .6een more e3ident t!an t!e @osnian con/lict./eature o/ t!e ideological constellation t!at c!aracterises our epoc! o/ >orld<>ide triump! o/ li6eral democrac-: t!e uni3ersalisation o/ t!e notion o/ 3ictim.in t!e @osnian Con/lict.J@al+aniansJ in Sara?e3oD ?ust normal citiCens li+e us. 0!e J/ailed state as international 3ictim !as 6ecome a preeminent securit.in t!e post–cold >ar >orld according to Pean @audrillard. BiCe+D li+e @audrillardD 6elie3es somet!ing glo6al !as emerged: JSara?e3o is 6ut t!e special case o/ >!at is per!aps t!e +e.o/ li/e li3ed in t!e context o/ 3iolence .

. 6ronCe t!eir good conscience in t!e sun o/ solidarit-DJ pierces t!e p!antasm o/ t!e piti/ul 3ictim and exposes t!e political de/icit o/ compassion.indulged as >e t!in+D can plainl.see t!is. Y>!ic!\ t!>arts our a6ilit.in so /ar as it is HsincereDH presupposes t!at in itD >e percei3e oursel3es in t!e /orm t!at >e /ind li+ea6le: t!e 3ictim is presented so t!at >e li+e to see oursel3es in t!e position /rom >!ic! >e stare at !er.to actJ and pre3ents a political anal-sis o/ t!e con/lict in @osnia. . 8oreo3erD t!e 3ictimsD >!o are neit!er so >ea+ nor easil. .to t!e !elpless 0!is desira6le sense o/ our sel/ more o/ten t!an not does little /or t!e ot!er . 3 . 0!e Jet!ics o/ compassion >it! t!e 3ictim legitimises t!e a3oidanceD t!e endless post < ponementD o/ t!e act.@raumanD a /ormer president o/ 8edecins sans 5rontieresD >!o !as c!arged t!e international communit.t!e 3ie> o/ 2on.t!roug! t!e emp!asis upon !umanitarian aid and inter3entionD t!oug!t o/ oursel3es in a manner t!at >e /ind congenialOt!e !umanitarians gi3ing c!arit.J 0!is is certainl.and t!ose Europeans >!oD >it! t!eir J!-pocritical contrition .to>ard @osnian 3ictimsD >e !a3eD especiall.J In our empat!.manSara?e3ans to>ard 6ot! t!eir enem.ll H!umanitarianH acti3it. .>it! !idingH 6e!ind compassion in<t!e /ace o/ genocide. .o/ aiding 3ictimsD all /oodD clot!es and medicine /or @osniansD are t!ere to o6/uscate t!e urgenc. IndeedD t!e J?usti/ia6le contempt J !eld 6.o/ t!e act.Capitalism K Generic as CiCe+ arguesD t!at Jour Dartmouth 2K9 3 compassionD precisel. 5or >!at our sur/eit o/ concern conceals is t!e Jimmo6ilising po>er o/ /ascination .

0!e same is true o/ .central /or !is >!ole p!ilosop!ical and political apparatus.political p!ilosop!-.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2 )in* – 6oral E-ligation :he '//irmati+e5s moral imperati+e constitutes a totalitarian paral.our case harms( Sta+ra*a*isD 4ro/ 4s-c!oanal-sis E = EssexD 0 Wannis Sta3ra+a+isD 4ro/ 4s-c!oanal-sis E = EssexD 0& parallaxD 200&D 3ol.o/ Good o3er E3il./or 6lac+mailing us into renouncing all serious radical engagementL . Suc! is t!e accusation so o/ten repeated o3er t!e last /i/teen -ears: e3er.re3olutionar.cti3ating t!e Democratic 2e3olution: 0!e 4olitics o/ 0rans/ormation @e-ond 2eoccupation and Con/ormism 0!is 6rings us to t!e >!ole discussion around t!e et!ical turn in contemporar.$1 It /ollo>s t!en t!at it must 6e a particular /orm o/ et!ical discourse t!at constitutes !is target .and politics o/ trans/ormation: I/ t!e et!ical MMconsensusLL is /ounded on t!e recognition o/ E3ilD it /ollo>s t!at e3er.8an >it! pro?ects o/ t!is +indD 6ecomes in /act t!e real source o/ e3il itsel/. E3er.against an E3il t!at is identi/ia6le a prioriL .round.conser3atism.$& 0!e result o/ suc! an in3ersion is signi/icant /or t!e t!eor. E3er.e//ort to unite people around a positi3e idea o/ t!e GoodD let alone identi/. 0o put it 6rie/l-D t!e e3ent !ere re/ers to a real 6rea+ >!ic! desta6iliCes a gi3en discursi3e articulationD a pre<existing order. 2 .super/icial le3elD it seems as i/ BiCe+ Fuestions t!e importance o/ et!ics in t!is /ieldD and t!us >ould also seem to Fuestion t!e deplo-ment o/ t!e radical democratic attitude at t!e et!ical le3el.$) 0!is et!icD >!ic! is re3ealed as not!ing 6ut a mindless catec!ismD a misera6le moralismD$* is an et!ics t!at can !a3e no relation to a trans/ormati3e political agenda.s!ame/ull.can 6e a 3ia6le and /ruit/ul pro?ect /or a politics o/ trans/ormationD >!at a6out t!e prioritiCation o/ et!ics >it!in recent radical democratic discourseQ 5or exampleD at a /airl. 2D *$–%1 2e<.et!ics is a stodg.$0 Surel-D !o>e3erD t!is cannot 6e a re?ection o/ et!ics in toto. $$ 0!is et!ics is presented in @adiouLs argument as a distortion o/ a real et!ic o/ trut!sD >!ic! attempts to restore t!e logical priorit.6ecause BiCe+ !imsel/ !as de3oted a considera6le part o/ !is >or+ ela6orating t!e et!ics o/ ps-c!oanal-sis in t!e (acanian tradition.pro?ect stigmatiCed as MMutopianLL turnsD >e are toldD into totalitarian nig!tmare. E3en i/ one concludes t!at radical democrac.lain @adiouLs argumentD to >!ic! >e >ill no> turn. @adiouLs target is a particular t-pe o/ et!icsD o/ et!ical ideolog-D >!ic! uses a discourse o/ M!uman rig!tsL and M!umanitarianismL in order to silence alternati3e t!oug!t and politics and legitimiCe t!e capitalist order. 0!is is an et!ics premised on t!e principle t!at Mgood is >!at inter3enes 3isi6l.turns 6ad.collecti3e >ill to t!e Good creates E3il Y_\ In realit-D t!e price paid 6.sis and continuit. ConsiderD /or exampleD !is outrig!t condemnation o/ t!e et!ical turn in political p!ilosop!-: M0!e MMreturn to et!icsLL in toda-Ls political p!ilosop!.olocaust as t!e ultimate 6oge.>ill to inscri6e an idea o/ ?ustice or eFualit. @adiouLs et!ic o/ trut!s is an et!ics related to t!e idea o/ t!e e3entD a categor.$2 1!at @adiou points to !ereD is >!at appears as a strange in3ersionG !ere t!e Good is deri3ed /rom t!e E3il and not t!e ot!er >a. E3en i/ onl. 9D no. o/ conser+ati+e politics 0hich replicate .exploits t!e !orrors o/ Gulag or .

ma*es us all more com/orta-le and complacent in our continual participation in the socioCeconomic processes that guarantee the third 0orld5s emiseration( Fi.t!e single greatest 6ene/actor in t!e !istor. 0!ere is no exploited >or+ing class toda-D onl./eel t!at it is t!eir dut. 0!e ultimate li6eral communist dream is to export t!e entire >or+ing class to in3isi6le 0!ird 1orld s>eat s!ops.>it! one !and >!at t!e. 1!en t!ere is a !umanitarian crisis in . competitorsD aiming at a 3irtual monopol-G on t!e ot!erD t!e great p!ilant!ropist >!o ma+es a point o/ sa-ing: M1!at does it ser3e to !a3e computers i/ people do not !a3e . 0!e structure o/ t!e c!ocolate laxati3e can 6e discerned t!roug!out toda-Ls ideological landscapeG it is >!at ma+es a /igure li+e Soros so o6?ectiona6le.e stands /or rut!less /inancial exploitation com6ined >it! its counter<agentD !umanitarian >orr.6o3e allD li6eral communists are true citiCens o/ t!e >orld – good people >!o >orr-.!ate a doctrinaire approac!. 0!eir goal is not to earn mone-D 6ut to c!ange t!e >orld "andD as a 6-<productD ma+e e3en more mone-#.as to 6e AileD. .e.+no>s t!at @udd!ism /ores!ado>s 6rain scienceD t!at t!e po>er o/ meditation can 6e measured scienti/icall-#./rica.t!at all political up!ea3als >ere unimportant compared to t!e in3ention o/ t!e steam engineQ . In order to !elp peopleD t!e ?usti/ication goesD -ou must !a3e t!e means to do soD and experience – t!at isD recognition o/ t!e dismal /ailure o/ all centralised statist and collecti3ist approac!es – teac!es us t!at pri3ate enterprise is 6.li+e t!e t>o /aces o/ Soros: on t!e one !andD a cruel 6usinessmanD destro-ing or 6u-ing out man o/ steelD !e !ad a !eart o/ goldQ In t!e same >a-D toda-Ls li6eral communists gi3e a>a. @. (ondon 2e3ie> o/ @oo+sD Aol. SorosLs dail.and gratitude: t!e.19$'.6olis!ing segregation >it!in t!e compan-D pa-ing 6lac+s and >!ites t!e same salar./or t!e misera6le situation o/ t!e 0!ird 1orld . 9 .see t!e Mdeeper causesL o/ toda-Ls pro6lems: mass po3ert.issue: t!eir complicit.!a3e c!anged in order to c!ange t!e >orldD to re3olutionise our li3es /or real.good to t!emD allo>ing t!em to deplo.capitalist corporations.ccording to li6eral communist et!icsD t!e rut!less pursuit o/ pro/it is counteracted 6c!arit-: c!arit.to gi3e somet!ing 6ac+ to societ. @ill Gates is alread. onl. 0!e.gra66ed >it! t!e ot!er.ne> p!enomenon.at =ni3. o/ Sociolog. 0!is isnLt an entirel. 0!is 6ene/icence is >!at ma+es 6usiness success >ort!>!ile.gi3ing !undreds o/ millions o/ dollars /or educationD t!e /ig!t against !unger and malaria etc .routine is a lie em6odied: !al/ o/ !is >or+ing time is de3oted to /inancial speculationD t!e ot!er !al/ to M!umanitarianL acti3ities "/inancing cultural and democratic acti3ities in post<Communist countriesD >riting essa-s and 6oo+s# >!ic! >or+ against t!e e//ects o/ !is o>n speculations.and !opelessness 6reed /undamentalist terror.and !elp people.s /or enoug! to eatQL t!e opposition 6et>een MsmartL and Mnon<smartLD outsourcing is t!e +e. 0!e t>o /aces o/ @ill Gates are exactl. ma+e li/e 6etter /or t!e ma?orit-D to !elp t!ose in need#. %\ (i6eral communists are pragmaticG t!e. 0!e.and creati3it-^ . (i6eral communists do not >ant to 6e mere pro/it<mac!ines: t!e.nd >ould 8arx not !a3e said toda-: >!at are all t!e protests against glo6al capitalism in comparison >it! t!e internetQ . 0!eir motto is social responsi6ilit.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 9 )in* – =1elp :hem> :he a//5s compassionate -ene+olence to0ard the other is a means o/ assuaging guilt( :he plan5s dispensation o/ charit. (i6eral communists lo3e 8a. De3eloped countries are constantl./rica "li6eral communists lo3e a !umanitarian crisisG it 6rings out t!e 6est in t!em#D instead o/ engaging in anti<imperialist r!etoricD >e s!ould get toget!er and >or+ out t!e 6est >a.regulating t!eir 6usinessD taxing t!em excessi3el-D t!e state is undermining t!e o//icial goal o/ its o>n acti3it."to neig!6ours 6. DidnLt 8arx sa.is part o/ t!e gameD a !umanitarian mas+ !iding t!e underl-ing economic exploitation.a6out populist /undamentalism and irresponsi6le greed. 2emem6er .are against old</as!ioned religion and /or spiritualit-D /or non<con/essional meditation "e3er-6od.are t!e /irst to admit t!at societ./or t!e same ?o6 etc: t!is >as a per/ect instance o/ t!e o3erlap 6et>een t!e struggle /or political /reedom and 6usiness interestsD since t!e same companies can no> t!ri3e in post<apart!eid Sout! .M!elpingL unde3eloped ones ">it! aidD credits etc#D and so a3oiding t!e +e. eat more o/ somet!ing t!at itsel/ causes constipation. 2' o. Wou export t!e "necessar-# dar+ side o/ production – disciplinedD !ierarc!ical la6ourD ecological pollution – to Mnon<smartL 0!ird 1orld locations "or in3isi6le ones in t!e 5irst 1orld#.ndre> CarnegieD >!o emplo-ed a pri3ate arm.in and responsi6ilit.-ou !a3e to ta+e it "orD as t!e li6eral communists >ould put itD create it#. 1!at an explosion o/ -out!/ul energ. 0!e.notion./rica D t!e plig!t o/ 8uslim >omenD religious /undamentalist 3iolence./rica.o/ !umanit-D displa-ing !is lo3e /or !is 0!e catc! is t!at 6e/ore -ou can gi3e all t!is a>a./ar t!e most e//ecti3e >a-.to suppress organised la6our in !is steel>or+s and t!en distri6uted large parts o/ !is >ealt! /or educationalD cultural and !umanitarian causesD pro3ing t!atD alt!oug! a 0!ere is a c!ocolate</la3oured laxati3e a3aila6le on t!e s!el3es o/ =S stores >!ic! is pu6licised >it! t!e paradoxical in?unction: Do -ou !a3e constipationQ Eat more o/ t!is c!ocolate^ – i. (?u6l?anaD 200$ : o6od.o> it s!attered t!e 6ureaucratic order^ 1!at an impetus it ga3e to economic and social li/e a/ter t!e political illusions dropped a>a-^ 0!ose >!o >ere old enoug! >ere t!emsel3es protesting and /ig!ting on t!e streets: no> t!e.e* 0# Sla3o?D BiCe+D 4ro/.o/ sol3ing t!e pro6lemD engage peopleD go3ernments and 6usiness in a common enterpriseD start mo3ing t!ings instead o/ rel-ing on centralised state !elpD approac! t!e crisis in a creati3e and uncon3entional >a-.>orr.t!eir talents and amass >ealt!D so t!e. .!as 6een incredi6l. (i6eral communists li+e to point out t!at t!e decision o/ some large international corporations to ignore apart!eid rules >it!in t!eir companies >as as important as t!e direct political struggle against apart!eid in Sout! .a6out t!e catastrop!ic social conseFuences o/ t!e un6ridled mar+et econom-. .concrete pro6lems to 6e sol3ed: star3ation in .>ant t!eir li3es to !a3e deeper meaning..

onl.is not onl.on t!e 6asic di3ide 6et>een included and excluded.o/ a glo6aliCed capitalism. 0oda-Ls capitalism de3elops t!an+s to di//erencesD not due to t!e !omogeniCation o/ societ. Secondl-D t!e a>areness t!at politics is a complex game in >!ic! a certain le3el o/ institutional alienation is irreduci6le s!ould not lead us to ignore t!e /act t!at t!ere is still a line o/ separation >!ic! di3ides t!ose >!o are HinH /rom t!ose >!o are HoutHD excluded /rom t!e space o/ t!e polis O t!ere are citiCensD and t!en t!ere is t!e spectre o/ t!e excluded !omo sacer !aunting t!em all. to glo-ali.t!at simpleQ 5irstD direct democrac.to encompass t!em 6ot! >it!in t!e scope o/ t!e same notion amounts to t!e same o6scenitas eFuating star3ation >it! dieting. 0!atLs a6solutel.stem are /alse democrac. and are extorted Fi.it in StalinLs languageD >!ic! -ou li+e so muc! – multiculturalism is an o6?ecti3e all.o/ (?u6l?anaD 0! Sla3o?D aibe+D Institute /or Social Sciences at t!e =ni3ersit.0 "200'#DJI/ God doesnLt existD e3er-t!ing is pro!i6ited.still ali3e in man. In order to constantl.an o6?ecti3e all-D 6ut also t!e main ideolog. In ot!er >ordsD e3en HcomplexH contemporar.d>ell in a ps-c!otic non<structured 9utside: t!e.D page &D 200' 1!at is t!e conclusion t!enQ 0!ereLs no con/lict 6et>een multiculturalism and glo6al capitalismQ 9r – to sa.e*D =ni3ersit.les to de+elop is *e.e*D =ni3ersit. rein/orces the -inaries that capitalism created -. including those 0ho are o/ the social class to participate the exclude ha+e not +ote in the democrac.t!e rise t!e Hpost industrialH digital culture "do not t!e descriptions o/ t!e ne> ctri6alH communities o/ computer<!ac+ers o/ten e3o+e t!e logic o/ conciliarl.are /orced into organiCing t!emsel3es# O and one o/ t!e names "and practices# o/ t!is sel/<or organiCation >as preciselHconciliar. 8. under the democratic s.societies still rel. Capitalism needs multiculturalism – allo0ing di//erent li/est. !0 .6e re6ornD to meet expectations o/ consumer societ. ItLs all a6out creating a >orld in >!ic! e3er-D e3en t!e most speci/icD li/est-le can /ull.missed t!at /act. 0!e excluded do not simpl.o/ capitalism .ed capital Fi.'$<'% .clear.o/ (?u6l?anaD 200) ./riendsD le/tistsD !a3e completel.6ased on some cultural and patriarc!al model.ppendix I: canis a non canendoD iraF t!e 6orro>ed +ettle pg.de3elop.o/ (?u6l?anaD 02 slo3a?o BiCe+D Slo3ene sociologistD p!ilosop!erD and cultural criticD 200' IPaS Aol 2.!a3e "and are /orced into# t!eir o>n sel/<organiCation "orD rat!erD t!e.democrac-#.o>e3erD are t!ings reall. 0!e /as!iona6le notion o/ t!e HmultitudeH is insu//icient precisel.in so /ar as it cuts across t!is di3ide: t!ere is a multitude >it!in t!e s-stem and a multitude o/ t!ose excludedD and simpl.democrac-Q#. 0!e latter is not onl.placesD suc! as t!e /a3elas D it is e3en 6eing Hrein3entedH and gi3en a ne> 6oost 6.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 !0 )in* – 6ulticulturalism :heir calls o/ e?ualit.and +eep up >it! t!e d-namics o/ mar+etD capitalism canLt do >it!out multiculturalism.

o/ 8ic!iganD 0" ". I/ >e are going to com6at a6ortionD t!en I >ould suggest t!at >e appropriate and trans/orm t!e language o/ c!oiceD and argue t!at a6ortion is t!e !allmar+ o/ a culture t!at /orces e3er-t!ing to pi3ot around t!e accumulation o/ capital.is also pi3otal to t!e de/ense o/ a6ortion.ma.reproducti3e ad3ocates !a3e attempted to expand t!e de/initions o/ eit!er pro<li/e or pro<c!oice depending on >!ic! side o/ t!is di3ide t!e. I/ >e criticall. 0!e pro<li/e position supports a criminaliCation approac! t!at depends on a racist political s-stem t!at >ill necessarilimpact poor >omen and >omen o/ color >!o are less li+el. 0!e.>!en sex is utterl.com7200'70'7227eugene<mccarra!er<on<a6ortion<and<capitalism7D Aox o3aD Eugene 8cCarra!er on a6ortion and capitalism# 0!is political econom.6ortion 6ecomes more concei3a6le as a practiceD not onl. as t!e !ol.designed to exclude t!e experiences o/ most >omenD especiall.gainst AiolenceD 17170*D @e-ond 4ro<C!oice Aersus 4ro<(i/e:1omen o/ Color and 2eproducti3e Pustice Cassettari# 0o de3elop an independent positionD it is necessar.poor >omenD >omen o/ colorD indigenous >omenD and >omen >it! disa6ilities .o/ deat! is t!e precondition /or t!e emergence o/ :c!oice. '-ortion and the language o/ choice /orces e+er.to re?ect t!e pro<li/e 3ersus pro<c!oice model /or understanding reproducti3e ?ustice.ssistant 4ro/essor o/ .rest.are tr-ing to expand concepts t!at are in!erentl.to !a3e alternati3e strategies /or addressing un>anted pregnancies.nd 6ot! positions do not Fuestion t!e capitalist s-stemOt!e.>it! >!ic! :c!oice. =n/ortunatel-D t!e.di3orced /rom pregnanc-D 6ut >!en t!e organiCation o/ >or+ !ampers or precludes t!e reproducti3e practices o/ sexD 6irt!D and c!ild<rearing.targeted to>ard communities o/ color.grail o/ our moral culture.assess t!e assumptions 6e!ind 6ot! positionsD it is clear t!at t!ese camps are more similar t!an t!e. 5irstD 6ot! a6ortion and corporate capitalism are ?usti/ied in t!e li6eral indi3idualist language o/ sel/<o>ners!ip and autonomous >ill.t!at controls our >or+D >arps our practices o/ lo3eD and compensates >it! t!e per3erse 6ut 6eguiling enc!antments o/ commodi/ied /reedom. . ItLs neit!er coincidental nor unironical t!at t!e >ord so decisi3e in t!e legitimation o/ corporate !egemon.6ot! support positions t!at rein/orce racial and gender !ierarc!ies t!at marginaliCe >omen o/ color. 8ean>!ileD t!e pro<c!oice position o/ten supports population control policies and t!e de3elopment o/ dangerous contracepti3es t!at are generall. eit!er position endo>s >omen >it! in!erent rig!ts to t!eir 6od-Ot!e pro<li/e position pits /etal rig!ts against >omenLs rig!ts >!ereas t!e pro<c!oice position argues t!at >omen s!ould !a3e /reedom to ma+e c!oices rat!er t!an possess in!erent rig!ts to t!eir 6odies regardless o/ t!eir class standing. .ndrea Smit!D interim coordinator /or t!e @oarding Sc!ool .merican Culture and 1omenLs Studies at t!e =ni3ersit.6ot! assume a criminal ?ustice regime /or ad?udicating reproducti3e issues "alt!oug! t!ema. .s I !a3e arguedD t!e. . is no> in3o+ed isD I suspectD an indication o/ !o> meaningless O and t!ere/ore !o> /e> –our c!oices !a3e reall.6ecome.on t!e decision o/ >!et!er or not a >oman s!ould !a3e an a6ortion >it!out addressing t!e economicD politicalD and social conditions t!at put >omen in t!is position in t!e /irst place.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 !1 )in* – '-ortion %1& Ene can5t loo* to the proCli/e +s proCchoice model to reach reproducti+e <ustice7 the -asis /or the pro-lems rest 0ith capitalism SmithD .are di//erent .thing to re+ol+e around the accumulation o/ capital 6cCarraher7 teac!es !umanities at Aillano3a =ni3ersit-D 20017 "Eugene 8cCarra!er !ttp:773ox<no3a.di//er as to >!ic! >omen s!ould 6e su6?ected to t!is regime#.ealing 4ro?ectD a co</ounder o/ Incite^ 1omen o/ Color ./ocus solel.nd t!irdD t!e alacrit. 8an. SecondD t!e language o/ c!oice o6scures and e3en nulli/ies t!e moral su6stance o/ t!e c!oices made. !1 . 1e must tie a6ortion to a political econom.

0!e pro<li/e 3ersus pro<c!oice paradigm ser3es to 6ot! rei/.expand eit!er pro<c!oice or pro<li/e /rame>or+s.and capitalism t!at undergird t!e reproducti3e c!oices t!at >omen ma+e. to achie+e reproducti+e <ustice is through changing the s.and mas+ t!e structures o/ >!ite supremac. !2 .stem Smith7 .ealing 4ro?ectD a co</ounder o/ Incite^ 1omen o/ Color .ndrea Smit!D interim coordinator /or t!e @oarding Sc!ool . 0a. Pustice Cassettari# 0!is paper argues t!at t!e pro<li/e 3ersus pro<c!oice paradigm /or understanding reproducti3e rig!ts is a model t!at marginaliCes >omen o/ colorD poor >omenD >omen >it! disa6ilitiesD and >omen /rom ot!er marginaliCed communities.merican Culture and 1omenLs Studies at t!e =ni3ersit.gainst AiolenceD 17170*D :@e-ond 4ro<C!oice Aersus 4ro<(i/e: 1omen o/ Color and 2eproducti3e.o/ 8ic!iganD 0" ".Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 !2 )in* – '-ortion %2& :he 8ro Choice mo+ement mas*s capitalism7 the onl.ssistant 4ro/essor o/ . 1!ile 6ot! camps o/ t!e pro<c!oice and pro<li/e de6ate gi3e lip ser3ice to addressing t!e concerns o/ >omen o/ colorD in t!e end t!e manner in >!ic! 6ot! articulate t!e issues at sta+e contri6utes to t!eir support o/ political positions t!at are racist and sexist and >!ic! do not!ing to support eit!er li/e or real c!oice /or >omen o/ color. InsteadD >omen o/ color acti3ists s!ould de3elop alternati3e paradigms /or articulating reproducti3e ?ustice t!at ma+e critiFues o/ capitalism and criminaliCation central to t!e anal-sis rat!er t!an simpl.

!ttp:773cr.pro?ects to securing emplo-ee 6ene/its in t!e >or+placeD reducing po3ert-D and preser3ing t!e !ealt! o/ t!e en3ironment.t!eir constituents. 1<2*<2009. . 0!ese concerns a6out redirecting capitalism to>ard t!e pu6lic good are perennial .Inno3ations program at t!e Carnegie Council /or Et!ics in International . Corporate social responsi6ilit. 8an- 6usinesses are s!i/ting a>a.er6ert Crol-D one o/ t!e /ounders o/ t!e e> 2epu6licD pu6lis!ed 0!e 4romise o/ .minded 6usiness culture. In t!e interconnected glo6al communit.csr>ire.o/ toda-D organiCations and indi3iduals are 6anding toget!er across cultural and geograp!ic di3ides to sol3e common pro6lems. 0!e reac! o/ t!e Internet !as produced readaccess to in/ormation and a ne> means o/ 3oicing o6?ections and suggestions. 0!ese t>o /ieldsD de3oted to t!e creation o/ an et!ical and sustaina6le 6usiness modeD encompass >it!in t!em e3er-t!ing /rom /unding local communit.!umans li3e and interact in t!e 21st centur-.is 6oo+D >!ic! in/luenced 4residents 0!eodore 2oose3eltD 1oodro> 1ilsonD and 5ran+lin 2oose3eltD pointed to t!e need /or a stronger central go3ernment to c!ec+ greedD corruptionD and un/air distri6ution o/ >ealt!. ! .com7node71&1$0# 0oda. 1it! t!e ease o/ ne> tec!nolog.in t!e mainstream mar+etplaceD as go3ernmentsD consumersD and s!are!olders demand 6etter products and conduct /rom companies.//airsD 09 "De3in Ste>artD :is Et!ical Capitalism 4ossi6leQ.are 3oicing t!e need /or a rene>ed and moderate normati3e /rame>or+ t!at >ill de/ine t!e >a. 4art o/ t!e reason /or t!is s!i/t is t!at companies are 6eing !eld to account 6.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 ! )in* C En+ironment $atural Capitalism is coming – 6ass 6edia Ste0art7 Director o/ t!e Glo6al 4olic. In 1909D .merican (i/e.and its /inancial counterpart sociall./rom narro>D pro/it<dri3en models to models >it! a greater /ocus on en3ironmental and social issues.as a concern /or glo6al executi3es.t!ere are promising signs o/ a more et!icall. Corporate social responsi6ilit-D alt!oug! not a ne> conceptD is gaining currenc.and a more resolute 6rand o/ acti3ismD sta+e!olders are 6etter a6le to create open lines o/ communication to corporate management circlesD /orming t!e grassroots campaigns o/ t!e ne> millennia. 0!e.responsi6le in3esting !a3e risen su6stantiall.

In t!e current !ealt!care s-stemD insurance is usuall.mericans are not 6u-ing t!e traditional arra. 9ne t!ing is clear: despite spending tens o/ millions o/ dollars >ort! o/ t!eir ill<gotten pro/its to 6u.to address our s-stemic de/ect.do is ma+e people sic+ 6.and t!eir politicians and media outlets spread /air. 1!at is t!ere reall.desireG patients cannot delapurc!ase until prices drop.o/ goods.t!ird parties "ieD emplo-ers#D not 6.purc!ased 6./or minimal price. plans 6eing tossed a6out 6. . 4olic.our politiciansD including t!e muc!<touted :pu6lic optionD. 5or<pro/it !ealt!care is t!e pro6lem.all o/ t!e current :re/orm. It cannot possi6l.pri3ate insurance pro3iders >!o are immune to t!e c!ec+s and 6alances associated >it! t!e /ree<mar+et ideal. 8DD SarpelD =mut 8DD .dust. Airtuall.ealt! Care 5inancing .su6stantial support /or t!e idea in 1as!ington or in t!e corporate mass mediaD a6out t>o< t!irds o/ our citiCens >ant to s>itc! to a single<pa-er s-stem no>.o/ e> Perse-D Di3inoD Celia 8.nnals o/ Surger. E3en a6sent an. 0!is arrangement /ails completel. /or<pro/it s-stem assumes t!at >e can some!o> ma+e people ric! as a result o/ caring /or t!e sic+D 6ut >!at >e reall. 8DG KlotmanD 4aul E. :he current health care s.o>e3erD a /ree mar+et onl. . .or reduce cost.more. !! .t!e consumer directl-.to argue or de6ateQ . lea3e in place a net>or+ o/ /or<pro/it pri3ate insurance companies to administer t!e s-stem.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 !! )in* C 1ealth Care DorCpro/it health care is the root cause the A(S( health care crisis DeanD contri6uting aut!or to Dissident 3oiceD 097 "4aul Dean Dissident AoiceD Pune 19t!D 2009D .pril 200'D 5act and 5iction De6un+ing 8-t!s in t!e =S .ealt!care industr.>or+s >!en t!e consumer can use 6u-ing po>er to in/luence t!e price and Fualit.o/ 8edicine and Dentistr. 0!e current s-stem is not a /ree<mar+et 6ut is instead a /or<pro/it s-stem dri3en 6.ealt!care S-stemD .Cassettari# Competition /or goods and ser3ices generates maximum Fualit.o// our politicians and de/orm pu6lic opinion on t!e issuesD . .dministration >!ere !e directed 8edicare and 8edicaidD 02 "@ruce C. 4!D 9//ice o/ t!e 4residentD =ni3ersit.nd Car6uretor 0>ea+ingD !ttp:77dissident3oice.stem is ine//icientJ re/orm ma*es it more compati-le 0ith the /ree mar*et Kladec* et alG ser3ed /or /our -ears in t!e mid<1990s as t!e .org7200970$7!ealt!< care<re/orm7# @ut regardless o/ >!et!er >e are in t!e process o/ creatingD operatingD maintainingD or :re/orming.ma+ers o/ten re/er to t!is tenet >!en de/ending t!e multipa-er s-stem t!at exists in t!e =nited States.excuses an.6e t!e solution. So t!e.lsoD !ealt!care is not a discretionar.o/ industr.dministrator o/ t!e .s a resultD t!e consumer is not in c!arge o/ directing t!e mar+et and t!us t!ere is no /eed6ac+ loop to increase Fualit. our !ealt! care s-stemD >!at does not ma+e sense is to retain t!e one design element t!at contains >it!in it a terminal con/lict o/ interest t!at no tin+ering can e3er resol3e.ealt! Care 2e/orm .se3en O and t!atLs good enoug!^. 0!is s-stemD >!ic! !as 6een in place /or decadesD !as led to increases in !ealt!care expendituresD poorer !ealt! outcomesD and less c!oice in pro3iders.caring /or t!e ric!.executi3esD some o/ t!e 6est paid people on t!e planetD seem less t!an eager to appear 6e/ore t!e pu6lic in /ront o/ a 6anner t!at readsD :1eLre num6er t!irt.

!as a need to put criminals 6e!ind 6ars in more and more restricti3e and expensi3e /acilities.# 1e t!in+ t!e implicit anal-sis encoded in t!e term prison<industrial complex is inaccurate.2e3ie>: .nd 9 ).D B01 "(-ndD Staug!tonD (-ndD .istorianD (a>-erD 4ro/essor at Spellman College S Wale =ni3ersit-D Pul-7.as /or communities still committed to capitalism to sur3i3e. 4risons manage t!e social discontent caused 6.nd 9 ).istorianD (a>-erD 4ro/essor at Spellman College S Wale =ni3ersit.reFuired.ug2001D Aol.istorianD (a>-erD 4ro/essor at Spellman College S Wale =ni3ersit-D Pul-7.cti3istD . 0!e result is social crisis: +ids graduating !ig! sc!ool cannot /ind ?o6sD pu6lic ser3ices li+e street lig!ting and police protection are curtailedD sc!ools<<li+e t!e entire Woungsto>n Sc!ool District<<go 6an+ruptD and t!ere is an increase in 3iolent crime.capitalists pro/it /rom prisonsD prisons represent not so muc! a >a/or capitalists to ma+e mone.cti3istD . *&D Issue &# n sumD t!enD Woungsto>n is a microcosm of a tendenc.istorianD (a>-erD 4ro/essor at Spellman College S Wale =ni3ersit-D B01 "(-ndD Staug!tonD (-ndD .purpose is to maximiCe pro/its. .capitalism and in!i6it t!e communist re3olution. ). !" ./or prisons to ta+e t!e place o/ manu/acturing in local economies and in t!e national econom-.n Independent Socialist 8agaCineD 002%0*20D Pul7.disaccumlulation.capital /lig!t and disin3estment: in a >ordD 6.ugust 2001D 8ont!l.a concern to manage t!e social discontent engendered 6. otice t!e e//lorescence of so<called pri3ate prisons >!ic!D la-ing aside t!e mas+D ma+e clear t!at t!eir primar. 1atc! t!e gro>t! of prison production of goods and prison per/ormance of ser3ices /or pro/it. 1!at is reall.2e3ie>: .entitledD J0!e price of our stoc+ on t!e e> Wor+ Stoc+ Exc!ange -esterda-DJ or >ords to t!at e//ect. *&D Issue &# 0!e >ords Jprison<industrial complexDJ t!enD !a3e 6.liceD 4olitical .going on is t!at t!e capitalist s-stemD !a3ing ex!austed ot!er opportunities /or pro/it<ma+ingD is tr-ing to ma+e a 6uc+ on 6uilding and operating prisons.lt!oug! man. 1e 6elie3e t!at t!e prison 6oom deri3es primaril. 4risons o//er t!e po>ers t!at 6e a means o/ a3oiding a potential social explosion.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 !" )in*s – 8risons %1& 4risons +eep communities committed to capitalism ali3e./rom capitalist societ-Hs need to control a la6or /orce t!at is no longer economicall.implication t!e same meaning.ndD 4olitical . "1!en t!e aut!ors toured t!e /irst pri3ate prison in 9!ioD on t!e occasion of its opening in spring 199%D t!e /irst >ords to 6e seen inside t!e prison doors >ere on a >all displa.ndD 4olitical .n Independent Socialist 8agaCineD 002%0*20D Pul7.cti3istD . ). 0!e closing o/ t!e mills represents a disaccumulation o/ capital.cti3istD . 0!e message is: JDonHt 6elie3e t!e pro//ered rationale t!at societ.a desire to accumulate pro/it t!an 6. It seems to us t!at prisons are explained less 6.ug2001D Aol.ugust 2001D 8ont!l.liceD 4olitical .

0!is ad3ersar.distortedD 6iased co3erage o/ e3ents is part o/ t!e propaganda dri3e to criminaliCe t!e poorest sections o/ societ.merican !istor-. 0!ere is no suc! t!ing as HeFual ?ustice under t!e la>H.o/ t!e police ironicall.t!emsel3es eit!er 6ene/it /rom t!e actions o/ t!e police or are 6oug!t and paid /or lac+e-s o/ t!e ruling class.ser3e to demoraliCe t!e 3er. 0!e ?udicial 6ranc! o/ capitalist la> en/orcement is per!aps an e3en >orse /arce t!an t!e m-t! a6out t!e pigs Hser3ing t!e people to protect t!emH .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 !# )in* – 8risons %2& Due to capitalism the current Court and 8rison s. 0!e onl.6. .during 6lac+ re6ellions across t!is countr-.6eing /orced on t!em /rom t!ose 6elo> t!eir station.>ere ne3er once treated as HinnocentH at an. So t!e 3ast ma?orit.t!e ruling class 6ecause suc! a massi3e e//ort at correction >ould logicall.originate /rom t!emsel3es.narro> 3ie> o/ t!e >orld.net7roleXo/XprisonsXinXt!eXsc!emeXo/.0!e police are o/ten 6rutalD corruptD pre?udiced to t!e core and elected politicians >ill ne3er seriousl.con/ront t!is !orri/ic pro6lem as t!e. Capitalist democrac.and sur3i3e is /or t!e state to +eep t!e >or+ing classD minoritiesD poor and t!ose >!o c!allenge t!e status<Fuo in Ht!eir placeH to ensure t!e securit.mani/ests itsel/ most clearl. 0!is is >!.s rules to0ards and -ene/its the rich and middle class7 lea+ing the poor minorities le/t out to dr.t!e pigs to 6e later tried 6e/ore a ?udge or a ?udge and ?ur-D >ill attest to t!e clear /act t!at t!e.t-pe ps-c!olog.!tm 0!e role o/ t!e gulag s-stem and o/ t!e police >it!in t!e grand sc!eme o/ capitalism s!ould 6e discussedD not as separate issuesD 6ut as related means o/ repression used 6. 0!e +e. 0!e ational GuardHs role o/ en/orcing state oppression to protect capitalismHs interests is easil.person e3er arrested 6.o/ t!is nationHs >ealt! under t!eir direct control. !# .t!e state against t!e >or+ing< classD minorities and t!e poor.t!em to present to t!e pu6lic onl. HInnocent until pro3en guilt-H is anot!er s!a+.actuall.>it! t!eir remo3al o/ class identit. 0!e police are constantl.a smo+e<screenD t!eir main /unction is to de/end t!e capitalist class and t!eir middle class supporters >!o cringe at t!e mere t!oug!t o/ decisions or polic.are 0!e mainstream mediaD o>ned 6.t!e Constitution.!arold!t!ompson.>it! t!e people t!e.simpl.t!e ruling classD is a po>er/ul >eapon used 6.engaged in con/lictD to 3ar-ing degreesD >it! mem6ers o/ t!e >or+ing classD minoritiesD !omelessD unemplo-ed and poor people. ItHs o/ten intentionall.6esto>ed on all citiCens 6.t!eir >!olesale assault on a segment o/ t!e population t!at man.H!a3e notsH. In t!e court s-stem mone.n.antisocial predators against lo>er class 3ictims.concept /ounded on /arceD not realit-.t!e police is complemented 6.role o/ oppression 6. 0!e police are t!e +nuc+les on t!e iron /ist o/ t!e state and itHs /irst line o/ de/ense to protect t!e /e> H!a3esH /rom t!e man.perpetuates t!e m-t! t!at t!e state is neutral and representati3e o/ all people >it! t!e ultimate goal o/ protection o/ t!e Hrig!tsH o/ all.doD e3en >!en cops murder citiCens >!ic! is increasingl.o/ t!e people are placed in an Hus and t!emH ad3ersar.>!ic! ma+es a laug!a6le ?o+e out o/ t!e s!roud o/ innocence allegedl.capitalHs last line o/ de/ense against dissentD t!e militar-D inclusi3e o/ t!e ational GuardD a 6ranc! o/ t!e armed ser3ices t!at !as in t!e past s!o>n an eagerness to s!oot do>n unarmed citiCensD !istoricall.6e addressedD let alone correctedD 6.are con3icted itHs al>a-s o/ lesser o//ences no matter >!at t!e.tal+sD t!e ric! >al+ and t!e poor and minorities go to t!e gulag.u>clu6.6ecoming more /reFuent .so /e> police are prosecuted /or t!eir crimes against t!e >or+ing class and in t!e rare instances >!en t!e.situation >it! t!e policeD >!o t!en use t!is to ?usti/.loo+ing at .a 3er.t!e ?udiciar-D prisonsD top elected o//icials >!o are placing into la> e3er more Draconian Hcrime 6illsH and /inall. 1!ilst in realit-D t!e stateHs main goal is to run capitalism /or t!e 6ene/it o/ pro/it o/ t!e /e> >!o !old t!e 3ast ma?orit. 8ost police >or+ dealing >it! e3er-da.stage o/ t!e proceedings against t!em i/ t!e.crime is merel./orce relied upon to protect itHs >ealt! and po>er. not >ealt!-.understood 6.>a.stem al0a. 0!is cannot seriousl. 0!e catc! p!rase Hla> and orderH used in re/erence to police /unctions means t!e la> and order o/ capitalismD >it! /ar more resources and e//ort put into silencing dissentD stamping out potential t!reats to capitalist HorderH and +eeping t!e lo>er classes do>nD under police terrorism t!an is e3er paid to sol3ing crimes or pre3enting criminal acti3it.t!at capitalism can operate smoot!l.come into contact >it! as a >!oleD so>s t!e sic+ seeds o/ racism and stereot-pingD lies and corruption t!roug! t!e ran+s o/ t!ese /ictitious Hprotectors o/ societ-H /rom t!e 6ottom to t!e top.( Lac*son7 @lac+ 4ant!er7 30 George Pac+sonD mem6er o/ t!e @lac+ 4ant!ers >!o >rote a6out !is and ot!ers experiences >it! t!e prison s-stem and capitalismD 19%0 !ttp:77>>>.o/ t!e economic and political po>er o/ t!e ric!.

>are!ouse peopleD societ-Hs t!ro>a>a. 4risons pro3ide no realistic re!a6ilitation and t!e person is o/ten a >orse t!reat to societ.So >!. 0!eir great lie is merel. 4rison neit!er deters crime nor protects an-6od. Some categories o/ 3iolent crime !a3e increased a 6it 6ut onl. 0!e 3ictims o/ t!e prisonHs institutionalised 6rutalit. 4risons are 3iolent institutions 6. @itternessD pent<up rageD anger !as to go some>!ere so it explodesD most o/ten at unexpected times and o/ten in sel/ destructi3e >a-s to t!e indi3idualD sending t!em 6ac+ /or a second drin+ at t!e >ell o/ t!e gulags. Crime !as risen comparati3el.researc! on t!e crime and prisons. 4risons are 6eing utiliCed increasingl.treatment is o//ered at all.are people continued to 6e de!umanised in t!ese steel and concrete gulagsQ 1!. J0!e prisons are /ull o/ dangerous criminalsD +eep t!em t!ere^ 0!ree stri+es and -our out^ 1e !a3e to 6uild more prisons to !old t!em all^ 1e need t!e prisons to control t!ese animals^.6ecause o/ t!e increased a3aila6ilit.mericaD perpetrating t!e great lie in order to en!ance t!eir images to concerned 3oters o/ 6eing toug! on crime.to send t!em 6ac+ /or a rerun o/ t!e original de!umanising penal experience.and as >it! ot!er large capitalist 3entures are propped up >it! dollars ta+en /rom t!e >or+ing class in t!e /orm o/ taxes !3 ./or -ears in t!ese tom6s o/ t!e undead.and /riendsD 6rea+ do>n t!eir personalities to /orce t!emD t!roug! 3ar-ing degrees o/ 6rain >as!ing tec!niFuesD into 6ecoming anot!er o6edient ro6ot /or capitalism.mericaHs state and /ederal gulags are incarcerated /or economic crimes relating to sur3i3al.o/ automatic >eapons during t!e 90Hs era.!arold!t!ompson. 0!e onl. It is meant to isolate t!e prisoner /rom /amil. 4rison perpetuates crime.in t!e united states o/ . 0!e simple concrete /act remainsD t!e 3ast ma?orit.!tm 4oliticians !a3e a sel/<ser3ing /ield da. 0!e trut! is easil.>!en t!e./rom crime.an-one >illing to do some preliminar. 1!-Q @ecause prisons are a 6ooming gro>t! industr. 0!e largest percentage o/ t!ese people are poorD unemplo-edD >or+ing class and7or mem6ers et!nic minorities. 4risons are racistD sexist en3ironmentsD designed to de!umanise t!ose >it!in t!emD strip people o/ t!eir identities to 6e replaced >it! num6ers li+e >are!oused spare parts. 4risons pro3ide no treatment to sol3e anpro6lems >!ic! led a person to prison.entered it in t!e /irst place .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 !3 )in* – 8risons % & Capitalism allo0s the rich to gain up on the poor and con/ine the poor to prisons( Lac*sonD @lac+ 4ant!erD 30 George Pac+sonD mem6er o/ t!e @lac+ 4ant!ers >!o >rote a6out !is and ot!ers experiences >it! t!e prison s-stem and capitalismD 19%0 !ttp:77>>>.u>clu6.net7roleXo/XprisonsXinXt!eXsc!emeXo/. .create ne> 3ictims o/ t!e s-stemD t!us ensuring t!e 3icious c-cle continues a/ter t!eir release to gentler societ.treatment pro3ided is to control conduct or 6e!a3ior o/ a person >!ile in prisonD i/ an.>it! t!e population increase.?ust anot!er 3ote gra66ing /a6rication >!ic! social 3ermin li+e politicians are +no>n /or coming up >it! in desperation to seiCe pu6lic o//ice to /leece t!e /loc+^ 0!e national population !as increased since t!e /i/ties and sixties >!ere most comparison statistics are dra>n /rom to matc! >it! t!e 90Hs crime rates.to simpl.disco3ered 6.design and teac! lessons o/ 3iolence t!roug! a6use to t!ose con/ined >it!in t!em.J t!e.o/ people imprisoned toda.lea3e prison t!an >!en t!e.are people still loc+ed a>a..in general a/ter t!e person is released.rant and rage >!ile l-ing t!roug! t!eir pearl >!ite teet!.segmentsG t!e !omelessD unemplo-edD t!ose see+ing to 6ring political c!ange t!roug! met!ods unaccepta6le to t!e elite /e>D t!e Hun>as!edH or perpetrating classD de/ined as us. 0!is taug!t 3iolence is o/tenD later misdirected and unleas!ed upon societ.>!ipping up pu6lic !-steria in t!e mainstream media a6out t!e Hcrime crisisH in .lmost at t!e same rate o/ gro>t! during t!e /i/ties and sixties.

2. 0!e !omeless < and e3er-one else < need !omesD 6ut not ?ust an.ouston are lo>er t!an t!ose in DallasD >it! a greater proportion o/ single</amil. o/ la-or – this /urthers capitalism 6agdo//D /ormer mem6er o/ 5D2Ls administrationD and 6agdo//D pro/ E =ni3ersit.lo><income /amilies in .restricti3el-. 0o put it 6luntl-D regulating t!e mar+et on t!e pretext o/ impro3ing its /unctioning means FuotasD and Fuotas mean J/a3orsDJ 6lac+ mar+etsD excessi3e pro/itsD andD in t!e endD more ineFualities t!an a /ree mar+et >ould !a3e produced.countriesD mem6ers o/ t!e reser3e arm.merican cit.2e3ie>D and 5red 8agdo//D pro/essor at =ni3ersit. SecondD a !omeless notion o/ !ome >illD in /actD allo> more people to 6e at !ome >!et!er t!is is a Fuestion o/ !ousingD pu6lic spaceD or politicoeconomic identit.2e3ie>D . 8ont!l.>a.arr.2e3ie> !ttp:77>>>. 0!ese >or+ers mig!t 6e needed seasonall-D at irregular timesD >!en t!ere is a temporar. 1omelessness /urthers the reser+e arm.o/ indicators gat!ered locall.@ernard .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 !2 )in*s C 1AD . 2at!erD t!e.!tm 0!e di//icult situation o/ so muc! o/ !umanit.sta6le "as discussed in t!e Introduction#.ation o/ homelessness is grounded in capitalism 'rnoldD pro/ E =ni3ersit. 0!eir 3er. Siegan concludes 6.egulating the mar*et leads to -ig pro-lems( :he a//5s 1AD plan is /ueled -.need !omes t!at are relati3el. . democratiCe !ousing :heir conceptuali.on lot pricesD rentsD and so onD Siegan compares t!e .to sa/eguard t!e ur6an en3i ronment and E3en in ur6an planningD !e contendsD 3oluntar...o/ t!e ur6an en3ironmentD .re3ised in order to 6ecome more inclusi3e.omelessnessD citiCens!ipD and identit.social policiesD let us loo+ at a stud.enri (epageD 5renc! EconomistD 19'2D 0omorro>D Capitalism: 0!e Economics o/ Economic 5reedomD 12&12$<12%# =r6an 4lanning# 0o continue our sur3e.o/ 5D2 and later 6ecame co<editor o/ 8ont!l.partl.pg. Siegan ta+es t!e example o/ .8agdo//D prominent .existence maintains a do>n>ard pressure on >ages /or t!e lo>er ec!elons o/ >or+ers .o/ t!e unemplo-ed and underemplo-ed are generall. -ureaucratic Capitalism that is not in the interests o/ the people( )epageD 5renc! EconomistD B22 ".merican socialist commentatorD !eld se3eral administrati3e positions in go3ernment during t!e presidenc.o/ t!e ine//iciencies o/ contemporar.o/ 0exasD 200)D .exc!ange and mar+et mec!anisms are sociall.more e//icient t!an 6ureaucratic inter3ention. *% I >ill de3elop >!at appears to 6e a paradoxical argument 6elo>: t!e !omeless need !omes and -etD it is our notion o/ !ome in li6eral capitalismD on t!e one !andD and t!e modern nation<stateD on t!e ot!erD t!at ma+es !omelessness ine3ita6le.ouston !as no reason to en3.o/ AermontD 0" .J6etter<regulatedJ DallasOon t!e contrar-.o/ ur6an and regional planning 6.o/ Cali/orniaD San Diego# entitled (and =se 1it!out BoningD >!ic! disputes t!e 6ene/its o/ 6ureaucratic inter3ention in ur6an planning. . InsteadD capitalism de3elops and maintains >!at 8arx called t!e reser3e armo/ la6orOa large sector o/ t!e population t!at li3es precariousl-D sometimes >or+ingD sometimes not.and acti3it-. In t!e >ealt!. 0!e rents paid 6.ouston experience >it! >!at !as !appened in DallasD >!ere t!e planning po>ers o/ local aut!orities are used extremel. =sing a 3ariet.pril 200).oustonD t!e onl.org70%0*magdo//s1.con/rontingD >it! t!ese resultsD t!e general 6elie/ t!at 6ureaucratic inter3ention is t!e onl.o/ 0exasD 0! Kat!leen 2. .8agdo//D :Disposa6le 1or+ersD.economic 6oomD /or t!e militar-D or not at all. Siegan "Sc!ool o/ (a>D =ni3ersit.t!at >!at /ormerlde/ined !ome !as 6een radicall.pproac!ing SocialismG in t!e 8ont!l.occurs 6ecause t!e economic s-stem does not produce /ull emplo-ment.o/ a more !omeless conception o/ !ome7!omeland is not gi3ing up on t!e idea o/ !ome altoget!er "as Iris 8arion Woung c!arges# 6ut rat!er reconceptualiCing t!e idea o/ !ome in suc! a >a. "5or a /ull discussionD see 5red 8agdo// S .rnoldD pro/ o/ political science E =ni3ersit.o/ o3er a million in!a6itants t!at in land use !as remained /ree<enterprise.!omes.# !2 .or semidetac!ed d>ellings /or t!e least >ell<o//. 0!usD t!e ad3ocac.mont!l-re3ie>.o/ AermontD 200*D .e s!o>sD and pro3ides statistics to pro3eD t!at: 1.s concerns t!e Fualit.arr.t!e poorestD li3ing under di//icult conditions including !omelessness.

. e3en i/ t!e postal s-stem does constitute a natural monopol-D t!is in no >a.arguing t!at t!e.6.a :mailman.lso replies to t!is classic Jpu6lic dut-J de/ense o/ pu6lic monopolies >it! t>o arguments: 1.t!roug! t!e long<distance electronic communication net>or+s.S. )epageD 5renc! EconomistD B22 ".t!e num6er o/ small pac+ages sent 3ia t!e 4ostal Ser3ice /ell /rom '00 million to )9' million 6et>een 19$2 and 19%2D >!ereas t!e 3olume o/ =4S deli3eries Fuadrupled to $00 million in t!e same period. 2.aldi: eit!er t!ere exist economies o/ scale t!at accord t!e 4ostal Ser3ice a natural monopol-D in >!ic! case it does not need legislati3e protectionG or t!ese economies o/ scale do not exist and it is in t!e pu6lic interest to allo> competition to lo>er postal prices: . It !as 6een suggestedD /or exampleD t!at /rom 19'* on t!e greater part o/ inter</irm mail >ill pass directl. . In ot!er >ordsD according to ./uels uneFual and oppressi3e competition.D t!e taxpa-er.accumulating additional pro/its.mericaD /ounded in 19$'D in 19%1 emplo-ed 1'D000 people in nineteen states#G and "&# companies t!at deli3er t!eir o>n 6ills using t!eir o>n emplo-eesD suc! as utilit.aldi does not argue t!at an-one s!ouldOt!en it s!ould 6e societ.pointing out t!at pri3ate /irms can Js+im t!e creamDJ or concentrate on t!e most pro/ita6le +inds o/ mail.economic ?usti/ication /or Jsancti/-ingJ t!e situation 6. 0!e 4ostal Ser3ice t!in+s it !as a Jpu6lic dut-J to citiCens "suc! as d>ellers in remote rural areas# >!ose postal reFuirements cost more t!an t!e a3erage. .ser3ices#G "2# /irms t!at specialiCe in deli3ering un< addressed ad3ertising circulars to !omes "a doCenD per!apsD o/ >!ic! one o/ t!e largestD Independent 4ostal Ser3ice o/ . 0!e greater e//icienc. Po!n . In t!e end t!e consumer is s>indledD not 6ecause !e su6sidiCes ot!er citiCensD 6ut 6ecause t!e c!osen s-stem o/ su6sidiCation retards progress in t!is sector.president o/ !is o>n consulting /irm in e> Wor+# >rote a critical stud.s!o>s t!at >!ere comparisons are possi6leD pri3atelt!e rig!t to put mail into mail6oxes o/ . 5inall-D . .aldi "educated at Stan/ordD currentl.aldiLs stud.o/ pri3ate deli3er. In t!is >a-D t!e 4ostal Ser3ice is currentl..is not !o> to protect t!e monopolistD 6ut !o> to protect t!e pu6lic /rom 6eing exploited 6. 5irst .o/ pri3ate deli3ercompanies pro3ide !ig!er<Fualit.aldiD resources are misallo cated >!en additional ser3ice costs are paid 6.de/end t!eir monopol.mericans.enri (epageD 5renc! EconomistD 19'2D 0omorro>D Capitalism: 0!e Economics o/ Economic 5reedomD 11$<119# 0!e =.o/ t!e postal monopol.e.issue created 6.o/ letters ">it! some exemptions#.o>e3erD Congress trans/ormed t!e /ormer 4ost 9//ice Department into a go3ernment corporation ma+ing its o>n operating decisions "t!oug! its rates are regulated#.in3ol3es regressi3e social trans/ers.t!e existence o/ a natural monop ol.and !as 6een /or more t!an 1%* -ears.!a3ing to compete >it! computers.cannot !a3e it 6ot! >a-sD argues Po!n .monopol. I/ an-one s!ould su6sidiCe t!ese !ig!er costsOand . 0!e polic.de/inition operate at suc! lo> cost as to preclude competition >it!out /urt!er assistance /rom t!e go3ernment.need excess pro/its on some mail to compensate /or losses on ot!er mailD suc! as rural routes. SecondD .aldi points out t!at despite t!e monopol.o/ ne>spapers and magaCines. !as t!e monopol. Cities ">!ere t!ere is a greater concentration o/ lo><income !ouse!olds# su6sidiCe su6ur6s ">!ere t!e a3erage li3ing standard is !ig!er#D 6ecause deli3er.companies pro3ide !ig!er<Fualit.s in ot!er 1estern nationsD t!e 4ostal Ser3ice in t!e =nited States is a pu6lic monopol. . 8oreo3erD >it! t!e de3elopment o/ electronic communicationsD t!e 4ostal Ser3ice is increasingl.ser3es onl. .* cents per poundD >!ereas t!e 4ostal Ser3ice damaged /i3e times more pac+ages t!an =4SD >!ose greater use o/ mec!aniCation and 6etter containeriCation !as reduced !andling costs and 6rea+age.aldi explains t!at t!e a6sence o/ competition /or most mail ser3ices !ampers t!e moderniCation o/ t!e 4ostal Ser3ice.aldi t!e 4ostal Ser3ice cost 9 cents per pound. .6eing compelled to >it!stand competition in t!ree /ronts: "1# pri3ate /irms t!at deli3er pac+ages "Gre-!ound 4ac+age Ser3iceD 2E.to exaggerate mo nopolpo>er.o>e3erD operated deli3er. 5irst<class mail su6sidiCes t!e deli3er. 0!e postal monopol.to apartment 6uildings is c!eaper and cities !a3e a !ig! proportion o/ apartment 6uildings. a natural monopolist can 6.ser3iceD in terms o/ speed and relia6ilit-D at lo>er cost.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 !9 )in* C 8ostal Ser+ice %1& 0!e 4ostal Ser3ice is in!erentl. a natural monopolist does not need a legal Con/erring a statutor.t!at presents t!ree important ideas.as a >!oleD i.ser3iceD in terms o/ speed and relia6ilit-D at lo>er cost. It exploits societ-. 0!e greater e//icienc. .t!e 4ostal Ser3ice is currentl. 9nl. 0!e 4ostal Ser3ice replies to suc! criticisms 6. 0-pical users o/ a pu6lic ser3ice s!ould not !a3e to su6sidiCe t!e 4ostal Ser3iceHs !ig!er costs in ser3ing certain special categories o/ t!e population. monopol-.on a natural monopol. .pro3ides an.re3eals t!at t!e postal monopol. 4ostal Ser3ice# . Congress pro!i6its pri3ate deli3er.con/ronting competition in certain areas D >!ic! ma+es it possi6le to test its per/ormance empiricall-. 0!e 4ostal Ser3ice s!ould not need legal protection o/ its monopol-. In 19%2D . ExpressD =nited 4arcel Ser3iceD and o3er '0D000 truc+ersD special carriersD and deli3er.t!e monopolist. .companies. 0!e.3on 4roducts calculated t!at =4S cost an a3erage o/ % to %.capitalist and onl.does not extend to small pac+ages and ad3ertising material. !9 .statute.companies explains >!.aldiLs stud.

@ut t!e general trend to>ard isolationD >!ic! is t!e underl-ing essence o/ ur6anismD must also include a controlled reintegration o/ t!e >or+ers 6ase d on t!e planned needs o/ production and consumption. 0!e same arc!itecture appears e3er->!ere as soon as industrialiCation !as 6egunD e3en in t!e countries t!at are /urt!est 6e!ind in t!is regardD as an essential /oundation /or implanting t!e ne> t-pe o/ social existence. 5ollo>ing its logical de3elopment to>ard total dominationD capitalism no> can and must re/as!ion t!e totalit.t!e de3elopments o/ ur6anism as 6.designed /or t!e poor.De6ord7 8arxist t!eoristD >rote :Societ.ur6anismLs conspicuous petri/ication o/ li/e can 6e descri6ed in .t!e issues o/ t!ermonuclear >eapons or o/ 6irt! control ">!ere t!e possi6ilit.t!at res!apes its entire surroundings !as e3ol3ed its o>n special tec!niFue /or molding its o>n territor-D >!ic! constitutes t!e material underpinning /or all t!e /acets o/ t!is pro?ect. 0!e aest!etic po3ert.org7SI7de6ord7%.!tm# 0!e societ. o> /or t!e /irst time a ne> arc!itecture !as 6een speci/icall. o3er :t!e restless 6ecoming t!at ta+es place in t!e progression o/ time.and 3ast proli/eration o/ t!is ne> experience in !a6itation stem /rom its mass c!aracterD >!ic! c!aracter in turn stems 6ot! /rom its /unction and /rom t!e modern conditions o/ construction.namics( :he 1'C em-ar*s o/ a centrali.atomiCing t!e >or+ers >!o !a3e 6een dangerousl. =r6anism O :cit.culminated in t!e suppression o/ t!e street itsel/. 1!ile all t!e tec!nical /orces o/ capitalism contri6ute to>ard 3arious /orms o/ separationD ur6anism pro3ides t!e material /oundation /or t!ose /orces and prepares t!e ground /or t!eir deplo-ment. "!he City in "istory#. 0!e constant struggle t!at !as !ad to 6e >aged against an-t!ing t!at mig!t lead to suc! coming toget!er !as /ound ur6anism to 6e its most e//ecti3e /ield o/ operation. (e>is 8um/ord points out t!at :>it! t!e present means o/ long<distance mass communicationD spra>ling isolation !as pro3ed an e3en more e//ecti3e met!od o/ +eeping a population under control. 1%2<1'0D 19$%D !ttp:77>>>..con3erts t!e en3ironment into an en3ironment o/ a6straction. 0!e capitalist need t!at is satis/ied 6.technology of separation.o/ t!e SpectacleD.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 "0 )in* – 8ostal Ser+ice %2& Capitalism restores space to /acilitate d. "0 ./or t!e ruling classes.conscious control o/ t!ose po>ers is re3ealed as glaringl.o/ t!e Spectacle.ed and authoritarian model o/ cit.o/ manipulating !eredit. O is capitalismLs met!od /or ta+ing o3er t!e natural and !uman en3ironment. 0!is reintegration into t!e s-stem means 6ringing isolated indi3iduals toget!er as isolated indi3iduals. 0!e o63ious core o/ t!ese conditions is t!e authoritarian decisionma#ing >!ic! a6stractl.egelian terms as a total predominance o/ a :peace/ul coexistence >it!in space.designed to /oster t!is t-pe o/ pseudocommunit-.brought together 6. 5actoriesD cultural centersD tourist resorts and !ousing de3elopments are speci/icall.D 19#3 "Gu.Cplanning7 ma*ing the post ser+ice tailored to the needs o/ capital 0hich treats indi+iduals as economic production( :heir attempt creates a state o/ collecti+e isolation and consumerist pseudoC communit.planning. that allo0s the smooth /unctioning o/ capitalism and the social /orces that ma*e nuclear 0ar possi-le( De-ord7 >rote t!e 6oo+ :Societ.cellD >!ere t!e om nipresent recei3ers o/ spectacular messages /ill t!e isolation >it! t!e ruling images O images t!at deri3e t!eir /ull po>er precisel.6. It is t!e 3er. Descri6ing >!at !e terms :a one<>as-stemD./rom t!at isolation.6opsecrets. =r6anism is t!e modern met!od /or sol3ing t!e ongoing pro6lem o/ sa/eguarding class po>er 6. 0!e e//orts o/ all t!e esta6lis!ed po>ers since t!e 5renc! 2e3olution to increase t!e means o/ maintaining la> and order in t!e streets !a3e /inall.on t!e !oriCon#. In all pre3ious periods arc!itectural inno3ations >ere designed exclusi3el. 0!e contradiction 6et>een t!e gro>t! o/ societ-Ls material po>ers and t!e continued lac+ o/ progress to>ard an.t!e conditions o/ ur6an production. 0!e same collecti3e isolation pre3ails e3en >it!in t!e /amil.is alread.o/ space into its own particular decor .

o/ alternati3e natures t!at realit.can 6e c!allenged 6.lo><>age ?o6sD t!en discourse !as made itsel/ real and t!ose ?o6s 6ecome lo>< >age ?o6s t!at >ill not li+el.cle SchramD pro/ E @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 0# San/ord 5.6e paid 6etter >ages an-time soon.more po>er/ul t!an ideolog-.H It is a Fuestion o/ anal-Cing a Hregime o/ practicesHO practices 6eing understood !ere as places >!ere >!at is said and >!at is doneD rules im] posed and reasons gi3enD t!e planned and t!e ta+en /or granted Discourse is more t!an tal+G it is >!at is said and >!at is done.and social polic. Discourse t!en not onl.ma+ing it !ard to see >!at is ta+en as essentiall.a lo><>age ?o6 as an-t!ing ot!er t!an t!atD e3en t!oug! it ?ust !appens to 6e a ?o6 /or >!ic! lo> >ages are paid "pro6a6l.!a3e come to 6e constitutedG it >ould result in >or+ers earning more t!an t!eir :true.in t!e Graduate Sc!ool o/ Social 1or+ and Social 2esearc! at @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 200$ C!apter 9neG in 1el/are Discipline: DiscourseD Go3ernanceD and Glo6aliCation 4g 12 par 2 – pg 1) par 2 t!e conspirac.ideologiesD guided 6. >ageD >!ic! o/ course in t!e current era o/ glo6aliCation is no> in /ree /allD as unt!in+a6leD at least in t!e =nited States.JoutsourceJ ?o6s to lo><pa-ing la6or mar+ets in t!e 0!ird 1orld and increase do>n>ard pressure on t!ose ?o6s at !ome.actuall. unioniCed >or+ers 6eing paid decent >ages /or doing >!at is Jessentiall-J seen as lo><>age >or+.to constitute t!ose /actsD to 6ecome t!ose /acts.o/ discourse is a potent /orce /or ma+ing t!e >orld t!e >a. 0!at !as no>D in an age o/ glo6aliCationD 6ecome 4a-ing decent >ages to people >!o >or+ in lo><>age ?o6s >ould 6e going against t!e /acts o/ t!e situation as t!e. 9/ !is o>n >or+ on discourseD 5oucault >rote: Y0\!e target o/ anal-sis >asnHt Hinstituions7 Ht!eoriesDH or Hideolog-DH 6ut Glo6aliCation Discourse Is 8ore 0!an 0al+ 1!at >e can call practicesO>it! t!e aim o/ grasping t!e conditions >!ic! ma+e t!ese accept] a6le at a gi3en momentG t!e !-pot!esis 6eing t!at t!ese t-pes o/ pracice are not ?ust go3erned 6. Discourse is argua6l. It is also di//erent t!an ideolog-.pragmatic circumstancesO>!ate3er roles t!ese elements ma. Ideolog.in no small part 6ecause >or+ers are not unioniCed to rig!t /or !ig!er >ages#. 2 transnational corporations and ot!er /irms increasingl.lt!oug! t!e distortions o/ ideolog.pointing to inconsistent /actsD discourse operates more insidiousl. .pla-O6ut possess up to a point t!eir o>n speci/ic regulariiesD logicD strateg-D sel/<e3idence and Hreason.lo><>age ?o6s /or certain >or+ers to ta+e.naturaliCes and materialiCes its realit. Sc!ramD teac!es social t!eor.c!aracteriCes an alleged preexisting realit-D 6ut discourse constitutes t!at realit-. "1 .li3es as >e go a6out ma+ing sense o/ >!at >e do and doing >!at >e do in terms o/ !o> >e ma+e sense o/ itD as >!en >e 6ecome con3inced t!at economic gro>t! in an era o/ glo6aliCation is dependent upon >or+ers ta+ing lo><>age ?o6s to t!e point t!at t!ere are onl. In t!is senseD !egemonic discourse naturaliCes and materialiCes its realit-D 3ia social practicesD customD and t!e po>er o/ economic relationsD t!ere6.&0 .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 "1 )in* – 'ssets Discourse %1& :heir discourse shapes the li+es o/ others to 0here it entrenches the poor in a ne+erCending c.insitutionsD prescri6ed 6. Discourse in3ol3es discursi3e practices t!at >e practice in our dail.6.nd once >e mo3e past t!e point o/ seeing some ?o6s as 6eing paid lo> >ages and start seeing t!ose ?o6s as essentiall.mig!t !a3e D as in t!e case o/ meet and interconnect. It is li3ed language t!at is materialiCed in practice.gi3ing it an essential nature 6ut also erases and e//aces t!e possi6ilit.it is 6ecause discourse is more t!an mere tal+ or pro] paganda.

Po!n De>e. 1e tend to see assetsD li+e capitalD as literall.openD >it! 3aious restrictions as to >!o Fuali/ies to 6u-.open 6ecause t!e. 5amilies >!o can access social capital impro3e t!e c!ances /or economic success t!eir c!ildren in particular . 1illiam Pames >as /ond o/ in3o+ing economistic metap!ors and as+ing >!at >as t!e Jcas! 3alueJ o/ ideas.tend to 6e 6ounded 6. 0!at >as >!ere its cas! 3alue >as determined and >!ere >e /ound out t!e real >ort! o/ an.!ousing mar+etsD is entirel.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 "2 )in* – 'ssets Discourse %2& 'ssets are rooted in the idea o/ capital on -oth social and economic grounds SchramD pro/ E @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 0# San/ord 5.o/ pragmatism. @ut anot!er reason >!.to rel. InsteadD t!ere is e3idence t!at social capital is a 3er. o>D t!e idea o/ social capital !as 6ecome Fuite popular in t!e social sciences in recent -ears.trut! claim. .sold on >!at is misleadingl.genealog.relia6le or o6?ecti3e indicator o/ t!eir economic 3alue is t!at assets are not entirel. WetD t!e idea is actuall-D older t!an (our./inds t!at t!e assessed 3alue o/ t!e asset is o/ten not >!at it >ill 6ring in terms o/ !ard cas! >!en /inall. Sc!ramD teac!es social t!eor. "2 .o/ asset 6uilding ine3ita6l. .n.ssetsD in social >el/are polic-D are seen as not ?ust a /orm o/ >ealt! t!at -ou can cas! out in order to increase -our access to liFuid economic resources.' Glenn (our.is a good place to start to Fuestion t!is discursi3e practice.lo3e -our !ome and ind com/ort in t!at !a3enD 6ut 6u-ers ma.and social polic.old idea and >as c!ampioned 6. .and ot!er proponents o/ t!e p!ilosop!.nd !ousing mar+ets !a3e !istoricallmost oten not 6een entirel.relia6le or immediatel.t!e assessed 3alue o/ assets is ne3er an entirel. 5amilies >it! assets get to net>or+ >it! ot!er /amilies >it! assetsD increasing a /amil-Hs a6ilit. WetD t!ere is a t!irdD e3en more su6?ecti3eD dimension to assets.ssets li+e o>ned !omesD li+e all sources o/ >ealt!D are su6?ecti3e in 3alue : -ou ma.9 5or PamesD as a pragmatistD t!e trut! o/ an.see it in less emotional terms and t!ere/ore put a lesser 3alue on itD leading t!em to o//er a lo>er price to complete a sale. 9>ning a !ome in particular puts a /amil.in economicsD 4ierre @ourdieu and Pames Coleman in sociolog-D and 2o6ert 4utnam in political science !a3e all discussed its importance /or economic ad3ancement.J 0!is is in part 6ecause no mar+etD especiall.o/ t!e idea o/ asset 6uilding in social >el/are polic. Capital Idea .in t!e late 19t! centur. InsteadD assets are oten priCed as not ?ust a source o/ economic capital 6ut also a source o/ social capital. WetD an-one >!o !as tried to sell a !ome Fuic+l.idea >as contingent upon its a6ilit.classD raceD and related lines o/ pri3ilege and disad3antageness.in t!e Graduate Sc!ool o/ Social 1or+ and Social 2esearc! at @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 200$ C!apter 5i3eG in 1el/are Discipline: DiscourseD Go3ernanceD and Glo6aliCation 4g 111 par 2 – pg 112 par 1 .called in common parlance t!e Jopen mar+et.>ould !a3e to in3ol3e denaturaliCing t!e 3er- idea o/ assets itsel/.>ealt! t!at !as an o6?ecti3eD materialD economic 3alue.to 6e pro3ed use/ul in t!e >orld o/ action.in touc! >it! ot!er !ome<o>ning /amilies and increases t!e net>or+ing possi6ilities.con3erti6le into capital D let alone into cas!< . genealog.or @ourdieuD >!o are at times mentioned as sc!olars >!o coined t!e term.on social relations!ips /or impro3ing t!eir >ell<6eing.

o/ t!e mar+etD asset<6uilding 6ecomes a capital idea not to 6e dismissed as positioning t!e poor to lose out in an economic competition t!at is rigged against t!em.o/ t!e mar+et leads to 6ot! an increasing interest in commodi/-ing social li/e and an increased >illingness to assume t!at lo><income indi3iduals oug!t to 6e expected to act li+e t!ose in t!e middle class and to compete >it! e3er-one in acFuiring >ealt!.ser3ing as a resource center /or its mem6er /amilies . /orcing the poor to tr.ssets t!emsel3es are seen in t!is discourse as pro3iding a >a. Sc!ramD teac!es social t!eor. 1it! a strong emp!asis on t!e poor 6eing a6le to 6e expected to compete in capital mar+etsD >e ris+ reinscri6ing t!e old culture o/ po3ert.t!at a mar+et<centered societ.less attracti3e personal assets o/ t!e 9nce e3er-one is expected to 6e a6le to acFuire apprecia6le assetsD t!e ris+ gro>s in a mar+et<centered societ.discourse is not t!ere -et. .t!at is committed to ensuring >e do not 6lame t!e poor /or t!e po3ert.6.D as possessing resources t!at t!e indi3idual can tap into to extract 6ene/it /or t!emsel3es on t!e 6asis o/ >!o t!e.discourse promises a road out o/ po3ert.ne3er 6e a6le to pa.. WetD an asset<6uilding discourse t!at ris+s intensi/-ing t!e commod/-ing e//ects o/ social capital is a pro6lem /or t!e poor at a pro/oundl.in t!e Graduate Sc!ool o/ Social 1or+ and Social 2esearc! at @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 200$ C!apter 5i3eG in 1el/are Discipline: DiscourseD Go3ernanceD and Glo6aliCation 4g 11) par 2 – pg 11$ par 1 .are too impulsi3eD too present orientedD and too /ixated on grati/-ing immediate >ants to sa3eD plan a!eadD in3estD and >atc! t!eir assets Expecting t!e poor to compete in !ousing mar+ets and in e//orts to impro3e t!eir !uman capital t!roug! sc!ooling are primar. It ma.sset<6uilding discourse rein/orces t!e commodi/-ing orientation o/ social capital and does so 6. to compete in a mar*etC-ased societ.andD relatedl-D t!e idea t!at lo>< income indi3iduals can compete in t!e competition to 0oda-D t!e !egemon. InsteadD it is still 6est seen as a c!ild o/ t!e contemporar- social capital discourse t!at commodi/ies social li/e so as to imagine social relationsD social net>or+sD social communit.s suc!D asset<6uilding discourse 6ecomes its o>n sel/</ul/illing prop!ec-: -ou need economic assets to get social capital t!at gets -ou more economic assets.J In3esting in !omes t!at most people >ill not >ant to 6uappreciate.o//D lea3ing t!em >it! a 6ad credit rating and less disposa6le income to meet 6asic 0!e idea t!at asset in3estments are t!e road out o/ po3ert. instead t!e.ma.+no>D !o> t!e.6ut more in3ested in t!eir communit. 0ill ine+ita-l.and more committed to t!at communit.ris+s not onl.12 ./ailing 6ut alsoD >!en it /ailsD 6eing turned 6ac+ against t!e poor so t!at >e end up 6laming t!em all o3er again /or t!eir o>n needs./or communit.lo>< income indi3iduals in t!e rus! to /ind t!e greatest sources o/ pro/it.arguments t!at t!e poor are di//erentG t!at t!e.o/ t!e mar+et is unc!allengedD t!e idea o/ commodi/-ing social relations is loo+ed upon less criticall.1& 0!is time t!e. ris+s saddling t!e poor >it! !ousing costs t!e. lose in SchramD pro/ E @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 0# San/ord 5.mem6ers!ipD etc.political le3el .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 " )in* – 'ssets Discourse % & 'ssetC-uilding discourse commodi/ies social li/e through the implementation o/ social capital and turns case -.are connectedD >!at mem6ers!ips t!e. Suc! an indi3idualistic discourse t!at loo+s at resources as t!ings to 6e acFuired and consumed exclusi3el. .t!at t!e poor >ill once again 6e 6lamed /or t!eir po3ert.and social polic.6.cannot co3er rat!er t!an increasing t!eir /amiliesH >ealt!.possessD etc.sset<6uilding polic. In suc! a mar+et<centered societ-D t!e relati3el.accessing social capital t!at comes >it! possessing greater assets.>ill 6e 6lamed /or 6ad in3estment decisionsD 6ad economic planningD 6ad capital management D etc. . " .>ell 6eD as 5arr suggestsD t!at in t!e current periodD >!en t!e !egemon.nd getting -oung people to 6orro> extensi3e amounts o/ mone.to 6etter connect to sources o/ social capital as in purc!asing a !ome increasing -our li+eli!ood o/ li3ing in a 6etter neig!6or!ood o/ ot!er !omeo>ners >!o areD com] pared >it! rentersD not ?ust 6etter o// /inanciall.lac+ middle<class 3alues o/ disciplineD !ard >or+D sa3ingsD and dela-ing grati/icationG and t!at poor >ill go 6eggingD >!ile ot!ers >it! more attracti3e !omes or 6ig!terD s!inier credentials >ill see t!eir assets appreciate.>a.college course>or+ t!at o/ten does not ma+e t!em competiti3e in t!e 3arious occupational /ields and career pat!s t!eare pursuing ?ust saddles t!em >it! de6t t!e. !egemon. 1it! t!e extract >ealt! rom assets is also treated less s+epticall -.creates in t!e /irst place.oriented to>ard collecti3e solidarit.discourse is t!at it is corrosi3e to t!e idea t!at >e need to act collecti3elt!roug! t!e state to counteract t!e commodi/-ing practices o/ t!e mar+et t!at lea3e out so man. 0!e circular reasoning o/ asset<6uilding polic. 9ne long<run conseFuence o/ assets<6uilding polic.indi3iduals and t!eir /amilies ma+es it more di//icult to 6uild o3er time a pu6lic p!ilosop!.o/ promising more access to suc! social capital.instances o/ >!at >e can call t!e Jassets trap.>ere let 6.t!e.our indi3idualisticD capitalistic societ-. that the. In t!e long runD asset<6uilding discourse ma+es it !arder to de3elop policies t!at counter mar+et principles and pre3ent t!e po3ert.

>ill 6e 6etter a6le to compete in 3aious mar+ets to get 6etter ?o6sD start t!eir o>n 6usinessD o>n t!eir o>n propert-D etc.>ill ta+e care o/ t!em and tr. It ris+s setting t!e poor up to 6e 6lamed all o3er again /or t!eir o>n po3ert-. YSpecialisation and t!e di3ision o/ la6our Yare\ t!e essence o/ participation in an organised social econom-. . 0!e 9ECD summariCes S!erradenHs rationale /or t!e asset<6uilding approac! in >a-s t!at !ig!lig!t its /ocus on t!e ps-c!olog. In t!e /irst instanceD t!e.o/ t!e poor t!at sees t!em as trapped in an orientation to li/e t!at ro6s t!em o/ t!e moti3ation to sa3eD plan /or t!e /utureD and 6e interested in acFuiring assets ..arguments t!at 1illiam 2-an /orce/ull./ail to con3ert assets into >ealt!.rooted in c!anging t!e ps-c!olog.and social polic.1' JImpro3e !ouse!old sta6ilit-DJ Jcreate an orientation to t!e /utureDJ Jpro3ide a /oundation /or ris+<ta+ingDJ Jincrease personal e//icac-DJ and so on all underscore an approac! to pu6lic polic. 0!is increases social co!esion./easi6le >a./unction as precautionar.es the poor -.. Clinical social >or+Hs orientation D so pop] ular in t!e =nited StatesD is to medicaliCe social pro6lems and treat t!em as personal pat!ologies D and it is increasingl. It promotes t!e idea t!at asset 6uilding is an ad?unct o/ clinical social >or+D reFuiring intensi3e counseling.l9 E3en >!en >e do not mean itD suc! a 3icious c-cle is created >!en >e get caug!t up in t!is conspirac. . >ould c!ange >it! t!e end o/ exclusion and >it! /ocus and specialisation. o/ the poor SchramD pro/ E @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 0# San/ord 5.6ecome a source o/ empo>erment. Sc!ramD teac!es social t!eor.sset<6uilding counseling is /ollo>ing in t!is clinical pat! .ssets increase t!e >el/are o/ o//spring. 1it! assets to protectD people pa.mar+et<centered societ. . )in* C 'ssets Discourse %!& 'ssetC-uilding discourse otheri. . Disclaimers asideD t!is is a discourse t!at is deepl.s muc! asset<6uilding discourse in3ol3es resisting >!at George @us! called t!e Jsot 6igotr. 0!e.to impro3e t!em.D . 0!e 9rganiCation /or Economic Co<operation and De3elopment in Eu] rope "9ECD# !as emp!asiCed t!is in documents extolling t!e 3irtues o/ asset<6ased approac! in !elping t!e poor t!in+ in more middle<class >a-s so t!at t!e. 0!is point does not concern 6eing ric!.end up 6eing as+edD once againD to Jassume t!e >orstJ a6out t!e poorD t!is time >!en t!e.D.!a3e p!-sical assetsD t!e.present<oriented sur3i3al strategies.in t!e Graduate Sc!ool o/ Social 1or+ and Social 2esearc! at @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 200$ C!apter 5i3eG in 1el/are Discipline: DiscourseD Go3ernanceD and Glo6aliCation 4g 11% par 1 – pg 120 par 1 . .o/ asset<6ased discourse is an-t!ing 6ut unintentional .o/ t!e poor to act middle classD t!ere is muc! to suggest t!at regardless o/ intentionsD asset< 6uilding discourse ends up 6eing too easil. 1it! a /e> meansD people >ill 6egin to t!in+ a6out impro3ing t!emsel3es.to ta+e ris+s >it! a sa/et. d .t!at is /irml.ssets ena6le /ocus and specialisation. 0!en againD t!e ps-c!olog.ssets impro3e !ouse!old sta6ilit-. I/ t!e. It concerns !a3ing enoug! to merit peer recognition. 0o use a currentl.1it! more assetsD t!e a6ilit.ssets increase social in/luence.ssets promote de3elopment o/ !uman capital and ot!er assets.sa3ings to cus!ion income s!oc+s t!at mig!t ot!er>ise t!ro> people into income po3ert-. e .to trans/er >ealt! to t!e poor so as to o3ercome t!e ineFuities associated >it! t!e current socioeconomic structure and t!e >a. /e> assets create !opeD and !ope leads to /uture<oriented 6e!a3iour as opposed to entirel.c!allenged -ears ago.. d .o/ lo> expectationsJ a6out t!e a6ilit.inde6ted to pre3ious ideas a6out t!e culture o/ po3ert-.attention to >!ere t!eir leaders lead t!em.chological theor.ssets pro3ide a /oundation /or ris+<ta+ing. d .in >!ic! asset polic.>ill c!ange t!e outloo+ o/ t!e poor more t!an t!e structure o/ societ-.ssets create an orientation to>ard t!e /uture. d . InsteadD S!erradenD >it! 2a. 0!e /ocus on >!et!er t!e poor >ill sa3e is actuall.o/ discourse .@os!araD emp!asiCes t!e >a. 0!e assertion also applies to entrepreneurs!ip.o/ t!e poor as t!e main >a.to attac+ po3ert-.assimilated into t!e old culture o/ po3ert.net is increased..popular >ordD t!e.can no longer a//ord to li3e in JexclusionJ 0!e.Fuite distur6ingD gi3en t!at >!at is appealing a6out asset<6uilding discourse /or progressi3es is t!at it supposedl>ould 6e a more politicall. rooting itsel/ in ps. 1!et!er >e intend it or notD >e ma.ssets increase personal eicac-.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 "! po3ert-.spreading around t!e de3eloped >orld as part o/ glo6aliCation and t!e campaign to regiment populations to t!e ne> >orld order o/ lo><>age >or+. d .>or+s to marginaliCe lo><income indi3iduals li3ing in poor neig!6or!oodsD >or+ing in dead<end lo><>age ?o6sD and going >it!out access to t!e educational opportunities t!at >ould ena6le t!em and t!eir c!ildren to escape po3ert-. Suc! 6e!a3ior.?oin t!e s-stem.o/ t!e poor: d .ssets increase political participation.sset<6uilding discourse asserts an insistence t!at it is emp!asiCing !o> t!e poor are no di//erent t!an e3er-one elseD 6ut t!en it ends up /ounding and ?usti/-ing its approac! on a ps-c!ological t!eor. In summariCing t!e de3elopments "! . C!ildren raised in !ouse!olds >it! su//icient assets to end preoccupation >it! immediate sur3i3al gain in m-riad >a-s t!at pro3ide t!em >it! !uman assetsO6eginning >it! 6etter nutrition and !ealt! and ending >it! acculturation and education.

6.sources# suggests t!at "1# t!e poor can sa3e and accumulate assets and "2# assets !a3e positi3e socialD ps-c!ologicalD and ci3ic e//ects independent o/ t!e e//ects o/ income.researc! e//orts connected to policies and pro?ects in t!e =. "organiCed 6. e3en i/ it means t!eir continued su6ordination at t!e 6ottom competiti3e mar+ets /or !ousingD sc!oolingD ?o6sD and t!e sources o/ >ell<6eing more generall-.ong KongD .ustraliaD S>edenD 0ai>anD C!inaD SingaporeD CanadaD =gandaD and 8exicoD and re] searc! continues as >ell t!roug! 3arious programs o/ t!e 9ECD.promote.S. In addition to primar.. "" .t!e Corporaion /or Enterprise De3elopment and t!e Center /or Social De3elopment# and t!e Sa3ings Gate>a. 1!ile directed primaril. SoD t!enD >e see !ere Fuite clearl.sset @uilding and t!e Escape /rom 4o3ert-D pro6a6l.t!e 6est report on t!e state o/ asset 6uilding >orld>ide. 8ost nota6l-D t!e J. So it goes >it! t!e glo6aliCation o/ discourse in t!e emerging o>ners!ip societ-. In 200&D 9ECD pu6lis!ed .K.aspects o/ asset accumulationD distri6utionD and impacts is increasing. In ot!er >ordsD t!e emp!asis o/ asset<6uilding discourse on c!anging t!e ps-c!olog. "sponsored 6.and secondar.researc!ers in .ccount "ID.o/ discourse t!at reinscri6es t!e 9t!erness o/ t!e poor and intensi/ies t!e interest in stud-ingD sur3e-ingD treating t!e poor to 6ecome more acti3e participants in t!e glo6al order.at a 1estern European audienceD t!is report argues t!at asset policies !old t!e potential to trans/orm Jpassi3e >el/are statesJ into Jacti3e social in3estment statesDJ t!roug! "a# t!e act o/ sa3ing and t!e reciprocit.8 0reasur-# produced e3idence t!at participants could sa3e in structured accounts.o/ t!e poor is !elping it 6ecome part o/ t!e glo6aliCation o/ a ne> discourse o/ dependenc-D spreading around t!e >orld to 6uttress >el/are state roll6ac+s >it! t!e s!i/t to>ard la6or acti3ation policies t!at gi3e priorit.to mo3ing t!e poor into lo><>age la6or mar+ets .4ilot 4ro?ect in t!e =.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 "" in t!e /ieldD S!erraden and @os!ara emp!asiCe researc! t!at s!o>s t!at t!e poor can 6e taug!t to sa3e: 4er!aps most signi/icantl-D researc! "/rom 6ot! primar. 0!e idea t!at t!e poor s!ould accumulate assets is no> almost commonD language suc! as Jasset<6ased polic-J is no> mainstreamD and researc! o/ man. and =..and secondar.ma.# Demonstration in t!e =.D asset 6uilding pro?ects and7or researc! e//orts are under>a..merican DreamJ Indi3idual De3elopment .S.K. 5inall-D ot!er asset 6uildingD pro?ects and researc! are 6eing pioneered around t!e >orld.t!at t!is is !o> one discourse trades on anot!erD l/ ma+ing eac! complicit in a conspirac.it impliesD and "6# t!e Jasset e//ectsJ along >it! t!e greater return on scarce pu6lic dollars and 6etter ciiCens!ip t!e.

ma+ing itsel/ real and 6ecoming its o>n sel/</ul/illing prop!ec-D in t!e =. 5ailing to account /or t!e per3asi3e role o/ glo6aliCation discourse in structuring !o> polic-ma+ers c!oose to respond to internal demograp!ic and economic c!anges is a serious o3ersig!t in >a-s t!at in3ol3e 6ot! an impersonal determining structure and t!e 3olition t!at comes >it! !a3ing personal agenc. decisions and entrenches them in capitalism that is sel/C legitimating SchramD pro/ E @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 0# San/ord 5. 0!ere/oreD t!e emp!asis on internal pressures o3er t!e external /orces o/ glo6aliCation o3erloo+s t!at glo6aliCation as a politicall.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 "# )in*s C Competiti+eness Discourse %1& Glo-ali. It is distinctl. It is also a conspirac.merica.>ant to. and t!en in Europe as >ell.created its o>n /oreign t!reat t!at it t!en con3inced itsel/ it !ad to /earD producing t!e desired economic insecurit.outcomes are not structurall-<determined 6. Glo6aliCation discourse is in t!is sense sel/<legitimating.c!oices t!at lead to ma+ing >el/are state cut6ac+s seem ine3ita6le >!en instead t!e c!oice o/ !o> to respond to internal pressures is muc! more open<ended t!an t!e neoli6eral discourse o/ capitalist >el/are states >ould allo> . 9nce a more dialectical understanding o/ t!e relations!ip 6et>een t!e material and t!e ideational is emp!asisedD !o>e3erD a rat!er di//erent picture emerges.c!anges in >a-s t!at supported >or+ers rat!er t!an simpl.a. 0!e political is /ar more t!an merel.contingent is rendered necessaronl.on empirical measures o/ t!e extent to >!ic! economic relations !a3eD or !a3e notD 6een glo6alised .a3aila6le to structure de6ate a6out >!at to do a6out internal demograp!ic and economic c!anges . In one senseD /ailing to account /or glo6aliCation discourse o3erloo+s !o> it /acilitates ma+ing t!e polic.s a resultD glo6aliCation as a discourseD more so t!an as an inexora6leD o6?ecti3e economic /orceD can !elp create t!e conditions under >!ic! >el/are cut6ac+s seem to 6e t!e onl.6ecause t!e go3ernment 6elie3es t!at it doesG t!e merel. . "# . IndeedD in t!e a6sence o/ decisi3eD /acilitating political inter3entionsD t!e material processes o/ glo6alisation >ould 6e unsustaina6le.and social polic. 4olitical tr.t!e =nited States told a6out t!e rest o/ t!e >orld to itsel/ and >!ic! ended up /ueling >el/are state retrenc!ment 6ac+ at !ome in .a stor. S.t!roug! t!e discourse and politics o/ glo6alisation .discourseD sel/< /ulillingD ma+ing itsel/ real 6.at !ome and a6roadD and e3entuall. In an. ConseFuentl-D >e argue t!at it is necessar./or political and economic elites >!o see opportunities to 6e exploited 6.!a3e to 6ut 6ecause t!e.29 .con3enient discourse is per3asi3el.o/ go3ernment precisel.possi6le t!at =.>rite: YGlo6alisation acts as so pronounced a constraint upon t!e autonom.more complicated t!an con3entional anal-ses >ould allo>. Colin .to /ocus not onl. Glo6aliCation discourse structures polic.ation discourse structures their polic.6ecause t!edid not con/ront muc! resistance /rom a de6ilitated la6or mo3ement D /urt!er distinguis!ing t!em /rom t!eir European counterpartsD >!o !a3e o/ten !ad to ela6orate social >el/are polic.logical responseD especiall.S.and 8att!e> 1atson capture t!is role o/ glo6aliCation discourse in /raming >el/are retrenc!ment deli6eraions in t!e =nited Kingdom >!en t!e.caseD glo6aliCation discourse !elped also /rame European responses to >!at >ere ta+en to 6e deterministic economicD socialD and demograp!ic /orces. In t!e case o/ >el/are state retrenc!mentD it is as i/ t!e =nited States con3enientl.pus!ing t!em into lo><>age ?o6s. 5urt!erD glo6aliCation discourse isD li+e an.a glo6alisation process /or >!ic! t!ere isD in an. Sc!ramD teac!es social t!eor.and readil.in t!e Graduate Sc!ool o/ Social 1or+ and Social 2esearc! at @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 200$ C!apter 9neG in 1el/are Discipline: DiscourseD Go3ernanceD and Glo6aliCation 4g 10 par & – pg 12 par 1 0!e pro6lem is simpl.c!oicesD ma+ing t!em seem to 6e t!e logical and e3en ine3ita6le ones..residual to a determining economic essence.n image o/ inexora6le economic /orces is o/ten summoned in order to explain t!e emergence o/ glo6alisationHs logic o/ ine3ita6ilit-.iteration. .restructuring t!eir >el/are states so t!at t!eir economies can 6e more competiti3e in t!e glo6al econom-D not 6ecause t!e.caseD onlsuper/icial e3idence. Glo6aliCation discourse >asD t!ere/oreD argua6l. corporate leaders could c!ampion glo6aliCation so success/ull.s t!is Fuotaion suggestsD glo6aliCation is more t!an an empirical Fuestion.o/ its o>n special sort.

S.as a pro6lem t!at must 6e attac+ed 6.operates as a potent /orm o/ po>er !elping to ma+e >!at it ta+es to 6e true real and determinati3eD o6durate and /actual. eit!er is glo6aliCation discourseD >!ic! operates as its o>n !ard< edged sel/</ul/illing prop!ec-.in t!e Graduate Sc!ool o/ Social 1or+ and Social 2esearc! at @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 200$ C!apter 9neG in 1el/are Discipline: DiscourseD Go3ernanceD and Glo6aliCation 4g 1) par & – par ) =. Sc!ramD teac!es social t!eor.emulation in part else>!ereD ma+ing it seem ine3ita6le to t!e point t!at it 6ecomes a sel/</ul/illing prop!ec. DiscourseHs sel/</ulilling and sel/<legitimating circular causalit. 0!ere/oreD not onl. 0!e lesson o/ t!is I argue is t!at t!e trut!D >!ate3er it ma.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 "3 )in* – Competiti+eness Discourse %2& Glo-ali. 0!e trut! is a /orm o/ po>er sa-s 5oucaultD and glo6aliCation discourse >ould 6e a primar. 0!is is a discourse t!at !as made itsel/ real /irst 6.iteration in t!e =nited States and t!en 6. 0!e trut! is not Jmus!-J a/ter all.6e ultimatel-D comes to us as a sel/</ul/illing and sel/<legitimating arti/act o/ discourse.ation discourse is sel/Clegitimating -ecause it structures the li+es o/ those immersed in the discourse SchramD pro/ E @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 0# San/ord 5. "3 .scaling 6ac+ social assistance so t!at local economies can 6ecome more competiti3e internationall-.>!en it comes to understanding >el/are state retrenc!ment in t!e =nited States in recent -ears.D especiall.in t!e =nited States.mig!t t!e trut! 6e one<sided 6ut its edge cuts deep and !ardD /or 6etter orD as is o/ten t!e caseD /or >orse.case in pointD especiall.<st-le glo6aliCation discourse !as singled out >el/are dependenc.and social polic.

"2 .at ort!ern Illinois = and /ounder o/ critical criminolog-7 and Shelden7 pro/. 1e must ma+e ot!ers a>are o/ t!e current meaning o/ la> and crime control in capitalist societ-.s students o/ la> and crimeD and as socialistsD our tas+ is to consider t!e alternati3e to t!e capitalist legal order.192SlpgR4. In t!e a6sence o/ certain su6stanti3e conditionsD /ormal rig!ts are o/ little 3alue to millions >!o lac+ t!e timeD mone.to ma+e a realit.CSpgR4.t t!is ad3anced stage o/ capitalist de3elopmentD la> is little more t!an a rigid and repressi3e means o/ manipulation and control.6oards o/ Independent 4rogressi3e 4olitics et>or+D Education 1it!out @ordersD and t!e Paseno3ic 5oundation as a Aisiting 5ello> at t!e Institute /or 4olicStudies in 1as!ingtonD D. . S!eldenD :CritiFue o/ legal orderD.merican legal s-stem must 6e de3oted to t!e contradictions o/ t!e existing legal order.natole 5rance once o6ser3edD pro!i6its ric! and poor ali+e /rom stealing 6read and 6egging in t!e streets. o/ criminal ?ustice at = (A7 01 "2ic!ard Uuinne-D 2andall G.com76oo+sQ idR-GG?'A9.o/ t!e .7 ') 8ic!ael 4arentiD !e >as a>arded a Certi/icate o/ Special Congressional 2ecognition ser3es on t!e ad3isor. 0a+e t!e :rig!t o/ e3er.and opportunit. @ut againD t!is /ormal political eFualitis somet!ing o/ a /iction as >e s!all see in t!e pages a!ead.o/ t!eir rig!ts. . 9/ >!at good are t!e rules /or t!ose millions >!o are excluded /rom t!e gameQ Ander capitalism7 la0 is a =means o/ manipulation and control> Nuinne.192SdFRT22capitalist`legal T22SsourceR6lSotsRo+?da+a(n2SsigRs6A1'f)IIxKg(/+')XKF$KdrPeES!lRenSeiR$t@pSsC(.@8. 0!e o6?ecti3e is to mo3e 6e-ond t!e existing legal order.citiCen to 6e !eard.. 2001D !ttp:776oo+s. di3orced /rom t!e class conditions t!at o/ten place t!e ric! a6o3e t!e la> and t!e poor 6elo> it. In its ma?estic eFualit-D t!e la> allo>s 6ot! t!e ric! and t!e poor to raise !ig! t!eir political 3oices: 6ot! are /ree to !ire t!e 6est<placed lo66-ists and 1as!ington la>-ers to pressure pu6lic o//ice!oldersG 6ot! are /ree to s!ape pu6lic opinion 6o>ning a ne>spaper or tele3ision stationG and 6ot! ric! and poor !a3e t!e rig!t to engage in multimillion<dollar election campaigns in order to pic+ t!e rig!t persons /or o//ice or >in o//ice t!emsel3es. 0hich the rich are al0a.CD 0!e la> in its ma?estic eFualit-D .t!at >e are engaged in a socialist re3olution. .s placed a-o+e the poor( 8arenti7 recei+ed his 8h(D( in political science /rom Male Ani+ersit.nd in so doing t!e la> 6ecomes somet!ing o/ a /arceD a /iction t!at allo>s us to spea+ o/ t!e :rig!ts o/ all.I2c89a>n .google.8SsaRfSoiR6o o+XresultSctRresultSresnumR10# .7 pro/. o/ sociolog. 5urt!er stud.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 "2 )in* – )a0 )a0 is an a+enue -.nd t!is means ultimatel.

decades >ould it ta+e 6e/ore t!e./or capital accumulation "and t!ere/ore economic gro>t!# not to ta+e place .ugust 200'.are denied access.t!e existing industrial s-stemD t!e de<car6oniCation o/ t!e >orldLs energ.soon 6ecome increasingl. . !ttp:77mont!l-re3ie>.o> man.di//icult /or t!e capitalist s-stem to accommodate t!e material pri3ileges o/ t!e upper middle class >!ile simultaneousl.s I discussed earlierD t!ere are man.start to !a3e access to solar<po>ered electric carsQ 8oreo3erD unli+e consumer no3elties suc! as cell p!ones or lap topsD >!ic! can 6e readil.o/ =ta!D 02 "8inFi (i teac!es economics at t!e =ni3ersit. 4eople or countries t!at cannot a//ord to pa.in income and >ealt! distri6ution under capitalismD !o> could a glo6al capitalist econom.2e3ie>D Pul-<.6e /aster t!an t!e rate o/ depreciation o/ long<lasting /ixed assets.s-stem reFuires /undamental trans/ormation o/ t!e >orldLs economic in/rastructure .or e3en longerD t!e assumed rates o/ de<car6oniCation presented in ta6les 1 and 2 must 6e seen as extremeloptimistic.o>e3er D under a capitalist s-stemD so long as t!e means o/ production and surplus 3alue are o>ned 6. E3en toda.and t!e commitment to an exploitati3e and oppressi3e social s-stem. "9 . =nless surplus 3alue is placed under social controlD t!ere is no >a.s-stem . 5rom a purel.org70'0%21li. .manage an orderl.manner until t!e green!ouse gases emissions /all to reasona6le le3els . @ro>n and (o3ins !a3e greatl. In an economic s-stem 6ased on production /or pro/itD a ne> tec!nolog. Considering t!at man.e//icient energ.tec!nical o6stacles to t!e de<car6oniCation o/ t!e >orldLs energ.p!p# .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 "9 )in* – En+ironmental sustaina-ilit.conscientious en3ironmentalists >ill !a3e to c!oose 6et>een t!e commitment to ecological sustaina6ilit.as possi6leD t!e >orld s!ould still !a3e t!e material production capacit.manu/actured 6.to meet t!e 6asic needs o/ t!e entire >orldLs population e3en >it! a muc! smaller >orld econom"scenarios 1 to & in ta6le 2 >ould roug!l.tec!nical point o/ 3ie>D t!e most simple and straig!t/or>ard solution to t!e crisis o/ climate c!ange is immediatel.t!e in!erent o6stacles to tec!nological di//usion in t!e capitalist s-stem.correspond to a return to t!e 19$0s material li3ing standards#. 0!is can o63iousl.is :intellectual propert-.o/ =ta! in Salt (a+e Cit-D :Climate C!angeD (imits to Gro>t!D and t!e Imperati3e /or SocialismD. Capitalism relies on ideologies that contradict sustaina-le practices( It5s impossi-le to address pro-lems o/ the en+ironment 0ithin capitalism )i7 pro/essor o/ economics at =ni3ersit. 0!is 6asicallmeans t!at t!e pace o/ de<car6oniCationD e3en under t!e most ideal conditionsD cannot reall.meeting t!e reFuirements o/ production /or pro/it and accumulation.tec!nologies using rene>a6les 6ecome a3aila6le rig!t a>a-D t!eir application >ill 6e dela-ed 6.!undreds o/ millions o/ people in t!e >orld !a3e no access to electricit-.exaggerated t!e potentials o/ tec!nical c!ange. 8ont!l.to stop all economic gro>t! and start to do>nsiCe >orld material consumption in an orderl.6uildings and ot!er long<lasting structures >ill stand /or !al/ a centur. ..6e accomplis!ed >it! t!e existing tec!nolog-. Sooner or laterD t!ose trul. 8oreo3erD gi3en t!e enormous ineFualit. I/ all t!e current and potentiall.o/ t!e proposed !ig!l.o>e3erD t!e la>s o/ motion o/ capitalism >ill +eep operating so long as t!e capitalist s-stem remains intactD independent o/ t!e indi3idual >ills and against t!e 6est >is!es o/ t!e upper<middle<class en3ironmentalists.a3aila6le de<car6oniCation tec!nologies are introduced to all parts o/ t!e >orld as rapidl. @ut e3en i/ man.do>nsiCing >!ile meeting t!e 6asic needs o/ 6illions o/ peopleQ Economic gro>t! is indispensa6le /or capitalism to alle3iate its in!erent social contradictions. 5urt!ermoreD >it! t!e deepening o/ t!e glo6al ecological crisis and t!e crisis o/ glo6al capitalism in generalD it ma.t!e capitalistsD t!ere are 6ot! incenti3es and pressures /or t!e capitalists to use a su6stantial portion o/ t!e surplus 3alue /or capital accumulation.

.to respond to t!e demands placed on it.!ad e3en a presentiment t!at suc! /orces slum6ered in t!e lap o/ social la6orQ . 1e !a3e seen t!at at t!e !eart o/ t!ese trends is an economic s-stem dri3en 6.6. .a small part o/ t!e eart!Ls sur/aceD and t!e ne> sciences and tec!nologies !arnessing t!e /orces o/ nature to !uman purposes >ere still in t!eir in/anc-.stem7 and these policies al0a. Implicit in t!e 3er.glo6al s-stemD and t!e de3elopment and application o/ science and tec!nolog.on natureLs capacit.concept o/ t!is s-stem are interloc+ed and enormousl./rom t!e ot!er side o/ t!e eFuation.and ac!ie3ements o/ t!e t!en -oung capitalist mode o/ production: 0!e 6ourgeoisieD during its rule o/ scarce one !undred -earsD !as created more massi3e and more colossal producti3e /orces t!an !a3e all preceding generations toget!er.and in3enti3eness o/ entitiesOindi3idualsD partners!ipsD in t!e last !undred -ears corporationsO out to ad3ance t!eir o>n economic interests >it! little t!oug!t and less concern /or t!e e//ects on eit!er societ.and agricultureD steam na3igationD rail>a-sD electric telegrap!sD clearing o/ >!ole continents /or culti3ationD canaliCation o/ ri3ersD >!ole populations con?ured out o/ t!e groundO>!at earlier centur.t!eir mutual competitionD and controlled in t!e s!ort run 6.reac!ed dangerous proportionsD it also /ollo>s t!at >!at is essential /or success is a re3ersalD not merel.to increase t!e capacit.de3astating crises.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 #0 )in* – En+ironmental <ustice %1& 'ttempts at en+ironmental <ustice cannot possi-l.nd since t!e diseFuili6rium !as alread.mont!l-re3ie>.pursuing t!eir o>n interestsD c!ec+ed onl. .s come up short – resulting in ecological de+astation( Capitalists 0ill -ac*lash against the plan and rei/.!tm# Since t!ere is no >a.t!e concentrated energ.ctuall-D >!en t!is >as >ritten in 1')% t!e rule o/ t!e 6ourgeoisie extended to onl.is /ounder o/ t!e mont!l.a centur.-ears ago.7 /ounder o/ t!e 8ont!l.to industr. 9n t!e plus sideD t!e creati3e dri3e relates to >!at !uman+ind can get out o/ nature /or its o>n usesG on t!e negati3e sideD t!e destructi3e dri3e 6ears most !ea3il.o/ indi3iduals and small groups single<mindedl.t!e energ. Despite all t!e dramatic c!angesD !o>e3erD t!e s-stem remains in essence >!at it >as at its 6irt!D a ?uggernaut dri3en 6.lread.and incompati6le. capital S0ee. Su6?ection o/ natureLs /orces to manLs mac!iner-D application o/ c!emistr.2e3ie>D 29 "4aul S>eeC.and agriculture !a3e progressed 6e-ond an-oneLs >ildest dreams a !undred and /i/t. Since t!en capitalism !as spread to 6ecome a trul.and a !al/ ago 8arx and EngelsD in a memora6le passage /rom t!e Communist 8ani/estoD paid a remar+a6le tri6ute to t!e energ.nd sinceD as argued a6o3eD t!e ad?ustment must come /rom t!e side o/ t!e demands imposed on nature rat!er t!an /rom t!e side o/ natureLs capacit.. threaten the capitalist s.to respond to t!ese demands D >e !a3e to as+ >!et!er t!ere is an-t!ing a6out capitalism as it !as de3eloped o3er recent #0 .po>er/ul dri3es to 6ot! creation and destruction .to industr. 19'9 !ttp:77>>>.org7100)pms&.t!e impersonal /orces o/ t!e mar+et and in t!e longer runD >!en t!e mar+et /ailsD 6.as a >!ole or t!e natural en3ironment >!ic! it dra>s on /or t!e essentials o/ its existence.K Sooner or laterD o/ courseD t!ese t>o dri3es are contradictor.o/ t!e en3ironment to 6ear t!e 6urdens placed on itD it /ollo>s t!at t!e ad?ustment must come entirel.a slo>ing do>nD o/ t!e underl-ing trends o/ t!e last /e> centuries.re3ie>7economistD :Capitalism and t!e En3ironment.

Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 #1 )in* – En+ironmental <ustice %2& Enacting policies that increase en+ironmental <ustice necessitate the marriage o/ positi+ism and capitalism( :his alliance reCentrenches po+ert.researc! as an alternati3e pro6lem<sol3ing met!od /or addressing en3ironmental ?ustice.de3elopment is 6etter t!an no de3elopment at all.&ne>ell.edu7?ournals7glo6alXen3ironmentalXpolitics7300*7*. 0!is s!i/t o6liges us to relate ineFualities >it!in societies to economic in?ustices 6et>een t!em.!tml# It is increasingl.com76oo+sQ!lRenSlrRSidR'9mIA%t!66+CSoiR/ndSpgR40)SdFR T22(iuT22`T22En3ironmental`?ustice`anal-sis:`t!eoriesD`met!odsD`and`.google. 5or en3ironmental ?ustice anal-sisD Jpositi3ism or traditional researc! is ad3ersarial and contradictor-G it o/ten lea3es la-people con/used a6out t!e certaint.c+no>ledging t!at t!e union o/ positi3ism and capitalism !as 6roug!t us modern prosperit- and a !ig! Fualit. 1!en t!e /ocus mo3es /rom reading politics /rom geograp!.point /or assessing t!e importance o/ race and class to ineFualit.&D 200*D !ttp:77muse. 2eading politics in terms o/ inter<social and economic di3isions exposes t!e nature o/ capitalism >it!in t!e polariCation o/ t!e Munder<classesL $e0ell7 Senior 2esearc! 5ello> at t!e Centre /or t!e Stud. 5rom an !istorical materialist perspecti3eD as 1ood arguesD t!e class polariCations o/ capitalism t!at !a3e 6een associated >it! t!e ort!<Sout! di3ide increasingl. o/ 4lanningD 01 "5eng (iuD :En3ironmental ?ustice anal-sisD. .e c!allenged positi3ismD >!ic! !as dominated scienti/ic inFuir..o/ Glo6alisation and 2egionalisationD =ni3ersit.J2 IndeedD >or+ing class communities are regarded as con3enient depositories o/ t!e social and en3ironmental !aCards o/ industrial acti3it. .?!u.and solutions regarding exposure to en3ironmental toxinsJ "@r-ant l99'#..to /ocus on intra and transnational social and economic di3isionsD loo+ing /or example at JSout!s in t!e ort!J and J ort!s in t!e Sout!DJ1 >e !a3e an entr.in glo6al en3ironmental politics. T22`SotsR=6u?. and causes 0ar and en+ironmental degradation )iu7 8ar-land dept.un!elp/ul to 3ie> glo6al en3ironmental politicsD eit!er in terms o/ t!e ecological c!ange processes >!ic! it see+s to manage "issue<6ased anal-sis# or t!e institutions t!at are constructed "regime anal-sis# in terms o/ generic categories o/ ort! and Sout!D as 8arian 8illerHs >or+ made clear.J& #1 .*d3r-SsigR)6PX+C>00dld00B5&9P!920cEdo# @r-ant "l99*# called /or adoption o/ participator.in t!is >a.o/ 1ar>ic+ D 0" "4eter e>ellD :2aceD Class and t!e Glo6al 4olitics o/ En3ironmental IneFualit-D.6ecause t!ose communitiesD as YEnd 4age %0\ @ullard and 1rig!t suggestD !a3e a Jt!ird >orld 3ie> o/ de3elopment Ot!at isD an. !ttp:776oo+s.also produce Jt!e impo3eris!ment o/ so<called Hunder<classesH >it!in ad3anced capitalist countrie s./or more t!an a centur-. Glo6al En3ironmental 4olitics *.o/ li/eD !e also attri6uted to t!is alliance po3ert-D >arD en3ironmental destructionD and a close call >it! nuclear destruction.

In practice t!e state !as o/ten acted to accelerate t!e treadmill in t!e !ope o/ a3oiding political con/lict "Sc!nai6erg 19'0: )1'#. #2 . 4ello> and 2o6ert P. 0!usD exploitation o/ t!e en3ironment and exploitation o/ !uman populations are lin+ed. .edu76oo+s7c!apters702$2$$19&)c!ap1. 0!e tread<mill operates in t!is >a. the en+ironmental <ustice mo+ement 8ello0D 4ro/essor o/ Et!nic StudiesD and Director o/ Cali/ornia Cultures in Comparati3e 4erspecti3e =CSDD and 4rulleD 4ro/essor o/ Sociolog.and material.is organiCed. >ell<de3eloped literature locates t!e origin o/ en3ironmental pro6lems in t!e political econom.and en3ironmental degradation. "19'$: '1#. In t!eor-D t!e state is responsi6le /or reconciling disparities 6et>een t!e treadmill and societ-Ls social needs. @rulleD :4o>erD PusticeD and t!e En3ironment: 0o>ard Critical En3ironmental Pustice StudiesD 8I0 4ressD 200*D !ttp:77mitpress.to maintain a positi3e rate o/ return on in3estments. 0!e ecological result o/ t!is process is t!at t!e use o/ natural resources continues to increaseD regardless o/ t!e conseFuences on t!e sustaina6ilit. 0!e logic o/ t!e treadmill o/ production is an e3er<gro>ing need /or capital in3estment in order to generate goods /or sale on t!e mar+et.o/ t!e ecos-stem. t!at continues to create ecological pro6lems t!roug! a sel/<rein/orcing mec!anism o/ e3er more production and consumption. 0!is perspecti3e maintains t!at t!e capitalist econom./orms a :treadmill o/ production.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 #2 )in* C En+ironmental <ustice – 'lt sol+es % & Capitalism is the root cause o/ the social and en+ironmental pro-lems /ought -. 0!usD 6ot! ecological disorganiCation and race and class ineFualities are in!erent 6-<products o/ t!e social order. 1!en resources are constrainedD t!e treadmill o/ production searc!es /or alternati3e sources rat!er t!an conser3ing resources and restructuring production. 1e agree >it! =lric! @ec+ t!at :en3ironmental pro6lems are /undamentall6ased in !o> !uman societ. 0!e social result is t!at ineFualities increase and >or+ing<class populations recei3e less and less material 6ene/it /rom t!eir la6or. 5rom t!e en3ironmentD it reFuires gro>ing inputs o/ energ.pd/# 0!e /irst step to>ard understanding t!e origins o/ and prospects /or t!e en3ironmental ?ustice struggle is to situate t!e EP mo3ement >it!in a larger social d-namic o/ t!e social production o/ ineFualit.and En3ironmental Science at Drexel =ni3ersit-D 0" "Da3id .mit.o/ ad3anced capitalist economies "Sc!nai6erg 19'0G Sc!nai6erg and Gould 199)G 9LConnor 19%&D 19')D 19'%#. In order to understand and de3elop meaning/ul measures to mitigate ecological degradationD t!is anal-sis 6egins >it! t!e de3elopment o/ a t!eoretical perspecti3e on t!e social processes 6>!ic! t!ese pro6lems originate.

cross t!eir 6readt! and dept!D computer net>or+s lin+ >it! existing capitalism to massi3el.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 # )in* – Internet :he internet is integral to opening up ne0 mar*ets and ensuring capitalism5s sur+i+al( Schiller 4ro/. In addition to 6roadening t!e e//ecti3e reac! o/ t!e mar+etplaceD c-6erspace is ma+ing /easi6le >!at Ed>ard S. Du@o//D J6ut globali$ation no> implies an internationaliCing o/ /inancial and economic /lo>s t!at is /ar more integrated In t!is 6oo+D I s!o> t!at t!e Internet andD indeedD t!e greater telecommunications s-stem >it! >!ic! t!e Internet !as intert>ined comprise a leading edge o/ t!is epic transnationaliCation o/ economic acti3it-. 1999 "Dan Sc!illerD Digital Capitalism# I argue t!at >e s!ould 6e s+eptics a6out t!e potential o/ c-6erspace. 5ar /rom deli3ering us into a !ig!<tec! EdenD in /actD c-6erspace itsel/ is 6eing rapidl.erman calls a Jdeepening o/ t!e mar+etJO6ot! /or commercial !ome entertainment and /or educationD >!ic! !as long 6een exemptedD at least in partD /rom commercial imperati3es .as ne3er 6e/ore.J # .options.supranational mar+et s-stem. et>or+s are directlgeneraliCing t!e social and cultural range o/ t!e capitalist econom.I re/er to t!is ne> epoc! as one o/ digital capitalism.t!e /amiliar >or+ings o/ t!e mar+et s-stem. o/ Communications at =C<San Diego. and puts ne> constraints on domestic polic. JCapitalism !as al>a-s 6een an international s-stemDJ >rites t!e economic !istorian 2ic!ard @.6roaden t!e e//ecti3e reac! o/ t!e mar+etplace. . 0!at is >!. IndeedD t!e Internet comprises not!ing less t!an t!e central production and control apparatus o/ an increasingl.coloniCed 6. Kno>ledge carried t!roug! t!e Internet is no less s!aped 6.social /orces t!an it is else>!ere. .

g!ttp:77pa-am.po>er ne3er deli3ers 6etter ser3ice at a lo>er priceD inno3ation "8icroso/t still doesnLt get t!e i4od#D impro3ements in in/rastructureD or a /unctioning mar+etplaceQ #! .J 4a-amHs 4lace. 4!.ngeles.minoo/ar.and in/ant mortalit-.a measure o/ Fualit.# Extolling t!e 3irtues o/ a :pure and unadulterated capitalism. J5irst in Capitalism (ast in @road6and.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 #! )in* – 4road-and %1& 4road-and speed is unadulterated excess /rom AS' capitalism 6inoo/ar7 =ni3ersit.1992#.is lagging in man. !as al>a-s 6een in 3ogue in t!e =nited StatesD and it !as ne3er c!anged t!e /act t!e countr. 5e6ruar. is 6est +no>n .D Inorganic C!emistr-.ngeles 4!. ItLs nice to +no> to +no> t!at monopolpo>er is still >ors!ipped in t!e =nited States /or t!e excess po>er and >ealt! it concentrates in t!e !ands o/ t!e /e>.comh.o/ Cali/orniaD (os .o/ Cali/orniaD (os . 1!o cares t!at monopol.o/ Cali/orniaD @er+ele-.D Inorganic C!emistr-7 09 "4a-am 8inoo/arD "=ni3ersit.200) =ni3ersit.o/ li/eD c!ie/ among t!em li/e expectanc. o> >e can add 6road6and speed to t!e listD t!oug! 6road6and speed is !ardl.D. 2% 8a. @ac!elor o/ ScienceD C!emistr-.o/ li/e.critical measures o/ Fualit. It is a damn nice measure o/ excessD t!at one c!aracteristic /or >!ic! t!e =S.2009. 8a.D.

Digital capitalism also is /ree to p!-sicalltranscend territorial 6oundaries andD more importantD to ta+e economic ad3antage o/ t!e sudden a6sence o/ geopolitical constraints on its de3elopment. capitalism ShinD assistant pro/ E 4enn State =ni3ersit-D 0" Dong<.are !ardl.at 4enn State =ni3ersit. 9*#.in t!e neo<8arxist accountsD t!e de3elopment and application o/ telematics are seen to 6e dri3en 6. ot coincidentall-D t!e corporate political econom. Pust one -ear agoD ad!erents o/ a so<called ne> econom.>ell increaseD t!e 3olatilit. .is not neutral. Disparities in socioeconomic >ell<6eing are more di//icult to 3ie> as mere residues o/ a prior !istorical inclemenc-D >!en t!e. o/ Communications at =C<San Diego.amena6le to all users.one in t>ent.. Design and deplo-ment o/ suc! digital cities tend to 6e s!aped 6.is also di//using more generall.ong Kong.4!./ederal inmates in t!e =. 0!is s!i/t is not nominal 6ut su6stanti3e.in t!e =. 0!roug! t!is Jmarc! to t!e mar+etDJ as t!e %all &treet 'ournal calls itD roug!l.loc+ed in to t!em t!roug! t!e net>or+ design processJ "GillespieD 1991D p.a centur-D to 6e sureD 6ig 6usiness !as operated as a +ind o/ senior partner in league >it! a 3ariet. 0oda-D 6. is !oused in a /or<pro/it prisonD and more t!an one in eig!t communit-<!ospital 6eds is no> an in3estor<o>ned !ospitalG e3en 6ac+ground c!ec+s on >ould<6e /ederal emplo-ees @ut i/ digital capitalism comprises a JpurerJ and more generaliCed /orm t!an t!e allo-s >it! >!ic! >e !a3e li3ed in t!e pastD t!en t!is c!ange does not alle3iateD and indeed ma.o/ t!e mar+et s-stem.>ould /louris!. .are 6eing place on a true 6usiness 6asis. 0!eare not eFuall..o> to manage rampant speculati3e /e3ersQ . 8an.contrastD corporations are committing t!emsel3es to a direct ta+eo3er o/ t!ese +e.pro3ide /or one anot!er are more or less rapidl.pro?ects in di//erent /orms D suc! as t!e Digital 4ar+ o/ IrelandD t!e 8ultimedia Super Corridor o/ 8ala-siaD and t!e C-6erport o/ .D an in!erent 6ias is alread.o> to contain t!e e//ects o/ a secular 6uildup o/ industrial are per/ormed 6.ne>D or so it seems to meD is a c!ange in t!e s>eep o/ corporate rule. 4undits and columnists !ad to turn on a dime to engage Fuestions o/ damage control: .grounded in net>or+s trumpeted t!e ne>s o/ a supposed Jlong 6oomJ in >!ic! an una6ating prosperit.J "Gra!am S 8ar3inD 199$D p.& E3en as t!eir ros.t!e >or+ings o/ digital capitalism itsel/.cti3ities long exempt /rom t!e direct >or+ings o/ t!e /or<pro/it mar+et econom. . 6ut also >orld>ide. 1999 "Dan Sc!illerD Digital Capitalism# 1!at is !istoricall.an->!ere on t!e planet.countries energeticall. lengt!ening series o/ social practices t!roug! >!ic! >e pla-D educateD and generall.t>entiet! centur-D t!e corporate<led mar+et s-stem no longer con/ronts a signi/icant socialist ad3ersar.gro>ing p!enomenon D not onl. 0!is in!erent J6iasDJ as I s!o> 6elo>D can cause pro6lems /or t!e de3elopment o/ solutions in t!e pu6lic interest. and 8aster in In/ormation Science and 0elecommunicationD Spring 200*G Design and De3elopment o/ ext Generation o/ In/ormation In/rastructure: Case Studies o/ @road6and 4u6lic et>or+ and Digital CitDigital cities are a rapidl. .S.6eing annexed 6capital.ssistant 4ro/essor in t!e Sc!ool o/ In/ormation Sciences and 0ec!nolog.o/ non6usiness institutionsO sc!ools and uni3ersitiesD museumsD pro/essional societiesD go3ernment agencies.o> to a3ert a /ull<scale glo6al economic crisisQ ! . J0elecommunications are not neutral tec!nologies.reproduced 6.premise o/ t!is 3ie> is t!at tec!nolog. 93er roug!l. #" .are so o63iousl. 9ne suc! 3ie> argues t!at t!e /orces Js!aping t!e application and de3elopment o/ telecommunications are t!e politicalD economicD social and cultural d-namics o/ capitalism itsel/.less gra3e.sian economic /irestorm in3alidated t!em. 2 o3ercapacit-Q .t some>!at longer rangeD per!apsD issues raised 6.S.em6ar+ed on digital cit../unctions o/ social reproduction ..t!e imperati3e o/ maintaining capital accumulation o/ /irms .a /or<pro/itD pri3atiCed go3ernment agenc. 5or t!e /irst time since itsemergence in t!e earl.mar+et /orces . 22*#.D.across t!e social /ield.6o3e allD especiall. Digital expansion is dri+en -./orecasts !it t!e pressD t!e . +e.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 #" )in* – InternetG4road-and %2& Digital capitalism ma*es mar*ets more +olatile and pre+ents capitalism /rom sol+ing the pro-lems that it creates( Schiller 4ro/.ee S!inD .deepening social ineFualit.

Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 ## )in* C InternetG4road-and % & Digital expansion increases the idea o/ social capital ShinD assistant pro/ E 4enn State =ni3ersit-D 0" Dong<.to cooperate rat!er t!an compete to ac!ie3e a common goal.ssistant 4ro/essor in t!e Sc!ool o/ In/ormation Sciences and 0ec!nolog. 5u+u-ama "199*# claims in a similar 3ein t!at :Societies >!ere computer net>or+ing >ill reall.6elie3ed t!at inter<organiCational and inter<sectoral relations /acilitated 6.electronic net>or+s !as 6een /ocused on t!e Fuestion o/ >!et!er online relations!ips and 3irtual communities pro3ide t!e conditions necessar.3ie>ed a 4rogram</unded net>or+ as a pu6lic net>or+ "or com< munitnet>or+#<<an instrument to /urt!er social relations!ips and inter<organiCational and cross<sectoral connecti3it-.6ased communities in >!ic! /ace<to</ace ties !a3e alread. 0!usD t!e potential role o/ an electronic net>or+ appears to deri3e at least in part /rom t!e social structures alread.J 0!e. 0!e committee mem6ers pointed to t!e strengt!ening o/ existing inter< sectoral relations and t!e /orging o/ ne> ones in grantee communities as a 4rogram goal. 1$ 5or exampleD a cit-Hs pu6lic sc!ools couldD t!roug! t!e pu6lic net>or+D connect not ?ust to ot!er sc!oolsD 6ut also to C@9s and t!e local CooD as >ell as to ser3e a 6road cross<section o/ t!e local population. Sulli3anD =ni3ersit.to /urt!er t!e gro>t! o/ social capital "Cala6rese S @orc!ertD 199$G KlingD 199$G 1ellman et al.o/ 8innesotaD Panuar.present in a communit. '0#.D 199$#.6een esta6lis!ed.D.oran "199'# argueD !o>e3erD t!at >!et!er computer<mediated communication increases social capital depends on >!et!er 3irtual communities de3elop around p!-sicall.2002 Social Capital and Communit.ee S!inD .o/ 8innesotaD 02 Po!n (. ## . 0!e. 0!e causal arro> is assumed to point /rom t!e net>or+ to social capital .can ride on top o/ existing social net>or+s. @lanc!ard and .t!at ena6le di3erse entities >it!in t!e communit. 0!e social 6ene/its o/ suc! a net>or+ >ere descri6ed as Jcommunit.at 4enn State =ni3ersit. Communit.Electronic et>or+s 8uc! o/ t!e researc! to date appl-ing t!e concept o/ social capital to communit. net0or*s are dri+en -. 0!e idea o/ di3erse institutions and interests >or+ing toget!er /or t!e common good >as a recurrent t!eme in t!eir conceptualiCation o/ communit-. the idea o/ social capital Sulli+anD pro/ E =ni3ersit. and 8aster in In/ormation Science and 0elecommunicationD Spring 200*G Design and De3elopment o/ ext Generation o/ In/ormation In/rastructure: Case Studies o/ @road6and 4u6lic et>or+ and Digital Cit- 0!e committee seemed to t!in+ t!e implicit goals "common ground and social capital# could 6e >ell< realiCed t!roug! inter<sectoral relationsD /or exampleD lin+< ages among di//erent sectors li+e !ospitals to countgo3ernment /or 8edicaid reim6ursement process.4!.o/ 8innesotaD pro/essor o/ 4olitical Science E =ni3ersit. "p.ta+e o// are t!e ones in >!ic! tec!nolog.4rogram< /unded tec!nological in/rastructure >ould promote social capitalD social co!esionD and common ground in t!e communit-.net>or+ingDJ /org< ing o/Jcoalitions and partners!ipsDJ Jsocial capitalDJ and J/inding common ground.

State inter+ention in po+ert. IndeedD as a proo/ o/ t!e su6stanti3e materialit.nd precisel.2* Is t!is coming to t!e aid o/ t!e poorQ 0!e six -oung aut!ors o/ 0!e Incredi6le @read 8ac!ine re3eal t!e conseFuences o/ tr-ing to ma+e po3ert.6ecause t!e economic reproducti3e units o/ t!e s-stem are incorrigi6l.o/ t!e modern stateD >e /ind t!at in its capacit. 1it! one additional result: t!e 6an+ruptc. leads to more po+ert.alone t!ere >ere &2'D000 >el/are recipients in 19$0. 0!is is >!at c!aracteriCes all +no>n /orms o/ t!e state articulated >it!in t!e /rame>or+ o/ capitalLs social meta6olic order .o/ SussexD EnglandD 9" Ist3an 8esCarosD 199*D 4ro/essor at =ni3ersit. 1!at is its 6alance s!eetQ 0!is Fuestion is a /a3orite o/ li6ertarian economists in disputing t!e 6ene/its o/ t!e >el/are state.centri/ugal in c!aracter< >!ic! !appens to 6e /or a long time in !istor.po3ert-D t!e more po3ert.argueD t!at t!e more t!e state inter3enes to remed.o/ SussexD EnglandD :@e-ond Capital: 0o>ard a 0!eor.go a>a.o/ ur6an rene>al estimates t!at it destro-ed J/our !omesD most o/ t!em occupied 6.increases.pu6lic programsD middle< and upper<class /atnilies.aros7 4ro/essor at =ni3ersit.o/ t!e capital s-stemD em6od-ing t!e necessitco!esi3e dimension o/ its expansion<oriented and surplus<la6our<extracting structural imperati3e. .6lac+sD /or e3er. 8artin . In trut!D !o>e3erD t!e modern state 6elongs to t!e materialit.e/orming capital through the state –its role to capital is to secure la-our 6es. In t!e countr. In 5ree to C!ooseD 8ilton and 2ose 5riedman discuss /ederal !ousing pro?ects and point out t!at not onl.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 #3 )in* – :he State %1& .an integral part o/ t!e unparalleled d-namism o/ capitalD e3en i/ at a certain stage o/ de3elopment it 6ecomes most pro6lematical and potentiall. . and /uels the Capitalist deception( )epageD 5renc! EconomistD B22 ".ndersonHs 19%' stud. one t!e lessD t!e structuring principle o/ t!e modern stateD in all its /orms<including t!e postcapitalist 3arieties<is its 3ital role in securing and sa/eguarding t!e o3erall conditions o/ surplus<la6our extraction.as a >!oleD t!e num6er o/ people on >el/are !as gro>n /rom $D0*2D000 in 19*0 to 1*D0$9D000 in 19%2.2$ 1e are /orced to concludeD t!e.t!ro>ing 6illions o/ dollars at it: In e> Wor+ Cit.purc!ased 6.o/ 0ransition.destructi3eD< t!e co!esi3e dimension o/ t!e o3erall social meta6olism must 6e constituted as a separate totaliCing political command structure . #3 . .o/ large .enri (epageD 5renc! EconomistD 19'2D 0omorro>D Capitalism: 0!e Economics o/ Economic 5reedomD 12&# 0!e 1ar on 4o3ertSuppression o/ t!e g!ettos and reconstruction o/ ur6an centers >as one o/ t!e great pro?ects o/ t!e 19$0sH 1ar on 4o3ert-.merican cities.6.middle<and upper<income >!ites 5ormer residents !ad to mo3e a>a-. In 19%2 t!at num6er !ad gro>n to 1D2%*D000.as t!e totaliCing political command structure o/ capital it is no less concerned >it! securing t!e conditions o/ surplus<la6our extraction t!an t!e direct economic reproducti3e units t!emsel3esD t!oug!D naturall-D it !as to 6ring its contri6ution to t!e success/ul outcome in its o>n >a-. .!ome it 6uiltOmost o/ t!em to 6e occupied 6.>ere more d>elling units destro-ed t!an 6uiltD 6ut t!e c!ie/ 6ene/iciaries o/ ur6an rene>al !a3e not 6een poor peopleD 6ut t!e o>ners o/ t!e propert.

important decisions O t!e ones t!at concern >!at +inds o/ tec!nologies and commodities get producedD >!at +inds o/ la>s >ill 6e passedD and >!ic! >ars s!ould 6e /oug!t "or >!et!er an.com7e!ost7detailQ3idR2S!idR10)SsidR11&1*2'e<c$&6<)%'*<'caa< $$c'c1*$/e'aT)0sessionmgr10S6dataRPn pdG=9B1!3c&Ut6Gl2BUT&dT&dVd6Rap!S.1D .!eed.4I0.nd >!ile >e ma.man-.s!ould 6e /oug!t at all# O are e//ecti3el. 0.in po>er 6et>een t!e >ealt!.o/ indi3iduals controls t!e >ealt!D la6orD productionD political po>erD and cultural expression o/ t!e >!ole o/ societ-.J .plum6erD teac!erD or transit >or+er commands t!e same respect or in/luence on Capitol . one among us is so nai3e as to 6elie3e t!at an ordinar.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 #2 )in* C :he State %2& Cap is rooted in structural po0er discrepancies /a+oring the 0ealth.ll o/ t!e trul.to a3oid !ars! cuts t!at >ill !urt all o/ us.s i/ >orried t!at e3en t!is demand mig!t seem too /or>ardD t!e group added: J. =nder capitalismD t!e demos is permitted to exert onl.le/t in t!e !ands o/ a small cliFue >!ose mem6ers are dra>n /rom t!e ran+s o/ >!at C. (i+e !ostages ta+en prisoner 6anon-mous mas+ed /iguresD >e t!us come to identi/.G9 IS8 091.J 0!e >aitress smiles at !a3ing recei3ed a tip.ssociate 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!. !ttp:77>e6.>it! our o>n +idnappers.pro/ess to 6e Js!oc+edJ upon learning t!at t!is or t!at politician "or presidential appointee# engaged in corrupt acti3ities at t!e pu6lics expenseD in trut! >e are seldom surprised at all.>ill also su//er >!en t!eir gar6age isnHt pic+ed upD or t!e police respond slo>l.cornD and t!e 1or+ing 5amilies 4art-# !as gro>n so accustomed to seeing t!e po>er structure as ine3ita6le and natural t!at it 6elie3es its onl. .designD capitalism is a s-stem in >!ic! a small minorit.as it did t!en. elite San-onmatsuD .to protest drastic cuts in e> Wor+Hs !ealt! and pu6lic ser3icesD t!e groupHs sole demand >as /or Ja modest increase /or t!e top * percent o/ taxpa-ers.e6sco!ost.illD or in t!e @undestag or t!e KnessetD as t!e c!ie/ executi3e o//icer o/ Siemens or @ec!tel.2D 494=(.2 2=(E IS S02=C0=2.J ./ter t!ree decades o/ tax cutsD itHs t!e /air >a./inance re/orm la>s are passed in CongressD t!e enactment o/ ne> la>s alone >ill ne3er 6e su//icient to neutraliCe t!e tremendous discrepanc. 0!e ric! ma.president is so relie3ed t!at !er /a>ning attentions to a >ealt!patron !a3e paid o// t!at s!e doesnHt mind naming t!e ne> science 6uilding a/ter !im./e> and t!e ordinar. Capitalism is t!e Stoc+!olm S-ndrome made into a uni3ersal condition o/ !umanit-.at 1orcester 4ol-tec!nic Institute in 8assac!usettsD 8a-7Pune 2009D 0i++un :1!.(IS8HS .( O I0 IS @=I(0 I 09 0. The rich will always be with us .?o6 at all.at 1orcester 4ol-tec!nic Institute in 8assac!usettsD B09 "Po!n San6onmatsuD .not 6e li+e -ou and meD as 5.t!e mildestD most indirect o/ in/luences on t!e direction o/ state and societ-.E political D . Scott 5itCgerald put itD 6ut t!at doesnHt +eep us /rom identi/-ing >it! t!emD or /rom /eeling strangel. o/ capitalism itsel/ @.grate/ul /or remaining /ore3er at t!eir merc-. 1rig!t 8ills /amousl. Secretl-D >e all +no> t!is. 4lato >arned 2D*00 -ears ago t!at Jin proportion as ric!es and ric! men are !onored in t!e StateD 3irtue and t!e 3irtuous are dis!onoredDJ an o6ser3ation t!at !olds as true toda. 0!e steel >or+er is grate/ul Jto !a3e an.J o matter !o> man. #2 .ll o/ us O 6ecause t!e >ealt!.called Jt!e po>er elite.Capitalism S!ouldnLt @e Sa3ed. 0!usD >!en a coalition o/ progressi3e unions and grassroots organiCations too+ out a /ull<page ad3ertisement in t!e 0imes in 8arc! 2009D calling /or a rall.… 0!at p!raseD rat!er t!an t!e more /amiliar one /rom 8att!e> 2$D is t!e one t!at !aunts us deep insideD t!e one >e trul. E3en t!e grassroots (e/t "t!e e> Wor+ coalition included locals o/ suc! groups as t!e SEI=D t!e =.natureD i/ not 6.to a 6rea+<in 6ecause o/ cuts in pu6lic sa/et-. 0!e uni3ersit. .ssociate 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!.practical recourse lies in 6egging more crum6s /rom t!e ta6les o/ t!e >ealt!-. R&9%*&*&&# C.

0!e :goods./or a relati3el. >it! t!at o/ t!e t!ousands o/ ot!er societies t!at !uman 6eings !a3e constructed to realiCe t!at capitalism !as introduced t!e greatest assem6lage o/ producti3e /orces in >orld !istor. #9 .and pro3ided t!e expanding 6ene/its o/ t!at tec!nolog. It is not necessar.indi3idualiCed /orms o/ personal experience or relational /orms >!ic! tend to 6e mar+ed 6. 1!at it is de6arred /rom e3en seriousl. >!ic! emerge /rom t!is social order are mediated t!roug! a s-stem o/ mar+et exc!ange no> dominated 6po>er/ul transnational corporations s-stematicall. 5or t!e claim o/ sel/< realiCation t!roug! t!erap.attemptingD is t!e actual recognitionD let alone realiCationD o/ t!ese aims.can spea+ /or t!e ideological claim o/ capitalist la6orD t!e claim o/ sel/</ul/illmentD social !armon.6e a6le to accomplis! to some degree is t!e o6/uscation o/ t!e nature o/ >or+ and t!e penalties t!at >or+ exacts /rom t!e li3es o/ la6orers.com7smpp7contenticontentRa%1&$0&&&1id6Rall# @ut >!at it ma.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 #9 )in* – 6ental 1ealth :herap.ent>ined in a net o/ state 6ureaucracies.to engage in a protracted comparison o/ capitalist :>ell6eing. Capitalism cannot ser3e t!e common social goodG its entire structural directi3e is dependent upon increasing class exploitationD alienationD competitionD /ragmented la6or and ideological m-sti/ication. /unctioningD personal identit.in (ate Capitalism.small portion o/ t!e >orld population. In s!ort D t!e capitalist s-stemD li+e all ot!er s-stemsD ?udges t!e !ealt! o/ its mem6ers in accordance >it! t!e 6asic principles o/ it o>n "capitalist# /unctioning.and interpersonal relations!ips. 0!ese areD o/ courseD aspects o/ t!e present social s-stem >!ic! are de /acto in e//ectD >!ic! determine t!e de/initions t!at 6ecome t!e standards o/ t!erapeutic >or+.in/orma>orld. !ttp:77>>>.pro/essor at t!e 1rig!t Institute D t!e 5ran+/urt Sc!oolD 8arc! 2001D Capitalism ature Socialism Aolume 12D Issue 1 8arc! 2001 D pages *% – '$ :9n 8ental . 0!e 3alues t!at capitalism ma+es possi6le are predominantl.and reciprocal !uman recognition. 5or t!erap. re/lects current standards o/ :normal.is undermined 6. In traditional t!erap-D t!e criteria o/ :mental !ealt!.ealt! and 4s-c!ot!erap!.t!e nature o/ t!e capitalist s-stem: its collecti3e production and indi3idual isolationD social interdependence and personal atomismG exploitation and alienation o/ social li/eG t!e alienation o/ !uman po>erG and t!e m-sti/ication o/ li3ed experience. <udges mental health according to capitalist normsC perpetuates capitalist /unctioning )ichtman7 pro/ social ps-c!olog-D B01 "2ic!ard (ic!tmanD social ps-c!olog.exploitationD /ragmentation and social o6/uscation.

and e//icient as possi6le &) 1!atD !o>e3erD is t!e meaning o/ :e//icienc-.. 1!en suc! 3ie>s are articulated in t!eir dar+est /ormD as in t!e >ritings o/ t!e 5ran+/urt Sc!oolD one is inclined to re?ect t!em as caricatures o/ contemporar. a degradation o/ !uman existence codi/ied as appropriate /unctioning..in/orma>orld.education is partisanG it aims at ma+ing t!e c!ild adapt itsel/ to >!ate3er social s-stem is t!e esta6lis!ed oneD >it!out consideration o/ !o> 3alua6le or !o> sta6le t!at s-stem ma. It >ill !a3e done its tas+ i/ it sends t!em a>a.to maintain t!e existence o/ t!e present capitalist s-stem. It is t!e a3erage /unctioningD t!e normal :ad?ustment to realit-.. 5reud >as Fuite /ran+ a6out t!is issue: 0!e /unction o/ educationD t!ere/oreD is to in!i6itD /or6id and suppressD and it !as at all times carried out t!is /unction to admiration.in (ate Capitalism.relations >ill permit. Can t!erap. i/ not accommodation to t!e pre3ailing structure o/ capitalist logicQ 30 .. .arrangementsD one cannot t!in+ it rig!t to gi3e t!em t!e added support o/ t!is ps-c!o<anal-tical education o/ ours.resist t!e pre3ailing /orms o/ !uman exploitationQ It cannot accomplis! t!is end e3en i/ it >ere to c!oose to do so.t!ere is more 3ital existenceD pla-D /riends!ip and lo3eD compassion and !ope t!an t!e pessimism o/ a total regime o/ commodit. /orces patients to con/orm to capitalist ideologiesC it5s necessar. I do not /eelD !o>e3erD t!at t!is argument is 3alid.as !ealt!.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 30 )in* C 6ental 1ealth :herap. !ttp:77>>>.6e.com7smpp7contenticontentRa%1&$0&&&1id6Rall# So t!erap. to maintain the capitalist s.pro/essor at t!e 1rig!t Institute D t!e 5ran+/urt Sc!oolD 8arc! 2001D Capitalism ature Socialism Aolume 12D Issue 1 8arc! 2001 D pages *% – '$ :9n 8ental . 1e must place 6e/ore it anot!er and a !ig!er aimD one >!ic! is emancipated /rom t!e social standards t!at are dominant toda-.i/ it sets out to ma+e its pupils into re3olutionaries. 1ere it ne3er to /ul/ill its promiseD it >ould 6e reduced to a rule o/ 3iolence incompati6le >it! its need /or participatorsu6ordination.ealt! and 4s-c!ot!erap!.o>e3er t!e reasons /or t!is !umane di3ergence are t>o/old: /irstD muc! o/ >!at is 6est in li/e occurs outside o/ t!e s-stem o/ capitalist dominationG and secondD capitalism must al>a-s !old out t!e promise o/ !appiness and /ul/illmentD and so must permit some limited realiCation o/ t!ese ends. Certainl.li/e.re/erred to as :normal pat!olog-D.4s-c!oanal-tic education >ill 6e assuming an un>arranted responsi6ilit. It !as 6een said O and no dou6t >it! ?ustice O t!at e3er.is grounded in >!at I pre3iousl. 0rue.stem )ichtman7 pro/ social ps-c!olog-7 B01 "2ic!ard (ic!tmanD social ps-c!olog.. I/D it is arguedD one is con3inced o/ t!e s!ortcomings o/ our present<da. necessar.

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Capitalism Impacts – @ar %1&
Capitalism leads to extinction – multiple scenarios /or nuclear 0ar( 6ar*o7 0rote Anarchism and Human Survival: Russell’s problem, 03 8ar+o (Anarchism and Human Survival: Russell’s problem., May 14, 2003, !ttps:77>>>2.ind-media.org.u+7en7200&70*7$'1%&.!tml#j 0!ere exist t!ree t!reats to sur3i3al namel- nuclear >arD ecological c!ange and nort!<sout! con/lict. .ll t!ree I >ould argue can 6e traced to a single source t!at 6eing t!e pat!ological nature o/ state capitalism. 1!at is /rig!tening is t!at e3entual sel/ induced extinction is a rational conseFuence o/ our s-stem o/ >orld order muc! li+e t!e destruction o/ t!e s-stem o/ >orld order prior to 191) >as a rational conseFuence o/ its internal nature. I s!all /ocus in t!is essa- on nuclear >arD t!e most immediate t!reat. In doing so >e >ill come to
appreciate t!e nexus 6et>een t!is t!reatD glo6alisation and nort!<sout! con/lict. Currentl- >e are >itnessing a ma?or expansion in t!e =S glo6al militar- s-stem. 9ne /acet o/ t!is expansion is t!e glo6alisation o/ =S nuclear >ar planning +no>n as Jadapti3e planningJ. 0!e idea !ere is t!at t!e =S >ould 6e a6le to execute a nuclear stri+e against an- target on Eart! at 3er- s!ort notice. 5or strategic planners t!e >orldHs population is >!at t!e- re/er to as a Jtarget ric! en3ironmentJ. 0!e Clinton era commander o/ =S nuclear /orcesD .dmiral 8iesD stated t!at nuclear 6allistic missile su6marines >ould 6e a6le to Jmo3e undetected to an- launc! pointJ t!reatening Jan- spot on Eart!J. 1!at lies at t!e !eart o/ suc! a polic- is t!e desire to maintain glo6al strategic superiorit- >!at is +no>n as J/ull spectrum dominance J pre3iousl- re/erred to as Jescalation dominanceJ. 5ull spectrum dominance means t!at t!e =S >ould 6e a6le to >age and >in an- t-pe o/ >ar ranging /rom a small scale contingenc- to general nuclear >ar . Strategic nuclear superiorit- is to 6e used to t!reaten ot!er states so t!at t!e- toe t!e part- line ( 0!e @us! administrationHs uclear 4osture 2e3ie> stipulated t!at nuclear >eapons are needed in case o/ Jsurprising militar- de3elopmentsJ not necessaril- limited to c!emical or 6iological >eapons. 0!e Clinton administration >as more explicit stating in its 2001 4entagon report to Congress t!at =S nuclear /orces are to J!edge against de/eat o/ con3entional /orces in de/ense o/ 3ital interestsJ. 0!e passage ma+es clear t!at t!is statement is not limited to c!emical or 6iological >eapons. 1e !a3e ?ust seen in IraF >!at is meant 6- t!e p!rase Jde/ense o/ 3ital interestsJ.

1as!ington is asserting t!at i/ an- nation >ere to !a3e t!e temerit- to success/ull- de/end itsel/ against =S in3asionD armed >it! con3entional >eapons onl-D t!en instant anni!ilation a>aits. J1!at >e sa- goesJ or -ou go
is t!e message 6eing con3e-ed. ,itler no dou6t >ould !a3e !ad a similar conception o/ JdeterrenceJ. It s!ould 6e stressed t!at t!is is a message o//ered to t!e >!ole >orld a/ter all it is no> a target ric! en3ironment. During t!e cold >ar t!e =S t>ice contemplated using nuclear >eapons in suc! a /as!ion 6ot! in AietnamD t!e /irst at Dien @ien 4!u and during ixon administration planning /or Joperation duc+ !oo+J. In 6ot! cases t!e main impediments to =S action >ere t!e notion t!at nuclear >eapons >ere not politicall- Jusea6leJ in suc! a context and 6ecause o/ t!e So3iet deterrent. 0!e So3iet deterrent is no more and t!e =S currentl- is !otl- pursuing t!e de3elopment o/ nuclear >eapons t!at its designers 6elie3e >ill 6e Jusea6leJ >!at t!e Clinton administration re/erred to as lo> -ield eart! penetrating nuclear >eapons and >!at t!e @us! administration re/ers to as t!e 2apid uclear Eart! 4enetrator. Suc! strategic re/orms are meant to ma+e nuclear >ar a more 3ia6le polic- optionD on t!e 6asis t!at lo>er -ields >ill not immediatel- +ill as man- innocent people as !ig!er -ield >eapons. 0!is is +no>n as t!e lo>ering o/ t!e t!res!old o/ nuclear >ar. 0!e de3elopment o/ t!e 2 E4 dra>s us closer to t!e prospect o/ nuclear >arD

including accidental nuclear >arD 6ecause lo>er -ields >ill lo>er t!e 6arrier 6et>een con3entional and nuclear >ar. 0!ere >ill exist no real escalator- /ire>all 6et>een t!ese t>o /orms o/ >ar/are >!ic! means t!at in ancon3entional crisis in3ol3ing nuclear po>ersD t!ere >ill exist a strong incenti3e to stri+e /irst. . relations!ip 3er- similar to t!e interaction 6et>een t!e mo6ilisation sc!edules o/ t!e great po>ers prior to 191). 0!ere exist strong parallels 6et>een =S nuclear planning and t!e German Imperial Sta//Ls Sc!lie//en plan. (o>ering t!e t!res!old o/ nuclear >ar >ill also en!ance pressures /or glo6al nuclear proli/eration. I/ t!e =S is ma+ing its arsenal more usea6le 6- >or+ing to>ards ac!ie3ing a /irst stri+e capa6ilit-D t!en ot!ers suc! as 2ussia and C!ina must react in order to ensure t!e 3ia6ilit- o/ t!eir deterrents. 8oreo3erD t!e potential t!ird >orld targets o/ =S attac+ >ould also !a3e greater incenti3e to ensure t!at t!e- also !a3e a nuclear deterrent. It is also understood t!at t!e de3elopment o/ t!ese nuclear >eapons ma- reFuire t!e resumption o/ nuclear testingD a +e- reason /or t!e .dministrationHs lac+ o/ readiness to a6ide 6- t!e C0@0 treat-D >!ic! is meant to 6an nuclear testing. 0!e C0@0 is a +e- /eature o/ contemporar- glo6al nuclear non proli/eration regimes /or t!e =S signed t!e C0@0 in order to extend t!e nuclear non proli/eration treat- " 40# inde/initel-. .6andoning t!e C0@0 treat-D in order to de3elop a ne> generation o/ more Jusea6leJ nuclear >eapons t!at >ill lo>er t!e t!res!old o/ nuclear >arD >ill place t!e 40 regime under /urt!er strain and

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Capitalism K Generic greatl- increase t!e c!ances o/ /urt!er nuclear proli/eration.

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0!ere exists a Jdeadl- connectionJ 6et>een glo6al >eapons o/ mass destruction proli/eration and =S /oreign polic-. 9ne ma- >ell as+ >!at !as all t!is to do >it! state capitalismQ Consider t!e t!in+ing 6e!ind t!e militarisation o/ spaceD outlined /or us 6- Space CommandG :!istoricall- militar- /orces !a3e e3ol3ed to protect national interests and in3estments – 6ot! militar- and economic. During t!e rise o/ sea commerceD nations 6uilt na3ies to protect and en!ance t!eir commercial interests. During t!e >est>ard expansion o/ t!e continental =nited StatesD militar- outposts and t!e ca3alremerged to protect our >agon trainsD settlements and roads;. 0!e document goes onD :t!e emergence o/ space po>er /ollo>s 6ot! o/ t!ese models;. 8oreo3erD :t!e glo6aliCation o/ t!e >orld econom- >ill continueD >it! a >idening 6et>een M!a3esL and M!a3e notsL. 0!e demands o/ unilateral strategic superiorit-D long standing =S polic- +no>n as JescalationJ or J/ull spectrumJ dominanceD compel 1as!ington to pursue :space controlJ. 0!is means t!atD according to a report >ritten under t!e c!airmans!ip o/ Donald 2ums/eldD Oin t!e coming period t!e =S >ill conduct operations toD /romD

in and t!roug! spaceJ >!ic! includes Jpo>er pro?ection inD /rom and t!roug! spaceJ. 0o>ard t!is endD 1as!ington !as resisted e//orts in t!e = to create an arms control regime /or space. .s a result t!ere >ill ine3ita6l- arise an arms race in space ( 0!e importance o/ t!is simpl- cannot 6e o3er<emp!asised . 0!roug!out t!e nuclear age t!ere !a3e 6een a num6er o/ close callsD due to 6ot! !uman and tec!nical errorD t!at almost lead to a /ull scale nuclear exc!ange 6et>een 1as!ington and 8osco>. 0!ese glitc!es in command and control s-stems >ere ultimatel- 6enign 6ecause 6ot! sides !ad earl- >arning satellites placed in specialised or6its >!ic! could 6e relied upon to pro3ide real time imager- o/ nuclear missile launc! sites. ,o>e3er t!e militarisation o/ space no> means t!at t!ese satellites >ill 6ecome open gameG t!e 6enign en3ironment in space >ill disappear i/ t!e militarisation o/ space continues. 0!us i/ t!e =S >ere to Jconduct operations toD /rom in
and t!roug! spaceJ it >ill do see remotel-. 0ec!nical /ailure ma- result in t!e s-stem attac+ing 2ussian earl- >arning satellites. 1it!out Fuestion t!is >ould 6e percei3ed 6- t!e 2ussianHs as t!e /irst s!ot in a =S nuclear /irst stri+e. Consider /or instance a curious e3ent t!at occurred in 199*. . .S. researc! roc+etD part o/ a stud- o/ t!e nort!ern lig!tsD >as /ired o3er or>a-. 0!e roc+et >as percei3ed 6- t!e 2ussian earl- >arning s-stem as t!e spear o/ a =S /irst stri+e. 0!e 2ussian s-stem t!en 6egan a countdo>n to /ull scale nuclear responseG it ta+es onl- a single roc+et to ac!ie3e t!is e//ect 6ecause it >as no dou6t percei3ed 62ussian planners t!at t!is single roc+et >as meant to disa6le t!eir command and control s-stem as a result o/ electromagnetic pulse e//ects. 0o pre3ent t!e loss o/ all nuclear /orces in a su6seFuent /ollo> on stri+e t!e 2ussianHs >ould

need to launca! a /ull scale response as soon as possi6le. @ecause t!e =S itsel/ !as a !air trigger launc! on >arning posture a 2ussian attac+ >ould 6e /ollo>ed 6- a /ull scale =S attac+G t!e =S !as a num6er o/ Jreser3e optionsJ in its >ar plansD t!us suc! an accidental launc! could trigger a glo6al c!ain o/ nuclear release around t!e glo6e( Calamit- >as a3erted in 199* 6ecause 2ussiaHs earl- >arning satellites >ould !a3e demonstrated
t!at t!ere >as no launc! o/ =S nuclear /orces. I/ t!ese satellites >ere to 6e ta+en out t!en t!is ultimate guarantee disappearsG t!e 2ussian ground 6ased radar s-stem !as a num6er o/ +e- !oles t!at pre3ent it /rom >arning o/ an attac+ t!roug! t>o +ecorridorsD one /rom t!e .tlantic t!e ot!er /rom t!e 4aci/ic. In t!e /uture i/ an e3ent suc! as 199* >ere to occur in space t!e 2ussians no longer >ould !a3e t!e le3el o/ com/ort pro3ided 6- its space 6ased assets . 0!e militarisation o/ space greatlincreases t!e c!ances o/ a /ull scale accidental nuclear >ar. 0!e militarisation o/ space is intimatel- lin+ed >it! =S strategic nuclear /orcesD /or t!e pre3ious command co3ering spaceD +no>n as Space CommandD !as merged >it! t!e command responsi6le /or nuclear /orcesD Strategic Command. =pon mergerD t!e commander o/ Strategic Command statedD J=nited States Strategic Command pro3ides a single >ar /ig!ting com6atant command >it! a glo6al perspecti3eD /ocused on exploiting t!e strong and gro>ing s-nerg- 6et>een t!e domain o/ space and strategic capa6ilities.J 0!e C!airman o/ t!e Point C!ie/s o/ Sta// addedD Jt!is ne> command is going to !a3e all t!e responsi6ilities o/ its predecessorsD 6ut an entirel- ne> mission /ocusD greatlexpanded /orces and -ou mig!t e3en sa- se3eral in/inite areas o/ responsi6ilit- .J In ot!er >ordsD >e are >itnessing t!e

integration o/ strategic con3entionalD nuclear and space planning into t!e command responsi6le /or o3erseeing =S nuclear /orces. In turn t!ese /orces 6ecome an ordinar- /acet o/ =S strategic planningD se3ering t!e 6rea+
6et>een con3entional and nuclear >ar. 0!e lin+ 6et>een t!e increase in t!reats to sur3i3al and state capitalism "as >ell as glo6alisation# >as pro3ided /or us 6- t!e old Space Command as noted a6o3e. 1e ma- ?ustl- also conclude t!at =S nuclear >eapons pro3ide a s!ieldD or :s!ado>;D ena6ling t!e deplo-ment o/ o//ensi3e militar- /irepo>er in >!at Kenned- era commander General 8ax>ell 0a-lor re/erred to as t!e +e- t!eatre o/ >arD namel- Junder<de3eloped areasJ. 0!is s!ield >as made e//ecti3e 6- Jescalation dominanceJD as noted a6o3eD no> +no>n as J/ull spectrum dominanceJ. It is t!is /acet o/ =S strategic polic- t!at compels 1as!ington place suc! a premium on nuclear superiorit- and nuclear >ar /ig!ting. 0!e lin+

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6et>een =S nuclear strateg- and t!e glo6al political econom- is intimate. =S nuclear >eaponsD 6ot! during and a/ter t!e cold >arD !a3e acted as t!e ultimate guarantors o/ =S polic-D >!ic! is concerned >it! managing t!e >orld capitalist s-stem in t!e interests o/ dominant domestic elites . uclear >eapons pro3ide t!e
um6rella o/ po>er under >!ic! t!e s-stem is a6le to /unction in muc! t!e same >a- t!at Karl 4olan-i in !is classic >or+D 0!e Great 0rans/ormationD argued t!at t!e 6alance o/ po>er /unctioned in t!e ser3ice o/ t!e >orld capitalist s-stem in t!e 19t! centur-. 0!e :great restoration; o/ t!e >orld capitalist s-stemD under t!e ru6ric o/ :li6eral internationalism;D and t!e onset o/ t!e nuclear age in t!e >a+e o/ t!e second >orld >arD are not merel- coincidental. 0o understand t!e contours o/ contemporar- >orld order is to appreciate t!e deep nexus 6et>een t!e t>o. 8ilitar- superiorit- is necessar- 6ecause o/ t!reats to Jsta6ilit-J. It is to 6e expected t!at a s-stem o/ >orld order constructed /or t!e 6ene/it o/ an elite core o/ corporate interests in t!e =S >ill not go do>n >ell >it! t!e >orldHs populationD especiall- in +e- regions singled out /or capital extraction suc! as t!e 8iddle East and (atin .merica. 4lanners recognise t!at t!e pursuit o/ capital glo6alisation and t!e conseFuent >idening o/ t!e

gap 6et>een ric! and poor >ould 6e opposed 6- t!e glo6eHs population. .6solute strategic superiorit- is meant to +eep t!e >orldHs population Fuite and o6edient out o/ s!eer terror 7 as @us! administration aligned neo<
conser3ati3e t!in+ers !a3e argued it is 6etter t!at 1as!ington 6e /eared rat!er t!an lo3ed. .s t!e- !a3e assertedD a/ter >orld >ar t>o =S !egemon- !ad to 6e Jo6tainedJD no> it must 6e JmaintainedJ "2o6ert Kagan and 1illiam Kristol#. It is onl- natural

t!at t!is Jmaintenance operationJ s!ould 6e a militaristic one gi3en t!at t!e =S !as a comparati3e ad3antage in t!e use o/ /orceG a nuclear glo6al /irst stri+e capa6ilit- >ould gi3e 1as!ington an a6solute ad3antage. S!ould an-one get out o/ lineD possi6l- t!reatening to spread t!e J3irusJ o/ popular social and economic de3elopmentD /orce is to 6e used to restore Jcredi6ilit-J to 6eat do>n t!e t!reat o/ a 6etter example. 0!e =S pursues a dangerous nuclear strateg- 6ecause suc! a strateg- in its terms is Jcredi6leJ. .narc!ists are >ell
a>are o/ t!is important aspect o/ international relations gi3en t!e e3ents o/ t!e Spanis! Ci3il 1ar. Suc! a situation is no ?o+eD /or t!is >as precisel- t!e /ear o/ Kenned- era planners t!at led to t!e Cu6an 8issile Crisis. 1as!ington soug!t to return Cu6a to t!e J(atin .merican modeJ /earing t!at Cu6a >ould set an example to t!e population o/ (atin .merica in independent social and economic planning conducted in t!e interests o/ t!e population rat!er t!an =S capital. In response to t!e Castro ta+eo3er t!e =S engaged in one o/ t!e most serious terrorist campaigns o/ recent timesD meant as a prelude to in3asion in order to ensure Jregime c!angeJ t!ere6- teac!ing t!e people o/ t!e region t!e lesson t!at J>!at >e sa- goesJ. 9ne o/ t!e +e- reasons >!- K!rus!c!e3 soug!t to place nuclear missiles in Cu6a >as to deter a =S in3asion and to ac!ie3e strategic parit- >it! 1as!ington. 0!roug!out t!e Cu6an 8issile Crisis man- potential /las!points almost lead to a /ull<scale nuclear exc!ange 6et>een t!e So3iet =nion and t!e =SD !o> close >e came to anni!ilation is onl- no> 6eing /ull- realised. 0!ese are not matters /or idle speculation: destruction almost occurred in t!e past and ma- 3er- >ell occur in t!e /utureG e3en cats !a3e onl- nine li3es. 0!is is a matter o/ great contemporar- signi/icance 6ecause o/ t!e current geograp!ical expansion o/ t!e =S militar- s-stem. 9ne o/ t!e most signi/icant results o/ t!e in3asion o/ ./g!anistan >as t!e expansion o/ t!e =S militar- s-stem into Central .siaD including into some /ormer So3iet repu6lics. 0!e 2ussians !a3e traditionall- considered t!is to 6e t!eir 3ersion o/ t!e 1estern !emisp!ere. I/ a Jgreat gameJ >ere to de3elop in t!e region 6et>een 2ussia and t!e =S "per!aps also 4a+istanD C!ina and India all nuclear po>ersD 0ur+e- >!ic! sits under =S Jextended deterrenceJ and IranD a potential nuclear po>er# t!en suc! a Jgreat gameJ ma6ecome a nuclearised great game. Indeed t!e stando// in Kas!mir ma- !a3e glo6al conseFuences i/ a s-stem o/ alliance politics >ere to de3elop in t!e region 6et>een t!e glo6eHs nuclear po>ersD especiall- as t!e t!res!old o/ nuclear >ar is 6eing lo>ered. In t!is sense Central .sia ma- de3elop into a glo6al 3ersion o/ t!e lin+ 6et>een t!e @al+ans and central alliance s-stems prior to 191). 9/ e3en greater concern is t!e /urt!er expansion o/ t!e =S militar- s-stem into t!e 8iddle East /ollo>ing t!e in3asion o/ IraF. 1as!ington !as alread- /ores!ado>ed a desire to construct permanent militar- 6ases in IraF in order to /acilitate inter3ention into t!e region. @ot! Iran and S-ria are potential targets o/ =S attac+. Iran ma- decide upon t!e nuclear option in order to deter t!e glo6eLs leading rogue state. 0!is could 6e potentiall- explosi3e 6ecause it is >ell +no>n t!at Israel posses a signi/icant nuclear /orce. Israel !as al>a-s /eared t!at its pa-master >ould ultimatel- a6andon it. In response Israel !as reportedl- de3eloped a Jsamson optionJ nuclear targeting strateg-. 0!e idea is t!at Israel >ould target 2ussia >it! its nuclear >eapons "Israel !as de3eloped deli3er- s-stems >it! an excessi3e range capa6ilit-#D >!ic! >ould lead to a /ull<scale nuclear exc!ange 6et>een 8osco> and 1as!ington. In essence Israel is sa-ing: >e s!ould 6e allo>ed to continue repressing t!e 4alestinians i/ not >e !a3e t!e Jsamson option J. 5urt!ermoreD in order to /acilitate inter3ention into t!ese regions

t!e =S !as 6egan a programme to s!i/t t!e 6asing o/ its militar- /orces into Jne> EuropeJ t!at is Eastern Europe. 1as!ington /or instance pus!ed 2omania into .09 /or t!is 3er- reason. 4lacing militar- /orces in Eastern Europe no dou6t >ould gi3e t!e 2ussians some cause /or concern. ./ter Koso3o 2ussia conducted large<scale >ar games assuming an in3asion t!roug! Jne> EuropeJ. 0!e game ended >it! t!e release o/ nuclear >eapons. IndeedD expanding t!e =S militar- s-stem up to t!e 6order o/ @elarus ma- 6e

3

Capitalism K Generic

Dartmouth 2K9

3!

dangerous /or it is Fuite possi6le t!at 2ussia extends nuclear deterrence to 8ins+G /or instance 2ussia is 6uilding a ne> ground 6ased strategic earl- >arning radar in @elarus. 0!is ma- all 6ecome a series pro6lem in t!e
/uture 6ecause o/ >!at t!e =S Geological Sur3e- re/ers to as Jt!e 6ig rollo3erJ: t!e time at >!ic! t!e >orld oil mar+et c!anges /rom a 6u-ers mar+et into a sellers mar+et ">!ic! ma- occur in t!e next 1*<20 -ears#. 1as!ington !as al>a-s regarded t!e oil resources o/ t!e 8iddle East as Jt!e most stupendous material priCe in >orld !istor-J >!ic! is a +e- le3er o/ =S glo6al dominance. 0!e 6ig rollo3er >ill ensure t!at 8iddle Eastern oil reser3es >ill 6ecome an e3en more

signi/icant le3er o/ >orld control placing greater premium on =S control o3er t!e political de3elopment o/ t!e .ra6 >orld( In 19$%D 19%0 and 19%& strategic de3elopments in t!e 8iddle East >ere o3ers!ado>ed 6- nuclear >eapons.
In /act t!e e3ents o/ 19%0 and 19%& con3inced man-D suc! as ,enr- KissingerD t!at t!e =S needed to stri3e to retain nuclear superiorit- and re3erse t!e condition o/ strategic parit- >it! 8osco>. 0!is ultimatel- lead to t!e Carter<2eagan 6uild<up o/ t!e late 19%0s and earl- 19'0sG a 6uild<up >!ic! easil- could !a3e 6een disastrous. 0!e militarisation o/ spaceD t!e

de3elopment o/ so called Jusea6leJ nuclear >eaponsD t!e glo6alisation o/ t!e =S nuclear planning s-stemD t!e !air trigger alert status o/ t!e glo6eHs nuclear /orces and t!e expansion o/ t!e =S militar- s-stem into Central .sia and t!e 8iddle East possi6l- triggering a Jgreat gameJ in t!ese regions 6et>een nuclear po>ersD not to mention militar- expansion into Jne> EuropeJD all seriousl- increase t!e t!reats to our long term "indeed s!ort term# sur3i3al( 1as!ingtonHs aggressi3e nuclear strateg- is not onl- meant to deter democrac- a6roadG
it is also meant to deter democrac- at !ome. In 19*$ t!e aut!or o/ SC $' and one o/ t!e c!ie/ ideologues 6e!ind t!e Carter< 2eagan nuclear 6uild<upD 4aul itCeD made a distinction 6et>een >!at !e re/erred to as Jdeclarator-J nuclear >eapons polic- and JactualJ nuclear >eapons polic-. 5or an-6od- interested in unra3elling trut! /rom /iction t!e distinction is critical. In itCeHs >ordsD Jt!e >ord Hpolic-H is used in t>o related 6ut di//erent senses. In one senseD t!e action senseD it re/ers to t!e general guidelinesD >!ic! >e 6elie3e s!ould and >ill go3ern our actions in 3arious contingencies. In t!e ot!er senseD t!e declaratorsenseD it re/ers to polic- statements >!ic! !a3e as t!eir aim political and ps-c!ological e//ectsJ. 0!e most important target audience o/ declarator- polic- is t!e .merican populationD t!e so<called Jinternal deterrentJ. Consider /or instance t!e +enuclear proli/eration planning document o/ t!e cold >ar eraD t!e Gilpatric report deli3ered to 4resident Po!nson. In it Gilpatric spelt out t!e t!reat t!at nuclear proli/eration poses to =S securit-: Jas additional nations o6tained nuclear >eapons our

diplomatic and militar- in/luence >ould >aneD and strong pressures >ould arise to retreat to isolation to a3oid t!e ris+ o/ in3ol3ement in nuclear >arJ. So i/ it >ere seen 6- t!e population t!at t!e pursuit o/ /oreign polic-D
conducted in t!e interests o/ domestic elitesD >ould increase t!e t!reat o/ nuclear >ar t!en t!e internal deterrent ma- 6ecome dangerousl- aroused possi6l- calling o// t!e s!o>. In t!e strategic literature t!is is re/erred to as :sel/<deterrence ;. In ot!er

>ords =S non proli/eration polic- >as meant to :loc+ in; =S strategic dominance so t!at t!e domestic population >ould not 6ecome dangerousl- aroused >!ilst pro3iding 1as!ington t!e /reedom o/ action necessar- to 6randis! its nuclear superiorit- o3er ot!ers ( 0!is sentiment >as re/lected in t!e @us! administrationLs
uclear 4osture 2e3ie>D :nuclear capa6ilities also assure t!e =S pu6lic t!at t!e =nited States >ill not 6e su6?ect to coercion 6ased on a /alse perception o/ =.S. >ea+ness among potential ad3ersaries.; 8an- strategic t!in+ers !a3e argued t!at t!e greatest t!reat to =S !egemon- or Junipolarit-J is t!e internal J>el/are roleJ and t!e populations lac+ o/ understanding /or t!e 6urdens o/ EmpireD in ot!er >ords popular democrac-. 9ne o/ t!e reasons t!at t!e 2eagan administration pursued JStar 1arsJ a programme to render nuclear >eapons Jimpotent and o6soleteJ >as to out/lan+ t!e domestic and glo6al peace mo3ements t!at >ere gat!ering pace as a result o/ t!e administrationHs pursuit o/ potentiall- apocal-ptic nuclear policies "t!e 3er- same people !a3e t!eir /ingers on t!e 6utton again#. It >as >ell recognised t!at t!e Star 1ars programme >ould !a3e increased t!e c!ances o/ a nuclear exc!ange 6et>een 8osco> and 1as!ingtonD ?ust as toda- t!e pursuit o/ s!ort term interests is +no>n to !a3e potentiallserious international conseFuencesD suc! as increase in con/lict and glo6al >eapons o/ mass destruction proli/eration . 0!e

ruling class is >ell a>are o/ t!e ad3erse impact t!e pursuit o/ its o>n sectional interests >ill !a3e on international order. It pursues t!ose interests >it! rene>ed Ceal an->a-. .s /ar as t!e ruling class is concerned t!e greatest t!reat >e /ace is not nuclear >arD it is popular democrac-. .s .dam Smit! o6ser3ed o/ a
pre3ious mercantile s-stemD applica6le to toda-Hs s-stem o/ state<corporate mercantilismD Jit cannot 6e 3er- di//icult to determine >!o !a3e 6een t!e contri3ers o/ t!is >!ole mercantile s-stemG not t!e consumersD >e ma- 6elie3eD >!ose interest !as 6een entirel- neglectedG 6ut t!e producersD >!ose interest !as 6een so care/ull- attended toG and among t!is latter class our merc!ants and manu/acturers !a3e 6een 6- /ar t!e principal arc!itects.J 4olic- Smit! o6ser3edD Jcomes /rom an order o/ menD >!ose interest is ne3er exactl- t!e same >it! t!at o/ t!e pu6licD >!o !a3e generall- an interest to decei3e and e3en to oppress t!e pu6licD and >!o accordingl- !a3eD upon man- occasionsD 6ot! decei3ed and oppressed it.J 0!is raises an interesting issueD

namel- t!at t!e pursuit o/ .rmageddon is Fuite rational. 0!e dominant institutions o/ capitalism place a

3!

in t!e case o/ suc! :externalities.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 3" premium on s!ort<term greed. 1!at matters is s!ort<term pro/it maximisation.o3ert!ro> t!ese institutions 6ecause apocal-pse is institutionallrational. 9ne can see t!is most clearl. as ecological c!ange >!ere t!e desire to pursue s!ort<term pro/it undermines t!e long<term 3ia6ilit.o/ t!e s-stem itsel/ "also us as a speciesG indeed man. 3" .dangerous :securit-.!a3e surmised t!at >e are in t!e era o/ t!e sixt! great extinction o/ li/e on Eart! t!is time !uman induced#. policies t!at are anot!er :externalit-.compel t!e ruling classes to pursue !ig!l. 2ational participator.planning incorporating long<term concerns suc! as !uman sur3i3al are o/ no interest to t!ese pat!ological institutions. 0!e /act t!at t!e institutional structures o/ societ. o/ t!e s-stem o/ state capitalism compels t!e population to constrain and e3entuall.

gained pri3ilegesD t!roug! state measures or interstate agreements.considered calculations or o/ /ree decisions on part o/ t!eir legislati3e or executi3e organisms.most ad3anced countriesD t!e entrepreneur class /aces se3ere limits to t!e in3estment o/ accumulated capital eit!er in t!e lac+ "or scarcit-# o/ ra> materials o/ local origin or o/ indigenous >or+/orceD or o/ mar+ets a6le to 6u. . . In a >ord: t!ose enterprises >!ic! are actual or tendential monopolies and >!ose interestsD in generalD go >ell 6e-ond national 6oundariesD 6ut /ind 6ot! t!eir political expression and t!eir interestsH up!older in t!e national state < t!e great mac!ine o/ organised /orce in t!eir de/ence.processes t!at cannot 6e simpl.nd t!e glo6al expression o/ t!e crises and con/rontations t!at /ollo> is imperialismD >!ic! on t!e economic le3el mani/ests itsel/ in t!e accumulation process ">!ose end is t!e monopolistic organisation o/ production and exc!anges#.5s communist part.and ine3ita6le product o/ t!e ruling mode o/ productionD and proletarian re3olution alone can pre3ent its out6rea+ or 3iolentl. 7 1991 .madeo @ordigaD >riter /or an Italian ne>spaper and economicsD /ounder o/ Ital-Ls communist part-.( 4ordigaD /ounder o/ Ital.o/ competition.interrupt its course.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 3# Capitalism Impacts – @ar %2& Capitalism is the cause o/ e+er.ere is t!en t!e out6rea+D >it!in t!e capitalist econom-D o/ t!e most 3iolent among its contradictions.!tml .c!ancelD nor k6.po>er/ul militar. 0!e. In t!e industriall.tends to s!rin+ is t!e possi6ilit. 0!is does not mean t!e 6ourgeoisie goes to >ar on t!e 6asis o/ care/ull. It is competitionD in eac! p!ase o/ t!e accumulation processD t!at selects and t!en places one against t!e ot!er /irst t!e indi3idual capitals "to put it simpl-D t!e single capitalists# and t!enD as t!e needs o/ accumulation 6ecome tig!terD t!e collecti3e agents o/ productionD t!e (tdsD t!e trustsD t!e multinationals.produced goods.t!e constant e//ort to regulate and control t!e sale and purc!ase pricesD and t!e graduall. Economic expansionism t!us tends to turn /rom commercial to monopolisticD and /inds its most t-pical expression in its /inancial /ormD supported < i/ need 6e < 6.purel.impl.t!e mere pla. o>D >!ile </rom t!e tec!nical point o/ 3ie> < t!e production process restlessl.means.economic means or 6. It is t!e /inal outlet o/ an o6?ecti3e situationD >!ic! little 6. .ccording to marxismD not onl.o/ placing products on suc! conditions o/ kpro/ita6ilit-l as to assure t!e carr-ing on o/ t!e accumulation process >it!out interruptions and at t!e gi3en conditions.its practical "ideological and material# carr-ing out. In t!is >a-D to >!at >e called kt!e 3olcano o/ productionl more and more is opposed >!at >e called kt!e s>ampl o/ a mar+et >!ic!D instead o/ >ideningD stagnates.net7li67upt7intpap7piso7piso!6i6oe. 1ar does not 6rea+ out k6. .ac!ie3ed 6.and limitlessl.gro>sD recei3ing impetus /rom t!e 3olcanic c!aracter o/ commodit.productionD >!at on t!e contrar.nd t!e s-stem in crisis resorts to extreme solutions on t!e ground o/ strengt!.t!e >illl o/ indi3iduals or groups.little de3elops in di//erent sectors and /inall. ItHs also true t!atD in gi3en periods ">!en t!e mec!anism o/ capital accumulation is in crisis#D >ar is t!e one extreme remed.ccumulation t!us rules capitalismHs >or+ing c-cle and /orces to enlarge production and t!e related areas o/ sale 6e-ond all limits. 9nce in3estedD t!e capitalHs /irst aim is to reproduce itsel/ >it! a pro/it.it is true t!at in t!e capitalist era >ars are a necessar. 1991 "appeared in 1991 6ut >as >ritten in t!e $0Ls# !ttp:77>>>. single 0ar in histor. 3# .to >!ic! 6ourgeoisie can resort in order to sa/eguard its o>n rule: t!roug! t!e mass distruction o/ capitalD goodsD and >or+</orce < o/ menD in s!ortD and o/ t!eir !andsH products.explodes >!ere and >!en t!e po>er relations!ips among t!e economies o/ t!e countries in3ol3ed reac! t!e 6rea+ing point. It is t!e existence itsel/ o/ capitalismD its o>n li/e reFuirementsD t!at set o// t!e mec!anism o/ con/rontation < /irst t!e preliminariesD t!en a /ormal declaration o/ >arD and /inall. o>D t!e suppl-ing o/ non< local ra> materialsD t!e engagement o/ /oreign >or+/orceD t!e conFuest o/ /oreign mar+ets are toda. @e it t!e control o/ greatmining /ieldsD or o/ masses to 6e proletarisedD or o/ outlet mar+ets a6le to a6sor6 t!e products o/ capitalist industrialismD it is strengt! t!at decides t!e outcome o/ suc! rus! to>ards pro/iteeringD to>ards t!e control o/ t!e rule o3er >ider and >ider sectors o/ >orld econom-.sinistra.

!appens i/ it is possi6le to conFuer and maintain a position o/ strengt! against national and international competitors.assail eac! ot!erD in order to react to t!e tendential "andD in times o/ crisisD real# /all o/ t!e pro/it rate.or countries. . Its aim is not onl. @ut t!is onl.nd >!en t>o or more imperialist countriesD >it! incompati6le 3ital interestsD collideD t!en t!e mec!anism o/ militarcon/rontationD so t-pical o/ capitalism and to it ine3ita6leD gets mo3ing. .nd t!is aim is "t!is 6eing t!e crucial point# common to /riends and enemiesD >inners and losers 33 .unopposed on t!e >orld economic scenarioD read.and ot!er European and non<European countries rule toda.to plunge into t!is or t!at ad3entureD to ma+e t!is or t!at /orm o/ agreementD orD 3ice 3ersaD to menace and /inall.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 33 0!roug! /inance capitalD t!e po>ers o/ t!e =SD o/ PapanD German. Its aim is also "and a6o3e all# t!e re3i3al o/ capitalHs accumulation c-cleD t!roug! t!e destruction on a large scale o/ commodities and >or+/orce and t!e ensuing reconstruction org-.t!e at least temporaro3ercoming o/ t!e crisis at t!e opponentHs expensesD and t!an+s to t!e conFuest o/ more ad3antageous positions in t!e exploitation o/ resources and >or+ o/ t!e de/eated countr.

0!at t!e process o/ glo6aliCation as >e in /act +no> it asserts itsel/ t!roug! t!e strengt!ening o/ capitalHs most d-namic centres o/ domination "and exploitation# 6ringing in its >a+e gro>ing ineFualit. It is muc! easier to assumeD insteadD t!at glo6aliCation 6.mig!t con/lict >it! t!e policies pursued 6. 32 . .6ecome a 6uCC>ord.o/ 0ransition.and extreme !ards!ip /or t!e o3er>!elming ma?orit.7 9" Ist3an 8esCarosD 199*D 4ro/essor at =ni3ersit.o/ SussexD EnglandD :@e-ond Capital: 0o>ard a 0!eor.its 3er. WetD t!roug! t!e ongoing and allegedl.most 6ene/icial glo6aliCation t!e Munderde3eloped countriesL are o//ered not!ing 6ut t!e perpetuation o/ t!e di//erential rate o/ exploitation.t!e dominant capitalist po>ers and t!eir >illing colla6orators in t!e M0!ird 1orldL.nature is unpro6lematicalD indeed a necessaril.a3oided.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 32 Capitalism Impacts – @ar % & =Glo-ali.s to >!at +ind o/ Mglo6aliCationL is /easi6le under t!e rule o/ capitalD t!is Fuestion is care/ull.o/ peopleD all t!is is 6est le/t outside t!e /rame>or+ o/ legitimate Fuestioning.aros7 pro/ 8hilosoph.positi3e de3elopment t!at 6rings commenda6le results to all concerned.ation> ma*es 0ar and exploitation ine+ita-le 6es. 5or t!e ans>ers o/ a critical scrutin. 9 8olitical :heor. 0!e term Mglo6aliCationL !as recentl.

.stem %1& Capitalism destro.at 1orcester 4ol-tec!nic Institute in 8assac!usettsD 8a-7Pune 2009D 0i++un :1!.com7e!ost7detailQ3idR2S!idR10)SsidR11&1*2'e<c$&6<)%'*<'caa< $$c'c1*$/e'aT)0sessionmgr10S6dataRPn pdG=9B1!3c&Ut6Gl2BUT&dT&dVd6Rap!S.!as capitalism disrupted t!e >orldHs climate "t!e petroleum econom-D let us not /orgetD !as 6een t!e main pillar o/ capitalist industrial de3elopment /or t!e last 100 -ears# t!at e3en i/ all car6on emissions >ere !alted tomorro>D scientists no> 6elie3e t!at t!e eart!Hs atmosp!ere >ould >arm /or anot!er 1D000 -ears.s!o>ing t!at as man..deteriorate /urt!er. 8ost c!ildren in t!e >orld ne3er complete t!eir educationD and most >ill li3e out t!eir li3es >it!out dependa6le medical care.ED E 9289=S 592CES 95 producti3itand tec!nolog-. . 39 .t t!e !eig!t o/ t!e /inancial crisis last -earD a S>iss con3ersation group released a stud.ssociate 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!. !ttp:77>e6. . R&9%*&*&&# C.!uman 6eings.AI G = (E./ter /our centuries o/ triump! as t!e dominant mode o/ glo6al de3elopmentD capitalism !as /urnis!ed /or itsel/ a >orld in >!ic! one out o/ t>o !uman 6eings li3es on m2 per da.as one<t!ird o/ +no>n mammals on eart! /ace imminent extinctionD per!aps in a matter o/ decadesD as a result o/ !a6itat destruction and mass +illing 6. .Capitalism S!ouldnLt @e Sa3ed.deplora6le conditions in t!e 0!ird 1orld >ill onl.sudden climate c!ange and a gra3el.rising sea le3elsD or >ill star3e or su//er malnutrition as a result o/ /loodingD droug!tD and /ireD or else >ill die /rom illnesses caused 6ne> plague 3ectors opened up 6. @ut it !as also reduced muc! o/ t!e >orld to ruin and sFualor. 9r rat!erD its /les! and 6lood creatures are.0(W C2EDI0ED 1I0. at @orcester 8ol. Wet not one o/ t!e !undreds o/ 6loggersD ne>s anal-stsD or politicians at t!e time t!oug!t to connect t!e dots 6et>een t!is and similar >arnings o/ mass species extinctions and t!e dominant mode o/ de3elopmentD capitalism.or lessD and more t!an one in t!ree still lac+s access to a toilet. Wet it is ?ust t!is metastaticD expansionist s-stem t!at !as imperiled !uman ci3iliCation and t!e natural >orld ali+e.technic Institute in 6assachusetts7 B09 "Po!n San6onmatsuD .undreds o/ millions o/ peopleD and 6illions o/ ot!er animalsD >ill 6e displaced 6. 8ean>!ileD our planet is d-ing.S.s planet ecos.s t!e >orld economic crisis deepensD alread.e6sco!ost.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 39 Capitalism Impacts – Ecos. .(IS8 IS 2IG.4I0. So se3erel.stem San-onmatsu7 'ssociate 8ro/essor o/ 8hilosoph.>ea+ened >orld !ealt! s-stem.

sur3i3al o/ t!e planet depend on suc! c!anges Yin Hattitudes and reorientation o/ policies and institutionsH\ no>. . o nationD no matter !o> ric! and po>er/ulD can escape t!e resulting damage to t!e planet.regard as t!e most pressing en3ironment issueD t!at o/ glo6al >arming.J In response to t!ese >arningsD go3ernments engaged in negotiations to reduce car6on dioxide emissionsD eac! see+ing agreements t!at >ould 6e ad3antageous to t!em as against t!eir competitors./rom *0 percent to %0 percent /rom 1990 le3elsD t!ere >ill 6e Jextreme !ig! temperature e3entsD /loods Ycaused 6.and t!at it >as un/air in excluding t!e de3eloping countries in t!e initial stage o/ t!e reductions. Depleting t!eir resources in order to sur3i3eD t!e.and en3ironmental degradation on eac! ot!er.small increase o/ t!e European =nion >as largel. 0!e @us! administration re?ected t!e K-oto 4rotocolD an entirel.t!at >ould use alternate means o/ energ-. (Mark OStapiak.stem %2& Capitalism is and will destroy the enviorment leading to extinction. 0!e. .!tml# In 19'% t!e 1orld Commission on En3ironment and De3elopmentD esta6lis!ed 6.due to t!e ort! Sea disco3eries t!at made natural gas a3aila6le to Great @ritain and to t!e a6sorption o/ t!e muc! less industrialiCed East German.1 percent.in >!ic! competiti3eness is t!e name o/ t!e game. 0!is resulted in a s!arp drop o/ more t!an * percent in t!e earl. 2008.J 0!ese >ould 6e Jli+el.t!e interaction o/ po3ert./ar t!e most to pollution and toxic >asteD 6ut poor countries su//er most /rom t!e resulting en3ironmental e//ects.in turn contri6ute to de/orestationD soil degradationD deserti/icationD and t!e loss o/ 6iodi3ersit-.o>e3erD despite all t!e pala3er and 6ic+eringD car6on dioxide emissions /rom 1990 to 1999 >ent upD not do>n.com7-out!)sa7siegel2.merican route in doing so t!e.S. 20 . 0al+ a6out international cooperation /or t!e 6ene/it o/ all can onl. 0!e ad3anced capitalist countries !a3e ac!ie3ed t!eir dominance 6./or '0 percent o/ t!e >orldHs atmosp!eric pollutionD >it! t!e =nited States itsel/ 6eing responsi6le /or 2* percent o/ it.t!e =nited ations General . coal and oil industriesD >!ic! 6loc+ a restructuring o/ t!e econom.and t!at i/ t!e. writer at Northland College.>ill add immenselto glo6al emissions. It see+s Fuic+ returns and is opposed to long<range social planning.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 20 Capitalism Impacts – Ecos./ollo> t!e European<.seen in >!at man.o/ t!e solution o/ t!e en3ironmental crisis can per!aps 6e most clearl.s!ort order /ossil /uel emissions are reduced 6. 0!e comparati3el./rom t!e sunD t!e >indD and t!e ri3ers to de3elop t!eir economies.need to gro> economicall.!a3ing polluted t!e atmosp!ere /or t!e past 200 -ears.to !elp t!e poor countries leap</rog o3er t!e arc!aic and destructi3e t-pe o/ industrialiCation t!at is po>ered 6.to ot!er /orms o/ energ. trans/er o/ >ealt!<in t!e /orm o/ clean energ.its nature is concerned >it! maximum pro/it at an.t!e =nited ations in a 6od.s 4ulitCer 4riCe<>inning science reporter 2oss Gel6span sa-sD J0!e issue o/ glo6al economic ineFuit. emissions increased 6. PapanHs emissions increased 6. !ttp:77>>>.t!e trapping o/ t!e sunHs !eat 6.is as critical as t!e car6on 6alance to t!e sta6ilit. 0!e 2*00 leading climate scientists o/ t!e >orldD 6roug!t toget!er 6.S.suc! as solar po>erD >ind po>erD and natural gas. Ostapiak.costD >!et!er t!at cost is !uman miser. It concluded its report >it! t!e so6er statement t!at t!e continued existence o/ t!e !uman race is t!reatened 6.tec!nologies<>ill 6e necessar.or en3ironmental degradation. 0!e urgent t!reat o/ climate c!ange >as t!us su6ordinated to t!e interests o/ t!e dominant =. .S.coal and oil and use energ.6e un!eeded ex!ortations in a glo6al econom. Capitalism 6. . 0!e plea t!at t!e exclusion o/ t!e unindustrialiCed and t!e semi<industrialiCed countries /rom t!e reFuirements o/ t!e K-oto 4rotocol >as un/air is a6surd.are responsi6le toda.J 0!is >ould reFuire t!e international planning t!at is incompati6le >it! capitalism.to cause >idespread economicD socialD and en3ironmental dislocation. 2ic! countries contri6ute 6. It is not t!at countries lac+ t!e +no>ledge to s>itc! /rom /ossil /uel energ. 0!isD it saidD >as primarilas a result o/ t!e Jgreen!ouseJ e//ect caused 6.o/ t!e planetHs atmosp!ere. Suc! a c!ange to rene>a6leD clean energ-D !o>e3erD reFuires con/ronting t!e po>er o/ t!e trillion<dollar<a<-ear glo6al coal and oil industries t!at ta+en toget!er /orm t!e 6iggest enterprise in !istor-.ssem6l-D issued a reportD J9ur Common 5utureDJ a/ter a t!ree<-ear stud-.12 percentD and t!e European =nion emissions increased 6.1) percentD t!e =. econom.time in t!e last 10D000 -ears.populated countries as C!ina and India desperatel.t!e emissions /rom coal and oil 6urning. 0!e /inal >ords o/ t!e report >ereD J1e are unanimous in our con3iction t!at t!e securit-D >ell<6eingD and 3er. 0!e panel stated t!atD unless in 3er.1990sD 6ut t!ere >as a strong rise t!erea/ter.J1 @ut t!ese solemn >ords >ere not acted upon.o> capitalism stands in t!e >a.melting glaciers and ice caps\D and droug!tD >it! resultant conseFuences /or /ireD pest out6rea+sD and ecos-stemYs\.into t!e 5ederal 2epu6lic o/ German-.called t!e I4CCD announced in a series o/ reports 6eginning in 1990 t!at t!e eart! is !eating up at a /aster rate t!an at an. writer at Northland College. It is trueD !o>e3erD t!at suc! !ea3il. 2008.geocities.inadeFuate agreement to reduce green!ouse gas emissions 6* percent 6elo> 1990D on t!e grounds t!at it >ould !a3e a negati3e impact on t!e =.

0!ere t!e. under capitalism turned into :t!e conFuest o/ man.>it!in eac! capitalist state.6et>een t!e center and perip!er.rig!ts in relation to t!e commons. 0!e locus classicus o/ t!e industrial re3olution >as @ritainD >!ere t!e remo3al o/ t!e >or+ers /rom t!e land 6..9 21 .>ere met 6. Ecologicall-D t!e >orldLs climate and t!e li/e<support s-stems o/ t!e entire eart! are 6eing trans/ormed 6.to t!e most rapacious imperialist exploitation./ed industrialiCation at t!e center o/ t!e >orld econom-. '0!ere is no dou6t t!at t!is dialectic o/ domination and destruction is no> spiraling out o/ control on a planetar.D t!e eart!D along >it! t!e dissolution o/ all customar.glo6al >arming. 0!ere all preexisting !uman producti3e relations to nature >ere torn asunder in >!at 8arx called t!e :extirpationD ensla3ement and entom6ment in mines o/ t!e indigenous population.s Posep! eed!am o6ser3edD t!e :conFuest o/ ature. produced :a Fualitati3e trans/ormation in t!e mec!anisms o/ social domination. .means o/ expropriation too+ t!e /orm o/ t!e enclosure mo3ement /rom t!e /i/teent! to t!e eig!teent! centuries.e. R&)90%*%2# Capitalism t!ere/ore reFuired /or its de3elopment a ne> relation to natureD one >!ic! se3ered t!e direct connection o/ la6or to t!e means o/ productionD i. R&)90%*%2Vd6Rap!S.stem % & Capitalism5s dri+ing /orceC the constant accumulation o/ capitalC has su-<ugated man and nature( :his leads to glo-al 0arming Doster7 8ro/essor o/ Sociolog.% 1!at made t!is ne> s-stem >or+ >as t!e incessant accumulation o/ capital in one c-cle a/ter anot!erD >it! eac! ne> p!ase o/ accumulation ta+ing t!e last as its starting point.2e3ie>: . 0!e surplus /orci6lextracted /rom t!e perip!er. Simultaneousl-D 3arious /orms o/ ser3itude and >!at >e no> call precarious >or+ >ere imposed on t!e perip!er-D >!ere social reproduction >as al>a-s secondar.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 21 Capitalism Impacts – Ecos. Economicall-D o3erall ineFualit. $0 Issue $D p1<12D 12p !ttp:77>e6.e6sco!ost. 5osterD 4ro/essor o/ Sociolog.t!e capital 6eing amassed t!roug! organiCed ro66er-D gi3ing rise to >!at 8arx called :modern industr-.n Independent Socialist 8agaCine Aol.at t!e =ni3ersit.G t!e :tec!nological instruments utiliCed in t!e dominance o/ ature.destructi3e meta6olism 6et>een !umanit.extracted /rom t!e perip!er-D >!ere social reproduction >as al>a-s secondar. B02 "Po!n @. =nder colonialism and imperialism an e3en more 6rutal trans/ormation occurred on t!e outs+irts or t!e external areas o/ t!e capitalist >orld econom-. $0!e result >as proletarianiCation >it!in t!e center o/ t!e s-stem as masses o/ >or+ers >ere t!ro>n out o/ >or+ and mo3ed to t!e cit-. 0!is meant e3er more di3idedD more alienated !uman 6eingsD toget!er >it! a more glo6all.scale.to t!e most rapacious imperialist exploitation.o/ 9regonD o3em6er 200'D 8ont!l.and nature.com7e!ost7detailQ3idR1S!idR$SsidR$da22eac<e*'9<)$/e<'2)d<e26$'d2*'%'a T)0sessionmgr11S6dataRPn pdG=9B1!3c&Ut6Gl2BUT&dT&dVd6Rap!S..a process o/ runa>a.Ot!e most 3iolent expropriation in all o/ !uman !istor-.nations o/ t!e >orld s-stem is increasing toget!er >it! t!e intensi/ication o/ class ineFualit. 0!e surplus /orci6l.

0!e result is a po>er/ul populist indictment o/ economic ort!odox-.$)$1*$%.t!e aut!orHs accountingOt!eir means must 6e catacl-smicD dependent on political up!ea3als and natural disasters as coerci3e pretexts /or /ree<mar+et re/orms t!e pu6lic >ould normallre?ect.!as 6ecome !egemonicD di//erent and per!aps counter<intuiti3e lines o/ enFuir. 22 ./ails in terms o/ 6ot! academic and eco<political integrit-.popular. StillD muc! o/ !er critiFue !its !omeD as s!e demonstrates !o> /ree< mar+et ideologues >elcomeD and pro3o+eD t!e collapse o/ ot!er peopleHs economies.!tmlQFR 0!e neo<li6eral economic policiesOpri3atiCationD /ree tradeD slas!ed social spendingOt!at t!e C!icago Sc!ool and t!e economist 8ilton 5riedman !a3e /oisted on t!e >orld are catastrop!ic in t>o sensesD argues t!is 3igorous polemic.re/rains /rom pursuing potentiall.pu6lis!ers>ee+l-.resort de3elopers a/ter t!e . Pournalist Klein "(o )ogo# c!ronicles decades o/ suc! disastersD including t!e C!icago Sc!ool ma+eo3ers launc!ed 6.and culturall.merican coupsG t!e corrupt sale o/ 2ussiaHs state econom.o/ @at!D @at!D =K 6 Cardi// Sc!ool o/ Social SciencesD Cardi// =ni3ersit-D )7170%D :Eco<politics 6e-ond t!e paradigm o/ sustaina6ilit-: .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 22 Capitalism Impacts – Ecos.and ot!er>ise sustaina6le >a-sD is itsel/ a s-ndrome t!at deser3es close sociological attention. Capitalism5s =needs> can5t -e met -. !ttp:77>>>. KleinHs economic and political anal-ses are not al>a-s meticulous.in/orma>orld. 0!is insistence on t!e capa6ilities o/ t!ese strategiesG t!e denial t!at t!e capitalist principles o/ in/inite economic gro>t! and >ealt! accumulation are ecologicall-D sociall-D politicall.to oligarc!s /ollo>ing t!e collapse o/ t!e So3iet =nionG t!e pri3atiCation o/ e> 9rleansHs pu6lic sc!ools a/ter KatrinaG and t!e seiCure o/ >rec+ed /is!ing 3illages 6. .stem %!& Capitalism necessitates catastrophe /or action and results in disaster( 8u-lishers @ee*l. @ut more generall-D an en3ironmental sociologt!at opportunisticall.is in /act imperati3e >!at >e are calling t!e post<ecologist era and its politics o/ unsustaina6ilit.incon3enient lines o/ enFuir.e.pd/ Cassettari# 1e 6elie3e so^ .Sout! . @ecause t!eir results are disastrousOdepressionsD mass po3ert-D pri3ate corporations looting pu6lic >ealt!D 6.unsustaina6le and destructi3eG t!e pat!ological re/usal to ac+no>ledge t!at >estern MneedsL in terms o/ animal proteinD air tra3el or electric energ-D to name 6ut t!ree examplesD simpl.sian tsunami . 2002 :0!e S!oc+ Doctrine: 0!e 2ise o/ Disaster Capitalism.com7*1&*2)X%&119%*92X%%%0)'1$*.com7article7C.and interdependence o/ democratic consumer capitalism and ecological sustaina6ilit. 0!e. o/ 4ath7 Cardi// Ani+ersit.cannotD i.is in /act imperati3e. !ttp:77pd/ser3e.7 03 "Ingol/ur @ln!dorn and Ian 1els!D Department o/ European StudiesD =ni3ersit. can notD 6e satis/ied in ecologicall.and instead con/ines itsel/ to ser3ing and ena6ling t!e pre3ailing tec!no<economic !egemon.appear distur6ingD e3en counter< producti3e. (i+ening /ree<mar+et s!oc+ t!erapies to electros!oc+ tortureD s!e con/lates e3ermisdeed o/ rig!t<>ing dictators!ips >it! t!eir economic programs and paints a too simplistic picture o/ t!e IraF con/lict as a struggle o3er .are not particularl. conceptual /rame>or+ and researc! agenda. the en+ironment causing destruction 4lPhdorn and @elshD Ani+ersit.s /ait! in tec!nological inno3ationD mar+et instruments and managerial per/ection is asserted as t!e most appropriate means /or ac!ie3ing sustaina6ilit-D empirical experience re3eals t!e limitations o/ suc! approac!es.s t!e reassuring 6elie/ in t!e compati6ilit. 5or t!ese reasonsD a ne> sociological e//ort to grasp and address >!at >e are calling t!e post<ecologist era and its politics o/ unsustaina6ilit.merican<imposed neo<li6eralism.

1!at is trul./i/t. So t!e amount o/ mone.comparisonD t!e entire 8ars!all 4lan to re6uild Europe a/ter 1orld 1ar II cost a mere m9. 0!at t!e /inancial 6ailout is a colossal misdirection and >aste o/ pu6lic resourcesD !o>e3erD is not t!e most scandalous t!ing a6out it.in >!ic! e3er.s democracies7 destro.com7e!ost7detailQ3idR2S!idR10)SsidR11&1*2'e<c$&6<)%'*<'caa< $$c'c1*$/e'aT)0sessionmgr10S6dataRPn pdG=9B1!3c&Ut6Gl2BUT&dT&dVd6Rap!S.rele3ant !istorical parallel.e6sco!ost.stem that destro.unconsciona6le is t!at all t!is mone.nations instead in3ested t!at m10 trillion into t!e economiesD !ealt! s-stemsD and in/rastructure o/ t!e 0!ird 1orldD rat!er t!an trans/erring it to t!e >orldHs ric!est 6an+sD pri3ate /inancial institutionsD and in3estorsD t!e. !ttp:77>e6. %1& E+er Q10 trillion ha+e -een spent to sa+e capitalismC a se+ere misdirection o/ resources /or a corrupt s.Capitalism S!ouldnLt @e Sa3ed.su//ering and premature deat!.!uman 6eing >ould 6e guaranteed a li3a6le li/e.sia !a3e t!us eit!er spent outrig!t or exposed t!emsel3es to /inancial ris+s totalingD >ell o3er m10 trillion O a /igure so 3ast t!at one searc!es in 3ain /or an. . R&9%*&*&&# .& 6illion "in constant 200* dollars#.s o/ spring 2009D t!e leading capitalist states in EuropeD ort! . I/ t!e >ealt!.could us!er in a ne> epoc! in t!e !istor.mericaD and .polic-ma+ers to sa3e capitalism /rom itsel/ is alread. at @orcester 8ol.ccording to t!e =nited ationsD it >ould cost m19* 6illion to eradicate most po3ert-< related deat!s in t!e 0!ird 1orldD including deat!s /rom malariaD /rom malnutritionD and /rom .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2 Capitalism Impacts – Democrac.ssociate 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!.IDS.s the ecos.is 6eing spent to prop up capitalism itsel/ O a mode o/ economic and social li/e t!at !as corrupted and !ollo>ed out our democraciesD reduced great s>at!s o/ t!e planetHs ecos-stem to polluted ru66leD condemned !undreds o/ millions o/ !uman 6eings to >retc!edness and exploitationD and ensla3ed 6illions o/ ot!er animals in /arms t!at resem6le concentration camps.at 1orcester 4ol-tec!nic Institute in 8assac!usettsD 8a-7Pune 2009D 0i++un :1!.technic Institute in 6assachusettsD B09 "Po!n San6onmatsuD . @.committed 6. 2 .stem7 exploits humans7 and ensla+es animals( San-onmatsuD 'ssociate 8ro/essor o/ 8hilosoph.o/ t!e species O a >orld communit.times greater t!an >!at it >ould ta+e to sa3e tens o/ millions o/ !uman 6eings /rom terri6le dail.

R&9%*&*&& Cassettari# C. o/ capitalism itsel/ @.s!ould 6e /oug!t at all# O are e//ecti3elle/t in t!e !ands o/ a small cliFue >!ose mem6ers are dra>n /rom t!e ran+s o/ >!at C.ll o/ t!e trul.com7e!ost7detailQ3idR1S!idR10$SsidR$0)*2%a1<%a)d<)1a0<')2a<&)a$c/%1d$%6 T)0sessionmgr111S6dataRPn pdG=9B1!3c&Ut6Gl2BUT&dT&dVd6Rap!S. 0!e ric! ma. Capitalism is t!e Stoc+!olm S-ndrome made into a uni3ersal condition o/ !umanit-.plum6erD teac!erD or transit >or+er commands t!e same respect or in/luence on Capitol .man-._ 0!at p!raseD rat!er t!an t!e more /amiliar one /rom 8att!e> 2$D is t!e one t!at !aunts us deep insideD t!e one >e trul. %2& Capitalism is naturall.J o matter !o> man.called Jt!e po>er elite.(IS8HS .o/ indi3iduals controls t!e >ealt!D la6orD productionD political po>erD and cultural expression o/ t!e >!ole o/ societ-. 0!e uni3ersitpresident is so relie3ed t!at !er /a>ning attentions to a >ealt!. Secretl-D >e all +no> t!is.t!e mildestD most indirect o/ in/luences on t!e direction o/ state and societ-.D 09 "Po!n San6onmatsuD 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!.important decisions O t!e ones t!at concern >!at +inds o/ tec!nologies and commodities get producedD >!at +inds o/ la>s >ill 6e passedD and >!ic! >ars s!ould 6e /oug!t "or >!et!er an.grate/ul /or remaining /ore3er at t!eir merc-.e6sco!ost.2 2=(E IS S02=C0=2. undemocratic7 -ut ma*es people identi/.nd >!ile >e ma. 0!e ric! >ill al>a-s 6e >it! us .>it! our o>n +idnappers.J 0!e >aitress smiles at !a3ing recei3ed a tip.2D 494=(.not 6e li+e -ou and meD as 5.!eed.?o6 at all.G9 IS8 091.anon-mous mas+ed /iguresD >e t!us come to identi/.illD or in t!e @undestag or t!e KnessetD as t!e c!ie/ executi3e o//icer o/ Siemens or @ec!tel./e> and t!e ordinar.designD capitalism is a s-stem in >!ic! a small minorit.natureD i/ not 6. one among us is so nai3e as to 6elie3e t!at an ordinar.as it did t!en. 0ith their rulers San-onmatsuD pro/ philosoph. . =nder capitalismD t!e demos is permitted to exert onl.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2! Capitalism Impacts – Democrac.( O I0 IS @=I(0 I 09 0. 2) Issue &pg 21<%2 !ttp:77>e6. 2! .4I0. 1rig!t 8ills /amousl.E political D .patron !a3e paid o// t!at s!e doesnHt mind naming t!e ne> science 6uilding a/ter !im./inance re/orm la>s are passed in CongressD t!e enactment o/ ne> la>s alone >ill ne3er 6e su//icient to neutraliCe t!e tremendous discrepanc. 0.pro/ess to 6e Js!oc+edJ upon learning t!at t!is or t!at politician "or presidential appointee# engaged in corrupt acti3ities at t!e pu6lics expenseD in trut! >e are seldom surprised at all. Scott 5itCgerald put itD 6ut t!at doesnHt +eep us /rom identi/-ing >it! t!emD or /rom /eeling strangel.in po>er 6et>een t!e >ealt!. 4lato >arned 2D*00 -ears ago t!at Jin proportion as ric!es and ric! men are !onored in t!e StateD 3irtue and t!e 3irtuous are dis!onoredDJ an o6ser3ation t!at !olds as true toda. (i+e !ostages ta+en prisoner 6. 0!e steel >or+er is grate/ul Jto !a3e an.at 1orcester 4ol-tec!nic InstituteD 8a-7Pune 09D 0i++un Aol. .

necessarmacro<le3el c!anges in t!e organiCation o/ societ.o/ state leaders to muster t!e 6road political mandate t!e.in t!e e-es o/ its citiCens.decline in t!e rate o/ democratic participation around t!e >orldD increasing c-nicism to>ard go3ernmentD and greater openness to extreme ideologiesD >!et!er in t!e /orm o/ religious /undamentalism or extreme nationalism. @ut t!e social and ecological costs o/ Jdoing 6usinessJ are a6out to gro> exponentiall.e6sco!ost.merican !egemon. .D 09 "Po!n San6onmatsuD 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!.lread-D polls !a3e s!o>n a stead.com7e!ost7detailQ3idR1S!idR10$SsidR$0)*2%a1<%a)d<)1a0<')2a<&)a$c/%1d$%6 T)0sessionmgr111S6dataRPn pdG=9B1!3c&Ut6Gl2BUT&dT&dVd6Rap!S.cannot sur3i3e long >it!out at least t!e ion o/ legitimac-D 6ot! at !ome and a6road.S.# 0!is in turn >ill compromise t!e a6ilit. .and econom-.o>e3erD as economicD politicalD ecologicalD and !ence social costs mountD t!e state >ill 6ecome less and less a6le to protect us /rom !arm.descri6ed t!e modern nation state as /unctioning li+e a Jprotection rac+etJ: t!e state agrees to protect us /rom !arm "most t-picall-D /rom real or imaginar.t!reats generated 6. ". 2" .t!e state itsel/#D in exc!ange /or our consent and o6edience as su6?ects . 0!e late sociologist C!arles 0ille.s a resultD t!e state is at ris+ o/ losing its legitimac.o/ t!e li6eral nation state .to con/ound polic-ma+ers t!is time around is >!at mig!t 6e termed t!e o6?ecti3e natural and political limits o/ t!e s-stem . 2) Issue &pg 21<%2 !ttp:77>e6. actions on /oreign and domestic opinion gre> out o/ t!e eoconsH sense t!at t!e state no longer needed t!e consent o/ t!e go3ernedD >!et!er at !ome or a6road. % & 's the state loses its a-ilit. second /actor li+el. @us! >asD o/ courseD >rong O . to protect us /rom the e//ects o/ capitalism7 it loses its po0er o+er the populace( San-onmatsuD pro/ philosoph. E3en >it!out a >orld /inancial crisisD >e can anticipate moreD and more de3astatingD natural disastersD >!ic! in turn >ill mean disruptions in agricultural productionD /looding o/ cities and entire countriesD mass star3ationD increasing migration pressuresD and so on.e.at 1orcester 4ol-tec!nic InstituteD 8a-7Pune 09D 0i++un Aol. . .s I !a3e indicatedD capitalism !as sa3aged t!e eart!D lea3ing 6illions o/ people >it!out a decent li3eli!oodD and t!e ecos-stem in tatters . It remains to 6e seenD !o>e3erD >!et!er e3en as adept a politician as @arac+ 96ama >ill 6e a6le to return t!e s!ip o/ state sa/el. 0!is structural pro6lem in part explains t!e recent aut!oritarian turn o/ t!e =nited States under t!e @us! administration.ll o/ t!is >ill in turn exact an increasing toll on t!e legitimac. @us!Hs seeming indi//erence to t!e e//ects o/ =.greater.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2" Capitalism Impacts – Democrac.D to a centristD li6eralD social democratic capitalist order O in t!e /ace o/ a /ull<6lo>n economic !urricane.to t!e status Fuo ante O i.>ould ot!er>ise need to ma+e meaning/ul and urgentl. R&9%*&*&& Cassettari# .

2# .and mass +illings committed 6.con/licts t!at simmer along /rom mont! to mont!D -ear to -earD as t!oug! as natural and immuta6le as t!e >axing and >aning o/ t!e moon O in places li+e Dar/urD 2>andaD CongoD .com7e!ost7detailQ3idR2S!idR10)SsidR11&1*2'e<c$&6<)%'*<'caa< $$c'c1*$/e'aT)0sessionmgr10S6dataRPn pdG=9B1!3c&Ut6Gl2BUT&dT&dVd6Rap!S.li/e 6.mone-G t!e destruction o/ eroticism 6.pu6lis! a @lac+ @oo+ o/ Capitalism.>a-s stands as t!e greatest single impediment to our o>n e//orts to /ind a practical and creati3e solution to t!e present crisis O is capitalismHs /undamental antagonism to>ard democrac-.accounting to 6e made.men and >omen 6.at 1orcester 4ol-tec!nic Institute in 8assac!usettsD 8a-7Pune 2009D 0i++un :1!.e6sco!ost.corporate 6ureaucracies suc! as t!e .t!eir 6illsG and t!e su//ering o/ t!e *0 million to 100 million 3erte6rates t!at die in scienti/ic la6oratories eac! -ear.pornograp!-G t!e corruption o/ !ig!er education 6.mong t!e innumera6le sins t!at !a3e /ollo>ed in capitalismHs long trainD >e mig!t mentionD /or exampleD t!e !idden indignities and dail./g!anistanD AietnamD and IraFD >!ere millions o/ >retc!edl.poor people die eit!er at t!e !ands o/ ot!er >retc!edl. at @orcester 8ol.!umiliations o/ t!e >or+ing class and t!e poorG t!e strangulation o/ dail.Capitalism S!ouldnLt @e Sa3ed.totalitarian Communist regimes in t!e course o/ t!e t>entiet! centur-. Capitalism is responsi6le /or all t!isD and more 6esides. .poor peopleD or /rom t!e 6om6s dropped /rom t!e automated 6attle plat/orms o/ t!e last sur3i3ing superpo>er. !ttp:77>e6. 1e mig!t also !ig!lig!t t!e doCens o/ >ars and ci3il con/licts t!at are directl.89sD t!e telecom companiesD and t!e computer giantsG t!e corruption o/ art and culture 6. )ist %1& Capitalism contri-utes to e+er.lo><paid >or+ers in sFualid /or< pro/it institutionsG t!e /act t!at millions o/ poor c!ildren are sold into sexual sla3er-D and millions o/ ot!ers are orp!aned 6.ssociate 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!. R&9%*&*&&# In 199%D a group o/ European academics pu6lis!ed a 6oo+ called 0!e @lac+ @oo+ o/ CommunismD in >!ic! t!edocumented t!e 6rutalit. ma<or societal pro-lem San-onmatsuD 'ssociate 8ro/essor o/ 8hilosoph. 5or >!en a mode o/ li/e t!at su6ordinates all !uman and spiritual 3alues to t!e pursuit o/ pri3ate >ealt! persists /or centuriesD t!ere is a lengt!. 4er!aps a group o/ academics >ill one da.corporatiCationG t!e ceaseless pitc!ing o/ !arm/ul products to our c!ildren and in/antsG t!e o6literation o/ t!e natural landscape 6.s!ould.strip mallsD !ig!>a-sD and toxic dumpsG t!e a6use o/ elderl.IDSG t!e /act t!at tens o/ millions o/ >omen turn to prostitution to pa. Wet per!aps its most destructi3e /eature O t!e one t!at in man.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2# Capitalism Impacts – )aundr..or indirectlrooted in t!e gross material disparities o/ t!e capitalist s-stem O t!e 6lood.technic Institute in 6assachusettsD B09 "Po!n San6onmatsuD . 0!e.

or does it ma+e sense to argue t!at >e donHt !a3e socialism -etD so in t!e meantime >e need to /ig!t /or re/orms to at least reduce t!e >orst e//ects o/ po3ert-.presents itsel/ to t!e capitalist to expand productionD !e must 6e a6le to /ind t!e necessar.6ut all t!e social e3ils created 6.la6our. 1it! production /or pro/itD t!e capitalist tries to extract as muc! as possi6le /rom !is >or+ersD >!o ine3ita6l.o/ CanadaD !ttp:77>>>. 0!is does not mean t!at t!ere are no >ell< meaning politicians or political partiesD 6ut t!e. So >!.po3ert. 1or+ers must 6e laid o// and /actories closedD creating a recession. Socialist 4art.in t!e Socialist 4art. 1!o >ould not >ant to a6olis! >arD /amineD crime D pre3enta6le diseaseD planned o6solescenceD people !a3ing ner3ous 6rea+do>nsD and a !ost o/ ot!er pro6lems engendered 6. 0!e.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 23 Capitalism Impacts – )aundr.rent < t!en >e !a3e t!e continual 6oom and 6ust c-cles /amiliar to capitalist production. o/ Canada 703 "P.canD !ence t!e class struggle.pro/it moti3esQ 1!o >ould not >ant to replace t!em >it! a >orld >!ere all >ill li3e in peaceD !armon-D and prosperit.!tm# 0!e comments o/ as!D Clar+eD 8urp!-D and 8acKenCie are included in t!is re3ie> 6ecause it s!o>s !o> out o/ touc! >it! realitt!ese >ell<meaning people are. 23 .not organiCe politicall. 0!e /undamental aspects o/ capitalism are t!e o>ners!ip o/ t!e tools o/ production 6. )ist %2& Socialism stops cap 0hich sol+es po+ert.a tin. 1!en opportunit.to 6e called on as reFuired.a saturation point is reac!ed >!en demand is lo>er t!an production and >e !a3e an o3era6undance o/ goods.>!ile t!e pro/it s-stem existsD and t!e people mentioned a6o3e are simpl.Fuic+l.people !a3e su//eredD are su//eringD and >ill continue su//ering until >e attac+ t!e disease itsel/.attac+ing t!e s-mptomsD not t!e disease.o/ production o/ t!e capitalist s-stem means t!ere is no o3erall planning to matc! production >it! !uman need.on minimum 6ene/its read.are ct!e reser3e arm-H standing 6.>orldsocialism. Since t!e seeds o/ t!e next 6oom are to 6e /ound in t!at recession < c!eap la6ourD ra> materialsD mac!iner-D and /actor.is an endemic part o/ capitalism and it cannot 6e di//erent.minorit. Ine3ita6l. In 19)*D t!e @ritis! (a6our 4art.o3er t!is planet and none !a3e succeeded in t!is endea3our -et. . 5or more t!an t>o centuries t!e pro/it s-stem !as !eld s>a.D :1age Sla3e e>s – 4o3ert-D.o/ Canada and its companion parties around t!e >orld to 6ring it to /ruition.D P.-ersD P.n-one can start up or ramp up production >!en sales and c!ances /or pro/it are !ig!.resist and organiCe into unions to impro3e conditions as 6est t!e.mesD 9<2<0%D P. 0!ere is one >a-D and one >a.Q 0!isD dear readerD can 6e !ad as soon as people >ant it.could 6e eliminated 3er. In ot!er >ordsD t!e. o6od.o/ t!e >orldHs population and t!e conseFuent >age<sla3er. 0!is argument !as 6een 3oiced 6.i/ a Socialist societ-D 6ased on t!e common o>ners!ip o/ t!e means to produce t!at >ealt! >ere esta6lis!ed.o>ned and administered 6.200%0209.onl-D to a6olis! po3ert-D and t!at is to esta6lis! a socialist societin >!ic! t!e tools o/ production >ill 6e commonl.exists in t!e =K and e3en t!eir !ealt! s-stem is in a mess and su//ering /rom gross under/unding. 0!e >or+ing class produces an a6undance o/ >ealt!D so muc! so t!at po3ert. In suc! a >orldD not onl.so man. 0!is is >!ere t!e poorD unemplo-ed and >el/are people come in./or so long t!at cin t!e meantimeH !as 6ecome /ore3er. . 0!e time is long past and too man.7 0ar7 /amine7 crime7 disease7 and all =social e+ils> '.are a necessar.t!e population as a >!ole in t!eir o>n interests. 0!e source o/ all social >ealt! is !uman la6our.t!at po3ert.part o/ t!e s-stem and t!e.>el/are state >!ic!D in 19)'D included medicare /or all.>ould dentoda.>onHt go a>a.t!e pro/it s-stem >ill 6e a6olis!ed. Go3ernmentsD dictatorial or democratic D exist to run t!e a//airs o/ capitalism and t!ere/ore to preser3e t!e status FuoD >!ic! ma+es t!e continuation o/ po3ert.>it!in capitalism. 0!e anarc!.introduced t!e modern da. .ine3ita6le. 4o3ert.cannot succeed in eliminating po3ert.o/ t!e ma?orit-.ers and 'mes7 Socialist 8art.org7canada7po3ert-.

Suc! ad?ustments consisted in side<steppingD as it >ereD t!e encountered o6stacles and resistances >!en capital >as una6le to /rontall. .extract and accumulate surplus<la6our<>!et!er in directl.lending mone-# and >inning t!e 6attle o3er t!e Haliena6ilit.re3eal itD including t>o >orld >ars "not to mention numerous smaller con/lagrations#. It is t!ere/ore not too di//icult to imagine t!e implications o/ a s-stemicD trulstructural crisisG i.economic or in primaril.and its S-nods.t!e !ig!est religious aut!orities: t!e 4apac.t!e criteria o/ !umanl.su6ordinate /orce in t!e course o/ !istorical de3elopment. =nder t!e conditions o/ capitalHs structural crisis its destructi3e constituents come to t!e /ore >it! a 3engeanceD acti3ating t!e spectre o/ total uncontrolla6ilit. .>!en t!e need /or restraints is conceded < at least in t!e /orm o/ t!e elusi3e desideratum o/ Hsel/<regulationH < e3en 6t!e s-stemHs most uncritical de/enders.unimagina6le d-namism and a /ate/ul de/icienc-.>as in /act one o/ t!e most important /actors t!at secured capitals irresisti6le ad3ancement and ultimate 3ictor-D >!ic! it !ad to accomplis! despite t!e earlier mentioned /act t!at capitalHs mode o/ meta6olic control constituted t!e exception and not t!e rule in !istor-.su6ordinating Huse<3alueH < t!at isD production /or !uman need < to t!e reFuirements o/ sel/<expansion and accumulationD capital in all o/ its /orms !ad to o3ercome also t!e odium o/ 6eing considered /or a long time t!e most HunnaturalH >a. one t!at a//ects t!e glo6al capital s-stem not simpl.meant: retaining control o3er t!e monetar-7/inancial capital o/ t!e ageD in t!e interest o/ t!e accumulation processD and at t!e same time securing pro/it 6.nd >orse stillD on account o/ necessaril.o/ t!e capital s-stem are /ar /rom reassuring toda. 5or e3en under t!e Mnormalit-L o/ relati3el. .o/ 0ransition. 0!us t!e implications o/ t!e sel/same po>er o/ uncontrolla6ilit>!ic! in its time secured t!e 3ictor.>it! limited ad?ustmentsD and e3en t!ose onl. 0!is c!aracteristic o/ uncontrolla6ilit.aros7 pro/ 8hilosoph.< against itsel/D ele3ating its mode o/ meta6olic control to t!e po>er o/ a6solute dominance as a /ull.oneD /or instance<6ut in all its /undamental dimensionsD Fuestioning its 3ia6ilit.altoget!er as a social reproducti3e s-stem. 1it! regard to its innermost determination t!e capital s-stem is expansion oriented and accumulation<dri3en. In t!is senseD as a s-stem o/ social meta6olic control capital is Fuite irresisti6le /or as long as it can success/ull. It could not 6ecome t!e dominant /orce o/ t!e social meta6olic process 6e/ore s>eeping out o/ t!e >a.extended glo6al s-stem.sancti/ied <pro!i6ition on Husur-H "contested under t!e categor.o/ landH "againD t!e su6?ect o/ a6solute and religiousl. Suc! a determination constitutes 6ot! a /ormerl.demolis! t!em. .o/ controlling t!e production o/ >ealt!.o/ SussexD EnglandD :@e-ond Capital: 0o>ard a 0!eor.o>e3erD it is one t!ing to o3ercome and su6due pro6lematical "e3en o6scurantist# constraints and o6staclesD and Fuite anot!er to institute t!e positi3e principles o/ sustaina6le social de3elopmentD guided 6.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 22 Capitalism Impacts – Extinction %1& Capitalism5s dri+e /or material ma*es crisis and extinction ine+ita-le 6es. 5or it >as compati6le onl.under one i/ its aspects<t!e /inancial7monetar.implicated in Hmortal sinH in more >a-s t!an oneD and t!ere/ore !ad to 6e outla>ed as H!ereticH 6.7 9" Ist3an 8esCarosD 199*D 4ro/essor at =ni3ersit.ccording to t!e ideological con/rontations o/ medie3al timesD capital >as /ate/ull.large extent to its uncontrolla6ilit-D capital succeeded in o3ercoming all odds < no matter !o> po>er/ul materiall.t!e a6solute < and religiousl. .e. 9 8olitical :heor.J 0!an+s to a 3er.o/ Hpro/it upon alienationHD >!ic! reall.s >e s!all see in C!apter &D capital >as near amena6le to proper and dura6le control or rational sel/<restraint.sancti/ied pro!i6ition under t!e /eudal s-stem# >it!out >!ic! t!e emergence o/ capitalist agriculture <a 3ital condition /or t!e triump! o/ t!e capital s-stem in general >ould !a3e 6een Fuite inconcei3a6le./ter allD capital at /irst appeared as a strictl./or as long as it could continue to pursue in one /orm or anot!er t!e d-namics o/ sel/<expansion and t!e process o/ accumulation.in general./ul/illing o6?ecti3esD as opposed to t!e 6lind pursuit o/ capitalHs sel/<expansion.political /orm< in t!e course o/ t!e gi3en societ-Ls expandoed reproduction.limited c-clic distur6ances and 6loc+ages t!e destruction t!at goes >it! t!e ensuing socioeconomic and political crises can 6e enormousD as t!e annals o/ t!e t>entiet! centur.in a /orm t!at /ores!ado>s sel/<destruction 6ot! /or t!is uniFue social reproducti3e s-stem itsel/ and /or !umanit.and !o> a6solutiCed in terms o/ t!e pre3ailing 3alue s-stem o/ societ. 9nceD !o>e3erD t!is d-namic process o/ expansion and accumulation gets stuc+ "/or >!ate3er reason# t!e conseFuences must 6e Fuite de3astating. 22 .

to incite Sunni 8uslims to murder . In t!e 2ussiaD t!e .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 29 Capitalism Impacts – Extinction %2& Capitalism 0ill cause extinctionC the alternati+e is not to 0or* 0ithin the s. 0!e ne> tec!nologies t!at are a3aila6le toda-D /ar /rom ma+ing our li3es >orse !a3e t!e potential to ma+e t!is control easier.got 2) percent o/ t!e 3ote in t!e o3em6er 199& poll. . In tur+e. I/ t!e.itler admirerD @al 0!ac+erce-D runs t!e state go3ernmentD t!reatening to >age >ar against t!e 8uslim minorit-.dine at t!e captainLs ta6le.utomated >or+ processes could pro3ide us >it! more leisureD >it! more time /or creati3it.t!em e//ecti3el-. In 2>anda t!e /ormer dictator unleas!ed a !orri/ic slaug!ter o/ 0utsis 6.utus 6.a6out rearranging t!e dec+c!airs on t!e titanic >!ile ma+ing sure no one distur6s t!e ric! and pri3ileged as t!e. @ut t!is alternati3e cannot come /rom >or+ing >it!in t!e s-stemD /rom accepting t!e insane logic o/ t!e mar+etD o/ competiti3e accumulationD o/ >or+ing !arder in order to /orce someone else to >or+er !arder or lose t!eir ?o6.uman 6eings !a3e t!e po>er to seiCe control o/ t!e >a-s o/ creating >ealt! and to su6ordinate t!em to our decisionsD to our 3alues. 4olitics 6ecomes merel. @ut i/ t!at is true t!en t!ere is no !ope /or !umanit-. 1e do not !a3e to lea3e t!em to t!e 6lind caprice o/ t!e mar+et to t!e mad rus! o/ t!e ri3al o>ners o/ >ealt! in t!eir race to +eep a!ead o/ eac! ot!er. 199* pg 99<100# M. Instead it lea3es a /i/t! o/ t!e >orldsL population under nouris!ed and most o/ t!e rest dou6ting >!et!er t!e.itler admirerD racistD and proponent o/ nuclear >arD B!irino3s+. In one countr. 0!e >!ole craCs-stem o/ alienated la6or is a product o/ >!at >e do.a/ter anot!er political ad3enturers >!o support t!e existing s-stem are ma+ing careers /or t!emsel3es 6.across most o/ EuropeD t!e 3ictor.armenD Editor o/ International SocialismD 199*D :Economics o/ t!e mad!ouse. 1e >ould indeed 6e /acing a /uture o/ 6ar6arismD i/ not t!e destruction o/ t!e >!ole o/ !umanit-.o/ StalinismD t!e deat! camps and t!e gulag.21st centur.li3es /or t!e mass o/ people. Computerism could pro3ide us >it! t!e unparalleled in/ormation a6out t!e recourses a3aila6le to satis/. @ut t!ere is an alternati3e. . reprise in t!e earl.t!e go3ernment and t!e militar.our needs and !o> to deplo. 29 .satis/actor.utton in !is 6oo+ 0!e State 1eLre In.. Suc! is t!e danger t!at con/ronts t!e >orld i/ >e cannot deal >it! t!e present crisis concludes 1ill .and more c!ange to deli6erate >!ere t!e >orld is going.utusD >!ile in neig!6oring @urundi t!ere is t!e t!reat o/ slaug!ter o/ .0utsis.@ot! t!e out and out de/enders o/ ruling class po>er and toda-Ls timid co>ed re/ormists tell us t!ere is no alternati3e to t!is s-stem.itler could not imagine.t!e crisis o/ t!e 1990Ls !as 6egun to unleas! t!e same 6ar6aric /orces >e sa> in t!e 19&0Ls.>age a >ar against t!e Kurdis! /i/t! o/ t!e populationD >!ile t!e /ascists tr.stem7 -ut to push against it( 1armen7 editor o/ International Socialism7 9" "C!ris .ll t!is !orrors !as its origins in t!e /ailure o/ mar+et capitalism to pro3ide e3en minimall. 0!ose conditions included t>o >orld >arsD t!e rise o/ aCismD t!e collapse o/ democrac.o/ t!e conditions in t!e earl.tr-ing to scapegoat et!nic or religious minorities.part o/ t!is centur-.>ill 6e a6le to en?otomorro> t!e small com/orts t!at allo>ed to t!em toda.la>i 8uslims.come /rom /ig!ting against t!e s-stem and t!e disastrous e//ect its logic !as on t!e li3es o/ t!e mass o/ people. . . 1arnings o/ suc! a /uture are not to 6e treated lig!tl-.>ere to 6e repeated in a /e> -ears time t!ere is no dou6t it >ould 6e on a muc! more !orri/ic scale t!at e3en . 0!e alternati3e can onl. In @om6a-D anot!er .lread.

)*T translates into 2.nd since t!e pu6lication o/ t!at /igureD t!e 199$ >el/are :re/orm.t!ese pro6lems existD and t!reeD >!at can 6e doneD since -esD t!ere is a solution.!tml 1e all +no> t!at >orld !unger and >orld po3ert.reducing 90 .a 6illion people in ?ust t!e 0!ird 1orld are landless or !a3e too little land a3aila6le to t!em to /eed t!eir !ouse!olds. . 2emem6erD t!e income disparitcontinues to gro>D so itLs true t!atD as t!e old sa-ing goesD t!e ric! get ric!er >!ile t!e poor get poorer. Capitalism is c!aracteriCed 6.paci/ied >!en a som6er and seeminglsincere politician is FuotedD :t!at t!ere isnLt enoug! in t!e 6udget to co3er t!ese 6ene/its /or t!e poor.people >it! social programs suc! as >el/are and !ealt! careQ Wes and no .geocities.& 6illion people^ earl.(et me gi3e -ou a good example o/ >!at I mean.tal+ t!is e3ening I !ope to con3e.not!er product o/ capitalism t!at sin+s countries /urt!er into po3ert.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 90 Capitalism Impacts – 8o+ert.created 2*D000 ?o6s.1 6illion people in t!e >orld li3ing on less t!an m2 a da-.=.S.com7-out!)sa7!unger. In t!e ad3anced countriesD 100 million people li3e 6elo> t!e po3ert. %1& Capitalism is the root cause of poverty. 0!ese pre3ious examples illustrate t!e uneFual distri6ution o/ >ealt!D an irre3ersi6le s-mptom o/ t!e ailing capitalist s-stem.6ene/icial purposes.to -ouD num6er oneD t!e seriousness o/ t!ese pro6lemsG t>oD to explain /rom a class conscious perspecti3e explain >!. 9/ course t!e argument goes t!at t!e militarpro3ides semi<decent ?o6sD 6ut letLs loo+ at >!at m1 6illion can do >!en spent on t!e militar. I/ t!at same /igure >ere spent on social programs it could create &0D000 ?o6s in mass transitD &$D000 ?o6s in !ousingD )1D000 ?o6s in education or )%D000 ?o6s in !ealt! care. militar.@utD one ma. 0!ese institutions are intended to smoot! >orld commerce 6. WetD t!eir sentiment is Fuic+l. Did -ou +no> t!at :>ealt!/are.!a3ing t!eir cities and coutnr-sides 6om6ed and destro-ed end up needing t!eir in/rastructure re6uiltD t!is is a 3er.and less social programs spent t!an 6e/oreQSo >!ere are t!e priorities o/ t!e =nited StatesD t!e >ealt!iestD and supposedl-D t!e most 6ene3olent and /ree o/ nationsQ 0a+ing a loo+ at >!ere t!e ma?orit.compromise t!e meeting o/ 6asic !uman needs to ensure an increased pro/it. 1!at could 6e more pro6lematic t!an t!e s-stematic denial o/ 6asic needs suc! as /oodD s!elterD clot!ing and clean drin+ing >aterQ 1!atLs ir+ing is t!at t!ese 6asic needs could 6e pro3ided /or allD -et still t!ere are 6illions o/ people in t!is >orld >!o continue to su//er /rom po3ert. 0!ese >eapons are used 6. 1!-Q In order to secure a !ig!l.ma+eG t!e.compared to more sociall. m1 6illion to t!e militar. 2008.spending is /ar /rom t!e 6est solution /or t!e 0!ird 1orld as >ell. .dou6le edged s>ord in terms o/ creating ?o6s to sa. 0!isD once againD is t!e nature o/ capitalismD /ol+s.and malnutrition. 2008. Campesinos >!o >or+ed t!e land to gro> crops and /eed t!eir /amilies >ere /orced o// t!eir land. 8arines set up t!e icaraguan ational Guard.. Ostapiak. In m. total o/ m&2% 6illion a -ear is spent on t!e militar. 0!e. 4rograms existD 6ut t!e.people /eel !opeless and angr-.resistedD t!e SomoCa dictators!ipLs ational Guard 6urned t!eir !omes and crops./or example.is no> t!e >idest it !as 6een since t!e 1929 stoc+ mar+et cras! and it is continuing to gro>.>!en t!ere is e3en less mone.>ere ne3er adeFuate and t!e capitalists cutting /ederal /unding /or t!ese 6ene/its and t!is ma+es man.0!is is entirel. !ttp:77>>>. 6ill !as cut t!at amount o/ mone. 6./alse. /or t!e ric! costs us a6out &. Mark OStapiak.not!er telling /act is t!at t!e net >ort! o/ t!e &*' ric!est 6illionaires is eFual to t!e com6ined income o/ t!e poorest )*T o/ t!e >orldLs population. Closer to !omeD !ere in t!e =nited StatesD t!e income disparit. writer at Northland College. doesnLt ?ust utiliCe t!e >eapons t!e.is t!e policies o/ t!e I85 and 1orld @an+. @ut t!e =.lineD * million o/ t!em >it!out !omes.toda-.perpetuated po3ert.gi3en out /or >el/are dramaticall-. su6sidies end up >e can see a telling re/lection o/ t!ose priorities. 1!en t!e.t!at results /romD among ot!er attac+s on t!e >or+ing classD >or+ersL >age cutsD an increase in t!e cost o/ li3ing >it!out an increase in minimum >age and la-o//sD all moti3ated 6. puppet go3ernments in ot!er countries to ensure t!e poor are +ept poorD su6ordinateD landless and !ungr-.are paramount pro6lems /or our -oung generation to address.* times as muc! as t!e m1&0 6illion >e spend eac! -ear on >el/are /or t!e poorQ . one ot!er t!an t!e =./rom t!e corps t!egre> to sell.t!e least.S. During t!e 19*0s in icaragua t!ere >as a cotton 6onanCa.6e/ore t!e >el/are re/orm 6illD so !o> does one expect t!e poor to /eed t!emsel3es and get out o/ po3ert. 2ig!t no> t!ere are more t!an &.S..pro/ita6le mar+et at t!e expense o/ land t!at pro3ided Campesinos 6ot! >it! li/e gi3ing /ood and some mone. .sell t!em and are in /act t!e largest seller o/ >eapons in t!e >orld.nd >!ile countries t!at are made are made su6ordinate to t!e =.=. writer at Northland College.as+D doesnLt t!e go3ernment pro3ide poor and !ungr.S.capitalismLs dri3e /or pro/it pro/it.o/ =.5irstD ILd li+e to ela6orate on t!e seriousness o/ po3ert. 1e >erenLt a6le to end po3ert.S.S.

0!is is ?ust is.ere is !o> a re3olution o3ercame po3ert.deepl. .composed o/ t!e ric! and >ell<6orn s!ould c!ec+ t!e imprudent o/ democrac-.t!an its neig!6or 90 miles nort!D 6ut t!roug! a planned socialist econom-D according to a 5ood 5irst reportD all citiCens are guaranteed enoug! riceD pulsesD oilD sugarD meat and ot!er /ood to pro3ide t!em >it! 1D900 calories a da-. .are t!e poor and !ungr-.and !omeless. (istenD t!e >orld toda. em6argo against Cu6a. .0!ere are examplesD t!oug! o/ !o> t!is un/air and un?ust state o/ a//airs !as 6een o3ercome to 6ene/it t!e poor and !uddled masses o/ !ungr. 6ac+ed @atista dictators!ip.o/ democrac-^ Democrac. In 19*9D t!e Cu6ans de/eated t!e =. 5rom all o/ t!is >e can sureldeduce t!at it isD a6o3e allD not a democratic s-stem. Democratic structures are t!ose in >!ic! people !a3e a sa.nd t!is is t!e /ace o/ t!e ongoing =. and t!ere/ore :a permanent 6od.amiltonD one o/ our /ounding /at!ersD >ent so /ar as to sa.less >ealt!.carries >it! it t!e principle o/ accounta6ilit-. (eaders!ip can 6e +ept accounta6le to t!e needs o/ t!e ma?orit-. 0!at onl.is lent to t!ese 6an+rupt countriesD >!ic! are alread.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 91 /oreign exc!ange restrictions and tari//sD among ot!er t!ings. still !as up>ards o/ 1 million !omeless and !ungr-./ter t!e re3olutionD Cu6a is still considera6l.produces enoug! grain to pro3ide e3er.I !ope IL3e s!o>n t!at t!e s-stem o/ capitalism is exploitati3e and oppressi3e. @asicall-D mone.in decisions t!at a//ect t!eir >ell 6eing. .S. . 0!e =.t!re> o// t!e c!ains o/ capitalism >it! a socialist re3olution./rom t!e 6eginning.D t!e >orldLs sel/<appointed policemanD !as lac+ed t!e /undamentals o/ democrac.using its /unds to 6ail out go3ernments t!at are con/ronting pro6lems t!ese 6astions o/ capitalism ensure t!at trade can continue >it! minimum interruption.S.S.S.:t!e mass o/ people seldom ?udge or determine rig!tD.nd a/ter>ardD t!e. . It does not represent t!e interests o/ t!e ma?orit-D 6ecause t!e ma?orit.. 91 .in de6tD and place as conditions /or t!ese loans economic restructuring t!at in3ol3es cutting or eliminating /ood and social programs /or t!e poor and !ungr-.and !unger.t!e ric! 6ene/it /rom t!is s-stem >!ile t!e poor are /urt!er trampled under its !eel.lexander .!uman 6eing on t!e planet >it! &D$00 calories a da-D 6ut t!e =.!as e3er-t!ing to do >it! !unger 6ecause democrac.o/ /ood or landG rat!erD itLs a scarcit.ccording to Posep! Collins o/ 5ood 5irstD t!e root cause o/ !unger isnLt scarcit. @.

merican people are pa-ing a 3er. 0!e >ar in IraF to secure IraFi oil resources /or .0!is article points out t!at /oreign aid is a muc! more e//ecti3e >a.merican capitalisms 3astD oppressi3e commercial empire 3astl.merican capitalist empire .merican capitalist classD Corporate .met!ods /or expanding t!e .merican capitalism reall.>or+s.out>eig! an6ene/its t!e.merican oil companiesD and t!e >ar in .recei3e /rom t!is empire.merican people are pa-ing /or 6uilding and de/ending t!is .6ene/it t!e .o/ ac!ie3ing t!e same goal.stem -ene/it7 lea+ing the poor to help themsel+es( Lohn Stolten-erg7 0riter /or /ree speech :K7 9C22C03 Po!n Stolten6ergD >riter /or /ree speec! 0AD 9<2'<0% !ttp:77communit-. @ottom line: 0!e . the elites in the capitalist s.ma.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 92 Capitalism Impacts – 8o+ert.merican people o/ expanding and maintaining . %2& Enl.merican /oreign aid is to expand t!e . 0!e costs to t!e .sia to a port on t!e Indian 9ceanD are militar. 9ne o/ t!e pro6lems >it! all o/ t!is is t!e .merican peopleHs >ill/ul ignorance on !o> . 92 .org7!o>XcapitalismXcreatesXpo3ert-XinXt!eX>orld 0!e real purpose o/ .merican capitalist commercial empire t!at is designed to onl.merican capitalist commercial empire.!ig! priceD and t!e >orld is pa-ing a 3er.merican oil companies /rom oil /ields in Central ./reespeec!./g!anistan to secure a sa/e route /or a pipeline /or .merica and t!eir political elite.!ig! priceD /or t!e .

@.in (atin .reduction in recent decades too+ place in East and Sout! .!al/D ineFualit.c!icagopu6licradio.t!e mar+et economies o/ t!e 1estD 6ut 6. E3en as glo6al po3ert.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 9 Capitalism Impacts – 8o+ert.o/ 1est @erlinD not t!e ot!er >a.org7content.countr.to die.line o/ m2 a da-. State Department and t!e 9rganiCation o/ . . 1 0 million people( Cassel7 0riter /or Chicago pu-lic radio7 02 Doug CasselD Doug >as special counsel to t!e =nited ations Commission on t!e 0rut! /or El Sal3ador. 0!e.>it! no uni3ersal !ealt! care s-stem.ten people in t!e >orld li3ed 6elo> t!e glo6al po3ert. In Guatemala t!e c!ildren o/ t!e poorest /i/t! o/ t!e population are more t!an t>ice as li+el.o/ 0rader 8ont!l-.siaLs po3ert. So t!e annual earnings o/ a single su6scri6er to 0rader 8ont!l. .rose. I/ t!e.to die as t!e >ell<o//. @ut !old on.dropped during t!e 19'0LsD 6ut not since 1990.e !as also ser3ed as a consultant on !uman rig!ts to t!e =.t!e planned economies o/ t!e EastD especiall.nd a/ter 1990D t!e num6er o/ poor people in t!e nations o/ t!e /ormer So3iet =nion rose 6.sia. @.sian 0igersD toget!er >it! C!inaD managed a /our</old reduction in t!e percentages o/ t!eir populations li3ing in po3ert-. 0!e. De/enders o/ glo6al capitalism >ill sa. Is t!is ineFualit.line. 1riter /or C42D &72$70' !ttp:77>>>./or most people.merican States. In t!e aggregateD reports t!e = D Jt!e past t>o decades !a3e >itnessed one o/ t!e most rapid reductions in po3ert.could dou6le t!e incomes o/ more t!an a t!ousand poor Guatemalans. 0!atLs m1. C!ina alone li/ted 1&0 million people out o/ po3ert. 0!ese /acts temper an. 0!e .J In 19'1 /our o/ e3er.in >orld !istor-. East @erlin >ould !a3e 6een t!e en3.almost 100 million.Sac!s argues in !is recent 6oo+D 0!e End o/ 4o3ert-D is not to ?ettison capitalismD 6ut to gi3e it a !uman /ace. 0!e =S leads t!e >orld in !ealt! care spendingD 6ut >e are t!e onl.dampen e3en more t!e claims o/ /ree mar+et capitalism: t!e 6iggest gains against po3ert. I/ >e loo+ 6e!ind glo6al aggregatesD !o>e3erD it turns out t!at almost all po3ert. -.%0 millionD and in su6<Sa!aran .also credit capitalism >it! alle3iating po3ert-.uman De3elopment 2eport /or 200*D t!e 6ottom one /i/t! o/ Guatemalans ma+e on a3erage m**0 per -ear. =nemplo-ment is not le/t to t!e mar+etD 6ut is care/ull.a cop. @ut in most places t!at is 6ecause t!e ric! got ric!erD not 6ecause t!e poor got poorer.S.to die 6e/ore age /i3e as t!e +ids o/ t!e most a//luent /i/t!. De/enders ma. In 4eru t!e gap is e3en >orse: poor +ids are /i3e times as li+el.>it!in 6ounds set 6. 1!at >e needD t!enD as economist Pe//re.merica sta-ed a6out t!e same.mericaD men li+e 1all Street tradersD in t!e top *T income 6rac+etD li3e a6out 2*T longer t!an men in t!e 6ottom *T.ccording to t!e =nited ations .rates /ell 6. excluding China 0here communism decreased po+ert.>ill not li3e as long.aspxQaudioIDR199*0 . @eing poor also means t!at -our c!ildren are more li+el.in t!e decade /rom 1990 to 2001./ricaD 6.1990 t!e /igure >as less t!an t!ree in ten.t!e Communist 4art-.rate /rom *$T in 19'1 do>n to 1)T in 2001.moralQ 1!at o/ t!e glo6al capitalist s-stem t!at ma+es it possi6leQ @eing poorD a/ter allD is not merel. Consider !ealt! care.C!inese lose t!eir ?o6s. 9n a3erage in . It means t!at -ou pro6a6l.@ei?ingLs leadersD >!o /ear social turmoil i/ too man.cut East . % & Capitalism has increased po+ert.didnLt >or+. 8ean>!ile t!e rest o/ t!e >orld did less >ell./rica and t!e 8iddle EastD po3ert.planned 6. In ort! .round. C!ina participates in t!e glo6al capitalist econom-D 6ut onl.t!at >e tried t!e alternati3e – State<planned economies – and t!e.*0 a da-D /ar 6elo> t!e international po3ert.C!ina. 93er a t!ird o/ poor 9 .2001 it >as do>n to t>o in ten. 0!e percentage o/ po3ert.temptation to proclaim t!e triump! o/ capitalism as an engine o/ prosperit.a matter o/ not !a3ing ten 6uc+s to 6u.>ere ac!ie3edD not 6.>ealt!.!adD Aladimir 4utin >ould 6e running t!e So3iet =nionD not 2ussia.

) -earsG Cu6ans can expect to li3e %%. C!inaD tooD is instructi3e. E3en t!oug! Cu6an incomes are onl.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 9! . .2 -ears.>!ose a3erage income is onl.net. . 1!ile c!ild mortalit. 1e need a e> Deal – updated and expanded << /or t!e >orld.in @ei?ing and S!ang!ai is no> no !ig!er t!an in t!e =S or Cu6aD in poor rural C!ina it is se3en times !ig!er – compara6le to ami6ia.rate is a6out t!e same as t!at o/ 8ala-sia – a countr. @ut clearl-D in !ealt! careD !e is doing more >it! lessD and >e !a3e somet!ing to learn.mericans !a3e no !ealt! insurance. ot t!at >e s!ould adopt 5idel CastroLs economic – let alone political – model. C!inese mar+et re/orms ended pu6lic !ealt! care in rural areas. 9! . Glo6al mar+ets alone >ill not ma+e capitalism >or+ /or most people. 9r compare our !ealt! outcomes >it! t!ose o/ Cu6a.one Fuarter o/ ours.merican capitalism /rom t!e excesses o/ unregulated mar+ets.a /raction o/ oursD Cu6aLs in/ant and c!ild sur3i3al rates eFual ours. 5D2 6roug!t in go3ernment to +eep ta6s on 1all Street traders and to pro3ide a social sa/et.s a resultD our in/ant mortalit. In t!e 19&0Ls t!e e> Deal o/ 5ran+lin Delano 2oose3elt << called a traitor to !is capitalist class << sa3ed .mericans can expect to li3e %%.s o/ 200*D . 0!ree Fuarters o/ rural C!inese no> !a3e no !ealt! insurance.

o> democratic is t!atQ GrantedD t!ere ma.D.6e more political rig!ts in t!e =.t!reat o/ t!e =.3ote6rianmoore."and t!e Democrats as >ell# to +o>to> to t!e Cu6an<. I/ Stat!is >is!es not to accept BieglerLs /igures or accusationsD t!en >!.and o>ners!ip and ma+e all decisions /or t!e communit. WesD t!ere is more /reedom under socialismD 6ecause t!e citiCens and >or+ers set polic-D retain aut!orit. It is t!e monied interests o/ t!e Cu6an<. .SD it is 6ecause >e !a3e imposed an economic em6argo on Cu6a /or *0 -ears and on ot!er countries t!at >is! to do 6usiness >it! t!e Cu6ans.mericans and our countr-Ls o>n economic 6ene/its.( 6oore7 editor o/ the tampa tri-uneD 2009( @rian 8ooreD editor o/ t!e tampa tri6uneD *<2'<09 !ttp:776rians6log.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 9" Capitalism Impacts – 8o+ert. and its constant e//orts to undermine Cu6aLs go3ernment.merica !as imposed on Cu6aLs >omenD c!ildren and senior citiCens..and malnutrition eac! -earD 6ecause t!e. =nder capitalismD all decisions are made 6.4ro/essor o/ Economics Pe//re. >rote in !is 6oo+ :Empire o/ S!ame.2epu6licansD >!o !a3e caused t!e 2epu6lican 4art.S.$ 6illion peopleD >!o >ere li3ing as :moderatel.ali3e. in 200* and stated a more conser3ati3e /igure o/ :eig!t million people >!o die o/ po3ert.S. Sac!s reported t!at 1orld @an+ economists S!ao!ua C!en and 8artin 2a3allion estimated t!at roug!l. Sac!s aut!ored :0!e End o/ 4o3ert-. Sac!sD >!o also is a special ad3iser to t!e =nited ations secretar-<general and consultant to a num6er o/ /oreign countries in matters o/ international economics.and deat! can 6e explained in one simple re/erence: Pean BieglerD t!e Gene3a sociologist and /ormer =nited ations 2apporteur on t!e :2ig!t to 5ood.sur3i3edD despite t!e unconsciona6le em6argo conditions . Can -ou 6lame t!e Cu6an go3ernmentLs e//ort to protect its sur3i3a6ilit>!en it experienced t!e @a. "Editions 5a-ardD 200*# t!at a6out &$ million people die e3er.D suc! as /ree speec! and assem6l-D 6ut once againD t!at is 6ecause o/ t!e imminent militar. %!& Capitalism limits /reedoms and increases po+ert.mericans in 8iamiD mostl./or t!e =.s /or Stat!isL Fuestion o/ >!Cu6ans are /leeing t!eir countr.mericansL sel/is! political and economic interestsD at t!e expense o/ .1 6illion people >ere "also# li3ing in extreme po3ert./act it is a >orld economic s-stem t!at em6races all countries >orld>ide. 0!e economists added anot!er 1.in t!e matter.are too poor to sta.:1.not consider Colum6ia =ni3ersit.-ear /rom !unger and malnutrition.t!e 3er.t!e o>ners o/ t!e companies or a small group o/ in3estors or an elite 6oardD and t!e >or+ers !a3e no sa.poor. 0!is !as caused Cu6a and its citiCens to struggle in its economic sur3i3al and to li3e in great po3ert-.. Cu6ans !a3e admira6l.com7200970*7po3ert-< under<capitalism<too<poor<to<sta-<ali3e7 0!e connection 6et>een capitalism and >orld po3ert. I/ one ac+no>ledges t!at >orld economics is 6ased on capitalismD !o> can t!is s-stem escape responsi6ilit-Q .and >or+places. Biegler accuses t!e glo6al corporations o/ maintaining "0!ird<1orld# /amineD o/ destro-ing nature and o/ su63erting democrac-D and t!at t!ese capitalist corporations extend t!eir in/luence o3er t!e >orld.in t!e -ear 2001. E3en >it!out going into details a6out t!e e//ects o/ glo6al corporate ruleD capitalism is responsi6le /or t!ose deat!s 6.o/ 4igs attac+D 9" . Sac!s does not 6lame capitalismD nor does !ea6sol3e it eit!er..

constructed categories o/ group identit. . 0!e =nited States is dependent on a class o/ poorl. %"& Capitalism perpetuates po+ert."2000# >ritesD Jmacroeconomic polic. IneFualit. C(.compensated. 1ealt! >as seen as a sign o/ di3ine grace 6ecause God >ould ne3er allo> an immoral person to prosper. 0!e culture o/ po3ert.eFuals !opelessness 6ecause all t!ings are out o/ reac!. 0!ese include t!e distri6ution o/ earnings and >ealt!D social prestigeD political po>erD educational opportunitiesD and ?ustice.and capitalism to gain more o/ t!e 3alua6le resources a3aila6le "@eeg!le-D 2000# and t!en do >!ate3er it ta+es to +eep t!ose resources and sta. In /actD most o/ t!e ad3antages and re>ards a3aila6le to people are s!aped 6.o>e3erD t!ere are structural patterns o/ ineFualit. Con3ersel-D /ailure >as seen as a personal /la>. =n/ortunatel-D it remains t!at t!e true results o/ !ard >or+ are uneFual across class and race "S!apiroD 200%#.istoricall-D t!e =nited States !as perpetuated t!e ideolog. )1#.o>e3erD economic t!eories persist t!at t!e /ree mar+et is t!e 6est >a.mo6ile "SernauD 2001 #.as a masters in in/ormation ser3icesD 2aceD GenderD and ClassD e> 9rleans: 200%.!olds t!at po3ert. through class ine?ualit.SSD I EU=.to control in/lationJ "p. 0!e social structure sets t!e range o/ opportunities a3aila6le to an.merican sociologistD said t!at t!e essence o/ po3ert. 1)D Iss.6egins >!en someone can claim a position o/ social po>erD a central position in a net>or+ o/ exc!ange t!at can 6e exploited /or personal.o/ opportunitiesD so t!ose >!o >or+ !ard >ill 6e /airl.gainJ "p.educated or immigrant >or+ers to do ser3ice >or+ t!at cannot 6e automated "SernauD 2001#. .ndersen S CollinsD 200%#.to realiCe economic gro>t! and remo3e people /rom situations o/ po3ert-. 4eople can >or+ !ard and still !a3e not!ing. 0!e current corporate practice o/ su6contracting and ot!er measures de3ised to sa3e mone.4a-ne "200*# as J. 2o6ert .ndersen S CollinsD 200%#. It is true t!at to a certain extentD indi3idual di//erences and e//orts pla.!a3e led to temporar.umi.=ni3ersit.. =n/ortunatel-D o3er timeD class ineFualit. ..a part in t!e success o/ an indi3idual."@eeg!le-D 2000G 2ot!manD 200*#.state t!at people 6ecome poor due to a lac+ o/ s+ills.and part time >or+ >it! lo>er >ages and less ?o6 securit. 8ara6le "2000# >rote t!at capitalism is /raud.s Sernau "2001# >roteD JIneFualit.is legitimiCed >!en social 6elie/s and 3alues t!at rationaliCe it seem 3alid or moral "2ot!manD 200*# and is supported 6. . xi#.is to li3e in miser. 0!is is 6ased on t!e idea t!at economic gro>t! ma+es more room at t!e top so >or+ers >ill 6ecome up>ardl. Illegal immigrants compete >it! residents /or ?o6s and t!is leads to lo>er >ages /or all uns+illed >or+ers >!ile >ea+ening t!e 6argaining po>er o/ unions.eFual >it! respect to t!e production and distri6ution o/ 3alued resources >it!in a societ.elite use t!e po>er t!e.>ield t!roug! democrac. In /aDctD man.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 9# Capitalism Impacts – 8o+ert. related concept is t!at o/ ineFualit-. . It promotes t!e idea t!at e3er-one !as a /air and eFual c!ance to succeed D t!at !ard >or+ is all it ta+esD and t!at ?ustice is in!erent. &7)G pg.at 8almstrom . E3ol3ing /rom capitalist de3elopmentD relations 6et>een classes s!ape t!e social institutions in societ.and a//ect eac! groupHs access to economicD politicalD culturalD and social resources ". I/ e3er-one !as itD t!en no one !as it "SemauD 2001#.o/ indi3idualism.restricts t!e num6er o/ ?o6s t!at are a3aila6le >!ene3er it is necessar.one person "@eeg!le-D 2000#.ir 5orce @ase. Some t!eories o/ po3ert. 4resident (-ndon Po!nson said t!at po3ert. 0!e Jot!erJ is needed 6ecauseD as 8ax 1e6er >roteD po>er is relati3e.unter "19$*#D an .to promote t!e idea o/ t!e Jot!erJ "8adridD 200%#. Koep*eD masters in/ormation ser+ices7 03 "Deanna Koep+eD director /or 0ro. 4o3ert. 0!e >ealt!.com7pFdlin+Q indexR9SdidR1)%0'*0)%1SSrc!8odeR&SsidR1S5mtR&SAInstR429DSA0-peR4UDS2U0R&09SA ameR4UDS0SR12)'2%&) 1*SclientIdR)&)%SaidR1 Cassettari# 8ost o/ t!e J<ismsJ t!at >e encounter are sociall.(I0WD . %#. 0!eir populations can c!ange /rom time to timeD 6ut t!e categories are necessar..needs a certain amount o/ unemplo-ment to +eep in/lation do>n ".t!e extent to >!ic! an indi3idual does >it!out resourcesJ "p.t!at go 6e-ond t!e indi3idual "SernauD 2001#. 9ur societ.!as led to a class li3ing in po3ert-. D 49AE20W Class is de/ined as people >!o are in similar positions or >!o are relati3el. . ."Goode S 8as+o3s+-D 2001#.is de/ined 6.and an unending lac+ o/ opportunities cause people to 6e!a3e outside t!e mainstream 9# .oltD 2000#. 0!ere are plent.economic t!eories t!at state t!at t!e countr.t!at are located >it!in a social s-stem ".raceD classD and gender "2ot!manD 200*#.t!eor./or no apparent reason.in po>er "8ara6leD 2000#. 1'D 2003D !ttp:77proFuest.strati/ied >it! t!ose at t!e top commanding t!e respect o/ all t!e ot!ers. Aol.are poor 6ecauseD as @eeg!le.is sociall. 0!e idea t!at indi3iduals >ere responsi6le /or t!eir o>n /ates came /rom t!e 4rotestant 2e/ormation.

4rograms to !elp are cut 6ecause t!e ric! and middle class do not li+e t!e idea o/ dumping mone.during toug! times or t!e luc+ o/ an in!eritance are actuall.circumstances.o>e3erD as Pames Conant said 6ac+ in 19$1D JIt does no good >!ate3er to prepare 6o-s and girls /or nonexistent ?o6sJ ConantD 19$*:129#.>it! t!e a6ilit. 1it!out a >a.instead o/ a cultureD t!ose not li3ing in t!e situation come to 6elie3e t!at t!e poor >ould not 6e a6le to c!ange under an.in a 6ottomless pit D and po3ert. 2at!er t!an seeing t!ose conditions as de/initions o/ po3ert.c!anges so t!e.is o/ten used to rationaliCe >!.6ecomes a >a.is perpetuated./eel t!at education is t!e +e.ser3e t!em >!en it comes to sur3i3alD 6ut Dartmouth 2K9 93 it also causes t!em to 6e una6le to adapt >!en t!e econom.or ?o6 lossD po3ert. .Capitalism K Generic "Conle-D 1999#. 0!is t!eor. 93 .can ta+e ad3antage o/ an. 0!is a6ilit.t!e main di//erences 6et>een t!e ric! and t!e poor in t!is countr."@eeg!le-D 2000#D and not oneHs >or+ et!ic.to !elp out in case o/ an emergenc.o/ li/e "Conle-D 1999#. 0!e culture is de/ined as one o/ unemplo-mentD lo> >agesD cro>ded li3ingD and crime.certain citiCens are a6le to ma+e it and ot!ers are not "Stac+D 19%)#. 8an.to escaping a li/e o/ po3ert-.outD a li/e in t!e slums perpetuates despair 6.a//ecting moraleD progressD and e3en t!e !ealt! o/ t!e residents."or ina6ilit-# to rel. I/ trueD t!is ma.opportunities t!at do come along .on /amil. =nless one !as a /amil.

o/ policies >!ic! deal onl.is ine3ita6lproduced during t!e normal operation o/ capitalist economiesD and cannot 6e eradicated >it!out altering t!e mec!anisms o/ capitalism. 8eet7 pro/( o/ economics R )ondon School o/ Economics7 3" "2ic!ard 4eetD pro/ o/ economics E (ondon Sc!ool o/ EconomicsD 19%*D :IneFualit.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 92 Capitalism Impacts – 8o+ert.>it! t!e s-mptoms o/ ineFualit. %#& Capitalism ensures ine?ualit.and social ?ustice.is in!erent in t!e capitalist mode o/ production.and 4o3ert-: . IneFualit.o/ li/e designed around t!e principles o/ eFualit.ence t!e call /or social and economic re3olutionD t!e o3ert!ro> o/ capitalismD and t!e su6stitution o/ a met!od o/ production and an associated >a. 0!ere is little point D t!ere/oreD in de3oting political energies to t!e ad3ocac. . In additionD it is /unctional to t!e s-stemD >!ic! means t!at po>er!olders !a3e a 3ested interest in preser3ing social ineFualit-. 8arxist<Geograp!ic 0!eor-.# ineFualit.>it!out altering its 6asic generating /orces. 0!e 8arxist 3ie> is t!at 92 .

German-D PapanD 5ranceD and Great @ritain.id "o/ a sort# also comes /rom ot!er sources.4#D reFuiring de6tor countries to grant tax 99 . =. /oreign aid usuall. @ut t!e I85 imposes a Jstructural ad?ustment programJ "S. industries and 6an+s "and ot!er >estern corporations# !a3e in3ested !ea3il. . on a glo-al le+el 8arentiD 8(1(D( poliCsci R Male7 03 "8ic!ael 4arentiD recei3ed !is 4!.outsource in order to increase t!eir margin o/ pro/it. Cassettari# 0!ere is a Jm-ster-J >e must explain: .In . Corporations do not outsource to /ar<o// regions so t!at =.merica +no>n as t!e J0!ird 1orld. 0!e =nited States is one o/ t!e /e> countries t!at !as re/used to sign an international con3ention /or t!e a6olition o/ c!ild la6or and /orced la6or.S.monoculture crops reFuiring large amounts o/ pesticidesD lea3ing less and less acreage /or t!e !undreds o/ 3arieties o/ organicall. %3& Capitalism perpetuates po+ert. good c!un+ o/ t!e aid mone. 4enn-.aitiD /or instanceD >or+ers are paid 11 cents an !our 6.o> 1ealt! Creates 4o3ert. 1!at actuall.Studies in 1as!ingtonD D. It o/ten must 6e spent on =. consumers can sa3e mone-.gro>n /oods t!at /eed t!e local populations. 0!e I85 operates in secrec.expropriate t!e 6est land in t!ese countries /or cas!<crop exportsD usuall.D. 0!e aid gi3en to 0!ird 1orld go3ernments comes >it! strings attac!ed. 0!e sa3ings t!at 6ig 6usiness reaps /rom c!eap la6or a6road are not passed on in lo>er prices to t!eir customers else>!ere. In 19))D t!e =nited ations created t!e 1orld @an+ and t!e International 8onetar./ricaD and (atin .t!e ric! natural resourcesD t!e !ig! return t!at comes /rom lo><paid la6orD and t!e nearl. 1!at do >e ma+e o/ t!isQ 93er t!e last !al/ centur-D =. .5und "I85#. .6ac+ t!e !ea3.S. Aoting po>er in 6ot! organiCations is determined 6.S.J 0!e transnationals are attracted 6.in t!ose poorer regions o/ . 0!e transnationals pus! out local 6usinesses in t!e 0!ird 1orld and preempt t!eir mar+ets. .a countr-Hs /inancial contri6ution. It su6sidiCes construction o/ t!e in/rastructure needed 6.@.corporate giants suc! as Disne-D 1al< 8artD and P.complete a6sence o/ taxesD en3ironmental regulationsD >or+er 6ene/itsD and occupational sa/et.S.6oards o/ Independent 4rogressi3e 4olitics et>or+D Education 1it!out @ordersD and t!e Paseno3ic 5oundation as a Aisiting 5ello> at t!e Institute /or 4olic.can get >or+#D o/ten in 3iolation o/ t!e countriesH o>n minimum >age la>s.!appens is anot!er stor-.m2.costs.Indonesian c!ildren >or+ing t>el3e<!our da-s /or 1& cents an !ourD cost onl. corporations t!roug!out t!e 0!ird 1orld and >it!in t!e =nited States itsel/D >!ere c!ildren as -oung as 12 su//er !ig! rates o/ in?uries and /atalitiesD and are o/ten paid less t!an t!e minimum >age.t!roug!out t!e >orld o3er t!e last !al/ centur-D so !as po3ert-Q 0!e num6er o/ people li3ing in po3ert.C. in political science /rom Wale =ni3ersit-.is gro>ing at a /aster rate t!an t!e >orldHs population.C.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 99 Capitalism Impacts – 8o+ert.su6sidiCed 6. S!ould it 6e una6le to pa.ne3er sees t!e lig!t o/ da-D going directl.=. poor countr.org7!o>XcapitalismXcreatesXpo3ert-XinXt!eX>orldD :8-ster-: .sta//s dra>n mostl. 0!e 1orld @an+ and I85 are supposed to assist nations in t!eir de3elopment.6orro>s /rom t!e 1orld @an+ to 6uild up some aspect o/ its econom-.>it! a select group o/ 6an+ers and /inance ministr.>or+s !and in !and >it! transnational in3estment. taxpa-ersD dump surplus products in ot!er countries at 6elo> cost and undersell local /armers.S.>ages ">!en t!e.displacing local populations /rom t!eir lands and ro66ing t!em o/ t!eir sel/< su//icienc-D corporations create o3ercro>ded la6or mar+ets o/ desperate people >!o are /orced into s!ant. 0!e =./rom t!e ric! nations.granting corporations tax concessions on t!eir o3erseas in3estmentsD and e3en pa-ing some o/ t!eir relocation expenses<<<muc! to t!e outrage o/ la6or unions !ere at !ome >!o see t!eir ?o6s e3aporating./rom !ome produced commodities and /oods in /a3or o/ imported onesD creating more dependenc-D !ungerD and de6t.to>ns to toil /or po3ert.S. go3ernment !as su6sidiCed t!is /lig!t o/ capital 6.merican agri6usiness cartelsD !ea3il. 0!e.in t!e 1orld. .S. .s C!ristop!er Coo+ descri6es it in !is Diet /or a Dead 4lanetD t!e.siaD . 271%70%D !ttp:77communit-./reespeec!. productsD and t!e recipient nation is reFuired to gi3e in3estment pre/erences to =.interest 6ecause o/ declining export sales or some ot!er reasonD it must 6orro> againD t!is time /rom t!e I85.D !e >as a>arded a Certi/icate o/ Special Congressional 2ecognition ser3es on t!e ad3isor. companiesD s!i/ting consumption a>a.o> is it t!at as corporate in3estments and /oreign aid and international loans to poor countries !a3e increased dramaticall.s t!e largest JdonorDJ t!e =nited States !as a dominant 3oiceD /ollo>ed 6. 0!is position stems /rom t!e c!ild la6or practices o/ =.S.corporations in t!e 0!ird 1orld: portsD !ig!>a-sD and re/ineries.into t!e personal co//ers o/ stic+-</ingered o//icials in t!e recipient countries. In 1990D s!oes made 6.$0 6ut still sold /or m100 or more in t!e =nited States.

.6ut to augment t!e >ealt! o/ transnational in3estors at t!e expense o/ local populations. So it is t!at t!roug!out t!e 0!ird 1orldD real >ages !a3e declinedD and national de6ts !a3e soared to t!e point >!ere de6t pa-ments a6sor6 almost all o/ t!e poorer countriesH export earnings<<<>!ic! creates /urt!er impo3eris!ment as it lea3es t!e de6tor countr.6ecome e3en less a6le to /eed t!eir o>n populations. 1!.J It isD o/ courseD no m-ster./or t!e recipient nationsD t!e. 0!e de6tor nations also must cut 6ac+ on su6sidies /or !ealt!D educationD transportation and /oodD spending less on t!eir people in order to !a3e more mone. 0!e purpose is to ser3e t!e interests o/ glo6al capital accumulationD to ta+e o3er t!e lands and local economies o/ 0!ird 1orld peoplesD monopoliCe t!eir mar+etsD depress t!eir >agesD indenture t!eir la6or >it! enormous de6tsD pri3atiCe t!eir pu6lic ser3ice sectorD and pre3ent t!ese nations /rom emerging as trade competitors 6.to meet de6t pa-ments.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 100 6rea+s to t!e transnational corporationsD reduce >agesD and ma+e no attempt to protect local enterprises /rom /oreign imports and /oreign ta+eo3ers.re t!eir leaders ?ust less intelligent t!an t!e critics >!o +eep pointing out to t!em t!at t!eir policies are !a3ing t!e opposite e//ectQ oD it is t!e critics >!o are stupid not t!e >estern leaders and in3estors >!o o>n so muc! o/ t!e >orld and en?o.not allo>ing t!em a normal de3elopment.e3en less a6le to pro3ide t!e t!ings its population needs.suc! immense >ealt! and success.t!en do t!e ric! mem6er states continue to /und t!e I85 and 1orld @an+Q .lo> prices t!eir state<o>ned minesD railroadsD and utilities to pri3ate corporations. In t!eir perpetual con/usionD some li6eral critics conclude t!at /oreign aid and I85 and 1orld @an+ structural ad?ustments Jdo not >or+JG t!e end result is less sel/<su//icienc.are in.are /orced to open t!eir /orests to clear<cutting and t!eir lands to strip miningD >it!out regard to t!e ecological damage done. 0!e de6tor nations are pressured to pri3atiCe t!eir economiesD selling at scandalousl. 0!e. 0!at is certainl. 0!ere is no tric+le do>nD onl.ns>er: (oansD in3estmentsD and most /orms o/ aid are designed not to /ig!t po3ert.a sip!oning up /rom t!e toiling man.and more po3ert. 100 .!as po3ertdeepened >!ile /oreign aid and loans and in3estments !a3e gro>nQ .pursue t!eir aid and /oreign loan programs 6ecause suc! programs do >or+. 0!e Fuestion isD >or+ /or >!omQ Cui 6onoQ 0!e purpose 6e!ind t!eir in3estmentsD loansD and aid programs is not to upli/t t!e masses in ot!er countries.at all i/ -ou donHt ad!ere to tric+le<do>n m-sti/ication. 2eFuired to gro> cas! crops /or export earningsD t!e. 0!e.ere t!en >e !a3e explained a Jm-ster-.point out .to t!e mone-ed /e>. 1!.not t!e 6usiness t!e.

laterD said t!e mec!anic in t!e old tele3ision ad3ertisement /or motor oil.and !uman capital are not 3aluedD t!en >e >ill still need to 6e pa-ing later regardless i/ >e paid no>.>ill 6e less li+el.stated 6.in t!e =nited States toda-. 0!e dirt. 0!e pre3ention metap!or is most dramaticall.t!at continues to marginaliCe t!e poor in !ig!l.discourse in a mar+et<centered societ-.remain segregated in de3alued neig!6or!oods and mired in lo><>age >or+. @ot! could 6e pro3ed in t!e rig!t context to potentiall.>!ere eit!er t!e pre3ention or assets metap!or >ill >or+ as muc! as >e >ould li+e. 0!e pre3ention metap!or assumes t!at e3er-one s!ares a sense o/ collecti3e responsi6ilit.are /orced to. turning case Schram7 pro/ R 4r. Sc!ramD teac!es social t!eor.as a >!ole in t!e long term./orcesD or do >!ate3er it is t!at t!e.little secret o/ social >el/are polic..cle o/ po+ert. .to create an impo3eris!ed class >!ose propert.>ill o/ten do ?ust t!atD mo3ing to t!e su6ur6s or >!ate3er it ta+es. 101 .me no>D or pa.sset 6uilding is e3en more 3ulnera6le to 6eing assimilated into a capitalistic discourse o/ exclusion 6ecause it can too easil.>e !a3e.continues to >or+ s-stematicall.sset 6uilding is a cousin o/ t!e pre3ention metap!or suggesting t!at i/ >e !elp t!e poor sa3e and acFuire assets no> t!e.6e associated >it! t!e dirt.and t!eir possessions are s-stematicallde3alued is not a societ.n 6a0r College7 0# "San/ord 5. 6ut it almost ne3er seems to >or+.t!at >e >ill 6e >illing to pa. Suc! are t!e limits o/ asset 6uilding as a pre3ention strateg. In3est no> in c!ild >ell<6eing or >ait and incur t!e greater costs at t!e ot!er end in uneducated >or+ersD more unemplo-ed personsD more crimeD more drug addictionD and more po3ert-.little secret o/ pre3ention discourse is t!at t!ose in po>er !a3e no intentions o/ e3er pa-ing. %2& :heir discourse o/ -uilding assets -ecomes capitalist and con/ines the poor to a c./or >!at >ill go >rong due to our /ailures to de3elop sociall.tal+ing a6out pre3ention i/ >e are to de3elop more ?ust social >el/are policies./or enlisting societ-Hs support in de3eloping more generous social >el/are policies is >!ere >e /rame aid to c!ildren as in3esting /or t!e long term in our most important resourceOt!e next generation. . 0!isD !o>e3erD is not ?ust an empirical Fuestion regarding >!et!er supporting indi3idual sa3ings no> in t!e near term >ill reap sa3ings /or t!e societ.into t!e pre3ention metap!or.to 6e poor in t!e /uture .muc! li+e ot!er proacti3e metap!orsD including per!aps t!e most t!oug!t/ul one in social polic. It is almost al>a-s someone elseHs /aultD and people >!o !a3e t!e resources to a3oid ta+ing responsi6ilit.are no> doing in dro3es gi3en t!at t!e- re/use to 6u..6e mone-<sa3ers in t!e long run.discourseOpre3ention. 0!e.in t!e Graduate Sc!ool o/ Social 1or+ and Social 2esearc! at @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 200$D C!apter 9neG in 1el/are Discipline: DiscourseD Go3ernanceD and Glo6aliCation 4g * par 2# .)0 4a. .>ill ?ust mo3e to t!e su6ur6s or gated apartment complexesD or !ire pri3ate securit. I/ !elping people no> means pa-ing /or somet!ing >e >ould a3oid pa-ing /or laterD t!en it is not li+el.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 101 Capitalism Impacts – 8o+ert.so t!at t!e.and social polic.societ.strati/ied >a-s geograp!icall-D economicall-D sociall-D and culturall. (o><income /amilies >ill still !a3e a !ard time acFuiring >ealt! as t!e.3ermuc!. InsteadD it is a Fuestion o/ >!at +ind o/ societ. 0!e pre3enti3e metap!or is compelling.?ust policies in t!e present.1illiam Pulius 1ilson >!en !e states t!at one strateg. @ut t!e trut! is t!at almost no one doesD at least not until t!e. 5urt!erD e3en i/ >e pa-D i/ our societ. It >ill ta+e more t!an appealing to t!eir good sense 6.n.sset 6uilding is 3er.

5or most >or+ers in capitalist societiesD paid >or+ isD in ot!er >ordsD experienced as a moral o6ligationD alt!oug! t!is dependenc. 0!roug! identi/ication >it! t!e dominant discourse on >or+D t!e su6?ect tends to 6elie3e t!at t!e et!ical imperati3e to engage in paid la6our is autonomousl./rom t!e structural /orces >!ic! determine t!e distri6ution o/ economic and social ad3antagesD a3oiding t!e contemplation o/ !o> t!e State reproduces t!ese distri6uti3e mec!anisms "6. are caught in a c.cle o/ po+ert. 0!ese purposes include directing attention a>a. )eonardD pro/ R 6cGill Ani+ersit. 0!e >el/are dependent is t!e o6?ect o/ state monitoringD sur3eillance and control.to >!ic! su6?ects can 6e consignedD su6?ects >!o comprise t!e segment o/ t!e population most li+el.o/ managing peopleHs dependence on state >el/are pa-ments and legitimating increases in po3ert.(inda Da3ies and 4eter (eonardD 4g 12 par 1 – par & 0!e 1el/are 2ecipient as a Class Su6?ect 5rom t!e a6straction o/ t!e glo6al econom.7 0! 4eter (eonardD pro/essor in t!e Sc!ool o/ Social 1or+ E 8cGill =ni3ersit-D 200) C!apter 1G in Social 1or+ in a Coporate Era: 4ractices o/ 4o>er and 2esistance edited 6. 9ne >a.ideological e//ect.and t!e d-namic o/ class exploitation >e can turn no> to a more concrete example o/ !o> class su6?ects are constructed. @eing outside t!e process o/ exc!anging la6our /or >ages < t!e /undamental d-namic o/ capitalist appropriation < >ea+ens "it is /eared# t!e su6?ectHs allegiance to t!e moral necessit-D and not ?ust t!e material necessit-D o/ paid >or+D and allo>s t!e su6?ect to escape /rom t!e social discipline in3ol3ed in dail.called t!e underclass or t!e culture o/ po3ert-D classi/ies and contextualiCes su6?ects descri6ed as >el/are dependentsD t!e c!ronic poorD or o/ten H6ad mot!ersH.ser3e t!e same or similar purposes. @ut >el/are dependenc.capital as independence.c!osen D a 6elie/ >!ic! >e mig!t call a primar.in3ol3es man.+inds o/ depri3ations and a6usesD materialD social and ps-c!ological.paid la6our.s!its in t!e 6alance o/ class /orces.on t!e la6our mar+et is re< de/ined 6.categoies o/ t!e 2esidiumD t!e pauperD and t!e deser3ing7undeser3ingD t!e. 102 . %9& Capitalism turns the case – it su-ordinates the poor to 0here the.is also a pro6lem /or capital. 0!e su6?ect position o/ >!at mig!t 6e called t!e >el/are dependentD dependentD t!at isD on state resourcesD is o/ course pro6lematic /or t!e su6?ect < it in3aria6l. 0!e >el/are recipient is dependent on t!e state and not on t!e la6our mar+etD directl-. 0!is categor-D 3ariousl.supporting capitalHs exploitati3e d-namic#D and pat!ologiCing t!ose most in?ured 6.6e seen as a discursi3e >eapon o/ class struggle G li+e t!e nineteent! centur.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 102 Capitalism Impacts – 8o+ert. 0!ese categories ma.and /reel.to 6e t!e clients o/ social >or+ers.as t!e price to 6e paid /or increases in t!e rate o/ exploitation is to de3elop an appropriate su6ordinate social categor.

i/ t!e. In medicineD ma+ing pro/its is 6ecoming a more important goal t!an caring /or sic+ people.>!en t!e end o/ capitalism is on t!e ta6le >ill et!ics !a3e a seat at t!e ta6le.edu7icla-ton7commentaries7e3il. I/ !uman /aces express needsD t!en eit!er products can 6e manu/actured to meetD or seem to meetD t!ose needsD or elseD i/ t!e needs are incompati6le >it! t!e gro>t! o/ capitalD t!en t!e /aces expressing t!em must 6e unrepresented or silenced.lclar+. 10 . .!a3e learned not to call economic gro>t! progress. @ut /eeding people is not t!e aim o/ t!e /ood industr-D or s!elter t!e purpose o/ t!e !ousing industr-."JidealistsJ# can ta+e seriousl.t!is is t!e caseD let me turn to capitalHs greatest criticD Karl 8arx. 5or t!ose >!o manage and li3e /rom capitalD not!ing !as 3alue o/ its o>n. 4eople no longer sa-D JWou canHt stop progressDJ 6ut onl. 963iousl.>!at capitalist enterprises do !a3e conseFuences /or t!e >ell 6eing o/ !uman 6eings and t!e planet >e li3e on. 0!ere/ore et!icsD t!e o3erriding commitment to meeting !uman needD is le/t out o/ deli6erations a6out >!at t!e !ea3->eig!t institutions o/ our societ.can 6e used to turn a pro/it.6ecause t!e. Capital pro/its /rom t!e production o/ /oodD s!elterD and all t!e necessities o/ li/e.are rig!t << as long as t!e production o/ all our needs and t!e organiCation o/ our la6or is carried out under pri3ate o>ners!ip. 8ountain streamsD clean airD !uman li3es << all mean not!ing in t!emsel3esD 6ut are 3alua6le onl.nd t!e.still t!in+ t!e.at t!e accumulation o/ capitalD and suc! purposes as caring /or t!e sic+ or /eeding t!e !ungr.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 10 Capitalism Impacts – Kalue to )i/e %1& Capitalism leads to people ma*ing a maximum pro/it leading to no +alue o/ li/e 6orgareidge7 8ro/essor Emeritus o/ 8hilosoph.Y1\ I/ capital loo+s at "not into# t!e !uman /aceD it sees t!ere onl. 0!e. 9nl. 9nl. =nder capitalismD 8arx >ritesD e3er-t!ing in nature and e3er-t!ing t!at !uman 6eings are and can do 6ecomes an o6?ect: a resource /orD or an o6stacleD to t!e expansion o/ productionD t!e de3elopment o/ tec!nolog-D t!e gro>t! o/ mar+etsD and t!e circulation o/ mone-. 8oral con3ictions are expressed in c!urc!esD in li3ing roomsD in letters to t!e editorD sometimes e3en 6. .t!e et!ical concern /or li/e.o/ t!in+ing t!at counts /or not!ing in real >orld decision ma+ing. 0!e production o/ all t!ese t!ings uses !uman li3es in t!e s!ape o/ la6orD as >ell as t!e resources o/ t!e eart!.at (e>is S Clar+ College.a minorit.a >a.canHt stop it.read commentatorsD 6ut almost al>a-s >it! an attitude o/ resignation to t!e ine3ita6le.politicians and >idel.7 1992 Cla-ton 8orgareidgeD 4ro/essor Emeritus o/ 4!ilosop!.e-es t!roug! >!ic! 6rand names and ad3ertising can enter and mout!s t!at can demand and consume /oodD drin+D and to6acco products. .ugust 22D 199' !ttp:77legac-. I/ >e care a6out li/eD i/ >e see our o6ligations in eac! ot!ers /acesD t!en >e !a3e to >ant all t!e t!ings capital does to 6e go3erned 6.!tml 0o s!o> >!.are going to do.6ecomes a mere means to an endD an instrument o/ corporate gro>t!.t!at careD to 6e directed 6.s capitalist enterprises t!ese acti3ities aim single<mindedl.

a cruelt. .are prisons.out to t!e 3er. D 5elix GuattariD pro/essor o/ p!ilosop!.o/ a decepti3e and su6?ecti3e ideolog-D and t!at lead us to cr. R Ani+ersit.pro3o+ing to t!e 3er.tolerates t!e so<called socialist /ormations.!a3ing no parallel in t!e despotic regime o/ terror.at t!e =ni3ersit.o/ t!is pat!ological stateD t!is insanit-D Jt!e mac!ine >or+s tooD 6elie3e meJ.stem creates prisons o/ oppression that den.t!at conditions t!ese islandsD exploitation gro>s constantl. t!e reproduction o/ t!e interior limits o/ capitalism on an al>a-s >ider scale !as se3eral conseFuences: it permits increases and impro3ements o/ standards at t!e centerD it displaces t!e !ars!est /orms o/ exploitation /rom t!e center to t!e perip!erD 6ut also multiplies encla3es o/ o3erpopulation in t!e center itsel/ D and easilt.nti< 9edipus 19%2 pg &%&# J0!ere is not one o/ t!ese aspects<<<not t!e least operationD t!e least industrial or /inancial mec!anism<<t!at does not re3eal t!e insanit. "It is not +i66utC<st-le socialism t!at trou6les t!e Bionist stateD ?ust as it is not 2ussian socialism t!at trou6les >orld capitalism.gentlemen >!o +eep up t!e mac!ineG !o> it does not run t!e ris+ o/ d-ing all aloneD 6ut rat!er o/ ma+ing us dieD 6.o/ t!e capitalist mac!ine and t!e pat!ological c!aracter o/ its rationalit-: not at all a /alse rationalit-D 6ut a true rationalit.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 10! Capitalism Impacts – Kalue to )i/e %2& :he methodolog. o/ 8aris 9 ps. @ut >it!in t!e enlarged realit.!ars!erD lac+ is arranged in t!e most scienti/ic o/ >a-sD /inal solutions o/ t!e JPe>is! pro6lemJ 3ariet.choanal.to>ard usG etc. Capitalism is de/ined 6. +alue to li/e and ma*e the actions li*e =/inal solutions> possi-le – onl.endD (ong li3e capital in all its realit-D in all its o6?ecti3e dissimulation^ Except in ideolog-D t!ere !as ne3er 6een a !umaneD li6eralD paternal D etc.st7 32 "Gilles DeleuCe . 1age increases and impro3ements in t!e standard o/ li3ing are realitiesD 6ut realities t!at deri3e /rom a gi3en supplementaraxiom t!at capitalism is al>a-s capa6le o/ adding to its axiomatic in terms o/ an enlargement o/ its limits: letHs create t!e e> DealG letHs culti3ate and recogniCe strong unionsG letHs promote participation D t!e single classG letHs ta+e a step to>ard 2ussiaD >!ic! is ta+ing so man. 10! .e and Guattari7 pro/ philosoph. o/ the capitalist s. through the complete re<ection o/ this mode o/ thought is li-eration possi-le Deleu.D capitalism.are prepared do>n to t!e last detailD and t!e 0!rid 1orld is orgainiCed as an integral part o/ capitalism.do not resem6le prisonsD t!e. 0!e capitalist mac!ine does not run t!e ris+ o/ 6ecoming madD it is mad /rom one end to t!e ot!er and /rom t!e 6eginningD and t!is is t!e source o/ its rationalit-D 8arxHs 6lac+ !umorD t!e source o/ CapitalD is !is /ascination >it! suc! a mac!ine: !o> it came to 6e assem6ledD on >!at /oundation o/ decoding and deterritorialiCationG !o> it >or+sD al>a-s more decodedD al>a-s more deterritorialiCedG !o> its operation gro>s more relentless >it! t!e de3elopment o/ t!e axiomaticD t!e com6ination o/ t!e /lo>sG !o> it produces t!e terri6le single class o/ gra.>a.end in3estements o/ desire t!at do not e3en go 6.o/ 4aris and ps-c!oanal-stD >or+ed at (a @orde.# 0!ere is no metap!or !ere: t!e /actories are prisonsD t!e.

5urt!ermoreD ineFuit.does not cause mental illness .mericansD @ritonsD .o/ +no>ing /or sureD it is 3er. 0!e message could not 6e clearer.increased t!e >ealt! o/ t!e >ealt!-D ro66ing t!e a3erage earner to gi3e to t!e ric!.suc+ered into per/ectionistD competiti3e >or+a!olism.guardian.ineFuita6le de3eloping nationsD li+e igeria and C!inaD also !a3e t!e lo>est pre3alence o/ mental illness. @. . .ustraliansD e> Bealanders and Canadians su//ered in t!e last 12 mont!sD 6ut onl.concerned a6out getting t!em does not ma+e -ou mentall. I/ -ou need mone. . 1.9 studies s!o> t!at some 3er.consumers and can 6e more easil.possi6le t!at mental illness >as no>!ere near as >idespread inD /or instanceD t!e =S or @ritain o/ t!at time.11.u+7commentis/ree7200'7?an70&7comment.mental!ealt! 0!ese increases are 3er.!a3e enoug! income to meet -our /undamental ps-c!ological needs.dd to t!is t!e astonis!ing /act t!at citiCens o/ Sel/is! CapitalistD Englis!<spea+ing nations ">!ic! tend to 6e one and t!e same# are t>ice as li+el.6e muc! greater in t!e Englis!<spea+ing >orld toda-D 6ut it is /ar less t!an it >as at t!e end o/ t!e 19t! centur-.ill. Sur3i3al materialism is !ealt!-.!ad steadil.*T o/ GermansD ItaliansD 5renc!D @elgiansD Spaniards and Dutc!.6ad /or -our mental !ealt!.ma.accessi6le income#D increasing t!eir s!are 6.to su//er mental illness as t!ose /rom mainland >estern EuropeD >!ic! is largel. 1!ile >e !a3e no >a./or medicine or to 6u. 1!at does t!e damage is t!e com6ination o/ ineFualit.unli+el. IndeedD I maintain t!at !ig! le3els o/ mental illness are essential to Sel/is! CapitalismD 6ecause need-D misera6le people ma+e greed.can 6e /ul/illed.culture >as alread.=nsel/is! Capitalist in its political econom-.n a3erage 2&T o/ . @ut >!. 0!ere >as no Jtric+le<do>n e//ectJ a/ter all.//luenCa < placing a !ig! 3alue on mone-D possessionsD appearances and /ame >!en -ou alread.more t!an !al3ing t!e taxes o/ t!e ric!est and trans/erring t!e 6urden to t!e general populationD 8argaret 0!atc!er reinstated t!e ric!Hs capital >ealt! a/ter t!ree post>ar decades in >!ic! t!e.to 6e due to greater preparedness to ac+no>ledge distress < t!e ps-c!o6a66ling t!erap. Sel/is! CapitalismD muc! more t!an genesD is extremel. @ut Sel/is! Capitalism sto+es up relati3e materialism: unrealistic aspirations and t!e expectation t!at t!e.*T to 1&TD 50SE 100 c!ie/ executi3es no> earning 1&& times more t!an t!e a3erage >age "against 20 times in 19'0#G and under @ro>nHs c!ancellors!ip t!e ric!est 0. 10" .>it! t!e >idespread relati3e materialism o/ .%9T during t!e last /i3e -ears.6ecome poorer. It does so to stimulate consumerism in order to increase pro/its and promote s!ort<term economic gro>t!.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 10" Capitalism Impacts – 6ental 1ealth %1& Capitalism is destro.&T no66led o3er !al/ o/ all liFuid assets "cas!D instantl. 0!e real >age o/ t!e a3erage Englis!<spea+ing person !as remained t!e same < orD in t!e case o/ t!e =SD decreased < since t!e 19%0s.is it so toxicQ 2eaders o/ t!is ne>spaper >ill need little reminding t!at Sel/is! Capitalism !as massi3el.s people5s mental health( Lames7 0riter /or the guardian 2002 9li3er PamesD >iter /or t!e guardian and !as >ritten se3eral 6oo+sD 1<&<0' !ttp:77>>>.co.esta6lis!ed. In itsel/D t!is economic ineFualit.a !ouseD 6ecoming 3er.lt!oug! I ris+ -ou glaCing o3er at t!ese statisticsD itHs >ort! remem6ering t!at t!e top 1T o/ @ritis! earners !a3e dou6led t!eir s!are o/ t!e national income since 19'2D /rom $.

more li+el. 4olandD >!ic! !ad a relati3el. ging to men t!an to >omen. It gre> a modest one to six percent in Slo3eniaD CCec! 2epu6licD 4olandD @ulgariaD and .mig!t see t!is as a t!reat. .ealt!<&.J J0!e impact >as reall.l6aniaD >!ic! sa> t!e gap >iden 6. .rates o/ men and >omen in 1) post So3iet countries.increasedD t!e ne> stud.eig!t to 12 percent in (it!uaniaD 2ussiaD =+raineD @elarus and East German-.!a3e seen t!is as an opportunit. 8ale mortalit.countr-. 0!e stud.1) to &0 percent in t!e /irst /i3e -ears a/ter t!e /all o/ communism.n increase in social and economic stress can mani/est itsel/ in suicide or !omicide and can also cause p!-sical strains >!ic! can lead to !eart attac+s./or men /reed /rom t!e Iron Curtain dropped 6. Kruger compared t!e mortalit.>ere signi/icantl.>!ic! /ound signi/icant increases in mortalit.54.to 6e impacted 6. JIt seems as t!oug! t!ere is a p!-siological em6odiment o/ stress /rom 6eing in a competiti3e en3ironmentDJ Kruger told .6.<Stud-<2221$<17 Communism ma.J 0!e countries most a//ected >ere 2omaniaD EstoniaD (at3ia and .rates gre> an a3erage o/ 9.>as pu6lis!ed in t!e current issue o/ E3olutionar.six -ears 6et>een 1991 and 199) amid social disruptionD p!-sical !ards!ips and economic insta6ilit-. JI/ -ou >ere an adolescent or -oung adult t!e.)* and settled into a routine t!e.6ut t!ose >!o are sa.ungar-.t!e transition t!an >omenD t!e stud.nd t!e. 0!e degree to >!ic! men >ere a//ected depended upon !o> roug! t!e transition to capitalism >as and !o> muc! income ineFualit.prime -earsDJ Kruger said./or men >!o are in t!eir economicall. 0!e gap gre> 6. 8ore signi/icantl-D Kruger saidD >as t!at t!e gap 6et>een t!e male and /emale mortalit.ma.6e oppressi3eD 6ut it seems as t!oug! capitalism is 6ad /or menHs !ealt!D according to a recent stud./ound.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 10# Capitalism Impacts – 6ental 1ealth %2& Capitalism is -ad /or men5s health 4ioCmedicine(org7 ne0s source /or medial in/ormation 2003 @iomedicineD ne>s source /or medial in/ormationD $<29<0% !ttp:77>>>.& percent >!ic! s!o>ed t!at Jt!is economic c!anged >as more dam. J0!e ineFualities in status and resources t!at can come >it! capitalism does lead males to 6e!a3e in >a-s t!at are detrimental to menHs !ealt!DJ lead aut!or Daniel Kruger said in a telep!one inter3ie>. Increased competition can create an en3ironment t!at encourages ris+<ta+ing 6e!a3ior t!at results in /atal accidentsD !e said.4s-c!olog-./rom t!e =ni3ersit.org7medicine<ne>s7Capitalism<is<@ad</or<8ens<.6io<medicine./rom intentional causes < !omicides and suicides < dou6led in t!e regionD alt!oug! it 3aried signi/icantl. 0!e li/e expectanc.rates a/ter t!e collapse o/ t!e So3iet =nion.smoot! transitionD sa> t!e rate increase ?ust 1* percent >!ile EstoniaD >!ic! >as muc! more unsta6leD sa> 3iolent deat!s increase 2&' percent. 10# .o/ 8ic!igan /ound.

ser3es t!eir interests in mo6iliCing t!e >or+ing class to die in t!e ser3ice o/ democrac-G on t!e alter o/ anti</ascism.economic calculus o/ pro/it and loss on t!e part o/ J6ig capital.ser3es as a screen 6e!ind >!ic! t!e deat!<>orld >roug!t 6.its incorporation into t!e politics o/ .t!e penetration o/ t!e la> o/ 3alue into e3er.re3olutionaries.capital can 6e sa/el.inter<related strands in t!e social /a6ric o/ late capitalism: /irstD are a series o/ p!enomena lin+ed to t!e actual un/olding o/ t!e la> o/ 3alueD and more speci/icall.e3er. 0!is latterD in its o>n small >a-D is t!e despica6le contri6ution o/ (a Aieille 0aupeD and t!e 6asis /or m.!idden /rom its potential 3ictims.6ourgeoisie and 6ig capital.usc!>itC /ails to pro3ide e3en t!e minimal 6ases /or its adeFuate t!eoriCationD t!e reaction o/ t!e militants o/ (a Aieille 0aupeD suc! as 4ierre GuillaumeD constitutes a political 6etra-al o/ t!e struggle /or communist re3olution 6. 8oreo3erD .enceD (a Aieille 0aupeHs J/er3or to contest t!e e3idence o/ its Yt!e .iros!ima are not JpastJD 6ut rat!er /utural e3entsD o6?ecti3e<real possi6ilities on t!e 5ront o/ !istor-D to use concepts /irst articulated 6.usc!>itCD Kol-maD and .madeo @ordigaHs attempt to JexplainJ t!e .cannot 6e dissociated /rom anti<SemitismD 6ut >!ic! constitutes a denial o/ t!e most let!al tendencies in!erent in t!e capitalist mode o/ productionD o/ t!e 3er.cannotD in m.olocaustD /or exampleD as I >ill 6rie/l. 5or GuillaumeD .acism %1& Capitalism ma*es genocide and extinction ine+ita-le( Internationalist 8erspecti+e 2K "Internationalist 4erspecti3e V&$D spring 2000D !ttp:77>>>.usc!>itC can onl.3ie>D 6e compre!ended on t!e 6asis o/ a purel.t!e state o/ Israel on 6e!al/ o/ its o>n imperialist aims in t!e 8iddle<East#.li6iJ @ordiga explained t!e extermination o/ t!e Pe>s at t!e !ands o/ t!e aCisD as t!e reaction o/ one part o/ t!e pett.spread its tentacles to incorporate not ?ust t!e production o/ commoditiesD 6ut t!eir circulation and consumption. 1!ile I am con3inced t!at t!ere can 6e no adeFuate t!eor.and science into commoditiesD not ?ust t!roug! t!e trans/ormation o/ tec!nological and scienti/ic researc! itsel/ "and t!e institutions in >!ic! it ta+es place# into commoditiesD 6ut alsoD and especiall-D t!roug! >!at 103 .>ielded /or more t!an a generation 6. 0!e et!nic cleansing >!ic! !as 6een unleas!ed in @osnia and Koso3oD t!e genocide o/ t!e 0utsis in 2>andaD t!e mass deat! to >!ic! C!ec!n-a !as 6een su6?ectedD t!e prospect /or a nuclear >ar on t!e Indian su6<continentD are so man.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 103 Capitalism Impacts – GenocideG.s Georg (u+ocs put it in !is .t!e claims o/ .o/ mass deat! and genocide as immanent tendencies o/ capital D a >a. In t!at senseD I >ant to argue t!at t!e .t!e names o/ discrete sites >!ere !uman 6eings !a3e 6een su6?ected to /orms o/ industrialiCed mass deat!D 6ut s-necdoc!es /or t!e deat!<>orld t!at is a component o/ t!e capitalist mode o/ production in t!is epoc!.com7>agesla3ex7capandgen.Jsacri/icingJ its ot!er << Pe>is! << part so as to sa3e t!e restD an underta+ing >elcomed 6.traps laid /or anticapitalist radicalit-D designed to /orce it into dis!onest compromise and e3entual loss o/ resol3e. Uuite apart /rom an economism >!ic! simpl.J 1!ile @ordigaHs reaction to .olocaust denialG t!e /ormer 6eing an expression o/ t!eoretical 6an+ruptc-D and t!e latter a Fuite literal crossing o/ t!e class line into t!e camp o/ capital itsel/.t!e organs o/ mass manipulation in t!e ser3ice o/ t!e m-t! o/ Jdemocrac-J in t!e 1est "and 6. .istor.regulating t!e meta6olism o/ !uman societ-DJ to 6ecome its Juni3ersal structuring principle. onet!elessD t!is does not ?usti/.6e concei3ed as a direct and immediate re/lection o/ t!e economic 6aseD in >!ic! e3ents can onl6e concei3ed as a mani/estation o/ t!e direct economic needs o/ a social classD and in t!e case o/ t!e capitalist classD t!e immediate need to extract a pro/itD s!aped .usc!>itCD Kol-maD and . .located in t!e camp o/ capital.to t!e completion o/ t!e transition /rom t!e /ormal to t!e real domination o/ capitalG secondD are a series o/ p!enomena lin+ed to t!e political and ideological "t!is latter understood in a non<reductionist senseD as !a3ing a material existence# moments o/ t!e rule o/ capitalD speci/icall.6ig capitalD >!ic! could t!ere6./rom t!e 6attle/ields o/ t!e imperialist >orld >arD simpl.usc!>itC ou le Grand .to t!e /orms o/ capitalist !egemon-.t!e 8arxist p!ilosop!er Ernst @loc!.6ourgeoisie to its !istorical demise at t!e !ands o/ capital 6.and Class ConsciousnessD t!is means t!at t!e commodit.iros!imaD 8arxist t!eor.examples o/ t!e /uture >!ic! a>aits t!e !uman species as t!e capitalist mode o/ production enters a ne> millenium. .!as 6een silent or uncompre!ending. .t!e ideolog.8arxists to grapple >it! t!e .liFuidate a part o/ t!e pett.8arxists !a3e so /ar /ailed to o//er one.6e a m-t!D a /a6rication o/ t!e alliesD t!at isD o/ one o/ t!e imperialist 6locs in t!e inter<imperialist >orld >arD 6ecause it so clearl./or capital must 6e exposed 6.t!emsel3es. 8oreo3erD t!e la> o/ 3alue also penetrates and t!en comes to preside o3er t!e sp!eres o/ t!e political and ideologicalD including science and tec!nolog.o>e3erD an underta+ing >!ic! /atall. 5or t!e e3idence o/ genocide is ?ust so mandeceptionsD so man.J It is Fuite true t!at capital !as utiliCed anti/ascism to assure its ideological !egemon.on t!e one !andD and t!e political and ideological on t!e ot!er "a6out >!ic! more later#D suc! an JexplanationJ as+s us to concei3e o/ genocide not as t!e complex outcome o/ t!e un/olding o/ t!e operation o/ t!e la> o/ 3alue in t!e di3erse sp!eres o/ social li/eD 6ut as t!e direct outcome o/ t!e utilitarian calculation o/ segments o/ t!e pett.usc!>itCD t!e 3erita6le !allmar+ o/ t!e /undamental irrationalit.J 5rom its original locus at t!e point o/ productionD in t!e capitalist /actor-D >!ic! is t!e !allmar+ o/ t!e /ormal domination o/ capitalD t!e la> o/ 3alue !as s-stematicall. .nd ?ust as surel.olocaust !as 6een routinel.o/ mass deat! and genocide >!ic! does not lin+ t!ese p!enomena to t!e un/olding o/ t!e logic o/ capitalD re3olutionar.6ourgeoisie >it! t!e support o/ t!e rest o/ t!at same class.explainD !a3e eit!er degenerated into a crude economismD >!ic! is one o/ t!e !allmar+s o/ so<called ort!odox 8arxismD or led to a /atal em6race o/ .con3iction t!at it must 6e politicall./ocusing on t>o dialecticall.o/ anti/ascism and its /unctionalit.olocaustHs\ realit. IndeedD it is ?ust suc! a deat!<>orld t!at constitutes t!e meaning o/ one pole o/ t!e !istoric alternati3e >!ic! 2osa (uxem6urg /irst posed in t!e midst o/ t!e slaug!ter in/licted on masses o/ conscripts during 1orld 1ar I: socialism or 6ar6arism^ WetD con/ronted 6.6ar6arism o/ capitalismD and t!ere6.usc!>itC or t!e mus!room cloud o3er .iros!ima are not merel. 8arxism is in need o/ a t!eor.olocaust denialD >!ic! not onl. It is t!roug! an anal-sis o/ t!e coalescence o/ 3ital elements o/ t!ese t>o strands in t!e de3elopment o/ capitalD t!at I !ope to expose t!e 6ases /or t!e deat!<>orld and genocide as integral /eatures o/ capitalism in t!e present epoc!.o/ late capitalD is trans/ormed 6.di3erted t!e scarce resources "material and /inancial# o/ aCi German.means possi6leD including t!e most /raudulent.olocaust denial.ignores t!e dialectic 6et>een t!e econom. EconomismD >!ic! is 6ased on a crude 6ase<superstructure model "or tra3est-# o/ 8arxist t!eor-D in >!ic! politicsD /or exampleD can onl.geocities.segment o/ social existence.@ordiga into a rational calculation o/ its direct pro/it interests on t!e part o/ t!e capitalists. 1orseD t!e /e> e//orts o/ re3olutionar.ceases to 6e Jone /orm among man. I >ant to argue t!at >e can 6est grasp t!e lin+ 6et>een capitalism and genocide 6.olocaustD /or exampleD >as not a Pe>is! catastrop!eD nor an ata3istic re3ersion to t!e 6ar6arism o/ a past epoc!D 6ut rat!er an e3ent produced 6.!tml# 8ass deat!D and genocideD t!e deli6erate and s-stematic extermination o/ >!ole groups o/ !uman 6eingsD !a3e 6ecome an integral part o/ t!e social landscape o/ capitalism in its p!ase o/ decadence.t!e smo+estac+s o/ .t!e !orror o/ . 0!usD in !is J.t!e un/olding o/ t!e logic o/ capitalism itsel/.usc!>itCD Kol-maD and . .o/ compre!ending t!e lin+ "still o6sure# 6et>een t!e deat!<>orld s-m6oliCed 6.6. 0!e real domination o/ capital is c!aracteriCed 6.iros!ima and t!e un/olding o/ t!e logic o/ a mode o/ production 6ased on t!e capitalist la> o/ 3alue.o3er t!e >or+ing classD and t!at t!e . 0!is latter occurs not ?ust t!roug! t!e trans/ormation o/ t!e /ruits o/ tec!nolog.olocaust.

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(u+ocs designates as t!e in/iltration o/ t!oug!t itsel/ 6- t!e purel- tec!nicalD t!e 3er- Fuanti/ication o/ rationalit-D t!e instrumentaliCation o/ reasonG andD I >ould argue D t!e reduction o/ all 6eings "including !uman 6eings# to mere o6?ects o/ manipulation and control. .s (u+ocs could clearl- see e3en in t!e age o/ 0a-lorismD Jt!is rational mec!anisation extends rig!t into t!e >or+erHs csoulH.J In s!ortD it a//ects not onl- !is out>ard 6e!a3iorD 6ut !er 3er- internalD ps-c!ologicalD ma+eup. 0!e p!enomenon o/ rei/icationD in!erent in t!e commodit-</ormD and its tendential penetration into t!e >!ole o/ social existenceD >!ic! (u+ocs >as one o/ t!e /irst to anal-CeD is a !allmar+ o/ t!e real domination o/ capital: JIts 6asis is t!at a relation 6et>een people ta+es on t!e c!aracter o/ a t!ing and t!us acFuires a cp!antom o6?ecti3it-HD an autonom- t!at seems so strictl- rational and all<em6racing as to conceal e3er- trace o/ its /undamental nature: t!e relation 6et>een people.J 2ei/icationD t!e seeming trans/ormation o/ social relations into relations 6et>een t!ingsD !as as one o/ its outcomes >!at t!e German<Pe>is! t!in+er ,.G..dler designated as Jt!e administered manJ YDer 3er>altete 8ensc!\. 5or .dlerD >!en !uman 6eings are administeredD t!e- are treated as t!ingsD t!ere6- clearing t!e >a-

/or t!eir remo3al or elimination 6- genocide. 0!e outcome o/ suc! a process can 6e seen in t!e 6ureaucractic administration o/ t!e 5inal SolutionD in >!ic! t!e organiCation o/ genocide >as t!e responsi6ilit- o/ des+ +illers li+e .dol/ Eic!mann >!o could Cealousladminister a s-stem o/ mass murder >!ile displa-ing no particular !atred /or !is 3ictimsD no great ideological passion /or !is pro?ectD and no sense t!at t!ose >!o >ent to t!e gas c!am6ers >ere !uman 6eings and not t!ings. 0!e /eatures o/ t!e des+ +illerD in t!e person o/
Eic!mannD !a3e 6een clearl- delineated 6- ,anna! .rendt. ,e is t!e !ig!<le3el /unctionar- in a 3ast 6ureaucratic organiCation >!o does !is +illing /rom 6e!ind a des+D /rom >!ic! !e rationall- plans and organiCes mass murderG treating it as simpl- a tec!nical tas+D no di//erent t!an t!e pro6lem o/ transporting scrap metal. 0!e des+ +iller is t!e Fuintessential 6ureaucrat /unctioning according to t!e imperati3es o/ t!e deat!<>orld. .s a !uman t-peD t!e des+ +illerD t!at em6odiment o/ t!e triump! o/ instrumental reasonD !as 6ecome a 3ital part o/ t!e state apparatus o/ late capitalism. ,ereD t!e (u+ocsian concept o/ rei/icationD t!e .dlerian concept o/ t!e administered manD and t!e .rendtian portrait o/ t!e des+ +illerD can 6e ?oined to 8artin ,eideggerHs concept o/ das GestellD en/ramingD in >!ic! e3er-t!ing realD all 6eingsD including !umansD are treated as so muc! @estandD standing<reser3e or ra> materialD to 6e manipulated at >ill. 0!is reduction o/

!umans to a ra> material is t!e antec!am6er to a >orld in >!ic! t!e- can 6ecome so man- >aste products to 6e discarded or turned into as!es in t!e gas c!am6ers o/ .usc!>itC or at ground Cero at ,iros!ima. 1!ile t!e rei/ication >!ic! attains its culminating point in t!e real
domination o/ capital ma- contain >it!in itsel/ t!e possi6ilit- o/ mass murder and its deat!<>orldD it does not in and o/ itsel/ explain t!e actual unleas!ing o/ t!e genocidal potential >!ic!D 6ecause o/ itD is no> /irml- ensconced >it!in t!e interstices o/ t!e capitalist mode o/ production. 0o con/ront t!at issueD I >ant to elucidate t>o concepts >!ic!D >!ile not directl- lin+ed 6- t!eir aut!ors to t!e un/olding o/ t!e capitalist la> o/ 3alueD can 6e re/unctioned to /orge suc! a lin+D and !a3e alread6een e//ecti3el- >ielded in t!e e//ort to explain genocide: t!e concept o/ t!e o6solescence o/ man YDie .ntiFuiert!eit des 8ensc!en\D articulated 6- t!e German<Pe>is! p!ilosop!er Gnnt!er .ndersD and t!e concept o/ 6io<politicsD articulated 6- 8ic!el 5oucault. 5or .ndersD t!e /irst industrial re3olution introduced t!e mac!ine >it! its o>n source o/ po>er as a means o/ productionD >!ile t!e second industrial re3olution sa> t!e extension o/ commodit- production to t!e >!ole o/ societ-D and t!e su6ordination o/ man to t!e mac!ine. .ccording to .ndersD t!e t!ird industrial re3olutionD in t!e epoc! o/ >!ic! !umanit- no> li3esD !as made !umans o6soleteD preparing t!e >a- /or t!eir replacement 6- mac!inesD and t!e end o/ !istor- "EndCeit#. 5or .ndersD t!e ,olocaust mar+ed t!e /irst attempt at t!e s-stematic extermination o/ a >!ole group o/ people 6- industrial meansD opening t!e >a- /or t!e extension o/ t!e process o/ extermination to 3irtuall- t!e >!ole o/ t!e !uman speciesG a stage >!ic! !e designates as Jpost<ci3iliCed canni6alismJ YpostCi3ilisatorisc!en Kanni6alismus\D in >!ic! t!e >orld is Jo3ermannedJD and in >!ic! ,iros!ima mar+s t!e point at >!ic! J!umanit- as a >!ole is eliminata6leJYtpt6ar\. .ndersHs p!ilosop!- o/ tec!nolog- is una6as!edl- pessimisticD lea3ing 3irtuall- no room /or 8arxist !ope "communist re3olution#. onet!elessD !is 3ision o/ a totall- rei/ied >orldD and tec!nolog- as t!e su6?ect o/ !istor-D culminating in an EndCeitD corresponds to one side o/ t!e dialectic o/ socialism or 6ar6arism >!ic! presides o3er t!e present epoc!. 8oreo3erD .ndersHs concept o/ an o3ermanned >orld can 6e /ruit/ull- lin+ed to t!e immanent tendenc- o/ t!e la> o/ 3alue to generate an e3er !ig!er organic composition o/ capitalD culminating in t!e present stage o/ automationD ro6oticsD computersD and in/ormation tec!nolog-D on t!e 6ases o/ >!ic! e3er larger masses o/ li3ing la6or are e?ected /rom t!e process o/ productionD andD indeedD /rom t!e c-cle o/ accumulation as a >!oleD ceasing to 6e << e3en potentiall- << a producti3e /orceD a source o/ exc!ange<3alueD in order to 6ecome an insupera6le 6urden /or capitalD a dead >eig!tD >!ic!D so long as it li3es and 6reat!esD t!reatens its pro/ita6ilit- . 0!is Jo6solescence o/ manJ can at t!e le3el o/ total capital

t!ere6- create t!e necessit- /or mass murderG inserting t!e industrial extermination o/ >!ole groups o/ people into t!e 3er- logic o/ capital: genocide as t!e apot!eosis o/ instrumental reason^ 2eason transmogri/ied into t!e ni!ilistic engine o/ destruction >!ic! s!apes t!e late capitalist >orld. 8ic!el 5oucaultHs concept o/ 6io<po>er can also 6e re/unctioned to explicitl- lin+ it to t!e 6asic tendencies o/ t!e de3elopment o/ capitalismD in >!ic! case it pro3ides a point o/ intersection 6et>een t!e triump! o/ t!e real domination o/ capital economicall-D and t!e political and ideological trans/ormation o/ capitalist ruleD >!ile at t!e same time ma+ing it possi6le to grasp t!ose /eatures o/ capital >!ic! propel it in t!e direction o/ genocide. 0!e extension o/ t!e la> o/ 3alue into e3ersp!ere o/ !uman existenceD t!e culminating point o/ t!e real domination o/ capitalD is mar+ed 6- t!e su6ordination o/ t!e 6iological realm itsel/ to t!e logic o/ capital. 0!is stage corresponds to >!at 5oucault designates as 6io<politicsD >!ic! encapsulates 6ot! t!e Jstati/ication o/ t!e
6iologicalJD and t!e J6irt! o/ state racismJ. @io<politics entails t!e positi3e po>er to administerD manageD and regulate t!e intimate details o/ t!e li/e << and deat! << o/ >!ole populations in t!e /orm o/ tec!nologies o/ domination: JIn concrete terms ... t!is po>er o3er li/e e3ol3ed in t>o 6asic /orms ... t!e- constituted ... t>o poles o/ de3elopment lin+ed toget!er 6- a >!ole intermediar- cluster o/ relations . 9ne o/ t!ese poles ... centered on t!e 6od- as a mac!ine: its discipliningD

t!e optimiCation o/ its capa6ilitiesD t!e extortion o/ its /orcesD t!e parallel increase o/ its use/ulness and its docilit-D its integration into s-stems o/ e//icient and economic controlsD all t!is >as ensured 6- t!e procedures o/ po>er t!at c!aracteriCed t!e disciplines: an
anatomo<politics o/ t!e !uman 6od-. 0!e second ... /ocused on t!e species 6od-D t!e 6od- im6ued >it! t!e mec!anics o/ li/e and ser3ing as t!e 6asis o/ t!e 6iological processes: propagationD 6irt!s and mortalit-D t!e le3el o/ !ealt!D li/e expectanc- and longe3it-D >it! all t!e conditions t!at can cause t!ese to 3ar-. 0!eir super3ision >as e//ected t!roug! an entire series o/ inter3entions and regulator- controls: a 6io<politics o/ t!e population.J Suc! a 6io<politics represents t!e su6?ugation o/ 6iological li/e in its di3erse !uman /orms to t!e imperati3es o/ t!e la> o/ 3alue. It allo>s capital to mo6iliCe all t!e !uman resources o/ t!e nation in t!e ser3ice o/ its expansion and aggrandiCementD economic and militar-. 0!e ot!er side o/ 6io<politicsD o/ t!is po>er o3er li/eD /or 5oucaultD is >!at !e terms Jt!anatopoliticsDJ entailing an a>esome po>er to in/lict mass deat!D 6ot! on t!e population o/ oneHs enem-D and on oneHs o>n population: Jt!e po>er to expose a >!ole population to deat! is t!e underside o/ t!e po>er to guarantee an indi3idualHs continued existence. .... I/ genocide is indeed t!e dream o/ modern po>ers ... it is 6ecause po>er is situated at t!e le3el o/ li/eD t!e speciesD t!e raceD and t!e large<scale p!enomena o/ population.J uclearD c!emicalD and 6iologicalD >eapons ma+e it possi6le to >ield

t!is po>er to condemn >!ole populations to deat!. @io<politicsD /or 5oucaultD also necessaril- entails racismD 6- >!ic! !e means ma+ing a cut in t!e 6iological continuum o/ !uman li/eD designating t!e 3er- existence o/ a determinate group as a danger to t!e populationD to its !ealt! and >ell<6eingD and e3en to its 3er- li/e. Suc! a groupD I >ould argueD t!enD 6ecomes a 6iological "in t!e case o/ aCism# or class enem- "in t!e case o/ StalinismD t!oug! t!e latter also claimed t!at 6iological and !ereditar- c!aracteristics >ere lin+ed to oneHs class
origins#. .nd t!e danger represented 6- suc! an enem- race can necessitate its elimination t!roug! p!-sical remo3al "et!nic cleansing# or extermination "genocide#.

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0!e 5oucauldian concept o/ 6io<politics allo>s us to see !o>D on t!e 6asis o/ tec!nologies o/ dominationD it is possi6le to su6?ect 6iological li/e itsel/ to a /ormida6le degree o/ controlD and to 6e a6le to in/lict mass deat! on populations or races designated as a 6iological t!reat. 8oreo3erD 6- lin+ing t!is concept to t!e real domination o/ capitalD >e are a6le to see !o> t!e 3alue</orm in3ades e3en t!e 6iological realm in t!e p!ase o/ t!e real domination o/ capital. ,o>e3erD >!ile 6io<po>er entails t!e !orri/ic possi6ilit- o/ genocideD it is 5oucaultHs ruminations on t!e 6inar- di3ision o/ a population into a Jpure communit-J and its 9t!erD >!ic! allo>s us to 6etter grasp its necessit-. Suc! a perspecti3eD !o>e3erD intersects >it! t!e trans/ormations at t!e le3el o/ t!e political and ideological moment o/ capitalD and it is to t!eseD and >!at I see as 3ital contri6utions to t!eir t!eoriCation 6- .ntonio Gramsci and Ernst @loc!D t!at I no> >ant to turn in an e//ort to 6etter elucidate t!e /actors t!at propel capital in t!e direction o/ mass deat! and genocide. 1!at is at issue !ere is not GramsciHs politicsD !is political practiceD !is inter3entions in t!e de6ates on strateg- and tactics >it!in t!e Italian Communist 4art-D >!ere !e /ollo>ed t!e counter<re3olutionar- line o/ t!e Stalinist CominternD 6ut rat!er !is t!eoriCation o/ t!e political and ideological moment o/ capitalD and in particular !is concept o/ t!e Jintegral stateJD !is understanding o/ t!e state as incorporating 6ot! political and ci3il societ-D !is concept o/ !egemon-D and !is understanding o/ ideolog- as inscri6ed in practices and materialiCed in institutionsD >!ic! exploded t!e crude 6ase<superstructure model o/ ort!odox 8arxism and its 3ision o/ ideolog- as simpl- /alse consciousnessD all o/ >!ic! !a3e enric!ed 8arxist t!eor-D and >!ic! re3olutionaries ignore at t!eir peril. In contrast to ort!odox 8arxism >!ic! !as eFuated t!e state >it! coercionD GramsciHs insistence t!at t!e state incorporates 6ot! political and ci3il societ-D and t!at class rule is instanciated 6ot! 6- domination "coercion# and !egemon- "leaders!ip# allo>s us to 6etter grasp t!e complex and crisscrossing strands t!at coalesce in capitalist class ruleD especiall- in t!e p!ase o/ t!e real domination o/ capital and t!e epoc! o/ state capitalism. 5or GramsciD !egemon- is t!e >a- in >!ic! a dominant class installs its rule o3er societ- t!roug! t!e intermediar- o/ ideolog-D esta6lis!ing its intellectual and cultural leaders!ip o3er ot!er classesD and t!ere6- reducing its dependence on coercion. Ideolog-D /or GramsciD is not mere /alse consciousnessD 6ut rat!er is t!e /orm in >!ic! !umans acFuire consciousnessD 6ecome su6?ects and actD constituting >!at !e terms a Jcollecti3e >illJ. 8oreo3erD /or !imD ideolog- is no mere superstructureD 6ut !as a material existenceD is materialiCed in praxis. 0!e state >!ic! rests on a com6ination o/ coercion and !egemon- is >!at Gramsci designates as an integral state. It seems to meD t!at one ma?or >ea+ness o/ t!e Gramscian concept o/ !egemon- is t!at !e does not seem to appl- it to t!e control exercised o3er an antagonistic class. 0!usD Gramsci asserts t!at one dominatesD coercesD antagonistic classesD 6ut leads onl- allied classes. GramsciHs seeming exclusion o/ antagonistic classes /rom t!e ideological !egemon- o/ t!e dominant class seems to me to 6e misplacedD especiall- in t!e epoc! o/ state capitalismD >!en t!e capitalist classD t!e /unctionaries o/ capitalD acFuire !egemon-D cultural and intellectual leaders!ip and controlD not ?ust o/ allied classes and strata "e.g. t!e middle classesD pett- 6ourgeoisieD etc.#D 6ut also o3er 6road strata o/ t!e antagonistic classD t!e >or+ing class itsel/. IndeedD suc! !egemon-D t!oug! ne3er totalD and al>a-s su6?ect to re3ersal "re3olution#D is t!e 3erita6le +e- to capitalist class rule in t!is epoc!. 9ne >a- in >!ic! t!is ideological !egemon- o/ capital is esta6lis!ed o3er 6road strata o/ t!e populationD including sectors o/ t!e >or+ing classD is 6- c!anneling t!e disatis/action and discontent o/ t!e mass o/ t!e population >it! t!e monstrous impact o/ capitalism upon t!eir li3es "su6?ection to t!e mac!ineD reduction to t!e status o/ a Jt!ingJD at t!e point o/ productionD insecurit- and po3ert- as /eatures o/ dail- li/eD t!e o3erall social process o/ atomiCation and massi/icationD etc.#D a>a- /rom anstruggle to esta6lis! a !uman Gemein>esenD communism. Capitalist !egemon- entails t!e a6ilit- to di3ert t!at 3er- disatis/action into t!e Fuest /or a Jpure communit-JD 6ased on !atred and rage directed not at capitalD 6ut at t!e 9t!erD at alterit- itsel/D at t!ose marginal social groups >!ic! are designated a danger to t!e li/e o/ t!e nationD and its population. 9ne o/ t!e most dramatic e//ects o/ t!e inexora6le penetration o/ t!e la> o/ 3alue into e3er- pore o/ social

li/eD and geograp!icall- across t!e /ace o/ t!e >!ole planetD !as 6een t!e destruction o/ all primiti3eD organicD and pre<capitalist communities. CapitalismD as 8arx and Engels pointed out in t!e Communist 8ani/estoD s!atters t!e 6onds o/ immemorial custom and traditionD replacing t!em >it! its exc!ange mec!anism and contract. 1!ile 8arx and Engels stressed t!e positi3e /eatures o/ t!is de3elopment in t!e
8ani/estoD >e cannot ignore its negati3e sideD particularl- in lig!t o/ t!e /act t!at t!e pat! to a !uman Gemein>esen !as so /ar 6een success/ull- 6loc+ed 6- capitalD >it! disastrous conseFuences /or t!e !uman species. 0!e negati3e side o/ t!at de3elopment includes t!e relentless process o/ atomiCationD lea3ing in its >a+e an e3er gro>ing mass o/ rootless indi3idualsD /or >!om t!e onl- !uman contact is 6- >a- o/ t!e cas! nexus. 0!ose >!o !a3e 6een uprooted geograp!icall-D economicall-D politicall-D and culturall-D are /reFuentl- le/t >it! a po>er/ul longing /or t!eir lost communities "e3en >!ere t!ose communities >ere !ierarc!icall- organiCed and 6ased on ineFualit-#D /or t!e certainties and Jtrut!sJ o/ t!e pastD >!ic! are idealiCed t!e more /rustratingD unsatis/-ingD and insecureD t!e >orld o/ capital 6ecomes. Suc! longings are most po>er/ull- /elt >it!in >!at Ernst @loc! !as termed non<s-nc!ronous strata and classes . 0!ese are stata and classes >!ose material or mental conditions o/ li/e are lin+ed to a past mode o/ productionD >!o exist economicall- or culturall- in t!e pastD e3en as t!e- c!ronologicall- d>ell in t!e present. In contrast to t!e t>o !istoric classes in t!e capitalist mode o/ productionD t!e 6ourgeoisie and proletariatD >!ic! are s-nc!ronousD t!e products o/ t!e capitalist presentD t!ese non<s-nc!ronous strata include t!e peasantr-D t!e pett- 6ourgeoisieD and << 6- 3irtue o/ t!eir mental or cultural state << -out! and >!ite<collar >or+ers. In m- 3ie>D @loc!Hs understanding o/ non<s-nc!ronicit- needs to 6e extended to segments o/ t!e >or+ing classD in particular t!ose strata o/ t!e 6lue<collar proletariat >!ic! are no longer materiall- s-nc!ronous >it! t!e !ig!<tec! production process upon >!ic! late capitalism restsD and t!e mass o/ >or+ers e?ected /rom t!e production process 6- t!e rising organic composition o/ capital and its comcomitant do>n<siCing. In additionD t!e e3en greater mass o/ peasants streaming into t!e s!ant- to>ns around t!e great commercial and industrial metropolitan centers o/ t!e >orldD are also c!aracteriCed 6- t!eir non<s-nc!ronicit-D t!eir ina6ilit- to 6e incorporated into t!e !-per<modern c-cle o/ capital accumulation. 8oreo3erD all o/ t!ese strata too are su6?ect to a gro>ing nostalgia /or t!e pastD a longing /or communit-D including t!e 6lue<collar communities and t!eir institutional net>or+s >!ic! >ere one o/ t!e /eatures o/ t!e social landscape o/ capitalism earlier in t!e t>entiet! centur-. ,o>e3erD no matter !o> po>er/ul t!is nostalgia /or past communit- 6ecomesD it cannot 6e satis/ied . 0!e organic communities o/ t!e past cannot 6e recreatedG t!eir destruction 6- capital is irre3ersi6le. .t t!e same timeD t!e pat! to a /uture Gemein>esenD to >!ic! t!e cultural material and longings em6odied in t!e non<s-nc!ronous classes and strata can ma+e a signal contri6utionD according to @loc!D remains o6structed 6- t!e po>er o/ capital. So long as t!is is t!e caseD t!e genuine longing /or communit- o/ masses o/ peopleD and especiall- t!e nostalgia /or past communities especiall- /elt 6- t!e non<s-nc!ronous strata and classesD including t!e ne>l- non<s-nc!ronous elements >!ic! I !a3e ?ust argued must 6e added to t!emD lea3es t!em exposed to t!e lure o/ a Jpure communit-J ideologicall- constructed 6- capital itsel/. In place o/ real organic and communal 6ondsD in suc! an ideologicall- constructed pure communit-D a racialD et!nicD or religious identi/ication is merel- superimposed on t!e existing condition o/ atomiCation in >!ic! t!e mass o/ t!e population /inds itsel/. In addition to pro3iding some grati/ication /or t!e longing /or communit- animating 6road strata o/ t!e populationD suc! a pure communit- can also pro3ide an ideological 6ond >!ic! ties t!e 6ul+ o/ t!e population to t!e capitalist state on t!e 6asis o/ a raceD et!nicit-D or religion >!ic! it s!ares >it! t!e ruling class. 0!is latter is extremel- important to capitalD 6ecause t!e atomiCation >!ic! it !as 6roug!t a6out not onl- lea3es t!e mass o/ !umanit- 6ere/tD 6ut also lea3es t!e ruling class itsel/ 3ulnera6le 6ecause it lac+s an6asis upon >!ic! it can mo6iliCe t!e populationD p!-sicall- or ideologicall-.0!e 6asis upon >!ic! suc! a pure communit- is constitutedD raceD nationalit-D religionD e3en a categoriCation 6- JclassJ in t!e Stalinist >orldD necessaril- means t!e exclusion o/ t!ose categories o/ t!e population >!ic! do not con/orm to t!e criteria /or inclusionD t!e em6odiments o/ alterit-D e3en >!ile t!e- in!a6it t!e same geograp!ical space as t!e mem6ers o/ t!e pure communit- . 0!ose excludedD t!e JracesJ

on t!e ot!er side o/ t!e 6iological continuumD to use 5oucauldian terminolog-D t!e 9t!erD 6ecome alien elements >it!in an ot!er>ise !omogeneous >orld o/ t!e pure communit-. .s a t!reat to its 3er- existenceD t!e role o/ t!is 9t!er is to 6ecome t!e scapegoat /or t!e ina6ilit- o/ t!e pure communit- to pro3ide aut!entic communal 6onds 6et>een peopleD /or its a6?ect /ailure to o3ercome t!e alienation t!at is a !allmar+ o/ a rei/ied >orld. 0!e Pe> in aCi German-D t!e Kula+ in Stalinist 2ussiaD t!e 0utsi in 2>andaD 8uslims in @osniaD 6lac+s in t!e =SD t!e .l6anian or t!e Ser6 in Koso3oD t!e .ra6 in 5ranceD t!e 0ur+ in contemporar- German-D t!e @a!ai in IranD /or exampleD 6ecome t!e em6odiment o/ alterit-D and t!e target against >!ic! t!e !atred o/ t!e mem6ers o/ t!e pure communit- is

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directed. 0!e more crisis ridden a societ- 6ecomesD t!e greater t!e need to /ind an appropriate scapegoatG t!e more urgent t!e need /or mass mo6iliCation 6e!ind t!e integra l stateD t!e more imperious t!e need to /ocus rage against t!e 9t!er. In an extreme situation o/ social crisis and political turmoilD t!e demoniCation and 3ictimiCation o/ t!e 9t!er can lead to !is "mass# murder. In t!e a6sence o/ a >or+ing class conscious o/ its !istoric tas+ and possi6ilitiesD t!is !atred o/ alterit- >!ic! permits capital to mo6iliCe t!e population in de/ense o/ t!e pure communit-D can 6ecome its o>n impetus to genocide. 0!e immanent tendencies o/ t!e capitalist mode o/ production >!ic! propel it to>ards a catastrop!ic economic crisisD also dri3e it to>ards mass murder and genocide. In t!at senseD t!e deat!<
>orldD and t!e prospect o/ an EndCeit cannot 6e separated /rom t!e continued existence o/ !umanit-Hs su6ordination to t!e la> o/ 3alue. 2ei/icationD t!e o3ermanned >orldD 6io<politicsD state racismD t!e constitution o/ a pure communit- directed against alterit-D eac! o/ t!em /eatures o/ t!e economic and ideological topograp!- o/ t!e real domination o/ capitalD create t!e possi6ilit- and t!e need /or genocide. 1e s!ould !a3e no dou6t t!at t!e sur3i3al o/ capitalism into t!is ne> millenium

>ill entail more and more /reFuent recourse to mass murder.

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Capitalism Impacts – GenocideG;acism %2&
Ander the appearance o/ e?ualit.7 racism is entrenched in the capitalist s.stem 6elamedD 'merican Studies 'ssociation7 0#
"Podi 8elamedD .merican Studies .ssociationD Communit- 4artners!ip GrantD 5acult- De3elopment .>ardD 8arFuette "200*#D Social Science 2esearc! Council 5ello>s!ipD 1inter 200$D 2acial (i6eralism and 0ransnational CapitalismD pg 2 Cassettari# I descri6e 1inantLs racial 6rea+ as a sea c!ange in racial epistemolog- and politics t!at /ollo>s /rom t!e gradual ascendanc- o/ a post>ar li6eral race /ormation to a !egemonic position in t!e =nited States. In contrast to >!ite supremac-D t!e li6eral race paradigm recogniCes racial ineFualit- as a pro6lemD and it secures a li6eral s-m6olic /rame>or+ /or race re/orm centered in a6stract eFualit-D mar+et indi3idualismD and inclusi3e ci3ic nationalism. .ntiracism

6ecomes a nationall- recogniCed social 3alue andD /or t!e /irst timeD gets a6sor6ed into =.S. go3ernmentalit-. Importantl-D post>ar li6eral racial /ormation sutures an :o//icial; antiracism to =.S. nationalismD itsel/ 6earing t!e agenc- /or transnational capitalism. I argue t!at t!is suturing is decisi3e /or racial discourse and politics in t!at it produces a situation >!ere o//icial antiracisms t!emsel3es de/lect and limit a>areness o/ t!e logics o/ exploitation and domination in glo6al capitalism . In >!at
/ollo>sD I examine t!e general !istorical de3elopment o/ t!e li6eral race paradigmD /ocusing m- reading s-mptomaticallon racial li6eralismD t!e /irst p!ase o/ t!e !istorical de3elopmentD and on :neoli6eral multiculturalismD; m- designation /or its latest p!ase. .s !istorical articulations o/ race and capitalism !a3e s!i/ted O >it! >!ite supremac- and colonial capitalism gi3ing >a- to racial li6eralism and transnational capitalism andD e3entuall-D to neoli6eral multiculturalism and glo6aliCation O race remains a procedure t!at ?usti/ies t!e nongeneraliCa6ilit- o/ capitalist >ealt!. 2ace

continues to /use tec!nologies o/ racial domination >it! li6eral /reedoms to represent people >!o are exploited /or or cut o// /rom capitalist >ealt! as outsiders to li6eral su6?ecti3it- /or >!om li/e can 6e disallo>ed to t!e point o/ deat!.2 1!at is ne> in t!e post>ar period is t!at an o//icial li6eral and nationalist
antiracism tied to =.S. ascendanc- itsel/ !as 6ecome one o/ t!ose li6eral /reedoms t!at >or+s to designate some /orms o/ !umanit- as less >ort!- t!an ot!ers. 1!ile li6eral race procedures are une3enl- detac!ed /rom a >!olesale

>!ite supremacist logic o/ race as p!enot-peD t!e- remain deepl- em6edded in a logic o/ race as a set o/ >!at i+!il 4al Sing! descri6es as :!istoric repertoires and culturalD spatial and signi/-ing s-stems t!at stigmatiCe and depreciate one /orm o/ !umanit- /or t!e purposes o/ anot!erLs !ealt!D de3elopmentD sa/et-D pro/it or pleasure.;& 4ri3ileged and stigmatiCed racial /ormations no longer mes! per/ectl- >it! a color line. InsteadD ne> categories o/ pri3ilege and stigma determined 6- ideologicalD economicD and cultural criteria o3erla- olderD con3entional racial categoriesD so t!at traditionall- recogniCed racial identities O 6lac+D .sianD >!iteD or .ra678uslim O can no> occup- 6ot! sides o/ t!e pri3ilege7stigma Spirit o/ eoli6eralism opposition. "5or exampleD I >ill examine !o> an idea o/ :6lac+ pat!olog-; distinguis!ed stigmatiCed
/rom pri3ileged ./rican .merican racial /ormations in t!e earl- Cold 1ar and !o> t!e multicultural :.mericanness; o/ .l6erto GonCaleC or CondoleeCCa 2ice currentl- stigmatiCes undocumented 8exican immigrants and ./rican .merican dissenters suc! as Pulian @ond.# 0!e ne> /lexi6ilit- in racial procedures a/ter 1orld 1ar II means t!at

racism constantl- appears as disappearing according to con3entional race categoriesD e3en as it ta+es on ne> /orms t!at can signi/- as nonracial or e3en antiracist.

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6. 4o3ert.circumscri6ing t!e demands o/ t!e >or+ing populaceD as De6s o6ser3ed /rom !is ?ail cell.mericans san+ 6elo> t!e po3ert. 9ne need onl.t!in+ o/ capitalist igeriaD capitalist IndonesiaD capitalist 0!ailandD capitalist . 0!e poorer -ou areD t!e less eFuipped -ou are to de/end -oursel/ against t!e a6uses o/ >ealt!.t!e capitalist class. 5irstD li+e an.tra//ic. Cassettari# 0!e corporate capitalists no more encourage prosperit. %1& Capitalism encourages o+erproduction and cheap la-or 0hich collapses economies 8arentiD 8(1(D( poliCsci R Male7 03 "8ic!ael 4arentiD recei3ed !is 4!.is gro>ing at a /aster rate t!an t!e >orldHs population.6etter social conditionsD is not t!e plutocrac-Hs notion o/ an ideal >or+/orce and a properl.streams o/ t!e econom.t!e goods and ser3ices 6eing produced. 0o t!e extent t!at li/e is 6eara6le under t!e present =.resisted 6.t!at t!e populace !as 6een a6le to secure a measure o/ prosperit-G nort!ern European nations suc! as S>edenD or>a-D 5inlandD and Denmar+ come to mind.itsel/. 0!ere is a c!ronic tendenc-<as >e are seeing toda-<to>ard o3erproduction o/ pri3ate sector goods and ser3ices and underconsumption o/ necessities 6. It consists o/ pre3enting t!e capitalist s-stem /rom de3ouring itsel/.D.to>ard o3erproduction and mar+et crisis.pliant polit-.social democrac. It is onl.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 112 Capitalism Impacts – Econom. 0o maximiCe pro/itsD >ages must 6e +ept do>n. .propagate democrac-.t!e arduous tas+ o/ producing and mar+eting goods and ser3icesD t!e marauders tap directlinto t!e mone. 271%70%D !ttp:77communit-. @ut e3en in t!ese social democracies popular gains are al>a-s at ris+ o/ 6eing rolled 6ac+. economic orderD it is 6ecause millions o/ people !a3e >aged 6itter class struggles to ad3ance t!eir li3ing standards and t!eir rig!ts as citiCensD 6ringing some measure o/ !umanit.to an ot!er>ise !eartless politico<economic order.o> 1ealt! Creates 4o3ert.D !e >as a>arded a Certi/icate o/ Special Congressional 2ecognition ser3es on t!e ad3isor.o/ la6or struggle pro3ides endless illustration o/ t!is.aitiD capitalist Colom6iaD capitalist 4a+istanD capitalist Sout! . 8ost o/ t!e >orld is capitalistD and most o/ t!e >orld is neit!er prosperous nor particularl.org7!o>XcapitalismXcreatesXpo3ert-XinXt!eX>orldD :8-ster-: .democratic. In t!e last eig!t -ears aloneD > !ile 3ast /ortunes accrued at record ratesD an additional six million . @ut someone !as to 6u.in countries >!ere capitalism !as 6een reined in to some degree 6. in political science /rom Wale =ni3ersit-. 5or t!atD >ages must 6e +ept up.dedicated to speedups and >age cutsD to ma+ing >or+ers produce more and more /or less and lessD is al>a-s in danger o/ a cras! . During t!e 1990s >e >itnessed t!e collapse o/ an entire 112 .in t!e 1orld./reespeec!.unsuper3isedD t!e more acti3e command component o/ t!e /inancial s-stem 6egins to de3our less organiCed sources o/ >ealt!.and sometimes 3iolentl.le3elG median /amil. 0!e poorer -ou areD t!e !arder -ou >ill >or+</or less. 0!ere is a t!ird /unction o/ t!e capitalist state seldom mentioned. In additionD t!ere is t!e /reFuentl.de3eloped t!roug! pri3ate meansD suc! as pu6lic sa/et.o3er m2D000G consumer de6t more t!an dou6ledG o3er se3en million ./ricaD capitalist (at3iaD and 3arious ot!er mem6ers o/ t!e 5ree 1orld<<more accuratel-D t!e 5ree 8ar+et 1orld.Studies in 1as!ingtonD D. prosperousD politicall. Consider t!e core contradiction Karl 8arx pointed to: t!e tendenc.income declined 6.t!e >or+ing populace.literate populace >it! !ig! expectations a6out its standard o/ li3ing and a +een sense o/ entitlementD pus!ing /or continuall.n econom.S.and orderl.t!an do t!e.o3erloo+ed sel/<destruction created 6- t!e mone-ed pla-ers t!emsel3es. .state it must pro3ide ser3ices t!at cannot 6e relia6l.>!en most attempts at material 6etterment !a3e 6een 3e!ementl. SecondD t!e capitalist state protects t!e !a3es /rom t!e !a3e<notsD securing t!e process o/ capital accumulation to 6ene/it t!e mone-ed interestsD >!ile !ea3il. . Instead o/ tr-ing to ma+e mone. Sel/< de3ouring @east 0!e capitalist state !as t>o roles long recogniCed 6.political t!in+ers.mericans lost t!eir !ealt! insuranceD and more t!an /our million lost t!eir pensionsG mean>!ile !omelessness increased and !ousing /oreclosures reac!ed pandemic le3els.spreads as >ealt! accumulates. Corporate in3estors pre/er poor populations. It is ironic to credit capitalism >it! t!e genius o/ economic prosperit.C. 0!e !istor. In t!e corporate >orld o/ J/ree<tradeDJ t!e num6er o/ 6illionaires is increasing /aster t!an e3er >!ile t!e num6er o/ people li3ing in po3ert. Consider t!e =nited States. I/ le/t completel.6oards o/ Independent 4rogressi3e 4olitics et>or+D Education 1it!out @ordersD and t!e Paseno3ic 5oundation as a Aisiting 5ello> at t!e Institute /or 4olic.

0!e .lendingD and >!ate3er else.rgentine stateD gorged on a !ea3. 1it! more mone.diet o/ /ree<mar+et ideolog-D /altered in its /unction o/ sa3ing capitalism /rom t!e capitalists.and transparenc-D not capitalismHs.J In t!e meltdo>n o/ 200'<09 t!e mounting /inancial surplus created a pro6lem /or t!e mone-ed class: t!ere >ere not enoug! opportunities to in3est.3enturesD a legerdemain o/ !edge /undsD deri3ati3esD !ig! le3eragingD credit de/ault s>apsD predator.corporate conspirators at EnronD 1orldComD . 11 . Inside pla-ers li+e Ken (a. Some -ears laterD in t!e =nited StatesD came t!e multi<6illion<dollar plunder perpetrated 6.rgentina >!en unc!ec+ed /ree mar+eteers stripped enterprisesD poc+eted 3ast sumsD and le/t t!e countr-Hs producti3e capacit.t!an t!e. Does t!at not s!o> capitalismHs sel/<correcting capacit-Q ot reall-. 0!ese t!ie3es >ere caug!t and con3icted. 9/ itsel/ t!e /ree mar+et is an amoral s-stemD >it! no strictures sa3e Jca3eat emptor.in .delp!iaD and a doCen ot!er ma?or companies.case coming too late<>as a product o/ democrac-Hs accounta6ilit. 0!e prosecution o/ suc! mal/easance< in an.+ne> >!at to do >it!D 6ig in3estors poured immense sums into nonexistent !ousing mar+ets and ot!er dodg.ar+inD .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 11 econom.turned success/ul corporate enterprises into s!eer >rec+ageD >iping out t!e ?o6s and li/e sa3ings o/ t!ousands o/ emplo-ees in order to poc+et 6illions.in s!am6les.

a relati3e surplus population arises.6ecome 6ored >it! consumingD or t!at pressure on t!e a3aila6le natural resource 6ase >ill 6ecome too greatD and gro>t! >ill collapse. 5aster and /aster rates o/ economicD gro>t! are needed to a6sor6 ne> entrants to t!e ?o6 mar+etD or e3en to +eep existing >or+ers emplo-ed. /all -ac* into Great Depression era economic conditions 8eet7 pro/( o/ economics R )ondon School o/ Economics7 3" "2ic!ard 4eetD pro/ o/ economics E (ondon Sc!ool o/ EconomicsD 19%*D :IneFualit.t!e expansion o/ t!e ort! . 4roduction costs are more<and<more t!e costs o/ depreciating mac!iner-D and less<and<less t!e costs o/ !iring la6or as capitalism de3elops and as mac!ines increasingl.JKI 8arxist t!eor. 8arx called t!is a c!ange in t!e organic composition o/ capital concomitant >it! t!e gro>t! o/ social >ealt!: constant capital "mone.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 11! Capitalism Impacts – Econom.increasing t!e producti3it.claims t!at t!e /ormer !as 6een !appening /or some -earsG >it!out enormous militar. 0!ere is a6undant recent e3idence o/ t!e latterD and t!e 8arxist economist 4aul S>eeC.merican /rontier in t!e nineteent! and earl.are used.t!us /orecasts t!at t!e un/ettered gro>t! o/ capitalism generates a mass o/ unemplo-ed >or+ersD and >ill e3entuall.' 0!us t!e relati3e demand /or la6or /alls as capitalist economic de3elopment ta+es place.to reduce costs o/ production t!roug! a greater di3ision o/ la6or and t!e introduction and impro3ement o/ mac!iner-.depressed as it >as during t!e great Depression.>ould 6e :as pro/oundl.extremel.produces a more<or<less permanent constantl./ollo>ed 1orld 1ar IID 6ut reliance on t!e /rantic 6u-ing o/ consumer goods to +eep t!e econom.I 0!e gro>t! o/ a surplusD un>antedD unneeded la6or /orce ma.going !as t!e 6uilt<in dangers t!at people >ill e3entuall.spendingD t!e =nited States econom. 8ec!aniCation raises t!e surplus exploita6le 6.rapid economic de3elopmentD suc! as >as made possi6le 6.o/ la6orD and t!us increases t!e capital a3aila6le /or rein3estment in more mac!iner-D /acilitiesD and ra> materials. Increasingl.lead to >idespread detac!ment o/ >or+ers /rom t!e mec!aniCed means o/ producing incomeD an e3ent >!ic! >ill create t!e necessar. 8arxist<Geograp!ic 0!eor-.t>entiet! centuriesD or t!e period o/ su6ur6aniCation and mass purc!ase o/ consumer goods t!at immediatel.used to purc!ase la6or< po>er#. that 0ill e+entuall. 11! .and 4o3ert-: .6e postponed 6.used to acFuire and depreciate mac!iner-D 6uildingsD and ra> materials# is increased relati3e to 3aria6le capital "mone.# 8arx also explained !o> t!e normal operation o/ capitalism necessaril. %2& Capitalism di+ision o/ la-or creates a proletariat and consumerC-ased econom.t!e o>ners o/ t!e means o/ production 6.conditions /or social re3olution.

So no> >e must as+D 1!at /orces are at >or+ in our >orld to 6loc+ or cripple t!e et!ical response Q 0!is FuestionD o/ courseD 6rings me 6ac+ to capitalism. 0!is means t!at t!e /oundation o/ et!ics lies not in reasonD 6ut rat!er in our passion s or our !earts.argued t!at -ou do not reall. 5or t!ose >!o manage and li3e /rom capitalD not!ing !as 3alue o/ its o>n. I/ capital loo+s at "not into# t!e !uman /aceD it sees t!ere onl.ume is one o/ man./ingerQ .to care /or ot!ers.aiti i/ -ou can get t!em to >or+ /or lessQ 0!e 1't! Centurp!ilosop!er Da3id . o> none o/ t!ese p!ilosop!ers are nai3e: none o/ t!em t!in+s t!at s-mpat!-D lo3eD or caring determines allD or e3en mostD !uman 6e!a3ior.merican p!ilosop!erD el oddingsD in !er 19') 6oo+ CaringD argues t!at t!e et!ical commitment arises out o/ t!e caring response t!at most o/ us /eel to>ards t!ose >!oD li+e c!ildrenD are in need.IHd li+e to point to t!e >a-s in >!ic! capital undermines t!e /oundation o/ moral li/e.i/ t!e.ume as+sD 1!at reason can an-one gi3e me to not to pre/er t!e anni!ilation o/ all man+ind to a scratc! on m.at (e>is and Clar+ CollegeD 199'D :1!. .!a3e responsi6ilities to eac! ot!er and to t!eir communitiesQ 5or example: 1!at could possi6l.t!ing else .t!is is t!e caseD let me turn to capitalHs greatest criticD Karl 8arx. So t!e mere recognition o/ >!at ot!er !uman 6eings are in3ol3es us in >anting to see t!em li3e and prosper. I !a3e argued t!at capitalism is >arD and t!at t!ose o/ us >!o do not o>n capital su//er /rom it ?ust as do ci3ilian populations caug!t 6et>een opposing armiesD or as /oot soldiers conscripted into armies /ig!ting /or interests t!at are not our o>n. 0!e 5renc!<Pe>is! p!ilosop!er Emmanual (e3inos >!ose ma?or >or+ appeared in 19$1 claims t!at et!ics arises in t!e experience o/ t!e /ace o/ t!e ot!er.is.sur3i3e in an.t!at mig!t supersede capitalism.merican p!ilosop!er o/ t!e last centur.counters our narro> sel/<interest.!tml# In recent commentaries /or t!e 9ld 8ole I !a3e 6een tr-ing to ma+e capitalism loo+ 6ad << as 6ad as it reall. Posia! 2o-ce an .e-es t!roug! >!ic! 6rand names and ad3ertising can enter and mout!s t!at can demand and consume /oodD drin+D and to6acco products.to >ant t!e 6est /or eac! ot!er. 0!e !uman /ace re3eals its capacit. single ethical /rame0or* 6orgareidge7 pro/ phil R )e0is 9 clar* college 1992 "Cla-ton 8orgareidgeD 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!. @ut 6e/ore I go t!ereD I >ant to ac+no>ledge t!at capitalism is not t!e onl.ma+e an-one >illing to pa.edu7icla-ton7commentaries7e3il.nd -ou cannot s!are an aspiration or a need >it!out >anting to see it /ul/illedD nor can -ou s!are a /ear >it!out !oping t!at it >ill not come to pass. 0oda.can 6e used to turn a pro/it.capitalism is e3il.p!ilosop!ers >!o argue t!at no suc! reason can 6e gi3en. I/ !uman /aces express needsD t!en eit!er products can 6e manu/actured to meetD or seem to meetD t!ose needsD or elseD i/ t!e needs are incompati6le >it! t!e gro>t! o/ capitalD t!en t!e /aces expressing t!em must 6e unrepresented or silenced.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 11" Capitalism Impacts – Ethics %1& Capitalism precludes ethics -ecause it undermines e+er.ume it is part o/ our nature t!at >e /eel s-mpat!.t!ing t!at 6loc+s our a6ilit. @ut to understand someoneHs /eelings isD in partD to s!are t!em. So to loo+ into t!e /ace o/ anot!er !uman 6eing is to see t!e commandmentD 0!ou s!alt not +ill. 8ost parents encourage t!is caring response in t!eir c!ildrenD >it! t!e result t!at >e gro> up >it! an interest in culti3ating our o>n capacit. 1ellD >!at is t!e /oundation o/ moral li/eQ 1!at ma+es it possi6le /or !uman 6eings to recogniCe t!at t!e.lclar+./uture societ.not!er . 8ountain streamsD clean airD !uman li3es << all mean not!ing in t!emsel3esD 6ut are 3alua6le onl. 0o s!o> >!. .pro3es ot!er>ise. 0!e 20t! centur.to care. 9t!er p!ilosop!ers !a3e ta+en similar positions. 5or . 0o put it in religious termsD capital is t!e de3il.do o//erD t!oug!D is t!e !ope t!at !uman 6eings !a3e t!e capacit. 1!at t!e. IH3e tried to s!o> t!at capitalism is t!e 3iolent negation o/ democrac-D /or it is t!e interests o/ t!ose >!o o>n capital t!at determine !o> >e li3e: t!eir ?o6sD productsD ser3icesD manu/actured cultureD and propaganda s!ape our li3es and our minds. !ttp:77>>>. 963iousl. e3ert!elessD I >ant to claimD t!at putting t!e >orld at t!e disposal o/ t!ose >it! capital !as done more damage to t!e et!ical li/e t!an an. Exploitation and cruelt>ere around long 6e/ore t!e economic s-stem o/ capitalism came to 6eD and t!e temptation to use and a6use ot!ers >ill pro6a6l.>!at capitalist enterprises do !a3e 11" .li3ing >ages to >or+ers in Indonesia or ./or su//eringD a su//ering >e are capa6le o/ eit!er in/licting or opposing./or eac! ot!erD and t!is s-mpat!.understand anot!er person i/ -ou do not understand !er aspirationsD /earsD and needs. =nder capitalismD 8arx >ritesD e3er-t!ing in nature and e3er-t!ing t!at !uman 6eings are and can do 6ecomes an o6?ect: a resource /orD or an o6stacleD to t!e expansion o/ productionD t!e de3elopment o/ tec!nolog-D t!e gro>t! o/ mar+etsD and t!e circulation o/ mone-.

6ecomes a mere means to an endD an instrument o/ corporate gro>t!.are rig!t << as long as t!e production o/ all our needs and t!e organiCation o/ our la6or is carried out under pri3ate o>ners!ip.nd t!e. 11# . In medicineD ma+ing pro/its is 6ecoming a more important goal t!an caring /or sic+ people.read commentatorsD 6ut almost al>a-s >it! an attitude o/ resignation to t!e ine3ita6le.politicians and >idel.a minorit.>!en t!e end o/ capitalism is on t!e ta6le >ill et!ics !a3e a seat at t!e ta6le. Capital pro/its /rom t!e production o/ /oodD s!elterD and all t!e necessities o/ li/e. expressed in c!urc!esD in li3ing roomsD in letters to t!e editorD sometimes e3en 6.o/ t!in+ing t!at counts /or not!ing in real >orld decision ma+ing. 0!e. 9nl.t!at careD to 6e directed 6.!a3e learned not to call economic gro>t! progress.canHt stop it.are going to do. 8oral con3ictions are industr-D or s!elter t!e purpose o/ t!e !ousing industr-. I/ >e care a6out li/eD i/ >e see our o6ligations in eac! ot!ers /acesD t!en >e !a3e to >ant all t!e t!ings capital does to 6e go3erned 6. 4eople no longer sa-D JWou canHt stop progressDJ 6ut onl.a >a.6ecause t!e."JidealistsJ# can ta+e seriousl. 0!e production o/ all t!ese t!ings uses !uman li3es in t!e s!ape o/ la6orD as >ell as t!e resources o/ t!e eart!.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 11# conseFuences /or t!e >ell 6eing o/ !uman 6eings and t!e planet >e li3e on. @ut /eeding people is not t!e aim o/ t!e /ood . 9nl. .s capitalist enterprises t!ese acti3ities aim single<mindedl.at t!e accumulation o/ capitalD and suc! purposes as caring /or t!e sic+ or /eeding t!e !ungr. 0!ere/ore et!icsD t!e o3erriding commitment to meeting !uman needD is le/t out o/ deli6erations a6out >!at t!e !ea3->eig!t institutions o/ our societ.t!e et!ical concern /or li/e.still t!in+ t!e.

Sc!ramD teac!es social t!eor.sset<6uilding polic. 8.Fuestiona6le concerns a6out economic glo6aliCation.politicall.are not supposed to 6e.6ut >it! an e-e to>ard separating t!e >!eat /rom t!e c!a//D retaining >!at >ould 6e good >!ile ?ettisoning t!e 6ad. Suc! policies can onl.6ad a6out asset<6uilding polic.argument is t!at >!at is particularl.polic.1* =.and social polic.succeed i/ t!e.t!at economic glo6aliCation >as occuringG instead I am arguing t!at >!at I am calling glo6aliCation discourse !elped ma+e it seem in t!e =nited States t!at economic glo6aliCation o/ necessit.response.discourse dooms social >el/are polic. I do not den. WetD /or most ot!ersD t!e emp!asis on assets >ill lead t!em to 6e le/t 6e!ind or let out in mar+ets t!at >ill not ena6le t!em to translate t!eir asset<6uilding e//orts into impro3ed social and economic >ell<6eingD onl.argument is t!at 'ssetC-uilding discourse turns case – it /orces the poor to compete in mar*ets that are structured /or them to /ail and leads to them -eing -lamed /or societal error Schram7 pro/ R 4r.n 6a0r College7 0# "San/ord 5. Wet t!at >ould ma+e asset policies redistri6uti3e policiesD >!ic! is >!at t!e. 1el/are state retrenc!ment >as made possi6le in no small part 6ecause t!e issue >as /ramed in t!e =nited States in terms o/ a Jcrisis narrati3eJ on t!e necessit.gain /rom assets policies to t!e point t!at t!e.designed to ensure t!eir /ailure.reFuired scaling 6ac+ t!e >el/are state in t!e name o/ 6eing a6le to compete internationall-.S.is its cramped commodi/-ing discourse t!at rein/orces limiting social >el/are polic. .retrenc!ment in t!e /ace o/ gro>ing international economic competition D ma+ing it seem una3oida6le t!at t!e =nited States retrenc! >el/are pro3ision.initiati3es to onl.to 6e 6lamed /or t!is /ailure.to 6eing limited to getting lo> income /amilies to tr. 113 .indeed 6e a6le to escape a li/e o/ po3ert-.ma.o/ >el/are polic.and social polic.in t!e Graduate Sc!ool o/ Social 1or+ and Social 2esearc! at @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 200$D C!apter 9neG in 1el/are Discipline: DiscourseD Go3ernanceD and Glo6aliCation 4g * par 2# >el/are re/orm >as legitimated in part 6. 8.to succeed in capital mar+ets t!at are s-stematicall. Sc!ramD teac!es social t!eor.t!ose >!o are consistent >it! t!e imperati3es o/ t!e mar+et s-stem and t!us assumed to 6e more palata6le to a 6roader audience.ation discourse leads to less social ser+ices – turns case Schram7 pro/ R 4r. glo6aliCation discourse !ad created its o>n specter o/ a de6ilitating glo6al economic competition t!at reFuired >el/are state retrenc!ment as part o/ t!e necessar.>ere to supplement lo><income /amiliesH sa3ings at rates !ig! enoug! /or t!em to acFuire apprecia6le assets li+e t!e nonpoor.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 113 Capitalism Impacts – Social Ser+ices %1& Glo-ali. 0!ere/ore some /ol+s >ill 6e a6le to ma+e t!e most o/ t!e more limited support t!e.in t!e Graduate Sc!ool o/ Social 1or+ and Social 2esearc! at @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 200$D C!apter 9neG in 1el/are Discipline: DiscourseD Go3ernanceD and Glo6aliCation 4g * par 2# In t!is c!apterD I o//er a critiFue o/ asset<6uilding antipo3ert.n 6a0r College7 0# "San/ord 5.

E3en t!e social democratic >el/are state >as certainl. @utD I pointed outD i/ >e loo+ed /urt!er 6ac+ to t!e 19$0s and earl.D per!apsD >!en political de/eats are experienced and pessimism is li+el.rested D as it al>a-s doesD on a negation o/ t!e existing social orderD on strengt!ening resistance at t!e le3el o/ ideolog-D a resistanceD >!ic! emerges most strongl. .19%0sD >e >ould 6e a6le to seeD t!roug! a 8arxist anal-sisD !o> nai3e >as t!e assumption t!at it >as possi6le to de3elop !umaneD uni3ersalist and non<stigmatiCing social ser3ices >it!in t!e structures o/ capitalism. 4re3iousl-D >e !ad an antagonistic relations!ip to t!e social democratic ideolog.(inda Da3ies and 4eter (eonardD 4g $ par ) – pg % par1 .appears at t!ese !istorical ?unctures. 112 .< t!at i/ >e could get id o/ conser3ati3e in/luences in t!e (a6our 4art.o/ social >or+ education o/ t!e da. 8ore generall-D >e could see critical t!eor. 0!eor-D I arguedD ena6led us to contextualiCe attac+s on t!e li3ing standards o/ a population >!ic! included t!e most 3ulnera6le sections o/ t!e >or+ing class. 1e !ad attac+ed t!e >el/are state: no> >e /ound t!at >e >ere /orced to de/end it.as primaril.>!ic! can attempt to explain political de/eats and soD at least at t!e ideological le3elD counteract t!e pessimism >!ic! /reFuentl. 0!is did not mean t!at >e stopped 6eing critical or engaging in t!eoretical >or+. 0!us 8arxism de3eloped as a reaction to capitalismD and /eminism as a reaction to patriarc!-G >it!out capitalismD t!ere >ould !a3e 6een no 8arxism D and >it!out patriarc!-D no /eminism.s t!e c!aracteristics o/ t!ese d-namic social s-stems c!ange o3er time a discursi3e space is created /or ne> social t!eor.to 6e gro>ing .>e could return to t!e old Ke-nesian >el/are state.reacti3e to >ider social and economic s!its and dependent on t!e prior existence o/ t!at dominant s-stem >!ic! it opposed.6etter t!an no >el/are state . ma?or t!reat to t!e 3er.existence o/ t!e >el/are state !ad pro/ound e//ects on (e/t critics. So m. 0!is >as intended as a c!allenge to t!e social democratic ort!odox. )eonardD pro/ R 6cGill Ani+ersit.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 112 Capitalism Impacts – Social Ser+ices %2& Social ser+ices in the current capitalist social order turns case ma*ing the ser+ices inhumane – changing the social order is a necessit.argument /or critical t!eor.7 0! 4eter (eonardD pro/essor in t!e Sc!ool o/ Social 1or+ E 8cGill =ni3ersit-D 200) C!apter 1G in Social 1or+ in a Coporate Era: 4ractices o/ 4o>er and 2esistance edited 6.>!ic! ruled t!e >el/are state and to>ards t!e remoteD 6ureaucratic and controlling nature o/ its ser3ices.

are impercepti6l.are genuinel!orri/ied o/D it is a radical s!attering o/ t!e "relati3el-# sa/e li/e en3ironment o/ t!e Js-m6olic classesJ in t!e de3eloped 1estern societies. I/ t!ere is a t!ing t!e.amounts to an empt.merican academia is not primaril.is using t!is /act to 6lac+mail t!e (e/t radicals: J>e s!ouldnHt pla.0 9cto6er < in t!is >a-D one can indulge in t!e ?argonistic anal-ses o/ t!e modern artD >it! t!e !idden assurance t!at one is some!o> retaining t!e lin+ >it! t!e radical re3olutionar.D acti3it. 0!is +ind o/ acti3it."sa-D denouncing and 6o-cotting companies >!ic! do not respect ecological conditions or >!ic! use c!ild la6or# < t!e..merican radical academia: postcolonial and Fueer "ga-# studies.toleratedD 6ut e3en supported 6.rendering accepta6le t!e !it!erto excluded topics "t!e partial ?usti/ication o/ 5ascismD t!e need to constrain a6stract citiCens!ip on 6e!al/ o/ et!nic identit-D etc.seemingl.at least pla.lacan. 8.c!anging.and ps-c!oanal-sis at t!e Euro Grad instituteD :2epeating (enin.#. 0!e pro6lem o/ postcolonialism is undou6tedl.do not get too close to a certain limit.t!e attitude o/ utter disdainD >!ile t!eir o>n radicalit.trans/ormed into a pseudo<ps-c!oanal-tic drama o/ t!e su6?ect una6le to con/ront its inner traumas .or un>illingl. 0!e true corruption o/ t!e .to con/ront >!at >e repressed in and o/ oursel3es < t!e politico<economic struggle is t!us impercepti6l.t!e mediaD e3en i/ t!e.translated into t!e 6enign uni3erse o/ t!e Cultural Studies c!ic.e* 01 "Sla3o? aibe+ is a pro/essor o/ p!ilosop!.is precisel.enter t!e economic territor.inter3ene and c!ange t!ings ">!ic! t!en ine3ita6l.pro3ides t!e per/ect example o/ interpassi3it-2: o/ doing t!ings not to ac!ie3e somet!ingD 6ut to 42EAE 0 /rom somet!ing reall.t!eir game in a straig!t >a-D and are !onest in t!eir acceptance o/ t!e glo6al capitalist coordinatesD in contrast to t!e pseudo<radical academic (e/tists >!o adopt to>ards t!e 0!ird 1a.com7replenin# 9ne is t!ere/ore tempted to turn around 8arxHs t!esis 11: t!e /irst tas+ toda.o>e3erD t!e !egemonic li6eral democrac..I t!e !egemonic ideological coordinates: t!ose >!o Jreall.ends in a cul de sac o/ de6ilitating impossi6ilit-: J>!at can one do against t!e glo6al capitalQJ#D 6ut to Fuestion t!e !egemonic ideological coordinates.Correct Ceal >!en dealing >it! sexismD racismD 0!ird 1orld s>eats!opsD etc. 0!eir excessi3e 4oliticall.>ill !al/<con/identiall.o/ a radical c!ange to ma+e it sure t!at not!ing >ill reall. It is true t!atD toda-D it is t!e radical populist 2ig!t >!ic! is usuall.ultimatel.correctD etc.90 to succum6 to t!e temptation to actD to directl.o/ t!e .ideologists and practitioners s!ould 6e t!at o/ praise: t!e.space < it >ill 6e an act 1I0.on t!e stoc+ mar+et#.all o/ t!e JradicalJ academics silentl..stem /rom 0ithin( ' re/usal to pla.line o/ separation: one s!ould 119 .criticism o/ it >illingl./inancialD it is not onl. the game 0ill -an*rupt the s.European critical intellectuals "m-sel/ included < up to a point#D 6ut conceptual: notions o/ t!e JEuropeanJ critical t!eor.6rea+ing t!e "still# predominant li6eral<democratic consensusD graduall.stem Fi.count on t!e long< term sta6ilit.are tolerated and supported as long as t!e.merican capitalist modelD >it! t!e secure tenured position as t!eir ultimate pro/essional goal "a surprising num6er o/ t!em e3en pla. I/D toda-D one /ollo>s a direct call to actD t!is act >ill not 6e per/ormed in an empt.past. 2001 !ttp:77>>>. to change the s.!elps t!e ne> 2ig!t^J 0!is is t!e +e.are a6le to 6uman.a de/ense against t!eir o>n innermost identi/icationD a +ind o/ compulsi3e ritual >!ose !idden logic is: J(etHs tal+ as muc! as possi6le a6out t!e necessit.>it! /ire: against t!e ne> 2ig!tist onslaug!tD one s!ould more t!an e3er insist on t!e democratic consensus < an..signal t!at it isD o/ courseD 0.crucialG !o>e3erD Jpostcolonial studiesJ tend to translate it into t!e multiculturalist pro6lematic o/ t!e coloniCed minoritiesH Jrig!t to narrateJ t!eir 3ictimiCing experienceD o/ t!e po>er mec!anisms >!ic! repress Jot!ernessDJ so t!atD at t!e end o/ t!e da-D >e learn t!at t!e root o/ t!e postcolonial exploitation is our intolerance to>ards t!e 9t!erD andD /urt!ermoreD t!at t!is intolerance itsel/ is rooted in our intolerance to>ards t!e JStranger in 9ursel3esDJ in our ina6ilit.c!ange^J S-mptomatic is !ere t!e ?ournal 9cto6er: >!en -ou as+ one o/ t!e editors to >!at t!e title re/ersD t!e. .gesture >!ic! o6liges no one to an-t!ing determinate..>ant to do somet!ing to !elp peopleJ get in3ol3ed in "undou6tedl.personal experience is t!at practicall./its t!e /ormula o/ J(etHs go on c!anging somet!ing all t!e time so t!atD glo6all-D t!ings >ill remain t!e same^J (et us ta+e t>o predominant topics o/ toda-Hs . 1it! regard to t!is radical c!icD t!e /irst gesture to>ards t!e 0!ird 1a.e* :he alternati+e is to re<ect participation in capitalism( Capitalism structures actions and /orecloses our a-ilit.ll t!e /renetic !umanitarianD politicall.t!at t!e.D is t!us ultimatel. .!onora6le# exploits li+e 8edecins sans /rontiereD GreenpeaceD /eminist and anti<racist campaignsD >!ic! are all not onl.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 119 'lt – Fi.!appeningD reall.

120 .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 120 YBiCe+ 01 continued – no text remo3ed\ re?ect t!is 6lac+mailD ta+ing t!e ris+ o/ distur6ing t!e li6eral consensusD up to Fuestioning t!e 3er.& .s a proo/D one s!ould ?ust loo+ at t!e list o/ t!e demands at t!e end o/ t!e Communist 8ani/esto: apart /rom 2 or & o/ t!em ">!ic!D o/ courseD are t!e +e. . So !o> are >e to respond to t!e eternal dilemma o/ t!e radical (e/t: s!ould one strategical support center<(e/t /igures li+e @ill Clinton against t!e conser3ati3esD or s!ould one adopt t!e stance o/ Jit doesnHt matterD >e s!ouldnHt get in3ol3ed in t!ese /ig!ts < in a >a-D it is e3en 6etter i/ t!e 2ig!t is directl..made a crucial point in !is ans>er to 5rancois 5uret: toda-Hs li6eral consensus is t!e result o/ 1*0 -ears o/ t!e (e/tist >or+ersH struggle and pressure upon t!e StateD it incorporated demands >!ic! >ere 100 or e3en less -ears ago dismissed 6.appear muc! too !ig! < recall t!e catastrop!ic conseFuences o/ t!e decision o/ t!e German Communist 4art.li6erals as !orror.2E @90.in t!e earl.a//ord to 6e indi//erent i/ t!e li6eral option is in po>er.long t!ese linesD Claude (e/ort !imsel/D >!om no one can accuse o/ communist s-mpat!iesD recentl.&0s 90 to /ocus on t!e struggle against t!e aCisD >it! t!e ?usti/ication t!at t!e aCi dictators!ip is t!e last desperate stage o/ t!e capitalist dominationD >!ic! >ill open e-es to t!e >or+ing classD s!attering t!eir 6elie/ in t!e J6ourgeoisJ democratic institutions.notion o/ democrac-. 192SE.EW . 9t!er>iseD t!e price to 6e paid ma.in po>erD sinceD in t!is >a-D it >ill 6e easier /or t!e people to see t!e trut! o/ t!e situationJQ 0!e ans>er is t!e 3ariation o/ old StalinHs ans>er to t!e Fuestion J1!ic! de3iation is >orseD t!e 2ig!tist or t!e (e/tist oneQJ: 0.one#D all ot!ers are toda. 1!at one s!ould do is to adopt t!e stance o/ t!e proper dialectical paradox: in principleD o/ courseD one s!ould 6e indi//erent to>ards t!e struggle 6et>een t!e li6eral and conser3ati3e pole o/ toda-Hs o//icial politics < !o>e3erD one can onl.part o/ t!e consensus "at least t!e disintegrating 1el/are State one#: t!e uni3ersal 3oteD t!e rig!t to /ree educationD uni3ersal !ealt!care and care /or t!e retiredD limitation o/ c!ild la6or..

stemic alternati+e to the capitalist political /rame0or* inherent in the plan( :his de-ate is the *e.prior de3elopment.no> clearl.t!e onl.t!ing t!e.can do is to tr-O/ollo>ing t!e cue o/ t!ose >!o plunged us all into t!is /ixOto /end indi3iduall. In order /or t!e scope o/ t!e needed measures to 6e grasped 6.o/ t!e situationD t!e. o dimension o/ li/e >ill 6e untouc!ed./or t!e current crisis andD >it! itD a mo3ement >!ic! could pose a s-stemic alternati3e.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 121 'lt – @allis %in shell& :he alternati+e is to re<ect the a//irmati+e( :he =realistic proposals> o/ the 1ac cannot pro+ide a s.process t!at put t!em on t!e agenda to 6egin >it!./act t!at t!e moderate or :realistic.ina6ilit.7 8hD( at Colum-ia A(7 02 "Aictor 1allisD (i6eral .su//icient num6ers o/ peopleD an intense le3el o/ grassroots organiCing >ill alread. 8an. 0!e steps so /ar ta+en in t!is direction !a3e 6een limited.are to accomplis! t!eir purposeD >ill !a3e to ad3ance /urt!er t!e 3er. 1!at gi3es t!ese proposals a 3eneer o/ reasona6leness is no more t!an t!eir accepta6ilit.demands t!at appear to !a3e a c!ance o/ acceptance are t!e :moderate.rts 4ro/essor at =C @er+ele-D 4!D.&% 0!e situation is compara6le to t!at surrounding an. ones. cite o/ resistance – our a-ilit.into general pu6lic de6ate.mix o/ persuasion and coercion >ill necessarilappl-Ot!e 6alance o/ t!ese t>o met!ods depending partl.concrete recuperati3e measures.!a3e to 6e under>a-.to political /orces >!ic!D >!ile una6le to design a response commensurate >it! t!e scale o/ t!e pro6lemD !a3e not -et 6een displaced /rom t!eir positions o/ po>er.o>e3erD t!e measures t!emsel3esD i/ t!e.6egin to en3isage t!e speci/ic c!angesD >!ic! >ill primaril. .6een learnedD and not all o/ t!em are o/ t!ings to a3oid.atop a process t!e.3ie> it >it! a siege mentalit-D see+ing a6o3e all to assure t!eir o>n sur3i3al.2e3ie> :Capitalist and Socialist 2esponses to t!e Ecological Crisis. 0!is is t!e con?uncture t!at all our e//orts !a3e 6een 6uilding /orG it >ill pro3ide t!e ultimate test o/ !o> >ell >e !a3e done our >or+./or t!emsel3es. to use persuasion and sho0 the =antagonism -et0een capitalism and the en+ironment> is uni?ue to starting a re+olution @allis7 8ro/essor at AC 4er*ele.do sense t!e gra3it. c!aracteristicall.on t!e part o/ t!ose /orces is also an expression o/ t!eir >ea+ness.do not understandD >!ose scope t!e. ExposNs li+e GoreLs !a3e called attentionD /or exampleD to t!e role o/ particular oil companies in sponsoring attac+s on scienti/ic /indings related to climate c!angeD 6ut t!e idea t!at t!ere could 6e an antagonism 6et>een capitalism and t!e en3ironment as suc! !as not -et made its >a. . !ttp:77mont!l-re3ie>. 0!e Fuestion no> 6ecomes >!et!er t!e !it!erto misgo3erned populace >ill 6e prepared to pus! t!roug! t!e radical measures "6.p!p# 1!ere t!e pri3ate and t!e ci3ic dimensions >ould merge >ould 6e in de3eloping a /ull<scale class anal-sis o/ responsi6ilit. at Colum6ia =D o3em6er 200': 0!e 8ont!l. 0!e.!istorical lessons !a3e alread.realistic ones# or >!et!er its mem6ers >ill !a3e remained so encased >it!in t!e capitalist paradigm t!at t!e onl.in3ol3e a re3ersal or undoing o/ t!e more >aste/ul and !arm/ul structures 6eFueat!ed 6.committed to trampling e3er-t!ing in its pat!D !a3e lost all sense o/ realit-. @ut >!at ma+es t!e situation re3olutionar. 5ortunatel-D !o>e3erD it >ill not 6e a matter o/ starting /rom scratc!. 0!ere are positi3e models as >ell.re3olutionar. =ntil t!is !appensD t!e inertial impact o/ t!e pre3ailing ideolog>ill se3erel.on t!e e//ecti3eness o/ prior consciousness<raising and partl. @ut t!is 3er.t t!is pointD it is clear t!at t!e purc!ase on :realism.sit precariousl.on t!e >indo> o/ time a3aila6le /or t!e reFuired steps. >it! t!eir relentless insistence on coaxing an ecological cure out o/ a s-stem in!erentl.is t!e 3er.can !a3e no control. "9rD i/ t!e. 121 .cannot imagineD and o3er >!ic! t!e.limit t!e scope o/ an.prospecti3e re3olution: until a certain critical point !as 6een reac!edD t!e onl. 5rom our present 3antage point >e can onl.org70'110&>allis. proposals >ill not pro3ide a solution.&'# . !as c!anged !ands. 0!e :moderatesD.

not 6e accustomed to t!in+ing a6out entire s-stems and social ordersD 6ut e3er-one +no>s >!at a li/est-le isD or a >a.to 6uild ne> li3es else>!ere.o/ li/e into somet!ing else. It reFuires great militanc.replacing capitalism >it! a ne> ci3iliCation.>e s!ould approac! it.>ill not !esitate to continue to do so.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 122 'lt – 1erod :he alternati+e is to re<ect the a//irmati+e( :he onl.o/ gutting and e3entuall.6asisD on t!e le3el o/ e3er-da. re/orm it in the short term 1erod7 Colum-ia graduate and political acti+ist7 03 "Pames . and some "usuall. ItLs Fuite clearD t!enD !o> >e can o3ert!ro> sla3er-: >e must re3erse t!is process. It calls /or totall.stem at its source and do not merel. 1e create a ne> pattern o/ social relations alongside capitalist onesD and t!en continuall.does not call /or re/orming capitalismD /or c!anging capitalism into somet!ing else. the s.!a3e al>a-s done in t!e pastD to tr. 1e stop participating in acti3ities t!at support "/inanceD condone# t!e capitalist >orld and start participating in acti3ities t!at 6uild a ne> >orld >!ile simultaneousl.temporar.at it#.a6andoned.to >or+ /or a >age.and later concretel-D a strateg. .somet!ing else. 0!e strateg.to li3e autonomousl-. In t!is >a.remaining option 6eing to sell our a6ilit. 8an.destro-ing capitalism reFuires at a minimum a totaliCing imageD an a>areness t!at >e are attac+ing an entire >a. 0!is is de/initel. . Capitalism must 6e explicitl. Capitalist relations are not /oug!t so muc! as t!e.onl.our ne> democraticD non!ierarc!icalD noncommodi/ied relations can e3entuall.>age sla3es "t!at isD >e must /ree oursel3es /rom t!e la6or mar+et and t!e >a.6ecause t!e ruling class slo>l-D s-stematicall-D and 6rutall. It >ill !appenD and onl.?ames!erod.enceD our strateg.clearlrecogniCes t!at capitalism is t!e enem.calls /or pulling timeD energ-D and resources out o/ capitalist ci3iliCation and putting t!em into 6uilding a ne> ci3iliCation. It is a >ar ne3ert!eless 6ecause t!e accumulators o/ capital >ill use coercionD 6rutalit-D and murderD as t!e.re?ection o/ t!e s-stem.re/used and replaced 6.and constitutes an attac+ on t!e existing order.replacing it >it! somet!ing 6etterD somet!ing >e >ant.in/o7QsecR6oo+SidR1# It is time to tr.produced goods.not!er clari/ication is needed.erodD :Getting 5ree: Creating an .6e ignoredD in a li3e<and<let<li3e attitudeD >!ile >e tr. capitalism is =an inside attac*> 0hich necessitates total re<ection o/ all capitalist relations( :his ensures 0e destro. 0!usD capitalist structures "corporationsD go3ernmentsD 6an+sD sc!oolsD etc.t its most 6asicD t!is strateg.# 0!ere is at least one t!ingD >age sla3er-D t!at >e canLt simpl.dri3ing us o// t!e landD c!anging t!e propert. 0a.6uild and strengt!en our ne> pattern >!ile doing e3er-t!ing >e can to >ea+en capitalist relations.to li3e >it!out >or+ing /or a >age or 6u-ing t!e products made 6.ssociation o/ Democratic . 0!e!a3e al>a-s !ad to /orce complianceG t!e.to 6loc+ an. @ut >e must not t!in+ t!at t!e capitalist >orld can simpl.rig!tsD destro-ing our toolsD imposing taxesD gutting our local mar+etsD and so /ort!D >e >ere /orced onto t!e la6or mar+et in order to sur3i3eD our onl. 0o t!in+ t!at >e could create a >!ole ne> >orld o/ decent social arrangements o3ernig!tD in t!e midst o/ a crisisD during a so -called re3olution or t!e collapse o/ capitalismD is /ool!ard-. ". 9ur ne> social >orld must gro> >it!in t!e oldD and in opposition to itD until it is strong enoug! to dismantle and a6olis! capitalist relations.to descri6eD at /irst a6stractl.an aggressi3e strateg-.concrete >a-s t!at indi3idualsD groupsD and neig!6or!oods can gut capitalismD >!ic! I >ill enumerate s!ortl-. 1e must al>a-s +eep in mind !o> >e 6ecame sla3esG t!en >e can see more clearl!o> >e can cease 6eing sla3es. 1e must 6egin to reacFuire t!e a6ilit. @ostonD 200%D !ttp:77>>>.!appenD 6ecause >e >ant it toD and 6ecause >e +no> >!at >eLre doing and !o> >e >ant to li3eD >!at o6stacles !a3e to 6e o3ercome 6e/ore >e can li3e t!at >a-D and !o> to distinguis! 6et>een our social patterns and t!eirs.o/ li/e and replacing it >it! anot!erD and not merelre/orming one >a. 1e >ere /orced into >age sla3er. 0!is is an important distinction 6ecause capitalism !as pro3ed imper3ious to re/orms as a s-stem. 0!e imageD t!enD is one o/ empt-ing out capitalist structures D !ollo>ing t!em outD 6draining >ealt!D po>erD and meaning /rom t!em until t!ere is not!ing le/t 6ut s!ells.undermining t!e old. Suc! a re3olution >ill ne3er !appen automaticall-D 6lindl-D determina6l-D 6ecause o/ t!e inexora6le materialist la>s o/ !istor-. 0!is constitutes >arD 6ut it is not a >ar in t!e traditional sense o/ armies and tan+sG it is a >ar /oug!t on a dail./or destro-ing capitalism.and must 6e destro-edD 6ut it is not a /rontal attac+ aimed at o3ert!ro>ing t!e s-stemG it is an inside attac+ aimed at gutting itD >!ile simultaneousl. to destro.ones# em6ed oursel3es instead in cooperati3e la6or and cooperati3el.o/ li/eD and t!at is t!e >a.utonomous eig!6or!oodsD. .stop participating in "6ut e3en !ere t!ere are >a-s >e can c!ip a>a.are simplre?ected.la>sD dismantling communit.s mentioned earlierD t!ere is no else>!ere.li/eD 6.o/ li3ing 6ased on it#D and 0!is strateg.o3er>!elm t!e capitalist relations and /orce t!em out o/ existence. 1e can sometimesD in some placesD >in certain concessions /rom it "usuall. 0!is is a plausi6leD realistic strateg-.# are not seiCed so muc! as simpl. 122 . StillD t!ere are man. 0!is is !o> it !as to 6e done. @.s!ort-li3ed# impro3ements in our li3es as its 3ictimsD 6ut >e cannot re/orm it piecemeal.millions o/ people.people ma.destro-ed our a6ilit.

5or does not critical ?udgement in3ol3e in t!is instance an operation o/ t!in+ingD >!ere an alread. 9n t!e ot!er !andD t!ere is t!e X?udgeL as a normalisingD tec!nocratic /igureD a mere /unctionar.o>e3erD >!at s!ould not 6e missed is !o> muc! 6ot! rel.on t!e 6asic XlogicL o/ ?udgement: namel-D t!e operation t!roug! >!ic! t!e particular is su6sumed "and t!us also t!oug!t and +no>n# under t!e rule o/ an alread.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 12 'lt – Chr.ing the limitations implicit in the 1'C5s representations -oth undermines the sta-ilit.seen as antit!etical. attempt at sol+enc.gi3en su6?ect ta+es t!e initiati3e o/ appl-ing an alread.D consciousnessD intentionalit-D autonom-D t!e radical di//erence 6et>een su6?ect and o6?ect.constituted categor-Q'$ 1!at is interesting to note a6out t!ese ?udgemental grammars and logics organising t!e operation o/ t!e critical instanceD'% is t!at t!e su6?ecti3e /orms t!e. 0ith a possi-ilit.nd does not t!e 3er. 0!ree gestures mar+ t!is re<t!in+ing : /irstD an a6andonment o/ ?udgemental grammars and logicsG secondD a re<casting o/ t!e critical in terms o/ t!e 12 .esta6lis!ed categoriesD in3ol3e a tec!niFueD >!ic! assimilates and neutralises t!e singularit. 9n t!e one !andD t!e /igure o/ t!e critic in all its dignit-D autonom.6e !opedLQ'0 8oreo3erD /rom t!e Enlig!tenment on>ardsD is not t!e critical practised Xin t!e searc! /or /ormal structures >it! uni3ersal 3alueL'1 t!at >ould /irml.com7content7+)n2$t%&tu$&)1*?7/ulltext.'' .to in3est t!e >orld >it! a meaning dra>n /rom a more pro/ound +no>ledge.compensated 6.6. 1$<21D !ttp:77>>>.t!e critiFue or deconstruction o/ su6?ecti3it-D a p!ilosop!ical turn rel. . 0!ese t>o Xt-pesL can 6e easil.on XclassicalL con/igurations o/ su6?ecti3it-D terrain >it!out transcendental guaranteesQ 5ollo>ing >!at >as said earlier in connection >it! t!e Fuestion o/ t!e FuestionD t!e critical is also 6eing re<t!oug!t and re<>or+ed.dorno callsD t!e Xt!ing li+e /orm o/ t!e o6?ectL. (a> and CritiFue 1$D 200*D pg.Xt!at o/ de/ining t!e conditions under >!ic! t!e use o/ reason is legitimate in order to determine >!at can 6e +no>n YconnaZ[tre\D >!at must 6e doneD and >!at ma.toD sa-D an o6?ectD a textD an e3entQ Is not t!is Xinitiati3eL mar+ed not onl.o/ t!e criteriaD >!ic! regulate and organise t!e conceptual gestures o/ our t!oug!t and +no>ledge.o/ t!e particular and /orecloses t!e possi6ilit.deplo.o/ t!e critical: critiFueD criticismD criterionD criticG t!e.t!e critical discourses associated >it! t!e deconstruction o/ su6?ecti3it.%' .on t!e p!ilosop!emes t!at organise t!e XclassicalL con/iguration o/ t!e su6?ect: rationalit-D master-D sel/<presenceD identit.o/ a master/ulD rational and rationalising su6?ectQ 8oreo3erD is not t!e su6mission o/ t!e /unctionar.operation o/ t!e critical instance seems dominated 6. C!r-ssostalisD lecturer at t!e 1estminster sc!ool o/ la>D :0!e Critical Instance M.t!e distance 6et>een t!e X?udgeL and t!e X?udgedLD 6ut also 6.o>Q 0o 6egin >it!D ?udgment is /ound intimatel.?udgmental /igures D grammars and logics.Fuestioning 6ut also ?udgment as one o/ its 6asic tropes.ssostalis Eur alternati+e is to +ote negati+e( @e -elie+e the ?uestion in this de-ate should -e one o/ competing political strategies( :he per/ormance o/ critici.Xre<mar+edL 6.nd is not t!e role o/ critiFue t!erein precisel.esta6lis!ed categor./terL 0!e CritiFue o/ t!e Su6?ectD.in3ol3e t>o >ell<+no>n Xt-pesL o/ t!e /igure o/ t!e ?udge.to pass ?udgements on our recei3ed >isdomD dra> distinctions in t!e /ield o/ our +no>ledgeD and set t!e limits o/ >!at can 6e +no>nD means t!e capacit. ena-ling alternati+e +isions o/ politics and social relations to appear( Challenging the a//irmati+e5s assumptions is the onl.. o/ static epistemological claims and opens the terrain /or a trans/ormati+e sel/Crelationship7 there-./orm o/ su6sumptionD >it! its reliance on alread. .nd does not t!e critical instanceD in t!is respectD necessaril.springerlin+.pd/# So /arD >e !a3e loo+ed at some o/ t!e >a-s in >!ic! t!e Fuestion o/ t!e Fuestion is 6eing re<situated in a p!ilosop!ical terrain t!at !as 6een radicall./ter allD is not t!e /igure o/ t!e 0ri6unal o/ 2eason at t!e centre o/ KantLs critical pro?ectQ%9 .t!e master.in 5renc! contemporar.all deri3e /rom +risisD t!e Gree+ >ord /or ?udgmentG -etD in additionD and more importantl-D t!e 3er.ground our +no>ledgeD actionD and aspirationsD and pro3ide t!e criteria /or t!e e3aluation o/ all claims to aut!orit-Q'2 .?udgemental grammars and logicsD >!ic! in >!at !appens to t!e critical >!en reinscri6ed and re<situated in a p!ilosop!ical terrain >!ic! !as 6een Xre<mar+edL 6.o/ t!in+ing somet!ing ne>Q'9 0o return to our initial FuestionD i/ t!e critical instance is ruled 6.ssostalis7 principal lecturer at 1estminster sc!ool o/ (a>D 0" "Pulia .and so3ereignt-G on t!e ot!erD t!e /igure o/ t!e critic inD >!at .s7!e !as o3er t!e material under !is7!er aut!orit-Q .o>e3erD t!e critical instance in3ol3es not onl. o/ success Chr.t!e instrumentalit. 9n t!e one !andD t!ere is t!e X?udgeL as a so3ereign /igure >!ose capacit.turn around a XFuaestio ?urisD t!e ?uridical FuestionD Y>!ic! as+s\ >it! >!at rig!t one possesses t!is concept and uses itLQ'& 5inall-D does not t!e critical moment itsel/ – >!et!er /ound operating in terms o/ /ault</inding "epi<+risis#D') o/ dra>ing distinctions "dia<+risis#D'* or o/ dra>ing comparisons "s-n<+risis# – seem al>a-s to rel.t!oug!t.implicated in t!e semantic econom.

9ne as+s a6out t!e limits o/ +no>ing 6ecause one !as alread.o/ o6?ectsLD99 o/ o6?ecti3it.inscri6ing a lac+ in our dislocated positi3itiesD it /uels t!e desire /or ne> social and political constructions.constraintsQ 0!e point in 6rie/ is to trans/orm t!e critiFue conducted in t!e /orm o/ necessar.L9' .o/ trans/ormation opens up – >!ic! is also >!-D at t!is pointD t!e critical instanceD /or 5oucaultD 6ecomes intimatel.t!at t!e critical instanceD as t!e exposure o/ t!e Xlimits o/ t!e constitution o/ o6?ecti3it-LD also in3ol3es t!e experience o/ t!e dislocation o/ our sedimented positi3itiesD in ot!er >ordsD t!e experience o/ crisis.must 6e turned 6ac+ into a positi3e one: In >!at is gi3en to us as uni3ersalD necessar-D o6ligator-D >!at place is occupied 6. Suc! a recognition is important !ere 6ecause it reinscri6es crisisD >!ic! is actuall.e3er-t!ing is possi6le. 0o 6egin >it!D it is one does not dri3e to t!e limits /or a t!rill experienceD or 6ecause limits are dangerous and sex-D or 6ecause it 6rings us into tintillating proximit. It is a moment >!ic! s!ould not 6e /oreclosed or important to understand t!at assimilated: 5or at sta+e in t!is encounter >it! t!e limitD Xis a matter o/ s!o>ing !o> t!e space o/ t!e possi6le is larger t!an t!e one >e are assigned – t!at it is precisel. 0!enD t!oug!D !e continues: @ut crucial.anot!er meaning o/ t!e Gree+ >ord +risisD into t!e criticalD >!ic! is t!us re<connected >it! t!e notion o/ negati3it.locating !imsel/ >it!in t!e 6asic parameters o/ t!e Kantian /ormulation o/ t!e critical.more generall-D indeed o/ all trans/ormati3e action.Fuic+l.is Xneit!er an o6?ect nor its negation: it is t!e condition o/ possi6ilit-7 impossi6ilit.L101 somet!ing else is possi6leD 6ut not t!at 12! . .s suc! t!e t-pe o/ X>or+ done at t!e limits o/ oursel3es mustLD according to 5oucaultD Xon t!e one !andD open up a realm o/ !istorical inFuir-D and on t!e ot!erD put itsel/ to t!e test o/ realit-D o/ contemporar.limitationD as in t!e Kantian critical pro?ectD 6ut as a point o/ Xa possi6le crossing o3erL. (et us 6rie/l.>!ic! social li/e is ordered produce a certain inco!erence or entire realm o/ unspea+a6ilit-.limitation into a practical critiFue t!at ta+es t!e /orm o/ a possi6le crossing o3er Y/ranc!issment\.in t!e ontological sense.92 In ot!er >ordsD 5oucaultLs re<>or+ing o/ t!e critical in3ol3es a notion o/ t!e limit not as necessar. (et us mo3e >it! cautionD t!oug!.s suc!D t!is negati3it.and unrepresenta6ilit-D >!ic! punctuates t!e li/e o/ linguistic creaturesLD9% and at t!e same time a producti3e one: XY6\.run up against a crisis >it!in t!e epistemological /ield in >!ic! one li3es.nd it is precisel. 0!e categories 6.nd it is /rom t!is conditionD t!e tear in t!e /a6ric o/ our epistemological /ieldD t!at t!e practice o/ critiFue emergesD >it! t!e a>areness t!at no discourse is adeFuate !ere or t!at our reigning discourses !a3e produced an impasse.consider >!at is in3ol3ed in t!e last t>o gestures.!ere t!at an et!ics o/ t!e encounter >it! t!e limit is located in t!at suc! an encounter is a momentD >!ic! oug!t to 6e ac+no>ledged rat!er t!an co3ered o3er 6. .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 12! YC!r-ssostalis 0* continued – no text remo3ed\ Fuestion o/ t!e limitG and t!irdD t!e emergence o/ an et!ic o/ encounter ">it! t!e limit #.– negati3it. 5or at t!e point o/ t!is >or+ on t!e limits "o/ oursel3es#D t!e et!ico<political promise7possi6ilit.realit-D 6ot! to grasp t!e points >!ere c!ange is possi6le and desira6leD and to determine t!e precise /orm t!is c!ange s!ould ta+e.!ereD at t!e moment >!en t!e site o/ t!e pre<t!etic and t!e pre< ?udicati3e is glimpsedD t!at t!e t!rust and t!e promise o/ a re<mar+edL critical instance is to 6e /ound.100 .>it! e3il.L9) In ot!er >ordsD t!e critical instance ret!oug!t in terms o/ t!e limit as Fuestion does not merel.>!ate3er is singularD contingentD and t!e product o/ ar6itrar. 9ne o/ t!e clearest statements o/ >!at is at sta+e in t!e re<casting o/ t!e critical in terms o/ t!e Fuestion o/ t!e limitD t!e limit as a FuestionD is to 6e /ound in 5oucaultLs t>o essa-sD X1!at Is CritiFueQL 90 and X1!at is Enlig!tenmentQL91 1it!out going into t!e detail o/ t!e argument de3eloped t!ereD I >ant to /ocus at a point in t!e Enlig!tenment essa-D >!ic! I t!in+ is XYc\riticism indeed consists o/ anal-Cing and re/lecting upon limitsLD t!us seemingl. 0!is is a point >!ereD to 6egin >it!D 5oucault a//irms t!at i/ t!e Kantian Fuestion >as t!at o/ +no>ing Ysa3oir\ >!at limits +no>ledge Yconnaissance\ must renounce exceedingD it seems to me t!at t!e critical Fuestion toda.Xpatc!ing t!e crac+sL o/ our uni3erse.in3ol3e a negati3e moment o/ transgression.9* (et us no> turn to t!e last gesture in3ol3ed in t!e re<t!in+ing o/ t!e critical: namel-D t!e displacement o/ ?udgemental logics and t!e emergence o/ an et!ics o/ encounter – t!at is to sa-D an encounter >it! t!e Fuestion o/ t!e limit. 0!is negati3it-D as Sta3ra+a+is notesD !as 6ot! a disrupti3e dimension t!at Xre/ers to t!e !oriCon o/ impossi6ilit.9$ 1!ic! is to sa. 5or posing t!e Fuestion o/ t!e limits o/ our +no>ledgeD or Xs!o>ing t!e limits o/ t!e constitution o/ o6?ecti3it-LD9& in3ol3es also a dimension o/ opening upD o/ trans/ormation and 6ecoming.lin+ed >it! 3irtue.

li3es /or t!e mass o/ people.our needs and !o> to deplo.>ill 6e a6le to en?o.utton in !is 6oo+ 0!e State 1eLre In.satis/actor. In @om6a-D anot!er . 4olitics 6ecomes merel. In 2>anda t!e /ormer dictator unleas!ed a !orri/ic slaug!ter o/ 0utsis 6. . reprise in t!e earl.come /rom /ig!ting against t!e s-stem and t!e disastrous e//ect its logic !as on t!e li3es o/ t!e mass o/ people.utomated >or+ processes could pro3ide us >it! more leisureD >it! more time /or creati3it. 12" .ll t!is !orrors !as its origins in t!e /ailure o/ mar+et capitalism to pro3ide e3en minimall. In one countr.t!e crisis o/ t!e 1990Ls !as 6egun to unleas! t!e same 6ar6aric /orces >e sa> in t!e 19&0Ls.0utsis.lread. In t!e 2ussiaD t!e .la>i 8uslims. In tur+e. .>ere to 6e repeated in a /e> -ears time t!ere is no dou6t it >ould 6e on a muc! more !orri/ic scale t!at e3en .itler admirerD racistD and proponent o/ nuclear >arD B!irino3s+.part o/ t!is centur-.tomorro> t!e small com/orts t!at allo>ed to t!em toda. . 199* pg 99< 100# M. @ut i/ t!at is true t!en t!ere is no !ope /or !umanit-.a6out rearranging t!e dec+c!airs on t!e titanic >!ile ma+ing sure no one distur6s t!e ric! and pri3ileged as t!e. 0!e ne> tec!nologies t!at are a3aila6le toda-D /ar /rom ma+ing our li3es >orse !a3e t!e potential to ma+e t!is control easier. I/ t!e.tr-ing to scapegoat et!nic or religious minorities.stem7 -ut to push against it( 1armen7 editor o/ International Socialism7 9" "C!ris .utus 6. Computerism could pro3ide us >it! t!e unparalleled in/ormation a6out t!e recourses a3aila6le to satis/.@ot! t!e out and out de/enders o/ ruling class po>er and toda-Ls timid co>ed re/ormists tell us t!ere is no alternati3e to t!is s-stem.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 12" 'lt – 1armen Capitalism 0ill cause extinctionC the alternati+e is not to 0or* 0ithin the s.>age a >ar against t!e Kurdis! /i/t! o/ t!e populationD >!ile t!e /ascists tr. 0!e >!ole craC.utusD >!ile in neig!6oring @urundi t!ere is t!e t!reat o/ slaug!ter o/ . 1arnings o/ suc! a /uture are not to 6e treated lig!tl-.t!e go3ernment and t!e militar.and more c!ange to deli6erate >!ere t!e >orld is going. Suc! is t!e danger t!at con/ronts t!e >orld i/ >e cannot deal >it! t!e present crisis concludes 1ill .s-stem o/ alienated la6or is a product o/ >!at >e do.. 0!e alternati3e can onl.armenD Editor o/ International SocialismD 199*D :Economics o/ t!e mad!ouse. 1e >ould indeed 6e /acing a /uture o/ 6ar6arismD i/ not t!e destruction o/ t!e >!ole o/ !umanit-.itler could not imagine.across most o/ EuropeD t!e 3ictor- o/ StalinismD t!e deat! camps and t!e gulag.uman 6eings !a3e t!e po>er to seiCe control o/ t!e >a-s o/ creating >ealt! and to su6ordinate t!em to our decisionsD to our 3alues.a/ter anot!er political ad3enturers >!o support t!e existing s-stem are ma+ing careers /or t!emsel3es 6.to incite Sunni 8uslims to murder . 0!ose conditions included t>o >orld >arsD t!e rise o/ aCismD t!e collapse o democrac.got 2) percent o/ t!e 3ote in t!e o3em6er 199& poll. .o/ t!e conditions in t!e earl.dine at t!e captainLs ta6le.t!em e//ecti3el-. @ut t!ere is an alternati3e. Instead it lea3es a /i/t! o/ t!e >orldsL population under nouris!ed and most o/ t!e rest dou6ting >!et!er t!e. 1e do not !a3e to lea3e t!em to t!e 6lind caprice o/ t!e mar+et to t!e mad rus! o/ t!e ri3al o>ners o/ >ealt! in t!eir race to +eep a!ead o/ eac! ot!er. @ut t!is alternati3e cannot come /rom >or+ing >it!in t!e s-stemD /rom accepting t!e insane logic o/ t!e mar+etD o/ competiti3e accumulationD o/ >or+ing !arder in order to /orce someone else to >or+er !arder or lose t!eir ?o6.21st centur.itler admirerD @al 0!ac+erce-D runs t!e state go3ernmentD t!reatening to >age >ar against t!e 8uslim minorit-.

to ma*e the alternati+e true @allis7 8ro/essor at AC 4er*ele. at Colum6ia =D o3em6er 200': 0!e 8ont!l.o/ t!e existing po>er<patterns t!at t!is >ould call into FuestionD !o>e3erD suc! a response >ill reFuire an unprecedentedl. 1e need to examine "in context# some o/ t!e more recent expressions o/ t!is 3ie> 6e/ore returning to address t!e larger practical c!allenges t!at capitalism o/ >!ate3er !ue is incapa6le o/ meeting.7 8hD( at Colum-ia A(7 02 "Aictor 1allisD (i6eral . – re<ection %1& :he =representations o/ corporate capital> -.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 12# 'lt sol+enc.a>areness.p!p# ./easi6le :green. the 1ac misrepresent 0hat is politicall. to the political education necessar. agenda is a capitalist one.t!oroug!going process o/ mass political education.2e3ie> :Capitalist and Socialist 2esponses to t!e Ecological Crisis.comes /rom t!ose on t!e le/t >!oD out o/ a misplaced sense o/ >!at is politicall:realisticD. o/ per/orming our alternati+e( Eur criticism o/ their representations in this round is *e.1 @ut anot!er c!allenge to socialist ecolog.!uman agenc. put /or>ard t!e 3ie> t!at t!e onl.representati3es o/ corporate capital.t!e dept! o/ t!e trans/ormation t!at long<term species<sur3i3al >ill reFuire.in t!e earliest stages o/ t!e necessar. 1e are still onl.in t!e climate crisisOis a matter o/ pitting straig!t/or>ard scienti/ic reasoning against assertions made principall. !ttp:77mont!l-re3ie>. 9ne part o/ t!is tas+Oresponding to t!ose >!o den.6.n adeFuate response to t!e crisis >ill ultimatel.in3ol3e addressing all t!ese dimensions. possi-ilit.rts 4ro/essor at =C @er+ele-D 4!D.org70'110&>allis.t!e arguments o/ t!ose >!o >ould do>npla. 0!is means t!at >e must /irst address con3incingl. =realistic> and mitigate an. Gi3en t!e rangeD >idespread acceptanceD and presumed normalit. 12# .

egel /amousl.t!at to t!e t!res!old o/ .de3elopments in some areas. .it de3oured t!e mindsD 6odiesD and la6or o/ countless !uman and non!uman 6eings o3er t!e course o/ centuriesD t!en /or t!e /irst time in generationsD per!aps e3erD >e ma.crisis. Some t!ings !a3e gotten out o/ control in t!is respect.second >as t!e narro> gateD t!roug! >!ic! t!e 8essia! could enter.o/ socialist s-stemic crises open up unexpected =topian /issures in t!e seeminglimpenetra6le roc+/ace o/ modernit-.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 123 'lt sol+enc. In 199%D >!en /oreign traders suddenl. I/ /ascism and >orld >ar >ere t!e products o/ t!e last depressionD >!at >ill t!e next one 6ringQ . . @ut German-Hs /inance ministerD 4eer Stein6rnc+D struc+ a more ominous tone. 0!ere !a3e acceptanceD or credi6ilit-. 0!e traumatic economic dislocations o/ t!e 1920s and 19&0sD 6.pulled t!e plug on t!e J. 6een times in German. 0!is disenc!anted t!ose >!o /ell pre. – re<ection %2& Capitalism has reached a legitimac. 2) Issue &pg 21<%2 !ttp:77>e6. Suc! a !istoric ruptureD a Jnarro> gateJ t!roug! >!ic! t!ose >!o en3ision a 6etter >orld mig!t suddenl.are t!e sort o/ t!ing t!e general pu6lic understands all too >ell. 0!at >orr.to t!e /utureD >!o soug!t ad3ice /rom t!e soot!sa-ers.>ould 2eason and di3ine Spirit at last come to 6e reconciledD in !uman sel/<consciousnessD !uman sel/<+no>ledge. CE 95 AI@2.time /or t!e Pe>s. 0!at isD onl. 1!en t!at !appensD e3en t!e most seemingl.at 1orcester 4ol-tec!nic InstituteD 09 "Po!n San6onmatsuD 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!-D 8a-7Pune 09D 0i++un Aol. IHm tal+ing a6out scandals and a//airs o/ t!e sort >e !a3e recentl.e6sco!ost. Stein6rnc+D a leading lig!t o/ t!e conser3ati3e C!ristian Democratic =nion part-D stunned !is inter3ie>er 6.nd -ouD o/ all peopleD are sa-ing t!isQJ Stein6rnc+ replied: JE3er. . In a re3ealing inter3ie> >it! Der SpiegelD Stein6rnc+ >arned t!at t!e corporate and 6an+ing scandals t!at !ad plagued Europe and t!e =nited States in recent -ears !ad t!reatened to undermine /ait! in t!e s-stem as a >!ole: 1e !a3e to 6e care/ul not to allo> enlig!tened capitalism to 6ecome tainted >it! Fuestions o/ legitimac-D 0!is isnHt merel.mo3ement !ad toppled t!e aut!oritarian go3ernment o/ 4resident Su!arto in Indonesia D a nation o/ o3er 200 million.J# icolas Sar+oC-D t!e 5renc! presidentD o//ered up similarl.an issue o/ excessi3e salar. @en?amin >as re/lecting on t!e temporalit. 5or t!at reason t!e /uture did notD !o>e3erD turn into a !omogenous and empt.!a3e a 6rie/ openingD a caesura in t!e longD 6reat!less tale o/ capitalism and its 3iolenceD in >!ic! to imagine and to set t!e terms /or a ne> >a.contrastD in remem6rance./er3ent demonstrations o/ !is /ait! in capitalism.J 0!e reporter /rom Der Spiegel o6?ectedD J.t!e /ascist leaderD @enito 8ussolini.o/ organiCing !uman societ.pass D ma. 0!e 0ora! and t!e pra-ers instructed t!emD 6.>rote t!at t!e 9>l o/ 8iner3a >ould onl. In 19)0D not long 6e/ore !e >as dri3en to !is deat! 6. 1it!in a -earD t!e democrac. "J0!e crisis Yis\ not a /ailure o/ t!e /ree<mar+et s-stemDJ !e insistedD Jand t!e ans>er is not to rein3ent t!at s-stem.exaggeration createsD in a dialectic senseD its I/ capitalism is indeed 6eginning to consume itsel/D t!e same >a. @us! last autumnD >!en !e /elt compelled to de/end t!e capitalist s-stem 6.SD 0.s t!e >orld econom.are allo>ed to continue /or too longD t!e pu6lic gets t!e impression t!at Jt!ose people at t!e topJ no longer !a3e to pla. -ear a/ter t!atD t!e East 0imorese at last o3ercame decades o/ repression 6t!e Su!arto regime 6.ntonio GramsciD t!e great Italian t!eoristD o6ser3ed t!at se3ere economic disruptions can Jlead in t!e long run to a >idespread s+epticismJ to>ard t!e existing order as a >!ole. IHm tal+ing a6out tax e3asion and corruption.at t!e end o/ !istor.(.aspect o/ !uman and natural li/eD capitalism is 6eginning to su//er its o>n Jlegitimac.2. 5or in it e3er.6.could not come at a more tragic time: /or t!e /irst time in se3ent.ope.name.ssociate 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!. 1!en Gramsci spo+e o/ popular Js+epticismJ to>ard an older regimeD !e +ne> o/ >!at !e spo+eD !a3ing !imsel/ 6een t!ro>n in ?ail 6. @ut t!e.entrenc!ed political and social arrangements can disappear o3ernig!t.in3o+ing t!e spirit o/ 8arxism to explain >!at >as occurring in t!e international mar+ets. 123 .J t!e Pe>s >ere /or6idden to loo+ into t!e /uture.and econom-.>!en t!ese elites >ere closer to t!e general population.ta+e >ing at dus+.experiencedD alt!oug! one s!ouldnHt generaliCe t!ese occurrences. In t!e endD un6ridled capitalism >it! all o/ its greedD as >e !a3e seen !appening !ereD consumes itsel/. I/ soD >e !a3e come re3olution O on t!e >a. 0 social mo3ements /rom t!e /ield o/ !istor.are not all t!at incorrect. 0oda-D !o>e3erD as t!e 8arxist Pames 9HConnor !as ironicall.6e opening up 6eneat! our o>n /eet toda-.nd >!en t!e.44E.t!e rules .seems to !a3e 6een on t!e mind o/ George 1.deterioratesD as !undreds o/ millions o/ people lose t!eir ?o6sD and as t!e state scales 6ac+ on social >el/are and pu6lic ser3icesD >e ma. J93erallDJ !e saidD J>e !a3e to conclude t!at certain elements o/ 8arxist t!eor. crisis that ma*es it +ulnera-le to re<ection San-onmatsuD . R&9%*&*&& Cassettari# .E DIS.remar+edD t!e 9>l o/ 8iner3a /olds its >ings at da-<6rea+ O closing up s!opD as it >ereD ?ust >!en t!ings at last start to get interesting.t!e GestapoD t!e Pe>is! p!ilosop!er 1alter @en?amin >rote: It is >ell<+no>n t!at counter<part<an antit!esis.o3er e3er.com7e!ost7detailQ 3idR1S!idR10$SsidR$0)*2%a1<%a)d<)1a0<')2a<&)a$c/%1d$%6T)0sessionmgr111S6dataRPn pdG=9B1!3c&Ut6Gl2BUT&d T&dVd6Rap!S.-earsD a/ter decades o/ unFuestioned supremac.J 0!e German p!ilosop!er Georg .sian miracleDJ de3aluing currencies suc! as t!e 0!ai 6!at and Indonesian rupia!D mass protests and riots spread t!roug! t!e region o3ernig!t.declaring t!eir national independence .contrastD prepared t!e ground /or e3en more intensi3e and extensi3e social up!ea3als.see a >idening crisis o/ con/idence in t!e economic and social order as suc!.

.gainst t!e 0!ird 1a-J 0!esis 9 0ranscending capitalism reFuires a re3olutionar.meeting t!ese conditions !as 6een called HsocialismH.lternati3es t!e planet itsel/ as mere ra> materials to 6e used and D i/ necessar-D destro-ed.>a.merican model t!at neoli6eralism is tr-ing to generaliCe.into existence >ill 6e an arduous tas+.nglo<. 122 . It is in!erent in t!e logic o/ capital accumulation to treat 6ot! !uman 6eings and120 .ddressing t!e real ills o/ t!e >orld as currentl.to !uman needs and su6?ects t!e allocation o/ resources to democratic control.t!roug! >!ic! >e can !ope to a3oid repeating in t!e t>ent-</irst centur.some ne> 3ersion o/ t!e !orrors t!at made t!e t>entiet! centur.in t!e current stance o/ t!e anti<capitalist mo3ement t!at must 6e con/ronted. Callinicos7 pro/ o/ politics at Ani+ersit.a di//erent one < one t!atD at t!e minimumD gi3es priorit.6e reFuired to gain admittance to t!e 1!ite . @ringing suc! a Hsociet. o/ Mor*7 01 . the alt can sa+e us /rom a repeat o/ the horrors o/ the 20th centur. It >ill mean a re3olution < in ot!er >ordsD a s-stemic trans/ormation o/ societ-D t!e replacement o/ one social logic >it! anot!er. In part /or reasons touc!ed on in S).1 a6o3eD t!is does not seem to me a realistic strateg-.so terri6le a nig!tmare.constituted means ta+ing a pat! t!atD !a3ing 6een a6andoned 6. . – re<ection % & 4rea*ing do0n cap re?uires a complete re<ectionConl.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 122 'lt sol+enc. 0!is lea3es open t!e Fuestion o/ >!et!er t!e alternati3e s!ould 6e anot!erD more !umane and democratic /orm o/ capitalism < /or exampleD >!at is sometimes called t!e 2!ineland model o/ regulated capitalism associated >it! continental Europe and Papan < or >!et!er >e s!ould see+ to replace capitalism altoget!er. aturall.a societ.)& In m3ie> t!e pro6lem lies deeper t!an t!e particular 3ersion o/ capitalism t!at currentl. @ut it isD I 6elie3eD t!e onl.o/ Wor+D J.mostD !as /allen into neglect.logic o/ capitalD and its replacement 6.ouseD I see not!ing >rong in continuing to use t!is >ord and see+ing to ac!ie3e t!e societ.criticism is /ocused on one particular 3ariant o/ capitalism < t!e . 1!ate3er ma.lex CallinicosD 2001D 4ro/essor o/ 4olitics at t!e =ni3ersit.!as 6roug!t t!is into s!arp relie/. Some o/ t!ose critical o/ t!e 0!ird 1a-D /or example @ourdieu and (a/ontaineD seem to ad3ocate an international 3ersion o/ 2!ineland capitalismD in >!ic! t!e European =nion pro3ides t!e regulation t!at t!e nation<state can no longer suppl-.is 6ut an ideological /aqade 6e!ind >!ic! capitalism continues on its 6rutal and destructi3e >a-.con/ronts us. 1!at is needed is a 6rea+ >it! t!e 3er. @utD as >e !a3e seenD t!e 0!ird 1a.trans/ormation o/ societ. 0!e idea o/ t!e 0!ird 1a.t!at it names. 0raditionall. (I E3en granted t!e argument o/ 0!esis 'D t!ere is an am6iguit. 0!e s-stematic remo3al o3er t!e past t>ent-ears o/ t!e restraints t!at >ere imposed on capitalism in t!e mid<t>entiet! centur.is attracti3e to t!ose >!o 6elie3e t!at suc! an up!ea3al is not /easi6leD and indeed is undesira6le and unnecessar-.

D in 4olitical Science /rom t!e =ni3ersit. – re<ection %!& Capitalism can5t -e ended all at once7 -ut through a series o/ re/usals to /ollo0 capitalism5s dictates .a dri3e to>ards sel/<determinationD an impulse t!at sa-s D rst oD -ou >ill not tell us >!at to doD >e s!all decide /or oursel3es >!at >e must do.t times t!e.ollo>a-D '71$70*D :Can 1e C!ange 0!e 1orld 1it!out 0a+ing 4o>erQ. 0!e Fuestion is !o> >e concei3e o/ t!ese intersticesD >!et!er >e t!in+ o/ t!em as states or in ot!er >a-s.Cmag.org7Cnet73ie>.o/ Edin6urg!D a pro/essor in t!e Instituto de Ciencias Sociales .D !ttp:77>>>.are so small t!at e3en t!ose in3ol3ed do not percei3e t!em as re/usalsD 6ut o/ten t!e. 0!e Fuestion /or usD t!enD i !o> do >e multipl.t!at >orld re3olution can 6e ac!ie3ed in one single 6lo>.and expand t!ese re/usalsD t!ese crac+s in t!e texture o/ dominationQ 129 .>a.H 0!ese re/usals can 6e seen as /issuresD as crac+s in t!e s-stem o/ capitalist domination .are as 6ig as t!e (acandon Pungle or t!e . Capitalism is not "in t!e /irst place# an economic s-stemD 6ut a s-stem o/ command. 0!e >orld is /ull o/ suc! re6ellionsD o/ people sa-ing 9 to capitalism : 9D >e s!all not li3e our li3es according to t!e dictates o/ capitalismD >e s!all do >!at >e consider necessar.re6ellions and insu6ordinations t!at !a3e 6roug!t us to 4orto . CapitalistsD t!roug! mone-D command usD telling us >!at to do.ollo>a-D !as a 4!.umanidadesD mem6er o/ t!e Con/erence o/ Socialist EconomistsD 0* "Po!n . Sometimes >e ?ust see capitalism as an all<encompassing s-stem o/ domination and /orget t!at suc! re6ellions exist e3er->!ere. . 0o re/use to o6e.or desira6le and not >!at capital tells us to do.in >!ic! >e can concei3e o/ re3olution is as interstitial re3olutionD as a re3olution t!at ta+es place in t!e interstices o/ capitalismD a re3olution t!at occupies spaces in t!e >orld >!ile capitalism still exists.legre. 0!is means t!at t!e onl.rgentinaCo o/ t!ree -ears ago or t!e re3olt in @oli3ia ?ust o3er a -ear ago.is to 6rea+ t!e command o/ capital. In t!in+ing a6out t!isD >e !a3e to start /rom >!ere >e areD /rom t!e man.rticle7*$1$ Cassettari# @ut it is unli+el./or>ard and sometimes t!e.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 129 'lt sol+enc. .ll o/ t!ese insu6ordinations are c!aracterised 6.are collecti3e pro?ects searc!ing /or an alternati3e >a.

e*D Senior 2esearc!er at t!e =ni3ersit. 1 0 .o/ (?u6l?anaD Slo3enia and a pro/essor at t!e European Graduate Sc!oolD 8a-<Pune 2009D e> (e/t 2e3ie> :. (i6eral<democratic capitalism is accepted as t!e /inall.91 09 @EGI 5298 0. 1e s!ould note t!at t!ere is a Fualitati3e di//erence 6et>een t!e last /eatureD t!e gap t!at separates t!e excluded /rom t!e includedD and t!e ot!er t!reeD >!ic! designate t!e domains o/ >!at ./orceD i/ necessar-.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1 0 'lt sol+enc. – re<ection %"& Communism is not ideal7 -ut reacts to actual contradictions( :he re+olution 0ill come 0hen 0e identi/./ound /ormula o/ t!e 6est possi6le societ-G all one can do is to render it more ?ustD tolerant and so on. the pro-lems 0ith capitalism( Fi.is 5u+u-amaist.at t!e =ni3ersit. 0!e simple 6ut pertinent Fuestion arises !ere: i/ li6eral<democratic capitalism isD i/ not t!e 6estD t!en t!e least 6ad /orm o/ societ-D >!.>!ic! ma+e it a practical urgenc-.in 6iogeneticsG and lastD 6ut not leastD ne> /orms o/ social apart!eidOne> >alls and slums.toda.o/ (?u6l?anaD Slo3enia and a pro/essor at t!e European Graduate Sc!oolD B09 "Sla3o? BiCe+D Senior 2esearc!er at t!e =ni3ersit.ne>le/tre3ie>.as its a priori norm or axiom.o/ Sociolog. !ttp:77>>>.o/ Sociolog. 5rom >!ic! it is onl.s!ould >e not simpl.true Fuestion toda.at t!e =ni3ersit.resign oursel3es to it in a mature >a-D e3en accept it >!ole!eartedl-Q 1!.E @EGI I G.ardt and egri call McommonsLOt!e s!ared su6stance o/ our social 6eingD >!ose pri3atiCation is a 3iolent act >!ic! s!ould 6e resisted 6. 0!e onl.org7Q3ie>R2%%9# 9ne s!ould 6e care/ul not to read t!ese lines in a Kantian >a-D concei3ing o/ communism as a regulati3e IdeaD and t!ere6.is: does glo6al capitalism contain antagonisms strong enoug! to pre3ent its inde/inite reproductionQ 5our possi6le antagonisms present t!emsel3es: t!e looming t!reat o/ ecological catastrop!eG t!e inappropriateness o/ pri3ate propert.istor-D t!e ma?orit.insist on t!e communist !-pot!esisD against all oddsQ It is not enoug! to remain /ait!/ul to t!e communist !-pot!esis: one !as to locate antagonisms >it!in !istorical realit.to ma+e /un o/ 5u+u-amaLs notion o/ t!e End o/ . 0!oug! it is eas.one step to a deconstructi3e reading o/ communism as a dream o/ presenceD o/ a6olis!ing all alienating representationG a dream >!ic! t!ri3es on its o>n impossi6ilit-.resuscitating t!e spectre o/ Met!ical socialismLD >it! eFualit. 0o treat communism as an eternal Idea implies t!at t!e situation >!ic! generates it is no less eternalD t!at t!e antagonism to >!ic! communism reacts >ill al>a-s 6e !ere. 2at!erD one s!ould maintain t!e precise re/erence to a set o/ social antagonisms >!ic! generates t!e need /or communismG t!e good old 8arxian notion o/ communism not as an idealD 6ut as a mo3ement >!ic! reacts to actual contradictions./or so<called intellectual propert-G t!e socio<et!ical implications o/ ne> tec!no<scienti/ic de3elopmentsD especiall.

0!e .J In t!e processD ne> senses o/ sel/ are instituted<t!roug! sel/<de3elopment as citiCensD !ouse designersD in3estorsD or entrepreneursD t!roug! sel/<recognition o/ t!eir sur3i3al capacities as poor >omen and migrantsD t!roug! dail.action is sustainedD rat!er t!an a grounds /or its postponement. (ocall.sian >or+ersD especiallt!ose /rom t!e 4!ilippinesD >!ere %.I t!ere is a lesson to 6e learned a6out t!e potential global reach o/ locallfocused acti3ities and organiCations.6ased social mo3ement inter3entions all o3er t!e >orld are alread.em6od-ing man. 9ne suc! pro?ect is a slum d>ellersH initiati3eD t!e . 0!e sa3ings groups /ocused on indi3idual sel/<trans/ormation are t!e /oundation on >!ic! alternati3e economic inter3entions are 6uilt.ppadurai 2002D &0#.lternati3e In3estment "8S.o/ t!e emergenc-J<t!e po3ert.o/ t!e /eatures o/ t!e political imaginar>e !a3e 6een tracingD 6uilding ne> economic /utures >it!in a clearl. In 6ot! instancesD t!e trans/ormation o/ t!e conditions o/ po3ert.recommitment to t!e culti3ation o/ solidarit-.and seeming po>erlessness 6ecome t!e 6ase /rom >!ic! dail.* million people "10 percent o/ t!e population# support t!eir /amilies 6. 0!roug! t!is actionD a dail. 4articulars o/ aut!orit-D dominationD and coercion t!at mig!t neutraliCe or negate t!eir inter3entions are examined and >a-s to exercise po>er are /ound. It is in t!ese small groups t!at indi3iduals em6ar+ on a pro?ect o/ et!ical sel/< trans/ormation in 5oucaultHs "199%# termsD or a micropolitics o/ "re#su6?ecti3ation in Connoll-Hs terms "199*D 1999#.o/ 8assac!usetts .pu6lic act o/ !umiliation and ma?or cause o/ disease is trans/ormed into a scene o/ Jtec!nical inno3ationD collecti3e cele6rationD and carni3alesFue pla-J ".is spear!eaded 6t!e poor t!emsel3es.process in 8um6ai. Sa3ings groups are t!e consciousness<raising groups o/ t!e .and sel/<a//irmationD as >ell as gi3ing t!em control o/ a large part o/ t!e !ousing polic.I program meet in pu6lic spaces on t!eir one da.e<ecting the politics o/ possi-ilit.m!erst Department o/ GeosciencesD 200$D *ostcapitalist *olitics# 0P I/ t!e successes o/ second<>a3e /eminism gi3e us con/idence t!at indeed :anot!er >orld is possi6le.o// to discuss in3estment and enterprise de3elopment plans.migrating o3erseas /or emplo-ment.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1 1 'lt sol+enc. . In an en3ironment >!ere domestic >or+ers are legall.enunciated commitment to a politics o/ possi6ilit-. and o//er t!e glo6al outlines o/ a practical politicsD speci/ic pro?ects o/ economic trans/ormation suggest guidelines /or !o> to proceed in an e3er-da. 0o ?oin suc! a group is to engage in ne> practices o/ t!e sel/<setting aside sa3ings /rom >!at is alreadtoo little to li3e on in t!e case o/ t!e >omen slum d>ellersD or in t!e case o/ t!e migrant >or+ers den-ing t!emsel3es or t!eir /amilies some portion o/ t!e en!anced consumption usuall.denied /reedom o/ mo3ement or association /or six da-s out o/ se3enD domestic ser3ants in3ol3ed in t!e 8S. 4ossi6ilities /or in/luencing c!ange are identi/ied in t!e /ace o/ a realistic understanding o/ t!e extent and limits o/ t!e /orces t!at constrain t!em.llianceD in 8um6aiD IndiaD >!ere !al/ o/ t!e 12 million citiCens are slum and pa3ement d>eller sG anot!er is an o3erseas migrant >or+er initiati3eD t!e 8igrant Sa3ings /or . – re<ection %#& . In a cit. 4o3ert. 5rom t!e >or+ o/ t!e . 0!is contri6utes to a politics o/ 3isi6ilit.gainst t!e Jt-rann.lliance participates >it! similar /ederations in /ourteen countries on /our continents in t!e S!ac+7Slum D>ellers International.ppadurai 2002D &9#D as >ell as a site /or policpromotion.lliance and 8S.I program enrolls contract migrant domestic ser3ants and sea/arers in t!e practice o/ in3esting in communit-<6ased enterprises in t!eir !ome countries.associated >it! migration.lliance and t!e 8S.studiesD and !elped to negotiate >it! o//icials /rom t!eir !ome pro3inces to o6tain 6usiness ad3ice and assistance.I program. 8igrant indentured la6orers are trained in social entrepreneurs!ip and in conducting alternati3e 6usiness /easi6ilit. 0!e . 0!e /ederations ma+e site 3isits to one anot!er to learn /rom eac! ot!er and to !asten t!e 1 1 .and pri3ation t!at /ind people li3ing on t!e street or >or+ing /or -ears >it! no political rig!ts in a /oreign countr-<t!ese initiati3es practice a Jpolitics o/ patienceJ and Jutilit-J ". 1!at distinguis!es t!e t>o initiati3es is t!e constructi3e content o/ t!eir actions. pre+ents sustained capitalism( Gi-sonCGraham7 pro/essors7 200#( "Pulie Gra!am S Kat!erine Gi6sonD pro/essor at t!e =ni3ersit.>!ere pu6lic demonstrations are 3ie>ed "and o/ten suppressed# as an incitement to riotD t!e slum d>ellers !old toilet /esti3als to inaugurate /unctioning pu6lic toilets >it! in3itations o//ered to state o/ /icialsD 1orld @an+ representati3esD and t!e middle classes.sense .lliance enrolls slum d>ellers in sa3ing /or and constructing !ousing and in producing +no>ledge o/ t!eir situation t!roug! sel/<sur3e-ing and enumeration.I# programD >!ic! targets 3ulnera6le .J 0!e 8S.

o/ c!ange and t!e 3ision o/ trans/ormation as a continual struggle to c!ange su6?ectsD placesD and conditions o/ li/e under in!erited circumstances o/ di//icult.t!at >e !a3e identi/ied >it! a politics o/ possi6ilit.culti3ate oursel3es as acti3ists and su6?ects o/ noncapitalist economies. 1!ile recogniCing t!e ris+ o/ co<optation t!at suc! relations!ips poseD t!e."and t!e t!eoretical c!oices t!at constitute it# cannot simpl. 0!ere is little i/ an.J 0!e site 3isits and annual meetings /acilitate supporti3e /eed6ac+ and de6ate Fuestions and criticisms raised 6.and pro6lems in an.ID >e can discern t!e lineaments o/ t!e emerging political imaginar.o/ po>erD >!ic! is al>a-s a3aila6le to 6e s+irtedD mars!aledD or redirectedJ t!roug! et!ical practices o/ /reedom: and t!e e3er-da.ultimate origin "suc! as capitalism# t!at mig!t displace t!eir antagonism /rom t!ose pro6lems t!emsel3es.produce or exacer6ate >ounds and di3isions.and sel/<culti3ation –et!ical practicesD one mig!t sa-D o/ Jnot 6eing co<opted.representation o/ a glo6al<scale apparatus o/ po>er t!at must 6e addressed and trans/ormed 6e/ore t!eir acti3ities can succeed or 6e extended.is an et!ical act o/ ena6ling suc! a politic: 0!e "/eminist# imaginar.on culti3ating t!emsel3es as su6?ects a6le to enact ne> /utures<as t!in+ers o/ possi6ilit-D as strategic acti3ists >!o con/ront all +inds o/ speci/ic /orms o/ dominationD aut!orit-D manipulationD coercionD and seduction ".a distant partner are o/ten more /ruit/ul t!an t!ose o/ local alliesD >!ic! ma.ll t!ese t!ings are part o/ t!e ontolog.6e put Jout t!ereJ in t!e >orld >it! t!e !ope t!at it >ill /louris!.s suc!D t!eirs is a political and et!ical practice o/ t!eor-D and an e3er-da.people.o/ a politics o/ possi6ilit-D and t!e t!eoretical commitment to suc! an ontolog.I !a3e to >or+ dail.t!e continual >or+ o/ ma+ing and rema+ing a space /or it to exist in t!e /ace o/ >!at t!reatens to undermine and destro.not s!are t!eir 3alues and goals.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1 2 pace o/ inno3ation. In generalD international 3isits and gat!erings are used to strengt!en t!e organiCations in placeG t!e glo6al scale o/ acti3ities exists to /acilitate success at t!e local le3elD rat!er t!an 6eing t!e ultimate locus o/ trans/ormati3e politics.o/ ot!er >a-s o/ t!in+ing ot!er ontologiesD competing political imaginariesD and sedimented a//ecti3e and intellectual stances t!at claim superior status as approac!es to t!eor-.could 6e seen as re/using to root t!eir po3ert. lust as mem6ers o/ t!e .o/ su6?ects and et!ical practices o/ sel/<culti3ationG t!e role o/ place as a site o/ 6ecomingD and as t!e ground o/ a glo6al politics o/ local trans/ormationsG H t!e une3en spatialit.practice o/ /reedom. In our 3arious attempts to enact a noncapital its economic politicsD >e !a3e experienced t!e pus!ing 6ac+ o/ dominant discourses and our o>n /ears and /eelings "see c!apter 1 /or an exploration o/ t!ese# It is dear to us t!at a politics o/ possi6ilit. It needs to 6e sustained 6.lliance and participants in 8S.lliance and t!e 8S./ormed in our imaginationsD 6ut !as 6een distilled /rom 3arious experiences o3er t!e past decade and more. Indeed t!e.in t!e !ere and no>: t!e centralit. In t!e t!eoretical practices and practical commitments o/ t!e . Instead it is an e3er< present danger t!at calls /ort! 3igilant exercises o/ sel/<scrutin.t!at underpins and moti3ates our politics did not arri3e /ull. 0!e sel/<education and /ormation o/ oursel3es as t!in+ers o/ t!eoriCed possi6ilit.J 8ore generall-D eac! groups understanding o/ po>er enlarges t!e /ield o/ t!eir o>n e//ecti3it-. .condition o/ consorting >it! po>er.and uncertaint-.temporalit. 1 2 . 0!ese inter3entions7organiCations teac! us a6out t!e /reedom to act t!at is at t!e core o/ a politics o/ possi6ilit-. 8igrant sa3ers and in3estors /rom all o3er t!e >orld >!o participate in t!e 8S. . It !as 6een cr-stalliCe in t!oug!t t!roug! our acti3ities in t!e /ield and t!roug! interactions >it! ideal pro?ectsD G9sD and man..o/ possi6ilit.it 0!is >or+ !as in3ol3ed addressing t!e materialit.llen 200&# and >!o ne3ert!eless continue to mo6iliCe t!eir local capacities /or c!ange<>e must similarl.and negotia6ilit. Eac! o/ t!em >or+s >it! and accepts /unding /rom go3ernmentsD international agenciesD /oundationsD or collaborating partners t!at ma.are crucial to t!is practice.I program also meet annuallto s!are experiences and gain t!e +no>ledge and inspiration to /urt!er replicate t!e sa3ings<in3estment<enterprise model.re/use to see co<optation as a necessar.

o/ citiCens 6ecome detac!ed /rom pu6lic /orums t!at nouris! social critiFueD political agencnot onl. o/ political agenc. ser3ed as Director at t!e Center /or Education and Cultural Studies at 0!e =ni3ersit. .o/ 8iami 9!ioD ser3ed as t!e Director o/ t!e 1ater6ur. 0!is article attempts to address t!e current crisis o/ meaning and political agenc. -e addressed -.com7pFdlin+QAerR1SExpR0%<22<201)S580R%SDIDR%91$)0'91S2U0R&09 Cassettari# =nder t!e reign o/ neoli6eralism >it! its gro>ing commercialiCation o/ e3er-da.t!e complex nature o/ social agenc. (ac+ing a t!eoretical paradigm /or lin+ing learning to social c!angeD existing political 3oca6ularies appear increasingl..6ecomes a moc+er.mar+et<6ased dri3en /orm o/ cultural politics in >!ic! pri3ate satis/actions replace social responsi6ilities and con/essional culture 6ecome a su6stitute /or s-stemic c!ange.umi..li/eD t!e corporatiCation o/ !ig!er educationD t!e dismantling o/ t!e >el/are stateD t!e militariCing o/ pu6lic spaceD and t!e increasing pri3atiCation o/ t!e pu6lic sp!ereD it !as 6ecome more di//icult to address not onl. that can onl.pla.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1 'lt sol+enc. 0!is paper argues t!at in t!e /ace o/ a 3irulent neoli6eralism t!at spa>ns a 3ast educational propaganda mac!ineD educatorsD cultural >or+ersD and ot!ers need to ret!in+ t!e entire pro?ect o/ politics >it!in t!e c!anged conditions o/ a glo6al political7pedagogical sp!ere.po>erless a6out !o> to t!eoriCe t!e crisis o/ political agenc.s t!e 3ast ma?orit.o/ itsel/D it is replaced 6.as a /undamental c!allenge to educatorsD pu6lic intellectualsD social mo3ementsD and ot!ers >!o 6elie3e in t!e promise o/ glo6al democrac-. GirouxD 1inter 200*D 0!e 0error o/ eoli6eralism: 2et!in+ing t!e Signi/icance o/ Cultural 4oliticsD !ttp:77proFuest. 1 .a prominent role in t!e call /or educators and ot!ers to 6e a6le to imagine ot!er>ise in order to act ot!er>ise. rethin*ing politics Giroux recei3ed !is Doctorate /rom Carnegie<8ellon. – rethin* politics %1& Capitalism has made a moc*er.o/ t!e times demands a notion o/ glo6al politics in >!ic! pedagog-D international alliancesD and ne> /orms o/ solidarit. In addressing t!is c!allengeD it argues t!at t!e urgenc.and t!e importance o/ democratic pu6lic sp!eresD 6ut also t!e /act t!at acti3e and critical political agents !a3e to 6e /ormedD educatedD and socialiCed into t!e >orld o/ politics.5orum in Education and Cultural Studies at 4enn State 0" ".and political pessimism in t!e /ace o/ neoli6eral assaults on all democratic pu6lic sp!eres.enr.

&0D000 c!ildren die /rom pre3enta6le illnessesD >!ic! translates into more t!an 10 million deat!s per -ear "= D4 200&: *G 1orld @an+D 200)#Q It is m. 5or (e3inasD it is imperati3e t!at t!e political 6e /ore3er interrupted 6t!e et!icalG t!e Fuestion is howQ .and suppress !is ot!erness "see @rood-D 2001#. 0!at t!is is so is suggested 6.t!e >a.!as to con/ront t!e o6?ection t!at all representations o/ t!e ot!er 6etra.to con3ince us o/ our guilt and responsi6ilit. 0!oug! one cannot 6e sure o/ t!e direction o/ causalit-D t!ere seems to 6e a direct correlation 6et>een t!e /ullness >it! >!ic! people are 3ie>ed and t!e extent o/ t!e concern >e !a3e /or t!em .et!ical responsi6ilit. .muc! attention to t!e /act t!at e3er.t t!e start o/ t!is c!apter it >as argued t!at t!e cosmopolitan strateg.is pa3ed /or social and political disregardD maltreatmentD or MdiscipliningL .little a6out temD compared to sa-D . SoD it seems as t!oug! our tas+ is to con/ront t!e >orld >it! t!e M/aceL o/ t!e ot!erD to accuse t!e >orld o/ !a3ing le/t t!e ot!er to Fuite literall.sel/ !as a responsi6ilit. Is it not generall./or !im.and t!e et!ical command t!at issues /rom t!e /act o/ !is ot!erness.is t!ere/ore not important /or its o>n sa+e "and t!ere/ore to 6e maintained at all costs#D 6ut inso/ar as it insinuates t!e uniFueness o/ t!e ot!er.to 6ring a6out a societ.to t!e greatest extent possi6le. to creating a more ethical state( Stollen-osch7 pro/ 8oli Sci at Stellen-osch7 200#7 0e do not endorse the genedered language in this card Eduard PordaanD 4ro/essor o/ 4olitical Science at Stellen6osc!D 200$D :2esponsi6ilit-D Indi//erenceD and Glo6al 4o3ert-: .Mdie aloneL./or t!e ot!erD namel. It is imperati3e t!at >e :expose.t!at emp!asiCes and descri6es !uman complexit.0!roug!out t!is stud-D aut!ors in t!e cosmopolitan<communitarian de6ate !a3e 6een criticiCed /or suppressing 3arious aspects o/ t!e et!ical relation >it! t!e ot!erD >!ic! !as resulted in us 6eing le/t in good conscienceD despite !a3ing /ailed t!e glo6al ot!er.as possi6le can !elp us do t!is. 1 ! . t!e Ms+insL o/ complacent sel3es to :>ounds and outrageD.!is alterit.>ill !elp us to 6ecome a>are o/ t!e "unnoticed# >a-s in >!ic! >e !a3e neglected and oppressed t!e ot!erD and o/ all t!e >a-s in >!ic! !e s!ould 6e protected and cared /or .num6s t!at >!ic! incites us to responsi6ilit. .and as sensiti3el.uman complexit-7di//erence7dissimilarit.t!e case t!at t!e people >e are most indi//erent to>ards are also t!ose most a6sent /rom our imaginationsD t!ose persons7groups >e +no> least a6outQ 2eturning to t!e group o/ people I am most concerned >it! in t!is stud-D t!e glo6al poorD is it not t!e case t!at >e generall+no> 3er. Granting t!isD t!e claim made !ere is t!at t!ere are representations "and positionings# o/ t!e ot!er and articulations o/ !is situation t!at are more suggesti3e o/ !is ot!erness and t!ere/ore o/ m./or t!e 3ictims o/ t!e Septem6er 11t! attac+s in >!ic! approximatel.di//erent /rom e3er-one elseD uniFue.mericansQ .t!at maintains and treats t!e ot!er as complexl.o>e3erD an element is missingD t!at o/ acti3ating our concern /or t!e ot!er.daapproximatel. t!at >e elicit a :su//ering /or t!e su//ering o/ t!e ot!er.ndD /or example D is t!is not part o/ t!e reason t!at >!ile t!e >orld reacted >it! great s-mpat!. In order to 6ring t!e >orld into proximit.>a+ening us to our responsi6ilit.and unintentionall-D a political strateg. .t!ree t!ousand people diedD >e do not pa.9/ courseD t!is Mstrateg-L immediatel.an extreme /orm o/ negating t!e ot!erLs alterit-D !is de<!umanisation t!roug! racist and stereot-ped representations >!ere6. "C44 1)$#.are committed un>ittingl.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1 ! 'lt sol+enc./or t!e glo6al poor is counterproducti3e gi3en t!at its emp!asis on !uman eFualit. Since muc! in?ustice and cruelt./or t!e ot!er is t!e second /unction o/ t!e proposed strateg-D >!ic! is intended to descri6e and emp!asiCe !uman complexit.glimpses o/ !im as inexpressi6l. interrupt the political 0ith the ethicalCexposing the other5s /ace in all a+aila-le +enues is *e.as possi6le . (e3inasian 4erspecti3e.to t!e ot!erD to expose t!ird parties to !is M/aceDL it is claimed t!at actions aimed at con3e-ing t!e ot!er in as great a complexit.t!e oppositeD namel. Y(u+e\ In lig!t o/ t!e a6o3e preliminariesD e3er.contention t!at t!ere is a relations!ip 6et>een t!e /ullness >it! >!ic! >e 3ie> people and t!e concern >e !a3e /or t!emD and a large part o/ t!e reason is t!at a /uller conception o/ t!e ot!er person is a stronger suggestion o/ !is alter. – rethin* politics %2& @e must constantl.

to represent our interests as >or+ersD t!e poorD and -oung peopleD and >!ic! points a /inger at t!e real 3illainsD t!e super< ric! and t!e capitalist s-stem.!tml# 1e s!ould 6e under no illusions t!at t!e capitalist s-stem can do t!is. 0o ac!ie3e t!is means 6rea+ing /rom gi3ing an. It is onl.>ould !a3e t!e po>er rat!er t!an t!e 1T >!o are re>arded under t!is s-stem.o/ t!e pu6lic /aces /urt!er s!arp attac+s on t!eir li3ing standards and Fualit.o/ ?o6s created under Clinton and @us! !a3e 6een lo><>age ?o6sD >!ic! !a3e replaced !ig!er<>age ?o6s.S. =nder t!e rule o/ capitalismD t!e ma?orit. 1e need to 6uild a ne> political part.o/ li/eD >it! a gro>ing num6er 6eing /orced into dire po3ert-D !omelessnessD and destitution.corporate sponsorsD t!is >or+ersH part. 1 " . capitalism during t!e turn o/ t!e last centur-D and a temporar. 2esources >ould 6e a3aila6le to address our most pressing social pro6lems and allocated to areas o/ most need.socialistalternati3e. 0o do t!atD >e need to 6ring into pu6lic o>ners!ip t!e largest *00 corporations and /inancial institutions. 5reed /rom control 6.o/ =.6.could put /or>ard a program t!at addresses our needs. It >ould 6e a6le to end t!is s-stem o/ capitalismD >!ic! !as 6een responsi6le /or enric!ing a tin.t!at t!e econom. corporations s!utting do>n production !ere in searc! o/ areas t!at produce !ig!er rates o/ pro/it. 0!e 3ast ma?orit. Capitalism is a s-stem designed to produce /or pri3ate pro/itD not /or pu6lic need. 0oda-D >e see a >orld economic slo>do>nD >it! =. manu/acturing in t!e a/termat! o/ 1orld 1ar II.>or+ing<class people. 1e could t!en create a ne> democratic socialist societ-D >!ere t!e >or+ing<class ma?orit. – rethin* politics % & Capitalism is /ailing C 0e must create a ne0 /orm o/ politics /or the interests o/ all people in order to sol+e( @ilsdon7 0riter /or the socialist part.can pro3ide /or our needs.controlled 6.support to t!e t>o 6ig<6usiness political parties < t!e 2epu6licans and Democrats.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1 " 'lt sol+enc.org7literature7+atrina7logic.ta+ing decision<ma+ing out o/ t!e corporate 6oardrooms and placing t!em under t!e democratic control o/ t!e ma?orit.S.7 200" "0on. 0!e. I/ t!e assets o/ t!ese giant companies >ere under our democratic controlD t!en in3estment and resources could 6e democraticall. 0!e siCea6le period o/ economic gro>t! o/ t!e 19*0s and 19$0s is o3er.are 6ot! /ullimplicated in creating t!e present mess >e are in. 0!e economic engine o/ ?o6sD >!ic! !elped some >or+ers in pre3ious generations to get out o/ t!e g!ettosD >ill not 6e reoccurring. It >as 6ased on t!e period o/ t!e explosi3e emergence o/ =.period o/ >orld>ide superiorit.group o/ 6illionaires at a time o/ massi3e need and po3ert-.D Septem6er 1'D 200*D !ttp:77>>>.S.1ilsdonD >riter /or t!e socialist part.

arguing t!at an..stem Giroux recei3ed !is Doctorate /rom Carnegie<8ellon.to 6e 6oug!t and sold 6. Democrac.struggle against neoli6eralism must address t!e discourse o/ political agenc-D ci3ic educationD and cultural politics as part o/ a 6roader struggle o3er t!e relations!ip 6et>een democratiCation "t!e ongoing struggle /or a su6stanti3e and inclusi3e democrac-# and t!e glo6al pu6lic sp!ere.in t!is 3ie> is not limited to t!e struggle o3er economic resources and po>erG indeedD it also includes t!e creation o/ pu6lic sp!eres >!ere indi3iduals can 6e educated as political agents eFuipped >it! t!e s+illsD capacitiesD and +no>ledge t!e.o/ 8iami 9!ioD ser3ed as t!e Director o/ t!e 1ater6ur.t!e go3ernment in order to 6uild dams no> /ind t!emsel3es in alliance >it! -oung people resisting s>eats!op la6or in e> Wor+ Cit-.on particulariCed rig!ts and interests.including Enron#D re3eals t!e crac+s in neoli6eral !egemon.multinational corporations D corporate s>indlersD international political institutionsD and t!ose go3ernment politicians >!o >illingl.need to per/orm as autonomous political agents. In additionD t!e multiple /orms o/ resistance against neoli6eral capitalism are not limited 6. GirouxD 1inter 200*D 0!e 0error o/ eoli6eralism: 2et!in+ing t!e Signi/icance o/ Cultural 4oliticsD !ttp:77proFuest. En3ironmental acti3ists are ?oining up >it! +e.align t!emsel3es >it! multinationalD corporate interests and rapacious pro/its .sections o/ organiCed la6or as >ell as groups protesting 0!ird 1orld de6t. 4olitical culture is no> glo6al and resistance is amorp!ousD connecting students >it! >or+ersD sc!oolteac!ers >it! parentsD and intellectuals >it! artists. I >ant to expand t!e reac!es o/ t!is de6ate 6.a 3ersion o/ identit.acti3istsD and a !ost o/ indi3iduals and groups un>illing to allo> democrac.ta+ing up t!e c!allenge o/ neoli6eralism and re3i3ing 6ot! t!e meaning o/ resistance and t!e sites >!ere it ta+es place. Groups protesting t!e attac+ on /armers in India >!ose land is 6eing destro-ed 6.politics is a//irmed >it!in a 6roader crisis o/ political culture and democrac. ser3ed as Director at t!e Center /or Education and Cultural Studies at 0!e =ni3ersit..enr. 1 # .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1 # 'lt sol+enc.5orum in Education and Cultural Studies at 4enn State 0" ".and domination. 0!e collapse o/ t!e neoli6eral s!o>caseD . 9n t!e contrar-D identit.politics /ocused exclusi3el. Central to t!ese ne> mo3ements is t!e notion t!at neoli6eralism !as to 6e understood >it!in a larger crisis o/ 3isionD meaningD educationD and political agenc. to end the capitalist s.t!at connects t!e militariCation o/ pu6lic li/e >it! t!e collapse o/ t!e >el/are state and t!e attac+ on ci3il li6erties..rgentinaD along >it! numerous corporate 6an+ruptcies and scandals "nota6l.umi. 5rom Seattle to GenoaD people engaged in popular resistance are collecti3el. – de-ate %1& De-aters acting as political agents can re+i+e democrac.com7pFdlin+QAerR1SExpR0%<22<201)S580R%SDIDR%91$)0'91S2U0R&09 Cassettari# 5ortunatel-D t!e corporate capitalist /air-tale o/ neoli6eralism !as 6een c!allenged all o3er t!e glo6e 6studentsD la6or organiCersD intellectualsD communit.

t!e role o/ t!e re3olutionar.e*D Senior 2esearc!er at t!e =ni3ersit.91 09 @EGI 5298 0.org7Q3ie>R2%%9# @ut !o>Q 0!e de/ining pro6lem o/ 1estern 8arxism !as 6een t!e lac+ o/ a re3olutionar. 1 3 .stirs.agent is t!e /orm o/ appearance o/ its 3er.su6?ect: !o> is it t!at t!e >or+ing class does not complete t!e passage /rom in<itsel/ to /or<itsel/ and constitute itsel/ as a re3olutionar.tre /or 1estern 8arxismLs re/erence to ps-c!oanal-sisD >!ic! >as e3o+ed to explain t!e unconscious li6idinal mec!anisms pre3enting t!e rise o/ class consciousness t!at are inscri6ed into t!e 3er. It is ?ust possi6le t!at t!is desperate searc! /or t!e re3olutionar.E @EGI I G.6eing or social situation o/ t!e >or+ing class.at t!e =ni3ersit.agentQ 0!is Fuestion pro3ided t!e main raison d+. In t!is >a-D t!e trut! o/ t!e 8arxist socio<economic anal-sis >as sa3ed: t!ere >as no reason to gi3e ground to re3isionist t!eories a6out t!e rise o/ t!e middle classes. – de-ate %2& 1e donLt !a3e a re3olution 6ecause >e donLt !a3e a re3olutionar.o/ Sociolog.o/ (?u6l?anaD Slo3enia and a pro/essor at t!e European Graduate Sc!oolD 8a-<Pune 2009D e> (e/t 2e3ie> :.o/ (?u6l?anaD Slo3enia and a pro/essor at t!e European Graduate Sc!oolD B09 "Sla3o? BiCe+D Senior 2esearc!er at t!e =ni3ersit.ne>le/tre3ie>.opposite: t!e /ear o/ /inding itD o/ seeing it >!ere it alread.o/ rationaliCing our inacti3it-. 9ur /ear o/ /inding it ?usti/ies inacti3it-. De6ate must 6e t!e catal-st /or c!ange. Fi.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1 3 'lt sol+enc. !ttp:77>>>.replacing t!e indisposed >or+ing class: 0!ird 1orld peasantsD students and intellectualsD t!e excluded.su6?ect.o/ Sociolog. 5or t!is same reasonD 1estern 8arxism !as also engaged in a constant searc! /or ot!ers >!o could pla.at t!e =ni3ersit.agentD as t!e understud. 1aiting /or anot!er to do t!e ?o6 /or us is a >a.

It is t!ere/ore impossi6le /or capitalism not to e3ol3e.is underl-ing its apparent sta6ilit.moment (not only in some "final" or "catastrophic" stage) t!e capitalist s-stem is mo3ing at its edges .o/ J!istoriciCingJ t!e anal-sis o/ t!e capitalist mode and relations o/ production./or capitalism to continuousl.lt!usserHs textD >e mig!t per!aps suggest t!e /ollo>ing interpretation: t!e root o/ antagonismD /irst o/ allD is t!e /act t!at exploitation is somet!ing un6eara6le /or indi3iduals andD a6o3e allD /or collecti3ities.o/ a social practice t!at is incompati6le >it! t!e Js-stem. – de-ate % & Capitalism e+ol+es in EKE.M SI$G)E I:E.':IE$ – this round is a uni?ue resistance point 4ali-arD 4ro/essor o/ 4olitical 4!ilosop!-D =ni3ersit.possi6le /orm o/ its Jreproduction. .o/ 4aris 199# Etienne @ali6arD 4ro/essor o/ 4olitical 4!ilosop!-D =ni3ersit. It is impossi6le /or capitalism to +eep t!e relations o/ production in t!e same /orm in >!ic! t!e. 6asic insta6ilit.J 0!is is capitalismHs necessit-. 1e must admitD t!ere/oreD t!at t!e necessit."or in less naturalisticD more politicalD 8ac!ia3ellian termsD t!e reason /or its sta6ilit. Capitalism is /orced to trans/orm itsel/.existed at a certain moment in !istor-D in a certain p!ase o/ accumulation. its o>n modes o/ exploiting t!e la6or /orceD its mode o/ socialiCing indi3iduals .s a conseFuenceD /or usD tooD it is impossi6le not to e3ol3e.o/ 4arisD 199$D 4ostmodern 8aterialism and t!e 5uture o/ 8arxist 0!eor-D p.t e3er. and t!is is t!e onl. .>!at >e must understand under t!e name o/ Jt!e un6eara6le. In t!e last anal-sisD t!e /orm o/ !uman la6or "6ot! indi3idual and collecti3e# remains irreduci6le to t!e condition o/ a commodit-D >!ic! is exactl.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1 2 'lt sol+enc.to gain social strengt! t!roug! antagonismD its success in using antagonistic /orces as its o>n means o/ reproduction in t!e class struggle ).succeeds in imposing t!e /orms o/ Jreal su6sumptionJ upon t!e la6or /orce—t!at isD trans/orming la6or po>er into a commodit-O t!ere is an actual limit to t!is process.J 0!is >ould meanD t!enD t!at t!e capitalist mode o/ production can ne3er 6e reproduced in an identical manner.its a6ilit. 0!is >ould mean t!atD alt!oug! capitalism actuall. 11$<9 o>D i/ >e ta+e some distance /rom . " 1 2 . I agree on t!is point >it! all t!ose 8arxists >!o insist on t!e necessit.is not its intrinsic co!erence or its producti3it-G it is onl. .trans/orm its o>n relations o/ production is also t!e possi6ilit.

1!en doneD >e ma.in t!e Graduate Sc!ool o/ Social 1or+ and Social 2esearc! at @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 200$ C!apter Se3enG in 1el/are Discipline: DiscourseD Go3ernanceD and Glo6aliCation 4g 1*2 par 1 – pg 1*) par 1 0!e discourse o/ glo6aliCation creates ne> >a-s o/ reinscri6ing pri3ilege and su6ordination 6calling /ort! ne> /orms o/ go3ernance /or regimenting populations into t!e emerging social order . 0o understand >!at I mean 6.!a3e in an.can ma+e t!e >el/are state less exclusionar. (i6eralismD >it! its emp!asis on a social contract and rational<legal logicD emp!asiCes rig!ts to entitlement. 1estern li6eral indi3idualistic cultureD especiall.ation must -e challenged – 0ithout challenge 0e doom the poor to a c. In so doingD t!e.t!e ne> /orms o/ go3ernance emerging >it! t!e glo6al order. Sc!ramD teac!es social t!eor.J 8.no means t!e onl. In /actD I >ill argue t!at compassionate conser3atism is 6ut a con3enient discursi3e practice /or rationaliCing t!e discipline meted out 6.& Compassionate conser3atism practices Jtoug! lo3e.c!oose to act on t!ose emotions t!roug! pu6lic or pri3ate actionsD 3ia t!e national >el/are state or t!e local communit.>i/eD t!e title o/ t!is c!apter ended up 6eing titled Compassionate (i6eralism.and economicall.S.to express t!at sort o/ emotional commitment to !elping t!ose >!o are let 6e!ind 6. WetD as is o/ten t!e caseD t!ose let 6e!ind sociall.and social polic.come out in a 3er.nd >!en >e doD >e ma. 1it!out t!e critical distance needed to Fuestion t!at discourseD people ris+ continuing to 6e caug!t in a 3icious c-cle t!at alternates /rom episodic c!arita6le responses to po3ert. I li+e t!e idea t!at pu6lic polic./rom recogniCing t!e critical roles o/ emotionD caringD and lo3ing compassion in structuring peopleHs relations!ips to eac! ot!er. 1 9 .s!ould 6e compassionate.as a >a.means /ailing to c!allenge t!e disciplinar.1 .to crac+ing do>n on t!e poor as de3iants >!o need to 6e punis!ed /or t!eir po3ert. 0!an+s to a long pre<Katrina ride to t!e 6eac! >it! m.o> s!ould people respond to t!e implicit understandings o/ sel/ and ot!er em6edded in t!e glo6aliCation discourseHs preoccupation >it! >el/are dependenc-Q 0!e. response to t!e Katrina !urricane disaster is 6ut one prominent example. It mig!t not ma+e e3er-one a practitioner o/ compassionate li6eralismD 6ut it mig!t !elp create resources /or resisting t!e disciplinar./ind compassionate conser3atism to not 6e t!e 6est >a.constructedD communit-D >!et!er t!e.or 6est >a.and tap its latent possi6ilities /or more compassionate policies.D2 0!e =. .di//erent place t!an did t!e person in t!e 1!ite . 4resident George @us!D rel-ing on t!e >ritings o/ 8ar3in 9las+-D !as c!ampioned t!e idea t!at pu6lic policies s!ould re/lect a Jcompassionate conser3atismDJ >!ere social >el/are pro3ision is pro3ided on t!e 6asis o/ concern /or !elping t!e less pri3ileged de3elop t!e sel/<discipline to 6e a6le to ad!ere to moral standards.t!isD >e need to ta+e a s!ort trip t!roug! some issues o/ political p!ilosop!-.need to identi/.s!ould practice relating eac! ot!erD one<to<one and collecti3el-.t!e c!anges >roug!t 6.t!e glo6aliCing mar+et<centered societ-./amilies to li/e o/ po3ert-.ouse.* 1!ile it is indeed 3erimportant to t!in+ a6out t!e role o/ compassion in social >el/are polic. WetD it is ?ust suc! a discourse t!at !as led people a>a.!a3e emotional 6onds to eac! ot!er as mem6ers o/ a !umanD i/ politicall.cle o/ -lame SchramD pro/ E @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 0# San/ord 5. 5ailing to c!allenge t!e discourse o/ dependenc.as experienced in t!e =nited StatesD !as led people a>a.to introduce more compassion into t!e >el/are state./rom t!in+ing a6out compassion as a 6asis o/ social polic-. 0!ere/oreD insisting t!at legal rig!ts to entitlement 6e t!e sole 6asis /or t!eir getting to ma+e claims on collecti3e resources can doom man.t!ose em6edded 6iasesD call t!em out pu6licl-D and propose alternati3e understandings a6out !o> t!e.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1 9 'lt sol+enc. 4eople need to recogniCe t!at t!e.point in t!is c!apter is t!at t!e presidentHs compassionate conser3atism is 6..o/ getting 6e-ond t!e limitations o/ t!e existing social >el/are stateD it is important to understand t!e 3arieties o/ compassion. – discourse %1& :heir discourse o/ glo-ali.) (egalistic rig!ts discourse puts in t!e 6ac+ground alternati3e >a-s in >!ic! t!ose >!o !a3e 6een marginaliCed or su6ordinated !a3e claims on ot!er mem6ers o/ t!e political communit-.practices o/ t!e ne> /orms o/ go3ernance.practices o/ t!e ne> /orms o/ go3enance.actuall-<existing li6eral order less t!an t!e /ull complement o/ legal rig!ts to entitlements to address all t!eir needs.

o/ our neig!6ours.stages o/ struggle out>eig!s t!e potential material 6ene/it.see t!at t!e costs <p!-sical or ps-c!ological –o/ retaining it are !ig!er t!an t!e costs o/ losing it. 1e can place upon our >alls t!ose tom6stones >!ic! 1e canD Fuite rationall-D su6ordinate our desire /or li6ert.>e do not act is t!atD /rom t!e da-s o/ our 6irt!D >e are immersed in t!e political situation into >!ic! >e are 6ornD and as a result >e cannot imagine our >a. >ords and >ritings >ere all not!ing. 1e can use t!at agenc.an. . In t!is struggleD most o/ us are not -et directl.t!an t!ose >!o soug!t to /end o// deat! 6. 93er t!e past /i3e -ears in man.ut!orD columnistD and political acti3ist.demonstrating t!at t!ere ma. I/ >e +no> t!at >e >ill ne3er actD >e !a3e no /reedom: >e >illD /or t!e rest o/ e3er-one !as some sense t!at ot!er people s!ould 6e treated as s!e >ould >is! to 6e. 0!is is >!. 0!ose >!o catal-se re3olution are seldom t!e people >!o pro/it /rom it. It arisesD I t!in+D /rom t!e D intensit. 1e >ill die and 6e /orgotten >it! no less certaint.to act upon our 6elie/s.<among t!em t!e ma?orit>!o li3e in t!e poor >orld on !o> to manage t!eir li3es. material presence on t!e eart!D 6ut >e >ill li3e 6e/ore >e die t!roug! t!e extremes o/ /eeling >!ic! com/ort >ould den. 2)9# I/D !a3ing read t!e pre3ious six c!aptersD -ou !a3e concluded t!at Hsomet!ing oug!t to 6e doneHD t!en I !a3e succeeded in one respectD and /ailed in anot!er.imagination is t!e /irst Fuali/ication o/ t!e re3olutionar-./reeD in ot!er >ordsD >e must 6e prepared to contemplate re3olution.us. It expandsD t!ere/oreD >it! t!e scope o/ t!e action >e are prepared to contemplate.o/ t!e countries o/ t!e poor >orld <t!oug! t!is is seldom reported in t!e 1est < people !a3e tried to c!ange t!eir circumstances t!roug! explosi3e demonstrations o/ grie/D anger and !ope. .t!emD 6ecause t!e.con/ronting armed /orce "t!oug! t!is ma.to en!ance t!at !opeD 6.tan+s and planes or cannons and ca3alr.discourse o/ secular politicsD !as no recogniCed eFui3alent. .t!e.and its 3alidit. 0!ere are se3eral reasons >!.o/ t!e relations!ips /orged in a collecti3e purpose .ot!er re3olutionaries.li3eD t!e pro6lems t!e protesters in ric! nations contest 6elong to t!e second order o/ concern: >e are not con/ronted 6. It is t!e drug /or >!ic!D once sampledD -ou >ill pa.lmost e3er-oneD in ot!er >ordsD !as a notion o/ ?usticeD and /or most people t!is notionD !o>e3er /ormulatedD sits some>!ere close to t!e !eart o/ t!eir s-stem o/ 6elie/s.a c!oice. 5reedom is t!e a6ilit.!a3e con3inced -ou t!at radical c!ange is necessar-D per!aps also t!at it is possi6leD e3en ine3ita6le. 0o 6e trul.to our desire /or securit-.>a.o/ material sel/<ad3ancement to acti3ists in t!e ric! >orldD t!ere isD in collecti3e re3olutionar. 1!en people cease to 6elie3e <to 6elie3e in it as t!e.occasions on >!ic! rulers possessed t!e means o/ suppressing re3olt <t!e necessar.actionD somet!ing >!ic! appears to 6e missing /rom almost e3er. In most casesD t!e personal ris+ in3ol3ed in t!e earl.are con/ronted 6.6e 3ia6le alternati3es to t!e s-stems t!at su6?ugate t!em. /our 6illion -ears o/ serendipit.<and >!en t!e.. 0!is mani/estoD and all t!e pu6lications li+e itD is >ort!less unless it pro3o+es people to action.at @ristol and 4ro/essor o/ 4olitics at Keele. @ut >!ile t!e proposals in t!is mani/esto o//er little 6. I !a3e soug!tD >it! t!is mani/estoD simpl. 9r >e can use our agenc. our li3esD do as >e are told .>ell c!ange as >e 6ecome e//ecti3e#D so t!e ris+s to >!ic! >e expose oursel3es and our /amilies areD as -etD slig!ter t!an t!ose encountered 6./ailure is t!e placidit.percei3ed t!at t!e personal e//ort o/ retaining po>er out>eig!ed t!e e//ort o/ relinFuis!ing it.t!roug! itG >e cannot en3isage t!at it >ill e3er come to an end.occasions o3er t!e past /e> -ears on >!ic! >e !a3e >on t!e argument and lost t!e >ar.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1!0 'lt sol+enc. I ma. It costs not!ing to agree t!at somet!ing s!ould 6e doneG indeed people li+e us !a3e 6een accepting t!is proposition /or decadesD and >aiting /or someone else to act on it.>e do not act.and e3olutionD to earn a little moreD to sa3e a little moreD to >in t!e appro3al o/ our 6osses and t!e en3. 0!ere !a3e 6een man.6elie/sD and our /reedom is restricted accordingl-.. Constitutional c!ange >ill 6egin onl. re3olutionar. 1!at sustains coerci3e po>er is not /orce o/ armsD or e3en capitalD 6ut 6elie/.>it!out t!e slig!test sense o/ danger.not!er reason >!. 0!ose >!o possess po>er >ill surrender it onl. 9ur opinionsD in t!ese circumstancesD count /or not!ing until >e act upon t!em. orD o/ courseD are t!e potential 6ene/its o/ resistance as o63iousD /or t!ose acti3ists >!o li3e in t!e ric! >orldD as t!e 6ene/its o/ o3ert!ro>ing aCi occupation or deposing an indigenous t-rantD or 6rea+ing a>a.to secure com/orta6le existence. @ut /or most o/ t!e people o/ t!e ric! >orldD and t!e more prosperous people o/ t!e poor >orldD re3olution o//ers t!e possi6ilit.noted Hm.ot!er enterprise in modern secular li/e.ad3ersit-.at @ristol and 4ro/essor o/ 4olitics at KeeleD 0! "George 8on6iotD 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!.pamp!letsD Gerrard 1instanle.is someone >!o recogniCes t!e contingenc. In 1$<19D a/ter recoiling /rom t!e satis/action !e /elt upon completing one o/ !is re3olutionar. concrete action( Endorsing the criti?ue is a /irst step to0ards creating mo+ements that 0ill destro. 1e can /or oursel3es a sa/e and use our li/eD t!at one unrepeata6le product o/ concentrated 6. 0!e campaigners >!o !a3e exposed t!e in?ustices o/ t!e current glo6al s-stem o/ten succeed in generating a >idespread demand /or c!angeD and ?ust as o/ten disco3er t!at t!is demand !as no outlet.o/ po>er.to c!ange t!e >orldD andD in c!anging itD to c!ange oursel3es. . :8ani/esto /or a e> 1orld 9rder. @ut t!e measure o/ m. =ntil >e present a direct constitutional c!allenge to its sur3i3alD orD t!roug! suc! measures as a t!reatened conditional de/aultD alter t!e circumstances in >!ic! it operatesD t!ose >!o maintain t!e dictators!ip o/ 3ested interests >ill read >!at >e >rite and listen to >!at >e sa. capitalism 6on-iot7 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!. It is t!e exultation >!ic! C!ristians call H?o-HD 6ut >!ic!D in t!e dr.>ould 6elie3e in a godD in its omnipotenceD its unassaila6ilit.ll t!ose >it! agenc. p./rom a /ormall. – discourse %2& Discourse is ine//ecti+e unless it is -ac*ed up -.di3isions <6ut c!ose not to deplo.o/ /reedom /rom t!e constraints >e impose upon oursel3es.imminent star3ation or deat! t!roug! >ater6orne diseaseD 6ut 6distant >arsD economic insta6ilit-D climate c!ange and t!e ex!austion o/ resourcesG issues >!ic! seldom present immediate t!reats to our sur3i3al.lmost 1!0 . 1!ile most o/ t!e people o/ t!e poor >orld !a3e an acute need to c!ange t!e circumstances >!ic! go3ern t!e >a.>!en t!e.price . 0!ere !a3e 6een man. I do not presume to lecture t!ose >!o !a3e little agenc.en!ancing t!eir t!e li3ing erect to t!emsel3es: t!e /ramed certi/icates o/ t!eir acceptance into >!at Eric! 5romm !as called t!e Hnecrop!iliacH >orld o/ >ealt! and po>er.>!en >e reac! t!e more dangerous conclusion t!at HI must actH. I/ >e do not act upon t!is sense o/ ?usticeD >e do not act upon one o/ our primar.constituted empire. ..mind >as not at restD 6ecause not!ing >as actedD and .o/ -our response .act upon t!at 6elie/D an empire can collapseD almost o3ernig!t. and must dieD /or action is t!e li/e o/ allD and i/ t!ou dost not actD t!ou dost not!ingH.

by deconstructing t!e dominant capitalocentric discourse o/ econom. 0!e locus o/ antagonism !as simpl.as extradiscursi3e and dominantl.s!i/ted and is no> made up o/ multiple t!reats to t!e J/ree mar+etDJ suc! as remnant pu6lic sector in3ol3ement in t!e econom-.as extradiscursi3eD as t!e ultimate real and natural /orm o/ econom-D !as gained additional ideological /orce since t!e demise o/ capitalismHs Jot!er. Jdemocratic >el/are statismJ "0or/ing 1999D 299#D and t!e insistent J/ailuresJ o/ de3elopment<spaces >!ere a6?ect po3ert. 1e can dislocate t!e unit. 1!1 .in >!ic! a certain discourse o/ t!e econom.o/ t!e !egemonic discursi3e /ormation. 0!e representation o/ t!e capitalist econom.and social disintegration !a3e increased during t!e Jage o/ de3elopmentJ and no> !ar6or Jterrorist t!reatsJ to >ealt!. 0ill nu-p0n cap Gi-sonCGraham7 pro/essors7 200#( "Pulie Gra!am S Kat!erine Gi6sonD pro/essor at t!e =ni3ersit.(aclau and 8ou//e suggests >a-s in >!ic! a counter!egemonic political pro?ect could 6e pursued t!roug! desta6iliCation and dislocation o/ t!e seeming unit.o/ politics !elps us to see t!e >a.t!at >it! t!e JdisappearanceJ o/ communism and socialism social antagonisms t!at constitute t!e unit.capitalist.m!erst Department o/ GeosciencesD 200$D *ostcapitalist *olitics# 0!is t!eor.H 0!e t!eor.o/ neoli6eral glo6al capitalist discourse "and t!us its !egemon-# !a3e 6een eliminated.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1!1 'lt sol+enc.o/ neoli6eral glo6al capitalist economic discourse t!roug! a proli/erati3e Fueering o/ t!e economic landscape and construction o/ a ne> language o/ economic di3ersit-.in >!ic! capitalist econom ic acti3itis ta+en as t!e model /or all economic acti3it-."as realD as capitalist# !as 6ecome !egemonicD and !o> alternati3e and di//erent understandings o/ econom. 1e canD /or exampleD unco3er t!e condensations and displacements t!at !a3e contri6uted to t!e understanding o/ t!e econom.nations.!a3e 6een enrolled into t!e !egemonic pro?ector outla>ed as a t!reat to t!e !egemonic discourse.and !egemon.J 0!is is not to sa. &. – discourse % & 4ringing do0n the discourse o/ the econom. 1e can 6egin to Jun/ixJ economic identit.o/ 8assac!usetts . 0!is dislocation is a crucial prereFuisite to t!e pro?ect o/ culti3ating di//erent su6?ects o/ econom-.o/ politics ad3anced 6.

and reclaims it as a contested space o/ representation.o/ 8assac!usetts . I/ >e are to enact ne> economiesD >e need to imagine Jt!e econom-J di//erentl-<as somet!ing t!at is created in speci/ic geograp!ical contexts and in !istoricall.!as in3ol3ed a !egemonic mo3e 6.8itc!ell arguesD >e are up against an alread.o/ an.existing economic o6?ect materialiCed in socio<tec!nical net>or+s o/ calculation t!at !a3eD since t!e 19&0sD produced t!e econom.s 0imot!.6. -.3arious capitalist and noncapitalist institutions and practicesD is a di//icult tas+D /or >e must contend not onl.as a Jsingular and sel/<e3ident totalit-J "/ort!coming#.o/ national economiesD and t!ere/ore t!eir managea6ilit-D is 6eing undermined .existing Jalternati3eJ and gro>ing alarm t!atD >it! glo6aliCationD t!e autonom.H 0!e economic landscape !as 6een molded according to t!e imaginar.is denied t!e discursi3e mandate gi3en to ot!er social sp!eres and t!e conseFuences /or t!e 3ia6ilit. 1!2 . 0!is s!i/t /rom an understanding o/ t!e econom. In t!is c!apter >e construct a language o/ t!e diverse economy in >!ic! t!e economic landscape is represented as populated 6.m!erst Department o/ GeosciencesD 200$D *ostcapitalist *olitics# 0P 1e are con3inced t!at t!e ans>ers to t!ese Fuestions are connected to t!e almost total naturaliCation o/ Jt!e econom-J t!at !as ta+en place in pu6lic discourse o3er recent decadesD coinciding >it! t!e demise o/ socialism as an actuall.or straig!t/or>ard pro?ect. 1e ta+e up CallariHs "1991# c!allenge to turn t!e ta6les and to repoliticiCe t!e econom.as somet!ing t!at can 6e trans/ormedD or at least managed "6peopleD t!e stateD t!e I84#D to somet!ing t!at go3erns societ. . 0!e t!in+ing practice emplo-ed !ere is t!e tec!niFue o/ reading /or di//erence rat!er t!an dominance "see t!e Introduction#. Seen /rom t!eir political perspecti3eD our reading experiment is a counter!egemonic pro?ect. representing capitalist economic acti+it.political pro?ect o/ economic inno3ation are dire.o/ politics t!at (adau and 8ou//e "19'*# !a3e de3eloped to !elp understand and dislodge /orms o/ !egemon-.( Gi-sonCGraham7 pro/essors7 200#( "Pulie Gra!am S Kat!erine Gi6sonD pro/essor at t!e =ni3ersit. 0!is c!apter outlines a strateg. in a 0a.politics up to a >ider arra.pat!<dependent >a-sD 6ut t!is is not an eas.opening it up to potential inter3entions t!at are 6ot! class and nonclass /ocused.!a3e slipped /rom t!eir locations in discourse and landed Jon t!e groundDJ in t!e JrealDJ not ?ust separate /rom 6ut outside o/ societ-. 0o do t!is >e call on t!e t!eor.H 0o read a landscape >e !a3e al>a-s read as capitalist as a landscape o/ economic di//erenceD populated 6.o/ social and cultural issues.gender categories t!at are its support "199&D )#.a m-riad o/ contingent /orms and interactions. – representations Enl.6./or ta+ing 6ac+ t!e econom-D /or representing it in a >a.c!allenging t!e representation o/ capitalism as t!e necessaril.>!ic! representations o/ econom.detac!ing it /rom its traditional identi/ication >it! class struggles o3er t!e mode o/ production. 1e propose to repoliticiCe t!e econom.dominant /orm "or identit-# o/ econom-.t!at dislodges t!e discursi3e dominance o/ capitalist economic acti3it.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1!2 'lt sol+enc. In t!ese postmodern timesD t!e econom.H 9t!ersD suc! as Ernesto (adau and C!antal 8ou//e "19'*#D !a3e de<economiCed t!e political 6./unctionings o/ a Jsel/<contained and d-namic mec!anismJ +no>n as Jt!e econom-DJ and t!is representation is di//icult to dislodge. that dislodges it /rom its discursi+e dominance can 0e reclaim our econom.>it! our coloniCed imaginationsG 6ut >it! our 6elie/s a6out politicsD understandings o/ po>erD naturaliCed conceptions o/ econom-D and structures o/ desire "as >e !a3e argued in t!e Introduction and c!apter 1#. 0!e ad3ent o/ glo6aliCation and t!e /ailure o/ socialist economies !a3e /urt!er compounded t!e identi/ication o/ capitalism >it! t!is o6durate o6?ect.and naturall. opening re3olutionar.1e are attempting to promote Jcollecti3e disidenti/icationJ >it! capitalismD muc! as Pudit! @utler and ot!er Fueer t!eorists !a3e tried to do >it! !eterosexualitand t!e 6inar.

o/ lo3e as /undamental to producing social c!ange. Sc!ramD teac!es social t!eor. 1e must >or+ to ma+e incremental re/orms possi6le no> in t!e s!ort run e3en as >e >or+ to produce structural re/orms in t!e long run. S!e essentiall.excluded /rom t!e entitlement s-stem .argued >it! Po!n De>e. It >ould not 6e a compassion t!at can 6e used to rationaliCe t!e su6stitution o/ entitlement rig!ts >it! t!e disciplinar.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1! 'lt sol+enc.$* 0!is >ould 6e a politics o/ compassion >ort! /ig!ting /or.and social polic.practices o/ t!e ne> /orms o/ go3ernance t!at >or+ t!roug! ci3il societ.in t!e Graduate Sc!ool o/ Social 1or+ and Social 2esearc! at @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 200$ C!apter Se3enG in 1el/are Discipline: DiscourseD Go3ernanceD and Glo6aliCation 4g 1$& par & – pg 1$) 4er!aps t!is is >!at ma+es !arm reduction an exemplar o/ >!at I am calling compassionate li6eralism. It >ould instead 6e a politics t!at recaptures compassion /rom t!ose >!o see+ to exploit it to ?usti/. 0!is politics o/ compassion >ould not 6e an-t!ing li+e t!e compassionate conser3atism t!at !as 6een promoted in recent -ears.to allo> /or acts o/ compassion t!at compensate people ig!t no> >it!in a s-stem o/ enti] tlements t!at lea3es t!em una6le to meet t!eir 6asic needs.ouse a6out !er re/usal to accept t!e idea t!at antagonism >as /undamental to li/e and t!at con/lict >as essential to getting c!ange.ntagonism need not in3ol3e 3iolence and need not insist on onl. politics o/ lo3ing t!ere/ore actuall. o+ercoming ethical and moral -arriers SchramD pro/ E @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 0# San/ord 5.painting t!e >el/are state as coldD !eartlessD uncaingD and not >ort! /ig!ting /or . Pane .one point in time .at .a +ind o/ situational et!icsD resisting t!e temptation to ?udge rig!t and >rong /or all time in clear terms o/ command et!ics . Compassionate li6eralism is interested in !elping people li3e 6etter >it!out ?udging >!et!er t!e.2% Compassionate conser3atism >ants to !elp t!e poor 6teac!ing t!em t!e di//erence 6et>een good and e3il and t!en getting t!em to practice >!at is good and resist >!at is e3il. Suc! a politics o/ compassion >ould >or+ >it!in li6eral institutions to !umaniCe t!em >!ile at t!e same time plotting to trans/orm t!em 6e-ond t!e limits o/ li6eral capitalism.ull .ddams /amousl. Compassionate conser3atism is interested in a6olis!ing po3ert.sa3ing one soul at a timeD usuall. Sc!ramD teac!es social t!eor.put et!ics a6o3e politics.to regiment people into t!e emerging social order. 1!ile t!e continuing struggle /or a 6asic income /or all is imperati3eD t!is needs to 6e supplemented >it! 6uilding in more compassionate and more generous assistance to t!ose >!o are currentl. .and social polic.2' 'n alternati+e o/ compassion sol+es a*a I ha+e no clue ho0 to tag this card SchramD pro/ E @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 0# San/ord 5.>or+ing /or a total o3er!aul o/ t!e existing ?uridical order.nd in an era o/ glo6aliCationD t!is is a most urgent tas+. .t!roug! c!arita6le e//orts in t!e pri3ate sector. InsteadD >e must learn to >or+ 6ot! >it!in and outside t!e s-stem simultaneousl-.6. WetD it could 6e t!at real lo3e animates an ongoing agonistic politics t!at resists t!e processes o/ marginaliCation at >or+ in t!e >el/are state. .narro> understandings o/ >!o >as a personall.3alues t!e role o/ conlict and antagonism. It 6espea+s o/ t!e li6eral commitment to tolerance rat!er t!an t!e conser3ati3e commitment to insisting on strict standards /or distinguis!ing good /rom 6ad in moral terms.t!emsel3es are engaged in practices or 6e!a3iors t!at are good or 6ad in a6solute moral terms.ma+e t!ings 6etter /or people e3en as it planned to o3ercome t!e s-stemic sources t!at marginaliCed and oppressed t!ose >!o did not con/orm to t!e standards o/ deser3ingness in a societt!at insisted on particularl.in t!e Graduate Sc!ool o/ Social 1or+ and Social 2esearc! at @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 200$ C!apter Se3enG in 1el/are Discipline: DiscourseD Go3ernanceD and Glo6aliCation 4g 1%% par & – pg 1%9 par 1 . 1! .$) 0!is means pus!ing /or more legal rig!ts to entitlements e3en as >e >or+ >it!in t!e s-stem to ma+e it more li+el. Compassionate li6eralism practices a tolerance t!at is in/ormed 6.ntagonism (o3ing resistance to t!e stateHs processes o/ marginaliCation is t!ere/ore its o>n /orm o/ agonistic politics t!at pus!es /or >!at c!anges in t!e existing standards o/ deser3ingness can 6e gained at an.$& It >as !er attempt to express a p!ilosop!. – li-eralismGcompassion Compassionate li-eralism sol+es the a// -. (o3ing .responsi6leD sel/<su//icient mem6er o/ t!at societ-. It >ould practice !arm reductionD o//ering aid >it!out passing ?udgmentD >or+ing to incrementall. It >ould do t!at in t!e name o/ re6uilding t!e >el/are state.

exaggeration createsD in a dialectic senseD its counter<part<an antit!esis. 5or t!at reason t!e /uture did notD !o>e3erD turn into a !omogenous and empt.at t!e end o/ !istor.remar+edD t!e 9>l o/ 8iner3a /olds its >ings at da-<6rea+ O closing up s!opD as it >ereD ?ust >!en t!ings at last start to get interesting.J# icolas Sar+oC-D t!e 5renc! presidentD o//ered up similarl.contrastD in remem6rance.sian miracleDJ de3aluing currencies suc! as t!e 0!ai 6!at and Indonesian rupia!D mass protests and riots spread t!roug! t!e region o3ernig!t.>!en t!ese elites >ere closer to t!e general population.contrastD prepared t!e ground /or e3en more intensi3e and extensi3e social up!ea3als.o/ organiCing !uman societ.o3er e3er.entrenc!ed political and social arrangements can disappear o3ernig!t.pulled t!e plug on t!e J. 0!is disenc!anted t!ose >!o /ell pre.are not all t!at incorrect. – action no0 %1& :he 0orld5s leaders are still committed to sa+ing capitalismC this uni?ue time in histor.e6sco!ost.nd >!en t!e.2.nd -ouD o/ all peopleD are sa-ing t!isQJ Stein6rnc+ replied: JE3er.at 1orcester 4ol-tec!nic Institute in 8assac!usettsD B09 "Po!n San6onmatsuD . !ttp:77>e6. t!roug! >!ic! t!e 8essia! could enter.mo3ement !ad toppled t!e aut!oritarian go3ernment o/ 4resident Su!arto in IndonesiaD a nation o/ o3er 200 million. 0 social mo3ements /rom t!e /ield o/ !istor. has created an opening in 0hich to get rid o/ capitalism – 0e need to act no0 San-onmatsuD .experiencedD alt!oug! one s!ouldnHt generaliCe t!ese occurrences.!a3e a 6rie/ openingD a caesura in t!e longD 6reat!less tale o/ capitalism and its 3iolenceD in >!ic! to imagine and to set t!e terms /or a ne> >a. IHm tal+ing a6out scandals and a//airs o/ t!e sort >e !a3e recentl. . CE 95 AI@2. "J0!e crisis Yis\ not a /ailure o/ t!e /ree<mar+et s-stemDJ !e insistedD Jand t!e ans>er is not to rein3ent t!at s-stem.o/ socialist re3olution O on t!e >a.aspect o/ !uman and natural li/eD capitalism is 6eginning to su//er its o>n Jlegitimac.name. @ut >e cannot >ait to /ind out.to t!e /utureD >!o soug!t ad3ice /rom t!e soot!sa-ers. J93erallDJ !e saidD J>e !a3e to conclude t!at certain elements o/ 8arxist t!eor.second >as t!e narro> gateD s-stemic crises open up unexpected =topian /issures in t!e seemingl. S!ould >e sFuander t!is !istorical moment t!roug! inaction or despairD it ma.ssociate 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!.6. 1!en Gramsci spo+e o/ popular Js+epticismJ to>ard an older regimeD !e +ne> o/ >!at !e spo+eD !a3ing !imsel/ 6een t!ro>n in ?ail 6.in3o+ing t!e spirit o/ 8arxism to explain >!at >as occurring in t!e international mar+ets.ope.soon 6e too late /or us to do an-t!ingD except to >atc! /rom t!e sidelines as >orld e3ents spiral out o/ control.passD ma.egel /amousl. 0!at isD onl. @us! last autumnD >!en !e /elt compelled to de/end t!e capitalist s-stem 6. 1it!in a -earD t!e democrac.ntonio GramsciD t!e great Italian t!eoristD o6ser3ed t!at se3ere economic disruptions can Jlead in t!e long run to a >idespread s+epticismJ to>ard t!e existing order as a >!ole. Some t!ings !a3e gotten out o/ control in t!is respect.at 1orcester 4ol-tec!nic Institute in 8assac!usettsD 8a-7Pune 2009D 0i++un :1!. 0!is isnHt merel. In 199%D >!en /oreign traders suddenl. In t!e endD un6ridled capitalism >it! all o/ its greedD as >e !a3e seen !appening !ereD consumes itsel/ .are t!e sort o/ t!ing t!e general pu6lic understands all too >ell.t!at 1!! .Capitalism S!ouldnLt @e Sa3ed. 0oda-D !o>e3erD as t!e 8arxist Pames 9HConnor !as ironicall.s t!e >orld econom. 0!e 0ora! and t!e pra-ers instructed t!emD 6. . R&9%*&*&&# . @ut t!e. IHm tal+ing a6out tax e3asion and corruption. 0!ere !a3e 6een times in German.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1!! 'lt sol+enc.could not come at a more tragic time: /or t!e /irst time in se3ent.time /or t!e Pe>s.de3elopments in some areas.t!e GestapoD t!e Pe>is! p!ilosop!er 1alter @en?amin >rote: It is >ell<+no>n t!at t!e Pe>s >ere /or6idden to loo+ into t!e /uture./er3ent demonstrations o/ !is /ait! in capitalism.deterioratesD as !undreds o/ millions o/ people lose t!eir ?o6sD and as t!e state scales 6ac+ on social >el/are and pu6lic ser3icesD >e ma. 5or in it e3er.44E. I/ . Suc! a !istoric ruptureD a Jnarro> gateJ t!roug! >!ic! t!ose >!o en3ision a 6etter >orld mig!t suddenl.it de3oured t!e mindsD 6odiesD and la6or o/ countless !uman and non!uman 6eings o3er t!e course o/ centuriesD t!en /or t!e /irst time in generationsD per!aps e3erD >e ma. In 19)0D not long 6e/ore !e >as dri3en to !is deat! 6.impenetra6le roc+/ace o/ modernit-.are allo>ed to continue /or too longD t!e pu6lic gets t!e impression t!at Jt!ose people at t!e topJ no longer !a3e to pla. 0!e traumatic economic dislocations o/ t!e 1920s and 19&0sD 6. .an issue o/ excessi3e salar.E DIS.and econom-.J I/ capitalism is indeed 6eginning to consume itsel/D t!e same >a.J 0!e German p!ilosop!er Georg . @ut German-Hs /inance ministerD 4eer Stein6rnc+D struc+ a more ominous tone.>ould 2eason and di3ine Spirit at last come to 6e reconciledD in !uman sel/<consciousnessD !uman sel/<+no>ledge.see a >idening crisis o/ con/idence in t!e economic and social order as suc!.(.t!e /ascist leaderD @enito 8ussolini.6e opening up 6eneat! our o>n /eet toda-.ssociate 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!.ta+e >ing at dus+. 0!e dangers are incalcula6le.declaring t!eir national independence.t!e rules. I/ soD >e !a3e come to t!e t!res!old o/ . Stein6rnc+D a leading lig!t o/ t!e conser3ati3e C!ristian Democratic =nion part-D stunned !is inter3ie>er 6.-earsD a/ter decades o/ unFuestioned supremac. In a re3ealing inter3ie> >it! Der SpiegelD Stein6rnc+ >arned t!at t!e corporate and 6an+ing scandals t!at !ad plagued Europe and t!e =nited States in recent -ears !ad t!reatened to undermine /ait! in t!e s-stem as a >!ole: 1e !a3e to 6e care/ul not to allo> enlig!tened capitalism to 6ecome tainted >it! Fuestions o/ legitimac-D acceptanceD or /ascism and >orld >ar >ere t!e products o/ t!e last depressionD >!at >ill t!e next one 6ringQ credi6ilit-. 0!at >orrseems to !a3e 6een on t!e mind o/ George 1.>rote t!at t!e 9>l o/ 8iner3a >ould onl.t!e Su!arto regime 6.crisis.com7e!ost7detailQ3idR2S!idR10)SsidR11&1*2'e<c$&6<)%'*<'caa< $$c'c1*$/e'aT)0sessionmgr10S6dataRPn pdG=9B1!3c&Ut6Gl2BUT&dT&dVd6Rap!S. J 0!e reporter /rom Der Spiegel o6?ectedD J. -ear a/ter t!atD t!e East 0imorese at last o3ercame decades o/ repression 6. @en?amin >as re/lecting on t!e temporalit.SD 0. 1!en t!at !appensD e3en t!e most seemingl.

de3elopments in some areas. I/ soD >e !a3e come to t!e t!res!old o/ .at t!e end o/ !istor. In 199%D >!en /oreign traders suddenl.in3o+ing t!e spirit o/ 8arxism to explain >!at >as occurring in t!e international mar+ets.J I/ capitalism is indeed 6eginning to consume itsel/D t!e same >a.remar+edD t!e 9>l o/ 8iner3a /olds its >ings at da-<6rea+ O closing up s!opD as it >ereD ?ust >!en t!ings at last start to get interesting.nd >!en t!e.ssociate 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!.6e opening up 6eneat! our o>n /eet toda-.J 0!e German p!ilosop!er Georg . – action no0 %2& :he 0orld5s leaders are still committed to sa+ing capitalismC this uni?ue time in histor.declaring t!eir national independence. .2.see a >idening crisis o/ con/idence in t!e economic and social order as suc!.are not all t!at incorrect. IHm tal+ing a6out scandals and a//airs o/ t!e sort >e !a3e recentl. 0 social mo3ements /rom t!e /ield o/ !istor.crisis.second >as t!e narro> gateD s-stemic crises open up unexpected =topian /issures in t!e seemingl.time /or t!e Pe>s.-earsD a/ter decades o/ unFuestioned supremac.>rote t!at t!e 9>l o/ 8iner3a >ould onl.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1!" 'lt sol+enc. J93erallDJ !e saidD J>e !a3e to conclude t!at certain elements o/ 8arxist t!eor.passD ma. 0oda-D !o>e3erD as t!e 8arxist Pames 9HConnor !as ironicall.>ould 2eason and di3ine Spirit at last come to 6e reconciledD in !uman sel/<consciousnessD !uman sel/<+no>ledge.are allo>ed to continue /or too longD t!e pu6lic gets t!e impression t!at Jt!ose people at t!e topJ no longer !a3e to pla.could not come at a more tragic time: /or t!e /irst time in se3ent.name.entrenc!ed political and social arrangements can disappear o3ernig!t.nd -ouD o/ all peopleD are sa-ing t!isQJ Stein6rnc+ replied: JE3er.ntonio GramsciD t!e great Italian t!eoristD o6ser3ed t!at se3ere economic disruptions can Jlead in t!e long run to a >idespread s+epticismJ to>ard t!e existing order as a >!ole. Suc! a !istoric ruptureD a Jnarro> gateJ t!roug! >!ic! t!ose >!o en3ision a 6etter >orld mig!t suddenl. . 0!is isnHt merel.com7e!ost7detailQ3idR2S!idR10)SsidR11&1*2'e<c$&6<)%'*<'caa< $$c'c1*$/e'aT)0sessionmgr10S6dataRPn pdG=9B1!3c&Ut6Gl2BUT&dT&dVd6Rap!S.contrastD prepared t!e ground /or e3en more intensi3e and extensi3e social up!ea3als. J 0!e reporter /rom Der Spiegel o6?ectedD J.an issue o/ excessi3e salar.at 1orcester 4ol-tec!nic Institute in 8assac!usettsD B09 "Po!n San6onmatsuD .at 1orcester 4ol-tec!nic Institute in 8assac!usettsD 8a-7Pune 2009D 0i++un :1!.experiencedD alt!oug! one s!ouldnHt generaliCe t!ese occurrences.to t!e /utureD >!o soug!t ad3ice /rom t!e soot!sa-ers.contrastD in remem6rance.>!en t!ese elites >ere closer to t!e general population.e6sco!ost.ope. R&9%*&*&&# .44E. t!roug! >!ic! t!e 8essia! could enter. 1it!in a -earD t!e democrac.!a3e a 6rie/ openingD a caesura in t!e longD 6reat!less tale o/ capitalism and its 3iolenceD in >!ic! to imagine and to set t!e terms /or a ne> >a. Stein6rnc+D a leading lig!t o/ t!e conser3ati3e C!ristian Democratic =nion part-D stunned !is inter3ie>er 6.it de3oured t!e mindsD 6odiesD and la6or o/ countless !uman and non!uman 6eings o3er t!e course o/ centuriesD t!en /or t!e /irst time in generationsD per!aps e3erD >e ma. 1!en Gramsci spo+e o/ popular Js+epticismJ to>ard an older regimeD !e +ne> o/ >!at !e spo+eD !a3ing !imsel/ 6een t!ro>n in ?ail 6.aspect o/ !uman and natural li/eD capitalism is 6eginning to su//er its o>n Jlegitimac. S!ould >e sFuander t!is !istorical moment t!roug! inaction or despairD it ma. 0!ere !a3e 6een times in German. 5or t!at reason t!e /uture did notD !o>e3erD turn into a !omogenous and empt.t!e GestapoD t!e Pe>is! p!ilosop!er 1alter @en?amin >rote: It is >ell<+no>n t!at t!e Pe>s >ere /or6idden to loo+ into t!e /uture. In a re3ealing inter3ie> >it! Der SpiegelD Stein6rnc+ >arned t!at t!e corporate and 6an+ing scandals t!at !ad plagued Europe and t!e =nited States in recent -ears !ad t!reatened to undermine /ait! in t!e s-stem as a >!ole: 1e !a3e to 6e care/ul not to allo> enlig!tened capitalism to 6ecome tainted >it! Fuestions o/ legitimac-D acceptanceD or /ascism and >orld >ar >ere t!e products o/ t!e last depressionD >!at >ill t!e next one 6ringQ credi6ilit-.sian miracleDJ de3aluing currencies suc! as t!e 0!ai 6!at and Indonesian rupia!D mass protests and riots spread t!roug! t!e region o3ernig!t. Some t!ings !a3e gotten out o/ control in t!is respect./er3ent demonstrations o/ !is /ait! in capitalism. !ttp:77>e6.mo3ement !ad toppled t!e aut!oritarian go3ernment o/ 4resident Su!arto in IndonesiaD a nation o/ o3er 200 million. CE 95 AI@2. In 19)0D not long 6e/ore !e >as dri3en to !is deat! 6. @ut >e cannot >ait to /ind out.deterioratesD as !undreds o/ millions o/ people lose t!eir ?o6sD and as t!e state scales 6ac+ on social >el/are and pu6lic ser3icesD >e ma.are t!e sort o/ t!ing t!e general pu6lic understands all too >ell.t!e /ascist leaderD @enito 8ussolini. -ear a/ter t!atD t!e East 0imorese at last o3ercame decades o/ repression 6.s t!e >orld econom.o/ organiCing !uman societ. "J0!e crisis Yis\ not a /ailure o/ t!e /ree<mar+et s-stemDJ !e insistedD Jand t!e ans>er is not to rein3ent t!at s-stem. In t!e endD un6ridled capitalism >it! all o/ its greedD as >e !a3e seen !appening !ereD consumes itsel/ . 0!e traumatic economic dislocations o/ t!e 1920s and 19&0sD 6.J# icolas Sar+oC-D t!e 5renc! presidentD o//ered up similarl.(. 0!e 0ora! and t!e pra-ers instructed t!emD 6. @ut t!e.E DIS.6. 0!e dangers are incalcula6le.ta+e >ing at dus+.impenetra6le roc+/ace o/ modernit-. I/ .pulled t!e plug on t!e J. has created an opening in 0hich to get rid o/ capitalism – 0e need to act no0 San-onmatsuD . 0!is disenc!anted t!ose >!o /ell pre.t!e Su!arto regime 6.Capitalism S!ouldnLt @e Sa3ed. 1!en t!at !appensD e3en t!e most seemingl.o/ socialist re3olution O on t!e >a. IHm tal+ing a6out tax e3asion and corruption. .t!at 1!" .egel /amousl. @ut German-Hs /inance ministerD 4eer Stein6rnc+D struc+ a more ominous tone. 5or in it e3er.ssociate 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!.soon 6e too late /or us to do an-t!ingD except to >atc! /rom t!e sidelines as >orld e3ents spiral out o/ control.o3er e3er. @en?amin >as re/lecting on t!e temporalit. 0!at isD onl. @us! last autumnD >!en !e /elt compelled to de/end t!e capitalist s-stem 6.exaggeration createsD in a dialectic senseD its counter<part<an antit!esis.t!e rules.SD 0. 0!at >orrseems to !a3e 6een on t!e mind o/ George 1.and econom-.

o/ ends. Denial o/ utopia mutilates /reedom and /act. .or religionD science and tec!nolog.are correct i/ t!ere is no suc! t!ing as et!icalD constituti3e reason operating in communit-.uni3ersalD 6ut in addition is t!e et!ical o6ligation to realiCe t!e ideal.dialectical p!enomenological de/inition o/ reason is correct reason. I/ t!e argument o/ t!is c!apter is correctD >e cannot renounce suc! an attempt at transcendence >it!out gi3ing up on t!e et!ical pro?ect or curtailing t!at pro?ect 6.appear as t!e !ig!est and onl.do !a3e a capacit.understoodD are antielitist.industrial societ./unction in capitalist societ.and politicall-.HHrationalit-J in t!e /ull sense ?ust completes and /ills out our a//irmation o/ exteriorit.and democratic socialism as t!e rational em6odiment o/ t!at 3ision.ouseD 4entagonD and State Department >rong.legitimate 6ut necessar-.t!is particular example o/ ?usticeD J6eaut-J 6.0I9 4.o/ suc! a rationalD /ree su6?ect and >e ma.are legitimate >it!in t!eir o>n core. .on m. Suc! et!ical renunciation or curtailment is t!e deat! or mutilation o/ t!e !umanG denial o/ utopia is a li3ing deat!.an. JExteriorit-J or Jt!e ot!erJ in t!is 6oo+ !as at least /i3e moments or stages o/ articulation: as incarnates in its institutions /ull respect /or suc! a su6?ect.to understand t!emsel3es and t!eir li3es in a >a.o/ t!e popular mo3ements in EuropeD EnglandD and t!e =nited States in t!e last t>ent. HH0riangleHH is not ex!austed 6.particular mani/estation or instance.somet!ing I stand 6ac+ and predict o6?ecti3el.Fuestion negates t!e gi3en set o/ /acts and anticipates a ne> /uture.' 5urt!erD understandingD ?udgingD and c!oosing su6?ect and t!e current social situation is irrational and un?ust in not respecting t!at realit-D I !a3e t!ree c!oices.o/ utopian t!in+ing.t!e last option is /ull.t!is particular painting.o/ >ar s!o> a6out its !orrors compared to 4icassoHs Guernica Q11 0o t!e extentD t!ere/oreD t!at science and tec!nolog.an apple as+s Fuestions t!at point to>ard a /uture ans>er.and per/ection as an. Ideologies o/ scienti/ic elitismD t!ere/oreD as t!e. I/D t!ere/oreD I am essentiall. – moral o-ligation @e ha+e a moral o-ligation to -rea* do0n capitalism( Atopian thin*ing is essential( 6arsh 9" "P. I/D on t!e ot!er !andD m. .-ears suc! as /eminismD en3ironmentalismD ci3il rig!tsD and anti>ar mo3ementsD o/ten acting against t!e ad3ice or opinions o/ expertsD !a3e s!o>n t!emsel3es to 6e rig!t and e//ecti3e./orms o/ reason 6ecause t>entiet!<centur.dominate in t!e t>entiet! centur.consistent >it! t!e li/e o/ incarnate reason and /reedom.as past is t!e la6orer initiall.s!ould ma+e t!e di//erence clear .n.experience o/ m-sel/ as an incarnate su6?ect in t!e >orld.s I am arguing it !ereD a /undamental lin+ exists among dialectical p!enomenolog-D et!icalD constituti3e rationalit-D and democrac-./ocusing p!enomenologicall.o/ !uman populations s!o> me a6out !uman li/e compared to t!e insig!t o/ 8arxHs CapitalQ 1!at can a /actual stud. 1e 6egin to see t!at science and tec!nolog. 0!ese instances o/ JtriangleDJ J?usticeDJ on a re/lecti3eD et!ical le3el I constitute t!roug! re/lection and c!oice m-sel/ as an end in a communit. scientist !it on t!e !ead 6.ere it is important to 6e clear a6out t!e di//erence 6et>een acFuisiti3eD empirical reason and constituti3eD et!ical reason.in all o/ us as !uman in3alidates scienti/ic elitism at its 0o t!in+ in a utopian mannerD t!enD a6out communit.e3aluatedD as !ermeneuticall. 9ur a//irmation o/ JutopiaJ as essential and implied 6.%h extD on t!e le3el o/ insig!t and conceptualiCation >e arri3e at a uni3ersal t!at is not ex!austed 6.and participati3el. IndeedD man. In t!e Aietnam 1arD /or exampleD millions o/ people in t!e =nited States ta+ing to t!e streets in protest pro3ed t!e J6est and t!e 6rig!testJ in t!e 1!ite .n example /rom t!e sp!ere o/ personal moralit./orms o/ reasonD t!e.as not onl. Exteriorit.a//irm a t!ree/old exteriorit.t!e alienated present. Et!ical communit.s!o3e ot!erD more pro/oundD more re/lecti3eD more /undamental /orms o/ reason to t!e side and 1e 6egin to suspect and see t!at science and tec!nolog.$ 1e can appreciate t!is point more deepl.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1!# 'lt sol+enc. IndeedD it ma. 1!en a /riendD relati3eD teac!erD or minister counsels an alco!olic to con/ront !er !a6itD s!e is not ma+ing a prediction.o/ pursuing et!ical communit.is t!e utopia o/ li6eration t!at is suggested 6-D demanded 6-D and called /or 6. I/ scientism and positi3ism or some o/ t!eir o//s!oots suc! as t!e postmodern pragmatism o/ 2ort.and socialism is to /ree oursel3es /rom t!e excessi3e !old t!at science and tec!nolog.interpretedD as criticall. .as lin+ed to rationalit-. Similarl-D an o6ligation exists to get o3er our capitalism as a social eFui3alent o/ drun+enness.and scienti/icall-G it is somet!ing to >!ic! I commit m-sel/ et!icall. 8oreo3erD no particularD sensi6le incarnation matc!es t!e per/ection o/ t!e ideal. 9nl.con/ronting capital as depri3ed o/ means o/ productionD landD and means o/ consumptionG as present exteriorit.8ES (D C2I0IU=ED .con/ining it to t!e sp!ere o/ intimateD interpersonal relations.utopian in t!eir /ullD un/olding li/e.is la6or con/ronting capital as not!ingD poorD more and more depri3ed o/ s+illD surplus 3alueD and e3en o/ emplo-mentG and as /uture exteriorit. 9 1e a//irmD t!enD t!e et!ical necessit.exert o3er our minds and imaginations. .as pastD presentD and /uture. 8en and >omen acting democraticall.and eideticall.and et!icsD properl.t!e !ig!est /orms o/ reason 6ut t!e onl.!a3e crac+sD 6lemis!esD and impurities.is t!e positi3e ground ena6ling us to go /ull. Exteriorit. rationalit- and /reedom and et!ics and !ermeneutics and critiFue and praxis not open to exteriorit.are relati3el. . 2e/lection and /reedom and praxis are essentiall. 10 proper domainsD do not ex!aust or monopoliCe t!e de/inition o/ reason and ot!er /orms o/ reason and +no>ledge t!at are more in/ormati3eD pro/oundD and /undamental. 5irst o/ allD Fuestioning is essential to t!e li/e o/ reasonD and anFuestioning points 6e-ond t!e data to a /uture ans>er arri3ed at in a /uture insig!t and ?udgment. Suc! utopia as norm and goal calls into Fuestion our alienated 6ourgeois present.ex!aust t!e de/inition o/ reasonD t!en utopian t!in+ing is irrational and t!e !uman mind must con/ine itsel/ to t!e straig!t ?ac+et o/ empirical D t!en t!e t!in+ing o/ utopia is not onl. 0!e presence o/ an et!icalD political rationalit.an experiencingD J6eaut-DJ respecti3el-D are not per/ectG t!e.amletHs J0o 6e or not to 6eJ speec!Q 1!at does an empirical stud.po>er does a scienti/ic eFuation !a3e compared to .6.and expertiseD e3en t!oug! t!e. IndeedD compared to certain expressions o/ art or et!ics or p!ilosop!.negati3e dialectic.pri3ate li/eD 6ut I remain exploitati3eD cruelD and in!umane in m.super/icial.?udgedD and as anticipated in an utopian manner. 1!at re3elator.6e-ond a merel.t!at is cogent and in touc! >it! realit-. 0!is et!ical norm !as t!e same inex!austi6ilit.seem unli+el-D gi3en t!is particular personHs past !istor-D t!at s!e >ill lic+ !er !a6it. 5inall-D p!enomenologicall. &&)<&&*# 0!e 6asic Fuestion concerning t!e possi6ilit. 0!e J6est and t!e 6rig!testJ according to t!e standards o/ scienti/ic elitism pro3ed to 6e deluded.are incompleteD truncatedD mutilated.o/ socialismD t!enD is t!e rationalit.t!is particular triangular t!ingD J?usticeJ 6.t!at is >ort!. I am a good /at!er or !us6and or lo3er in m. D (I@E2. I/ suc! constituti3e reason is possi6le and actual in !uman 6eings as !uman in communit-D t!en scienti/ic elitism is /alse. onet!elessD t!e moral o6ligation to get o3er !er !a6it remains.emerges as an in3ertedD tops-<tur3-D a6surd >orld.pu6licD capitalistic li/e. I can capitulate to t!e situation and in so doing reduce or renounce m!umanit-D or I can li3e a dou6le li/e in t!in+ing utopian t!oug!ts and pursuing a nonutopian li/eD or I can pursue t!e utopia o/ a /ull economicD socialD and political democrac. 1!at seems normalD /actualD rationalD and sane in suc! a >orld is in /act a6normalD apparentD irrationalD and a6surd . 1!# .descri6edD as et!icall.C0I9 D .to t!e irrationalD exploitati3e capitalist s-stem: exteriorit. 4!ilosop!.as utopia is not primaril.

Capitalism K Generic

Dartmouth 2K9

1!3

capitalism !as appropriated science and tec!nolog- /or its o>n ends as producti3e /orce and ideolog-. In science and tec!nolog- capitalism !as /ound t!e /orms o/ rationalit- most appropriate /or itsel/D per/ectlmani/esting itD mirroring itD and ?usti/-ing it. In suc! an a6surdD in3ertedD tops-<tur3- >orldD /idelit- to t!e li/e o/ reason demands critiFueD resistanceD and re3olutionar- transcendence. 9ne !as to pierce t!e 3eil o/ suc! a >orldD see t!roug! it as a6surd rat!er t!an accepting it as normal and sane. 0!e pre3ailing rationalit- is pro/oundl- irrational.12

1!3

Capitalism K Generic

Dartmouth 2K9

1!2

'lt sol+enc. – indi+idual ad+ocac.
:a*ing -ac* our econom. /rom the grasp o/ capitalism is +ital7 small political pro<ects sol+e( Gi-sonCGraham7 pro/essors7 200#(
"Pulie Gra!am S Kat!erine Gi6sonD pro/essor at t!e =ni3ersit- o/ 8assac!usetts .m!erst Department o/ GeosciencesD 200$D *ostcapitalist *olitics# 0P 5rom our locations in academia at t>o ends o/ t!e >orldD >e !a3e a sense t!at e3ents !a3e o3erta+en us. 0en -ears agoD >!en >e >ere >riting 0!e End o/ Capitalism -.s %e /new t01 . Feminist Critique of *olitical Economy D >e imagined it as an in3itation and per!aps a prelude to a ne> economic politics. Suc! a politicsD >e

!opedD >ould 3enture along t!e o6scure 6->a-s o/ noncapitalist repertoire o/ >!at >as considered legitimate political action. 5eeling su//ocated and disempo>ered 6- pre3ailing conceptions o/ >!at >as possi6leD and >!en and !o> it >as to 6e ac!ie3a6leD >e located our dissatis/action >it!in t!e dead<end time<space o/ capitalism as it >as usuall- t!eoriCed. 1e see oursel3es as part o/ a mo3ement t!at is acti3el- ret!eoriCing capitalism and reclaiming t!e econom- !ere and no> in m-riad pro?ects o/ alternati3e economic acti3ism. 9ur pro?ect !as 6een gat!ered up in t!e >!irl>ind o/ in3entions and inter3entionsD resonating >it! someD ampli/-ing or ampli/ied 6- ot!ersD and a6o3e all s!aring sentiments n stances >it! respect to t!e tas+s o/ trans/ormation . 0!e distincti3e contri6ution >e !ope to ma+e to t!is >ider pro?ect stems /rom our starting pointD as ela6orated in !he End of Capitalism. 1anting an economic politics t!at allo>ed us to t!in+ creati3el- and to start no> and !ere to ma+e ne> economies D >e /ocused our attentions in !he End o f Capitalism on >a-s o/ t!in+ing t!at distanced t!e econom- /rom politics. 0!ese included t!e tendenc- to represent econom- as a space o/ in3ariant logics and automatic un/olding t!at o//ered no /ield /or inter3entionG t!e tendenc- to t!eoriCe econom- as a sta6le and sel/<reproducing structure imper3ious to t!e proli/erati3e and desultor- >anderings o/ e3er-da- politicsG t!e tendenc- to constitute Jt!eJ econom- as a singular capitalist s-stem or space rat!er t!an as a Cone o/ co!a6itation and contestation among multiple economic /ormsG and t!e pre3ailing su6stanti3e /ramings.H 1e noted t!at t!ese tendencies contri6uted to an a//ect and attitude o/ entrenc!ed opposition "on t!e le/tD at least#D a !a6it o/ t!in+ing and /eeling t!at o//ered little emotional space /or alternati3esD and t!at instead /ocused t!e political imagination<some>!at 6lan+l-<on a millennial /uture re3olution . If t!e Jre3olutionJ >ere to occur in a
time<>orld discontinuous >it! t!is oneD it >ould not 6e possi6le to tal+ a6out steps and strategies /or getting t!ere. In t!e

a pro/usion o/ alternati3e economic researc! t!at !as c!allenged t!ese representationsD some o/ it inspired 6- our o>n deconstruction and Fueering o/ CapitalismD muc! o/ it >elling up /rom t!e same producti3e dissatis/actions >e !ad experienced >it! essentialist and a6stracted t!in+ing a6out econom- . ,ere >e
-ears since t!e appearance o/ !he End of Capitalism, we !a3e been grati/ied and encouraged 6ac+no>ledge t!e proli/eration o/ >or+ in our o>n /ield o/ economic geograp!-D and in cultural and political geograp!-D as >ell

as in t!e /ields o/ economic Sociolog- and ant!ropolog-D cultural studiesD politicsD /eminismD 8arxian political econom-D and science studies.J If capitalism is still a dominant signi/ier in social anal-sisD it isD /or man- o/ usD less ta+en /or granted in its c!aracter and con/igurations t!an e3er 6e/ore.J 0!e !ead- and !ope/ul message o/ !he End of Capitalism >as t!at our econom- is >!at >e "discursi3el- and practicall-# ma+e it.J 0!e salutar- and grounded message o/ . *ost Capitalist *olitics is t!at >e must 6e read- >it! strategies /or con/ronting >!at /orce/ull-

pus!es 6ac+ against t!e discursi3e imaginings and practical enactments >e associate >it! 6uilding a di//erent econom-. 1!at >e /eel is neededD and >!at >e present !ereD is our o>nD admittedlidios-ncraticD practical guide to t!e politics o/ :ta+ing 6ac+ t!e econom-.;

1!2

Capitalism K Generic

Dartmouth 2K9

1!9

'lt sol+enc. – local trans/ormation
)ocal trans/ormations allo0 us to theori,e a ne0 glo-al /orm o/ economic policies Gi-sonCGraham7 pro/essors7 200#(
"Pulie Gra!am S Kat!erine Gi6sonD pro/essor at t!e =ni3ersit- o/ 8assac!usetts .m!erst Department o/ GeosciencesD 200$D *ostcapitalist *olitics# 5rom t!e earliest da-s o/ t!is political exploration. >e recogniCed t!e special c!allenges o/ economic

politics<t!e o6durac- o/ t!e economic o6?ect as it !ad 6een discursi3el- /ramed and practicallconstructedG t!e po3ert- o/ economic su6?ecti3it-D >it! its /e> identit- positions and contracting "i/ also intensi/-ing# desiresG and t!e persistent con3iction t!at large<scale. Coordinated action >as reFuired /or t!e tas+ o/ economic trans/ormation. In t!e searc! /or success/ul political pro?ects and practices to encourage and inspire us. >e !a3e turned primaril- to second<>a3e /eminism .J 1e ne3er /ail to 6e amaCed at !o> t!e /eminist mo3ement !as trans/ormed and continues to trans/orm !ouse!oldsD li3esD and li3eli!oods around t!e >orld to di//erent degrees and in di//erent >a-sD rendering t!e li/e experiences o/ man- >omen literall- unrecogniCa6le in t!e terms o/ a generation ago. ,ere >e are t!in+ing o/ e3er-t!ing
/rom t!e increased participation o/ >omen in pu6lic li/eD to t!e social recognition o/ and responsi6ilit- /or domestic 3iolenceD to t!e proli/eration o/ options o/ gendered em6odiment. 0!is is not to den- t!at t!ese ac!ie3ements are partial and em6attledD 6ut rat!er to a//irm t!at t!e- are recogniCa6le and >idespread.J0!e crucial role o/

alternati3e discourses o/ J>omanJ and gender in t!is process o/ trans/ormation cannot 6e o3erestimated. @ut second<>a3e /eminism also o//ered ne> practices o/ t!e sel/ and o/ intersu6?ecti3e relation t!at ena6led t!ese ne> discourses to 6e in!a6ited in e3er-da- li/e . 0!e decentraliCedD uncoordinated. and place<6ased consciousness<raising groups t!at 6ecame t!e mo3ementHs signature inter3ention "at least in t!e Englis!<spea+ing >orld# acted as t!e /oundational site /or a Jpolitics o/ 6ecomingJ "Connoll- 1999D *%#D unleas!ing m-riad practices and per/ormances o/ J>oman.J 0!e slogan Jt!e personal is politicalJ aut!oriCed >omen to spea+ o/ t!eir intimate concerns in legitimate tones. ena6ling t!em to connect t!e pri3ate and pu6licD t!e domestic and nationalD s!attering /ore3er t!e rigid 6oundaries o/ esta6lis!ed political discourse. 0!e practice o/ /eminism as JorganiCational !oriContalismJ /ostered alternati3e >a-s o/ 6eing "po>er/ul#D including :direct; and eFuita6le participationD non<monopol- o/ t!e spo+en >ord or o/ in/ormationD t!e rotation o/ occasional tas+s and responsi6ilitiesD t!e non<specialiCation o/ /unctionsD t!e non<delegation o/ po>erJ ".l3areCD DagninoD and Esco6ar 199'D9%#.5eminism lin+ed /eminists emotionall- and semioticallrat!er t!an primaril- t!roug! organiCational ties. 1it!out re?ecting t!e /amiliar politics o/ organiCing and net>or+ing >it!in groups and across spaceD indi3idual >omen and collecti3ities pursued local pat!s and strategies t!at >ere 6ased on a3o>edl- /eminist 3isions and 3aluesD 6ut >ere not ot!er>ise connected. 0!e JupscalingJ or glo6aliCation o/ a /eminist politics did not in3ol3e /ormal organiCation at t!e glo6al scale to c!allenge glo6al structures o/ patriarc!al po>er. J It did not rel- on "t!oug! it did not esc!e># coordinated actions and alliances. 0!e mo3ement ac!ie3ed glo6al co3erage >it!out !a3ing to create glo6al institutionsD t!oug! some o/ t!ese did indeed come into 6eing. =6iFuit- rat!er t!an unit- >as t!e ground o/ its glo6aliCation. 1e are intrigued at t!e >a- t!e loosel- interrelated struggles and !appenings o/ t!e /eminist mo3ement >ere capa6le o/ mo6iliCing social trans/ormation at suc! an unprecedented scaleD >it!out resort to a 3anguard part- or an- o/ t!e ot!er JnecessitiesJ >e !a3e come to associate >it! political organiCation. 0!e complex intermixing o/ alternati3e discoursesD s!ared languageD em6odied practicesD sel/<culti3ationD emplaced actionsD and glo6al trans/ormation associated >it! second<>a3e /eminism !as nouris!ed our t!in+ing a6out a politics o/ economic possi6ilit-<impressing us >it! t!e stri+inglsimple ontological contours o/ a /eminist imaginar-: i/ >omen are e3er->!ereD a >oman is al>a-s some>!ereD and t!ose places o/ >omen are trans/ormed as >omen trans/orm t!emsel3es 2 0!e 3ision o/ /eminist politics as grounded in persons -et "t!ere/ore# potentiall- u6iFuitous !as 6een extended in our

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t!in+ing to include anot!er ontological su6strate:

a 3ast set o/ disarticulated JplacesJ<!ouse!oldsD communitiesD ecos-stemsD >or+places. ci3ic organiCations. 6odiesD pu6lic arenasD ur6an spacesD diasporasD regionsD go3ernment agenciesD occupations<related analogicall- rat!er t!an organiCationall- and connected t!roug! >e6s o/ signi/ication. . /eminist spatialitem6races not onl- a politics o/ u6iFuit- "its glo6al mani/estation#D 6ut a politics o/ place "its localiCation in places createdD strengt!enedD de/endedD augmentedD and trans/ormed 6- >omen#. In t!is admittedl- st-liCed renderingD /eminism is not a6out t!e categor- J>omanJ or identit- per seD 6ut a6out su6?ects and places. It is a politics o/ 6ecoming in place.J 0!e ac!ie3ements

o/ second<>a3e /eminism pro3ideD /or usD t!e impetus /or t!eoriCing a ne> glo6al /orm o/ economic politics. Its remapping o/ political space and possi6ilit- suggests t!e e3er<present opportunit- /or local trans/ormation t!at does not reFuire "t!oug! it does not preclude and indeed promotes# trans/ormation at larger scales. Its /ocus on t!e su6?ect prompts us to t!in+ a6out >a-s o/ culti3ating economic su6?ects >it! di//erent desires and capacities and greater openness to c!ange and uncertaint-. Its practice o/ seeing and spea+ing di//erentl- encourages us to ma+e 3isi6le t!e !idden and alternati3e economic acti3ities t!at e3er->!ere a6oundD and to connect t!em t!roug! a language o/ economic di//erence. I/ >e can 6egin to see noncapitalist acti3ities as pre3alent and 3ia6leD >e ma- 6e encouraged !ere and no> to acti3el- 6uild on t!em to trans/orm our local economies.

1"0

u6iFuitous impulse to reduce complex processes o/ e3entuation to t!e operation o/ one or se3eral determinants.>it!inJ an o6?ectD 6ut as a 3er.attempt to assert centralit.o/ most social t!eoriCing.>e !a3e s+etc!ed presumes certain /orms o/ 6eingD enactments o/ po>er.o/ t!ese install di//erence and di//erentiation as a generati3e ontological centripetal /orce >or+ing against t!e pull o/ essence or identit-.ere t!e underla6oring o/ 8an. 2e/raming can create t!e /ertile ontological ground /or a politics o/ possi6ilit-D opening t!e /ield /rom >!ic! t!e unexpected can emergeD >!ile increasing our space o/ decision and room to mo3e as political su6?ects . 1"1 . and pat!>a-s o/ c!ange.in a complicated landscape con/ronts t!e practice o/ Jt!in+ing o3erdeterrninationH as an almost insurmounta6le o6stacle.in la>/ul motion and instead u6ecomes a space o/ recognition and negotiation.J 9t!ers attempt to t!eoriCe d-namics not as t!e simplicit.t!e /orces t!at militate against it</orces t!at ma. contemporar.and to instead identi/.n. (est ontological re/rarning 6e mista+en /or a simplistic assertion t!at >e can t!in+ oursel3es out o/ t!e materialit.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1"1 'lt sol+enc.t!ese /orces a /undamentalD structuralD or uni3ersal realit. 0!e economic certainties and generic stories o/ de3elopment discourse are e//ecti3el.or simple causalit. modes o/ aggregation and connection. 1e mano more assume t!at a capitalist /irm is interested in maximiCing pro/its or exploitation t!an >e maassume t!at an indi3idual >oman >ants to 6ear arid raise c!ildrenD or t!at an . .o/ capitalism or repressi3e state practices. Enl./or un<t!in+ing economic determinismD o3erdetermination 6rings a rigorous anti<essentialism to t!e understanding o/ causationD >or+ing against t!e nearl. 0!e practice o/ t!in+ing o3erdetermination as a mode o/ ontological re/raming simpl. – ontolog.an emptinessD complexl.does not den. 1!en >e re/er to an econom-<>ide imperati3e o/ capital accumulationD >e stand on Ht!e Hsame unsa/e ground "in t!e context o/ t!e anti<essentialist presumption o/ o3erdetermination# t!at >e tread on >!en >e re/er to a maternal instinct or a !uman dri3e to acFuisition.reproduci6le relations o/ domination# to t!is emergent one relies on ontological reframing as a tec!niFue o/ t!in+ing.merican is interested in ma+ing mone-.>!at it is notD >it!out an enduring core or essence .dapted and extended 6.lt!usserHs "19%2# concept o/ o3erdeterrninationDJ >!ic! presumes t!at eac! site and process is constituted at t!e intersection o/ all ot!ersD and is t!us /undamentall. t!e reFuisite conditions o/ a less predicta6le and more producti3e politics.concrete process o/ e3entuationD pat!<dependent and nonlinearD >!ere a glo6al s-stem t!at explains its parts is not t!e pri3ileged and predicted /orm o/ emergence "(a> 200)#.pus!ed and pulled 6.sta6le and in!erentl.loses its c!aracter as an asocial 6od. through ontological re/raming can 0e reshape our economic /uture /rom repressi+e state policies( Gi-sonCGraham7 pro/essors7 200#( "Pulie Gra!am S Kat!erine Gi6sonD pro/essor at t!e =ni3ersit.dislodgedD as are t!e macronarrati3es o/ capitalist de3elopment "including most recentlglo6aliCation# t!at loom in t!e 3icinit.t!em as contingent outcomes o/ et!ical decisionsD political pro?ectsD and sedimented localiCed practicesD continuall. " Gi6son<Gra!am 199$D 1$# .social t!eorists and p!ilosop!ers li+e DeleuCe and Guattari !as 6een particularl. >e s!ould a//irm t!at our orientation to>ard possi6ilit. 1e !a3e /ound t!at >e need tec!nologies /or a more reticent -et also more e6ullient practice o/ t!eoriCingD one t!at tolerates Jnot +no>ingJ and allo>s /or contingent connection and t!e !iddenness o/ un/oldingG one t!at at t!e same time /oregrounds speci/icit-D di3ergenceD inco!erenceD surplus possi6ilit-.m!erst Department o/ GeosciencesD 200$D *ostcapitalist *olitics# 0P 0!e ne> political imaginar.o/ 8assac!usetts . In !he End of Capitalism >e used one principal tec!niFue o/ ontological re/ramingD . 0!is !as made it in3alua6le to us in our positi3e pro?ect o/ ret!in+ing economic identit.encourages us to den. .and d-namics: 0!roug! t!e t!eoretical lens o/ o3erdeterminationD a capitalist site is an irreduci6le speci/icit-.J 1!at is 6iCarre a6out t!is t!eoriCing "/rom t!e standpoint o/ common t!eoretical practice# is t!at it does not collapse >!at it aggregates into /e>er categoriesD H6ut spreads e3er-t!ing out to t!e limits o/ our tolerance /or dimensionalit.constituted 6. .and detail.s >e 6egin to conceptualiCe contingent relations!ips >!ere in3ariant logics once reignedD t!e econom. 0ra3ersing t!e distance /rom a more /amiliar >orld "one per!aps structured 6.3alua6le.o/ an un/olding logic t!at is Jalread.ot!er determinations.2esnic+ and 1ol// "19'%# to pro3ide a pro3isional ontolog.>or+ to undermineD constrainD destro-D or sideline our attempts to res!ape economic /utures.

to re3erse t!e green!ouse e//ect < monitoring t!e reduction o/ polluting emissionsD re/orestationD promoting alternati3e /orms o/ transport and energ.neo<li6eral economic policies and more generall.agreedD !as de/initi3el. to sa+ing the en+ironment Callinicos7 pro/ o/ politics at Ani+ersit.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1"2 'lt sol+es en+ironment 'lt *e. < >ould entail some sort o/ s-stem o/ collecti3el.agreed resource<allocation t!at it >ould 6e tempting to call planning !ad t!is not 6ecome an idea >!ose timeD all are apparentl.reducing its useD >ould reFuireD on t!e one !andD large<scale in3estment in pu6lic transport t!at >ould 6ust t!e spending targets reFuired 6.raise t!e pro/ileD and prestige o/ t!e pu6lic sector in polic-<ma+ing and political de6ateD andD on t!e ot!erD con/ronting t!e constellation o/ capitalist interests 6ound up >it! t!e status FuoD a6o3e all t!e /ossil /uel corporations < t!e oil companiesD car manu/acturersD and t!e li+e.lex CallinicosD 2001D 4ro/essor o/ 4olitics at t!e =ni3ersit. H(i/e politicsH toda. o/ Mor*7 01 .gone.can onl.o/ Wor+D J. .suppl-D etc.t t!e national le3elD p!asing out t!e pri3ate automo6ileD or at least drasticall.gainst t!e 0!ird 1a-J It is !ard to see !o> t!e measures reFuired to sa3e t!e en3ironment can 6e made consistent >it! t!e reFuirements o/ capitalist reproduction. 0!e steps reFuired internationall.J1 1"2 .6e anti<capitalist politics.

J@. .# Some o/ t!e sources /rom >!ic! social 6usinesses o/ t!e /uture mig!t spring: existing 48@s launc!ing t!eir o>n social 6usinessesD /oundations creating social<6usiness in3estment /undsD indi3idual entrepreneursD dedicated /unds /rom intemational de3elopment donorsD go3ernmentsD retired persons >it! >ealt! to spareD< and idealistic -oung people.t!e social<6ene/it principle. to /uture MunasD 8anaging Director o/ Grameen @an+D co<>inner o/ 200$ o6el 4eace 4riCeD B03 "8u!ammad WunasD 8anaging Director o/ Grameen @an+D co<>inner o/ 200$ o6el 4eace 4riCeD Decem6er 200%D :Creating a 1orld 1it!out 4o3ert-: Social @usiness and t!e 5uture o/ Capitalism.com7e!ost7pd/Q3idR2S!idR10)SsidR&$caea/'< d$%1<)'/1<''0c</*a%d9'adc6'T)0sessionmgr)# @ut muc! more could 6e done i/ t!e d-namics o/ capitalism could 6e applied to !umanit-Hs greatest c!allenges..J 1" .J In contrast to pro/it< maximiCing 6usinesses "48@s#D a ne> +ind o/ 6usiness is needed >!ere entrepreneurs set up social 6usinessesD not to ac!ie3e limited personal gain 6ut to pursue speci/ic social goals.d3ocates o/ CS2 tal+ a6out t!e triple 6ottom lineD 6ut ultimatel. Capitalism in the present /ailsC re/orm to eradicate po+ert. possi-le using social -usinessC de-aters *e.G and pro/it<maximiCing 6usinesses o>ned 6. Go3emment can !elp create t!e >orld >e all >ant to li3e in.!a3e /ree mar+ets /ailed so manpeopleQ 0!e reason is simple: Jun/ettered mar+ets in t!eir current /orm are not meant to sol3e social pro6lems and instead ma.esta6lis!mentD no more incura6le diseasesD a glo6al education s-stem accessi6le to allD a single glo6al currenc-D all people committed to a sustaina6le li/est-le 6ased on appropriate tec!nologiesD and social 6usiness as a su6stantial part o/ t!e 6usiness >orld. 0!ere are man. !ttp:77>e6.t!eir natureD corporations are not eFuipped to deal >it! social pro6lems. 0!e 6ottom line /or t!e social 6usiness is to operate >it!out incurring losses >!ile ser3ing t!e people and t!e planetOespeciall. social 6usiness is not a c!arit-D 6ut a 6usiness in e3er.t!e poor or disad3antagedD >!ic! ma.sense t!at must reco3er its /ull costs and recoup in3estmentsD 6ut >it! t!e pro/it<maximiCation principle replaced 6.s+etc!ing a Jdream >orldJ o/ 20*0 >it! no poor peopleD no passports or 3isasD no >ar and no militar.actuall.and to ser3e people and t!e planet 6etter./inancial pro/it calls t!e s!ots. @ut e3en an excellent regulator.t!ings t!at /ree mar+ets do 3er. . Concludes 6. J0!is process o/ imagining a /uture >orld o/ our li+ing is a ma?or missing element in our education s-stem.e6sco!ost.onl. 0!ese are all ac!ie3a6le goals. 1!. 0o !a3e >in<>in glo6aliCationD >e must !a3e /air tra/vic la>sD tra//ic signalsD and tra//ic police.people !a3e started nonpro/it organiCationsD -et nonpro/itsD G9sD and /oundations cannot 6e expected to sol3e t!e >orldHs social ills.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1" 'lt sol+es po+ert. Competing social 6usinesses >ill pus! eac! ot!er to impro3e t!eir e//icienc.nor create a social 6ene/it. In t!e same >a-D nationalD regionalD and local mar+ets need reasona6le rules and controls to protect t!e poorG ot!er>iseD t!e ric! can easil. 0>o possi6le +inds o/ social 6usinesses: responsi6ilit-D in >ea+ /orms "doing no !arm to people or planet# companies t!at /ocus on pro3iding a social 6ene/it suc! as po3ert.>ellD 6ut a sense o/ disillusionment is setting inD e3en as capitalism t!ri3es and glo6al trade is 6ooming.exacer6ate po3ert-D diseaseD pollutionD corruptionD crimeD and ineFualit-.reductionD !ealt! care /or t!e poorD social ?usticeD etc.t!e most disad3antagedOin t!e 6est possi6le manner. 9t!er>iseD t!e glo6al /ree mar+et /alls under control o/ /inancial imperialism.or man.regime is not enoug! to ensure t!at serious social pro6lems >ill 6e sol3ed.J J0o ma+e t!e structure o/ capitalism completeD >e need to introduce anot!er +ind o/ 6usinessOone t!at recogniCes t!e multidimensional nature o/ !uman 6eings. Corporate social or strong /orms "doing good /or people and t!e planet#D is 6uilt on good intentions 6ut is o/ten mere >indo> dressing. "0!is is not to 6e eFuated >it! social entrepreneurs!ipD o/ >!ic! social 6usiness is a su6set. or !a3e multilateral institutions suc! as t!e 1orld @an+ ac!ie3ed muc! in attaining t!eir pro/essed social goals. 5rustrated >it! go3emmentD man.J Glo6aliCation as a general 6usiness principle can 6ring more 6ene/its to t!e poor t!an anot!er alternati3eD 6ut >it!out proper o3ersig!t and guidelinesD it !as t!e potential to 6e !ig!ldestructi3e.6end conditions to t!eir o>n 6ene/it.

1"! . It is 6roug!t into pla. 5or 6superseding t!e ruling principle o/ t!e /eudal reproducti3e s-stem a ne> t-pe o/ socioeconomic microcosm comes into 6eingD c!aracteriCed 6.s!ould coincide >it! t!e crisis o/ t!e modern state in all its /ormsD /rom li6eral democratic state /ormations to extreme aut!oritarian capitalist states "li+e . =nderstanda6l.D t!e no> un/olding structural crisis o/ capital deepl.concerned >it! t!e ideological legitimation o/ an.aros7 pro/ at Ani+ersit. IndeedD t!is crisis 6rings >it! it t!e crisis o/ politics in generalD under all its aspectsD and not onl.in order to recti/-<again it must 6e emp!asiCed: onl.in t!e t>entiet! centur.ta+e place t!roug! a M5austian pact >it! t!e de3ilLD so to spea+D >it!out an. to a+oid +iolence 6es. 0!e modern state is 6roug!t into 6eing in its speci/ic !istorical modalit./easi6le remedial structure >!ic! is compati6le >it! t!e structural parameters o/ capital as a mode o/ social meta6olic control. 0!e /ormation o/ t!e modern state is an a6solute reFuirement 6ot! /or securing and /or sa/eguarding on a permanent 6asis t!e producti3e accomplis!ments o/ t!e s-stem.to t!e extent to >!ic! t!e muc! need remedial action can 6e accommodated >it!in capitalLs ultimate social meta6olic limits<t!e a6sence o/ unit.in all t!ree respects re/erred to in t!e last section.s mentioned 6e/oreD t!e dictum: Mlargent nLa pas de maitreL signals t!e radical o3erturning o/ >!at >ent on 6e/ore.particular state s-stem.itlerLs German. 0!e modern state constitutes t!e onl. o/ Sussex7 9" Ist3an 8esCarosD 199*D 4ro/essor at =ni3ersit.a6o3e all in order to 6e a6le to exercise compre!ensi3e control o3er t!e unrul. 0a.or 4inoc!etLs 8ilton/riendmanniCed C!ile#D and /rom post<colonial regimes to So3iet t-pe postcapitalist states.o/ 0ransition.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1"! 'lt sol+es +iolence Capitalism is at a tipping pointC-rea*ing it do0n is the onl.structured social reproducti3e s-stem.centri/ugal /orces emanating /rom t!e separate producti3e units o/ capital as an antagonisticall. It isD t!ere/oreD 6. .under t!ose directl. CapitalLs coming to dominance in t!e realm o/ material production and t!e de3elopment o/ totaliCing political practices in t!e /orm o/ t!e modern state go !and in !and toget!er.a//ects all state institutions and corresponding organiCational practices. @ut t!e success/ul un/olding o/ t!is d-namism can onl.guarantee >!atsoe3er t!at in due course a 6ene3olent god mig!t come to t!e rescue and out>it 8ep!istop!eles >!en !e claims !is rig!t/ul priCe.and d-namism.o/ SussexD EnglandD :@e-ond Capital: 0o>ard a 0!eor.great mo6ilit.no means accidental t!at t!e end o/ capitalLs !istorical ascendanc.

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'lt sol+es authoritarian control
8olitics has -een depolitici,ed to expand authoritarian control o+er citi,ens – rethin*ing sol+es Giroux recei3ed !is Doctorate /rom Carnegie<8ellon. ser3ed as Director at t!e Center /or Education and Cultural Studies at 0!e =ni3ersit- o/ 8iami 9!ioD ser3ed as t!e Director o/ t!e 1ater6ur- 5orum in Education and Cultural Studies at 4enn State 0"
",enr- .. GirouxD 1inter 200*D 0!e 0error o/ eoli6eralism: 2et!in+ing t!e Signi/icance o/ Cultural 4oliticsD !ttp:77proFuest.umi.com7pFdlin+QAerR1SExpR0%<22<201)S580R%SDIDR%91$)0'91S2U0R&09 Cassettari#

1e li3e at a time >!en t!e con/lation o/ pri3ate interestsD empire 6uildingD and e3angelical /undamentalism 6rings into Fuestion t!e 3er- natureD i/ not t!e existenceD o/ t!e democratic process . =nder t!e reign o/ neoli6eralismD capital and >ealt! !a3e 6een largel- distri6uted up>ardsD >!ile ci3ic 3irtue !as 6een undermined 6- a sla3is! cele6ration o/ t!e /ree mar+et as t!e model /or organiCing all /acets o/ e3er-da- li/e ",en>ood 200&#. 4olitical culture !as 6een increasingl- depoliticiCed as collecti3e li/e is organiCed around t!e modalities o/ pri3atiCationD deregulationD and commercialiCation . 1!en t!e
alleged c!ampions o/ neoli6eralism in3o+e politicsD t!e- su6stitute Jideological certaint- /or reasona6le dou6tDJ and deplete Jt!e national reser3es o/ political intelligenceJ ?ust as t!e- endorse Jt!e illusion t!at t!e /uture can 6e 6oug!t instead o/ earnedJ "(ap!am 200)aD 9D 11#. =nder attac+ is t!e social contract >it! its emp!asis on enlarging t!e pu6lic good and expanding social pro3isions<suc! as access to adeFuate !ealt! careD !ousingD emplo-mentD pu6lic transportationD and education< >!ic! pro3ided 6ot! a sa/et- net and a set o/ conditions upon >!ic! democrac- could 6e experienced and critical citiCens!ip engaged. 4olitics !as 6een /urt!er depoliticiCed 6- a polic- o/ anti<terrorism practiced 6-

t!e @us! administration t!at mimics t!e 3er- terrorism it >is!es to eliminate. ot onl- does a polic- o/ all<em6racing anti<terrorism ex!austs itsel/ in a discourse o/ moral a6solutes and pu6lic acts o/ denunciation t!at remo3e politics /rom t!e realm o/ state po>erD it also strips communit- o/ democratic 3alues 6- de/ining it almost exclusi3el- t!roug! attempts to stamp out >!at 8ic!ael (eedenD a /ormer counter<terror expert in t!e 2eagan administrationD calls Jcorrupt !a6its o/ mind t!at are still lingering aroundD some>!ereJ "Ftd. in Aalentine 2001D para.&&#. 0!e appeal to moral a6solutes and t!e constant mo6iliCation o/ emergenctime coded as a culture o/ /ear con/igures politics in religious termsD !iding its entanglement >it! particular ideologies and di3erse relations o/ po>er. 4olitics 6ecomes empt- as it is reduced to /ollo>ing ordersD s!aming t!ose >!o ma+e po>er accounta6leD and s!utting do>n legitimate modes o/ dissent "Giroux 200)#. 0!e militariCing

o/ pu6lic space at !ome contri6utes to t!e narro>ing o/ communit-D t!e increasing suppression o/ dissentD and as .nt!on- (e>is argues D a gro>ing escalation o/ concentratedD unaccounta6le political po>er t!at t!reatens t!e 3er- /oundation o/ democrac- in t!e =nited States "2002D .1*#. .ut!oritarianism inarc!es /or>ard ?ust as political culture is 6eing replaced >it! a notion o/ national securit- 6ased on /earD sur3eillanceD and control rat!er t!an a 3i6rant culture o/ s!ared responsi6ilit- and critical Fuestioning. 8ilitariCation is no longer simpl- t!e dri3ing /orce o/ /oreign polic-D it !as 6ecome a de/ining principle /or social c!anges at !ome . Cat!erine (utC captures t!e multiple registers and complex
processes o/ militariCation t!at !as extensi3el- s!aped social li/e during t!e 20t! centur-. S!e is >ort! Fuoting at lengt!: @- militariCationD I mean . . . an intensi/ication o/ t!e la6or and resources allocated to militar- purposesD including t!e s!aping o/ ot!er institutions in s-nc!ron- >it! militar- goals. 8ilitariCation is simultaneousl- a discursi3e

processD in3ol3ing a s!i/t in general societal 6elie/s and 3alues in >a-s necessar- to legitimate t!e use o/ /orceD t!e organiCation o/ large standing armies and t!eir leadersD and t!e !ig!er taxes or tri6ute used to pa- /or t!em. 8ilitariCation is intimatel- connected not onl- to t!e o63ious increase in t!e siCe o/ armies and
resurgence o/ militant nationalisms and militant /undamentalisms 6ut also to t!e less 3isi6le de/ormation o/ !uman potentials into t!e !ierarc!ies o/ raceD classD genderD and sexualit-D and to t!e s!aping o/ national !istories in >a-s t!at glori/- and legitimate militar- action. "(utC 2002D %2&#

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Capitalism K Generic

Dartmouth 2K9

1"#

'lt Sol+es – Deminism
It is necessar. to anal.,e the e//ects that lateCcapitalism has had on gender( )o0eD editor o/ 4ositions: East .sia Cultures CritiFueD 9"
Donald 8. (o>e. Ed. 9/ positions: east asia cultures critiFue. 199* 0!e @od- in (ate Capitalist =S.. Gender is sociall- constructedD rat!er t!an 6iologicall- destined. @ut t!e term Jsocial constructionJ is a catc!<all tag /or all sorts o/ met!odological approac!es. It opens up a >!ole ne> terrain o/ untestedD related issues. 1e need to admit t!e

di//erent approac!es and de6ate t!e issues in3ol3ed. 0o sa- t!at gender is sociall- constructed is to admit t!at it is !istorical and c!angingD and t!ere/ore open to con3ersation. I propose t!at t!e social construction o/ gender in late<capitalist =S. s!ould 6e anal-Ced as a set o/ relatedD sedimentedD t!oug! o/ten con/licting practices<practices o/ productionD consumptionD and social reproduction >!ic! consist o/ structuralD discursi3eD counter<discursi3e and semiotic components. 0!usD t!ere is complex o/ discoursesD rat!er t!an a single discourseD o/ gender . ,o>e3erD 6e/ore I go /urt!erD I need to ma+e clear t!e
implications o/ m- approac! to gender construction. 0o 6egin >it!D I re?ect an- 6iological determinism or /undamentalism. I do not e3en accept t!e assumption o/ some social constructi3ists t!at gender 6egins >it! anatomical sex di//erences as a 6ipolarit-D and t!at its social construction is scripted on an alread- 6i<polar 6iological su6stratum. 2at!erD I suggest >e need to turn our perspecti3al priorit- t!e ot!er >a- aroundD In no social /ormationD at an- placeD in an- timeD except in t!e 6ourgeois capitalist orderD is gender considered to 6e 6iologicall- determined. 9t!er social /ormations did not e3en +no> 6iolog- as a scienti/ic discourse o/ natureG t!e- !ad ot!erD totall- di//erentD all<encompassingD !olisticD concepts o/ nature. .nd i/ >e insist t!at gender constructions are scripted on 6iological di//erencesD t!at is our interpretation o/ t!eir social /ormation not t!eir li3ed social realit-. I /urt!er suggest t!atD in t!e 6ourgeois capitalist /ormationD gender is not actuall6iologicall- determined< 5oucault "H9%0# !ad pointed out t!at 6iolog- is a nineteent!<centur- discourse o/ nature. .nd Kessler and 8cKrnna "19'*# !a3e s!o>n !o> science is culturall- /oundedD 6e/ore it pro3ides us >it! t!e so<called data /rom >!ic! to generaliCe. 0!e ne> discourse o/ 6iolog- JnaturaliCedQH i.e.D disguised and o6/uscatedD t!e capitalist construction o/ genderD pro3iding it >it! a scienti/ic gloss. .nd it still remains a part o/ t!e dominant ideolog- at present.

1"#

Capitalism K Generic

Dartmouth 2K9

1"3

':: Cap Ine+ita-le %1&
:he current /inancial crisis undermines the idea that capitalism is ine+ita-le Gre.7 sta// 0riter o/ multiple socialist maga,ines and political acti+ist7 09
Sara! Gre.D sta// >riter o/ multiple socialist magaCines and political acti3istD 5e6. 2009 :9pen Source .nti<CapitalismD; 0!e 8ont!l- 2e3ie>D !ttp:77>>>.mont!l-re3ie>.org709021$gre-.p!p# 5or decades >eL3e 6een told t!at :t!ere is no alternati3e; to glo6al capitalismOt!at

trust in t!e mar+et >as t!e onl- >a- to 6ring progress and end po3ert-D despite t!e clear a6sence o/ an actual end to po3ert-. 0!e glo6al /inancial crisis o/ 200' !as undermined t!e r!etoric o/ ine3ita6ilit-D as e3en its most prominent practitioners 6egin to Fuestion t!e logic o/ neoli6eralism. . 1as!ington 4ost editorial titled :0!e End o/ .merican CapitalismQ; Fuotes t!e o6el 4riCe–>inning /ormer 1orld @an+ c!ie/ economist Posep! StiglitC as sa-ing: :4eople around t!e >orld once admired us /or our econom-D and >e told t!em i/ -ou >anted to 6e li+e usD !ereLs >!at -ou !a3e to doO!and o3er po>er to t!e mar+et. 0!e point no> is t!at no one !as respect /or t!at +ind o/ model an-more gi3en t!is crisis . .nd o/ course it raises
Fuestions a6out our credi6ilit-. E3er-one /eels t!e- are su//ering no> 6ecause o/ us; "9cto6er 10D 200'#. 0!ose o/ us >!o opposed capitalist glo6aliCation 6e/ore t!e 1as!ington 4ost >as entertaining suc! criticism !a3e 6een arguing /or man- -ears t!at it is /undamentall- unsta6leOas >ell as pointing out t!at neoli6eralism !as ne3er >or+ed /or t!e ma?orit- o/ people on t!e planet. @ut a/ter so man- decades o/ marginaliCation D socialistsD anarc!istsD and ot!er critics o/ t!e s-stem /ormerl- derided as :/lat<eart!ers; are /inding surreal surprises in t!e dail- ne>sD as e3en .lan Greenspan 6egins to Fuestion t!e 3alidit- o/ neoli6eral economics.

Discourse a-out the ine+ita-ilit. o/ capitalism ma*es it ine+ita-le – Capitalism is sel/Cconstructed that can -e changed( Gi-sonCGraham 0#
"Gra!am is 4ro/essor o/ Geograp!- /or Clar+ =ni3ersit-D Gi6son 4ro/. Geosciences =ni3ersit- o/ 8ass. .m!erestD:. 4ostcapitalist 4olitics;D p. *&<*)#
1!- !as Econom- 6ecome an e3er-da- term t!at denotes a /orce to 6e rec+oned >it! existing outside o/ politics and societ-<a /orce t!at constitutes t!e ultimate ar6iter o/ possi6ilit-Q ,o> is it t!at >aged la6orD t!e commodit- mar+etD and capitalist enterprise !a3e come to 6e seen as

t!e onl- JnormalJ /orms o/ >or+D exc!angeD and 6usiness organiCationQ 1!en >as it t!at capitalism assumed dis<cursi3e dominanceD 6ecoming t!e onl- present /orm o/ econom- and all t!at. could 6e imagined as existing in t!e proximate /utureQ .nd >!- do >e !a3e little to sa- t!ese da-s a6out an expansi3e and generati3e politics o/ noncapitalist construction Ql 1e are con3inced t!at t!e ans>ers to t!ese Fuestions are connected to t!e almost total naturaliCation o/ Jt!e econom-J t!at !as ta+en place in pu6]lic discourse o3er recent decadesD coinciding >it! t!e demise o/ socialism as an actuall- existing Jalternati3eJ and gro>ing alarm t!atD >it! glo6aliCationD t!e autonom- o/ national economiesD and t!ere/ore t!eir managea6ilit-D is 6eing underminedD 0!is s!i/t /rom an understanding o/ t!e econom- as somet!ing t!at can 6e trans/ormedD or at least managed "6peopleD t!e stateD t!e I85#D to somet!ing t!at go3erns societ- !as in3ol3ed a !egemonic mo3e 6- >!ic! representations o/ econom- !a3e slipped /rom t!eir locations in discourse and landed Jon t!e groundDJ in t!e JrealDJ not ?ust separate /rom 6ut outside o/ societ-. In t!ese postmodern timesD t!e econom- is denied t!e discursi3e mandate gi3en to ot!er social sp!eres and t!e conseFuences /or t!e 3ia6ilit- o/ an- political pro?ect o/ economic inno3ation are dire. I/ >e are to enact ne> economiesD >e need to imagine Jt!e econom-J di//erentl-<as somet!ing t!at is created in speci/ic geograp!ical contexts and in !istoricall- pat!<dependent >a-sD 6ut t!is is not an eas- or straig!t/or>ard pro?ect. .s 0imot!- 8itc!ell arguesD >e are up against an alread- existing eco]nomic o6?ect materialiCed in socio<tec!nical net>or+s o/ calculation t!at !a3eD since t!e 19&0sD produced t!e econom- as a Jsingular and sel/<e3ident totali]t-J "/ort!coming#.J 0!e economic landscape !as 6een molded according to t!e imaginar- /unctionings o/ a Jsel/<contained and d-namic mec!anismJ +no>n as Jt!e econom-DJ and t!is representation is di//icult to dislodge.

1"3

Capitalism K Generic

Dartmouth 2K9

1"2

':: Cap Ine+ita-le %2&
:his economic crisis 0ill mostl. result in the /inancial collapse o/ the ASJ 0e no longer ha+e the resources to cope 0ithC leads to e+en 0orse disasters and loss o/ AS legitimac. and heg( E-ama still committed to capitalism San-onmatsuD .ssociate 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!- at 1orcester 4ol-tec!nic Institute in 8assac!usettsD B09
"Po!n San6onmatsuD .ssociate 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!- at 1orcester 4ol-tec!nic Institute in 8assac!usettsD 8a-7Pune 2009D 0i++un :1!- Capitalism S!ouldnLt @e Sa3ed; !ttp:77>e6.e6sco!ost.com7e!ost7detailQ3idR2S!idR10)SsidR11&1*2'e<c$&6<)%'*<'caa< $$c'c1*$/e'aT)0sessionmgr10S6dataRPn pdG=9B1!3c&Ut6Gl2BUT&dT&dVd6Rap!S. R&9%*&*&&# 9 9 E C. K 91 ,91 0,E 42ESE 0 C2ISIS 1I(( 4(.W 9=0. I0 IS 49SSI@(E 0,.0 0,E =nited States >ill continue to 6ene/it /rom an in/lated currenc-D as mone- /rom around t!e >orld continues to s!elter in >!at is still t!e sa/est in3estment !a3en around O =.S. 0reasur- 6ills. In t!at caseD it is possi6leD i/ unli+el-D t!at t!e 96ama administration >ill 6e a6le to ride t!e tiger and +eep t!ings /rom /alling apart utterl-. @ut it is also possi6le t!at some un/oreseen e3ent or seFuence o/ e3ents mig!t induce /oreign in3estors to suddenl- pull t!eir mone- out o/ t!e =nited States. I/ t!at >ere to !appenD t!e dollar could 6ecome >ort!less and >e mig!t see a repla- o/ t!e Deutsc!e 8ar+ in 192&D >!en ordinar- Germans paid /or loa3es o/ 6read >it! >!eel6arro>s o/ mone-. Eit!er >a-D t!e structural contradictions in t!e >orld s-stem are pro/oundD and t!e- are not going to go a>a- an- time soon. =nli+e in t!e 19&0sD >!en t!e ad3anced industrialiCed nations essentiall- spent

t!emsel3es out o/ depressionD eit!er t!roug! massi3e state in3estment in pu6lic >or+sD coupled >it! a ne> social compact >it! la6or "as in t!e =nited StatesD >it! t!e e> Deal#D or t!roug! a massi3e arms 6uildup and militar- expansionism at t!e direction o/ a corporatiCed "/ascist# and aut!oritarian state "as in German-D Ital-D and Papan#D t!e capitalist states !a3e /ar /e>er resources at t!eir command t!is time around.
5irstD t!e state sector alread- accounts /or a large portion o/ t!e national economies o/ t!e =nited StatesD PapanD and Europe. "0!e =nited States alone alread- spends !al/ a trillion dollars per annum on >ar<ma+ing O and t!atHs not counting its >ars in IraF and ./g!anistan.# In t!e 1920sD t!e =.S. national de6t "relati3e to GD4# >as /lat and e3en declinedD >!ile GD4 per capita gre> at an extraordinar- rateD us!ering in !ig!er >agesD impro3ements in agricultural producti3it-D and 3ast impro3ements in Fualit- o/ li/e /or millions o/ .mericansD including electricit- in t!e !omeD increasing a3aila6ilit- o/ rail tra3elD and t!e introduction o/ automo6iles into e3er-da- li/e. During t!e latest economic expansionD 6- contrastD

de6ts pu6lic and pri3ate soared at e3er- le3el o/ societ-. 0!e national de/icit gre>D 6an+s and corporations assumed mind<6oggling amounts o/ ris+ "o/ten in t!e /orm o/ o6scure /inancial instruments li+e deri3ati3es#D and ordinar- >or+ing people piled up trillions o/ dollars o/ de6t in t!e /orm o/ !ome and car loans and credit card de6t. .t t!e same timeD >ages and Fualit- o/ li/e /ell. It is t!ere/ore di//icult to see !o> t!e =nited States and ot!er nations >ill 6e a6le to spend t!eir >a- out o/ t!e present crisis D >!enD
e3en 6e/ore t!e collapse o/ (e!man @rot!ers last -earD t!e population >as alread- tapped outD and go3ernment expenditures !o3ered near record !ig!s. . second /actor li+el- to con/ound polic-ma+ers t!is time around is >!at mig!t 6e termed t!e o6?ecti3e natural and political limits o/ t!e s-stem. .s I !a3e indicatedD capitalism !as sa3aged t!e eart!D lea3ing 6illions o/ people >it!out a decent li3eli!oodD and t!e ecos-stem in tatters. @ut t!e social and ecological costs o/ Jdoing 6usinessJ are a6out to gro> exponentiall- greater. E3en >it!out a >orld /inancial crisisD >e can anticipate moreD and more de3astatingD natural disastersD >!ic! in turn >ill mean

disruptions in agricultural productionD /looding o/ cities and entire countriesD mass star3ationD increasing migration pressuresD and so on. .ll o/ t!is >ill in turn exact an increasing toll on t!e legitimac- o/ t!e li6eral nation state. 0!e late sociologist C!arles 0ille- descri6ed t!e modern nation state as
/unctioning li+e a Jprotection rac+etJ: t!e state agrees to protect us /rom !arm "most t-picall-D /rom real or imaginart!reats generated 6- t!e state itsel/#D in exc!ange /or our consent and o6edience as su6?ects. ,o>e3erD as economicD

politicalD ecologicalD and !ence social costs mountD t!e state >ill 6ecome less and less a6le to protect us /rom !arm. .s a resultD t!e state is at ris+ o/ losing its legitimac- in t!e e-es o/ its citiCens. ".lread-D polls !a3e s!o>n a stead- decline in t!e rate o/ democratic participation around t!e >orldD increasing

1"2

S.macro<le3el c!anges in t!e organiCation o/ societ.and econom-. 0!oug! t!e political 2ig!t !as ta+en to 3ili/-ing t!e president as a JsocialistDJ 96ama !as in realit.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1"9 c-nicism to>ard go3ernmentD and greater openness to extreme ideologiesD >!et!er in t!e /orm o/ religious /undamentalism or extreme nationalism. @us! >asD o/ courseD >rong O .merican !egemon. actions on /oreign and domestic opinion gre> out o/ t!e eoconsH sense t!at t!e state no longer needed t!e consent o/ t!e go3ernedD >!et!er at !ome or a6road. 1"9 .D to a centristD li6eralD social democratic capitalist order O in t!e /ace o/ a /ull<6lo>n economic !urricane.capitalismD in spite o/ t!at s-stem s moral enormities and its e3er<>idening structural /issures. It remains to 6e seenD !o>e3erD >!et!er e3en as adept a politician as @arac+ 96ama >ill 6e a6le to return t!e s!ip o/ state sa/el.e.>ould ot!er>ise need to ma+e meaning/ul and urgentl. 0!is structural pro6lem in part explains t!e recent aut!oritarian turn o/ t!e =nited States under t!e @us! administration. @us!Hs seeming indi//erence to t!e e//ects o/ =.o/ state leaders to muster t!e 6road political mandate t!e.# 0!is in turn >ill compromise t!e a6ilit. 2egretta6l-D not>it!standing 4resident 96amaHs ot!er>ise admira6le s-mpat!ies /or t!e union mo3ement and /or some meaning/ul social democratic re/ormsD !is administration is doing e3er-t!ing in its po>er to preser3e O and strengt!en O corporate monopol.to t!e status Fuo ante O i.surrounded !imsel/ >it! economic ad3isers groomed /rom t!e most elite ran+s o/ capitalist /inance.necessar.cannot sur3i3e long >it!out at least t!e ion o/ legitimac-D 6ot! at !ome and a6road.

ac+no>ledge t!at !is o>n >or+ on ideolog.?ust suc! a lure1*2#. Aol 1. 6rie/ remar+ 6. the capitalist consensus to den.0 : The Cynic’s Fetish: Slavoj Žižek and the Dynamics of Belief”] . In 6ot! casesD t!e danger is t!at t!e 3er. 1#0 .drianD International ?ournal o/ BiCe+ studes./rom >it!in t!e present context . In /actD an.negati3eD critical 8arxism >it! t!e anticipation o/ t!e e3ent o/ t!e act<miracle t!reatens to turn into an intellectual /etis! "in t!e aibe+ian ideological sense o/ somet!ing t!at renders t!e present realit. in3aria6l.aibe+ !ints t!atD despite !is some>!at pessimistic assessment o/ traditional 8arxismD !e 6asicall. radical change( LohnstonD 4ro/ o/ p!ilosop!-D = o/ e> mexicoD 0! Y. Gi3en >!at is +no>n a6out t!e merciless marc! o/ !istor-D 6elie3ing t!at an ultimateD unsurpassa6le socio<political arrangement /inall. onet!elessD aibe+Ls o>n t!eoriCing calls /or a great deal o/ cautious reser3ation a6out t!e conseFuences o/ em6racing t!is outloo+ as trueD o/ /alling into t!e trap o/ "to in3o+e t!is moti/ once more# l-ing in t!e guise o/ trut!.s-stem proclaiming to 6e t!e em6odiment o/ :t!e end o/ !istor-.>ait it out "at one pointD aibe+ identi/ies t!is anticipation o/ indeterminate c!ange<-et<to<come as a disempo>ering lureD alt!oug! !e doesnLt explicitl.to somet!ing elseD e3en i/ t!is :x.agrees >it! t!e 8arxist con3iction t!at t!e demise o/ capitalism is an ine3ita6leD una3oida6le !istorical necessit- O:0!e ultimate ans>er to t!e reproac! t!at t!e radical (e/t proposals are utopian s!ould t!us 6e t!atD toda-D t!e true utopia is t!e 6elie/ t!at t!e present li6eral<democratic capitalist consensus could go on inde/initel-D >it!out radical c!anges.gi3e >a. cannot 6e en3isioned clearl.anal-ses de3eloped 6. 9ne can tolerate toda-Ls capitalismD 6ecause one +no>s t!at it cannot last /ore3erG one can passi3el.aibe+ in !is assault upon late<capitalist ideolog.1*1 0!is !urling o/ t!e c!arge o/ utopianism 6ac+ at t!ose ma+ing it is Fuite con3incing.>it! t!e present state o/ a//airs !e descri6es so >ell.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1#0 ':: Cap Ine+ita-le % & Cap is not ine+ita-le – that -elie/ is utopian and is maintained -.mig!t ser3e to /acilitate t!e sustenance o/ t!e c-nical distance >!ose underl-ing complicit.and patientl.appears to 6e utopian.6eara6le#D so too mig!t ac+no>ledging t!e trut! o/ capitalismLs /initude !a3e t!e same un/ortunate side<e//ect. Pust as t!e com6ination o/ a purel.sometimes appears to 6e ent!ralled 6. SoD one s!ould indeed accept as true t!e unli+eli!ood o/ capitalism continuing on inde/initel-G it must e3entuall..!as arri3ed is almost impossi6le.

narro>ing range o/ /easi6le alternati3es to t!e /ull acti3ation o/ its structural crisis.and maintain t!e sel/same structure intactD at >!ate3er !uman costD accepting Mstructural unemplo-mentL as t!e permanent /eature o/ t!e one and onl.pri3ate capital in t!e t>entiet! centur-G t!e s!eer magnitude o/ t!e resources reFuired /or displacing its contradictionsD >it!in t!e constraints o/ an ominousl. @utD o/ courseD t!e admission t!at unemplo-ment is no> Mstructural is stated O >it! a logic >ort!.concei3a6le structure. 1e can see !ereD againD t!e MeternaliCation o/ 6ourgeois conditionsLD e3en in t!e /ace o/ a dramaticall.o/ capitalLs Manal-ticalL >isdom O not so as to call /or a c!ange in t!e structure "t!e social order# in >!ic! suc! conseFuences are una3oida6le. @utD o/ courseD not!ing !as reall.ll t!ese trends indicate a 3er.diminis!ing returnG&t* t!e slo>l. 1#1 .spea+ o/ t!e age o/ transition to socialism meaning/ull.to t!e end o/ rinse. Sussex# 199" YIsta3anD @e-ond Capital: 0o>ards a 0!eor. )&'<9 EAE20.s!o> t!e !istorical actualit.t!e oracle said: M5ull Emplo-ment in a 5ree Societ-L "see t!e (i6<(a6ouring (ord @e3eridgeLs 6oo+ o/ t!e same title#G toda.ES "4ro/. 5or unemplo-ment is MstructuralLD and t!ere/ore it is !ere to sta.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1#1 ':: Cap Ine+ita-le %!& :he contradictions inherent to capitalism ma*e its collapse ine+ita-le( 6ESF'. Westerda.E(ESSD >e ma.re3enue /or +eeping in existence t!e parasitic sections o/ capitalD at t!e expense o/ its producti3e partsG t!e noticea6le >ea+ening o/ t!e ideolot!egical po>er o/ manipulati3e institutons ">!ic! >ere originallesta6lis!ed under t!e circumstances o/ post>ar economic expansion and its t>in 6rot!er: t!e M>el/are stateL # at times o/ recession and gro>ing Mstructural unemplo-mentL. C!aracteristicall-D t!is is t!e onl. Emeritus E =ni3. . 9n t!e contrar-D in order to ?usti/.controlled 6.o63ious and !ig!l.in t!at: Capital is presented >it! a dangerousl.emerging saturation o/ t!e glo6al /rame>or+ o/ pro/ita6le capital productionG&i9 O t!e c!ronic di//iculties encountered in and generated 6raising t!e necessar.c!angedD and especiall-: not!ing oug!t to c!ange.it tal+s a6out Mstructural unemplo-mentL.distur6ing !istorical de3elopment.o/ 0ransition\ p.o/ a pain/ul 6ut inescapa6le process o/ transition.context in >!ic! t!e apologists o/ capital !a3eD at long lastD ta+en notice o/ t!e existence o/ structural conditions and determinations. 0!us: t!e s!rin+ing siCe o/ t!e >orld directl.real mo3ement to>ards t!e ultimate limits o/ capital as suc!D and !ence t!e.

exist /or ango3ernment see+ing to adopt antis-stemic measures.edu7?ournals7sout!XatlanticXFuarterl-7310&710&. %1& $eoli-eralism and macroeconomic polic.tends to>ard !ig! le3els o/ in3estmentD 6rea+nec+ gro>t!D and economic prosperit-D t!e idea o/ a tendenc. .&1 IndeedD t!ere is some e3idence t!at t!e /ailure o/ I85 and 1orld @an+ policies 6ot! in Sout! .de/inition. 0urning to t!e speci/ic case o/ t!e . ./rica >ill ma+e a di//erence at t!at meeting.)magu6ane.o/ neoli6eralism is t!at its J/ailure to stimulate gro>t!D produce a decline in po3ert-D or generate greater economic sta6ilit.( :his is -ecause o/ a /ailure to recogni./rica is not Bim6a6>eDH rat!er t!an on adopting antis-stemic measures.Cronin is largel. and '/rican studies at the Ani+ersit. Since t!e pre3ailing >isdom is t!at a capitalist econom.is e3en more pronounced in discussions a6out t!e de3eloping >orld.correct in !is assertion t!at a ma?or >ea+ness o/ macroeconomic policma+ing >it!in t!e .e our o0n role 0ithin capitalism7 and the character o/ glo-ali. .ation 6agu-ane7 associate pro/essor o/ sociolog. or increased economic sta-ilit.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1#2 ':: Cap decreases po+ert.a//licting t!e =. has /ailed to result in a decline in po+ert.points out t!at capitalism is Ja s-stemD not a polic-. J./ricaHs c!airing o/ t!e annual meeting to put pressure on t!e .tlantic Uuarterl-D 200)D !ttp:77muse. Sout! .?!u.in terms o/ 6ringing rapid economic gro>t!D reduced po3ert-D or economic sta6ilit-. 4atric+ @ondD a Sout! . . o/ Illinois7 0! "Bine 8agu6aneD associate pro/essor o/ sociolog.5und and 1orld @an+.2e3ie> aptl.to>ard stagnationD intrinsic to a mature capitalist econom-D is excluded almost 6. 0!e emp!asis is on Hmar+etingH oursel3es 6etterD con3incing t!e >orld t!at HSout! ./rican studies at t!e =ni3ersit.S.J&2 86o>eniHs comments >ere prompted 6.o/ IllinoisD :0!e 2e3olution @etra-edQ: Glo6aliCationD eoli6eralismD and t!e 4ost<.J29 0!is t-pe o/ ideological !egemon.ligned 8o3ement and t!e International 8onetar.part!eid StateD.and .J2% 5ailure to realiCe t!is can result in policies and anal-ses t!at o6/uscate more t!an YEnd 4age $$)\ t!e.o/ t!e same /ol+s >!o produced t!e original 3ersion. .naturall.J&& 1#2 . C go3ernment to pus! /or more re/orms in t!e glo6al /inancial arc!itecture.o6ser3e t!at Jt!ere is little in+ling in esta6lis!ment circles o/ t!e underl-ing pro6lems /acing capitalist economies.resulted in a more em6oldened critiFue emanating /rom certain Fuarters in Sout! . econom-D t!e editors o/ t!e 8ont!l./rican leaders a Jrare opportunit-J to ma+e a case against neoli6eralism in international /orum suc! as t!e on .J2' 0!e Fuestion remainsD !o>e3erD o/ >!at possi6ilities currentl.o6ser3es t!at t!e ultimate iron.o/ t!e International Con/ederation o/ 5ree 0rade =nions "IC50=# too+ t!e occasion o/ Sout! . 1illiam K./rican economistD argues t!at t!e recent international /inancial crisis !as gi3en Sout! .5und and 1orld @an+ in 4rague. C !as 6een a /ailure to appreciate t!e /act t!at Jour pro6lems mig!t 6e lin+ed to t!e s-stematic and o6?ecti3e c!aracter o/ glo6al capitalism and our o>n semiperip!eral position >it!in it./rica and internationall.!tml# asser rig!tl. 0a66 correctl. strong argument /or real re/orm coming /rom Sout! ./rica. CD I 6elie3e t!at Perem. IndeedD @ill PordanD general<secretar.!as led to t!e HaugmentedH 1as!ington ConsensusD 6roug!t to -ou 6man. @ut noD almost in de/iance YEnd 4age $$*\ o/ t!e e3idence it continues to pus! its simplisticD useless /ree<mar+et strategies /or sol3ing po3ert-. . Wou >ould t!in+ t!at >it! suc! a de3astating indictment o/ t!eir /ailed policies t!e 1orld @an+ >ould re/orm its o>n policies and practices.0re3or 8anuelHs c!airing o/ t!e 2000 meeting o/ t!e International 8onetar.clari/-. 5or exampleD in Septem6er 2000 2eser3e @an+ go3ernor 0ito 86o>eni >as Fuoted as sa-ingD JIn t!e past 10 -ears t!e num6er o/ people li3ing in extreme po3ert-Oon less t!an one dollar a da-O !as risen to a Fuarter o/ t!e >orldHs population. In an article a6out t!e economic stagnation currentl.J&0 0!ere is no Fuestion t!at neoli6eralism !as /ailed in terms o/ its announced goalsD particularl.

de7anticap7t!eprax7part1.marxists.S.4I0.!tm# "4D9CSS2&&)# 0!e discouraging state o/ t!e present tendsD !o>e3erD to a >is!/ul en!ancement o/ t!e past.interest pa-ments on loansD and ecological degradation all too o/ten /ollo>s.and t!e aut!oritarianism o/ t!eir >or+places.ideal o/ social ?ustice: internal po3ert.materialism o/ t!e times and<in t!e case o/ -oung /actor.to s!ape t!eir communit-G and corporate rule >as not reduced 6ut rein/orced. 6lac+sG >or+ers still sold t!eir la6or and potentials to ot!ersD gaining t!e po>er to consume 6ut not acti3el. Empiricall.uto 1or+ersD 2002 "89 0. Sam GindinD !olds t!e 4ac+er C!air in Social ScienceD Department o/ 4olitical Science at Wor+ =ni3ersit.ssistant to t!e 4resident o/ t!e Canadian .impro3ement in 0!ird 1orld countries.(W 2EAIE1D 8a-<PuneD !ttp:77>>>.mont!l-re3ie>. 0!at Jgolden ageJ o/ capitalismD in /actD /ell /ar s!ort o/ an. 0!e -out! re6ellions o/ t!e 19$0sD >e s!ould remem6erD >ent 6e-ond opposition to t!e >ar in Aietnam and reacted against t!e empt./rica and (atin .-earsD Director o/ 2esearc! and .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1# ':: Cap decreases po+ert.org70$02gindin. 0!e. 0!e turning o3er o/ 3ast tracts o/ land to t!e production o/ a single crop "JmonocultureJ# /or multinationals does not raise re3enues "since >orld prices are dri3en do>n as t!e same crops are produced in t!e same >a. %2& Econ gro0th doesn5t decrease po+ert.in se3eral ot!er countries#. 1# .a Jgolden ageJ /or >omen or /or =.!a3e s!o>n t!at em6racing mar+ets does not usuall.in 0oronto.lead to an.E92W .(IS8: 0. D 42.!tm# "4D9CSS2&&&# 0!e critics o/ neo<li6eralism and glo6aliCation !a3e exposed !ole a/ter !ole in t!ese doctrines. 0I<C.e >asD /or man. C!ris 1armanD 8arxistD 2001 ".persistedG t!e gap 6et>een t!e /irst >orld and t!e t!irdD in spite o/ decoloniCationD >idenedG it >as !ardl.7 glo-al capitalism has not reduced po+ert. .C0ICED !ttp:77>>>.>or+ers<reacted against t!e contrast 6et>een t!eir ci3il rig!ts in societ.merica !a3e seen t!eir conditions deteriorateD not impro3e. 5or t>o decades most o/ t!e peoples o/ . 0!e re3enues t!at are earned are eaten up 6.

in 0oronto.-earsD Director o/ 2esearc! and .!tm# "4D9CSS2&&*# 0!is s!am argument ignoresD /irstD t!at >!ere gro>t! !as comeD it !as come not >it! a general impro3ement in social ?ustice 6ut >it! costs in terms o/ internal democrac-D !uman rig!tsD and eFualit-.!tm# "4D9CSS2&&%# 0!irdD as long as t!e success/ul de3elopment model is /ocused on poor countries competing to export to t!e 1estD uni3ersal de3elopment is a contradiction in terms.-earsD Director o/ 2esearc! and . .case !a3e 6een rooted in particular circumstances t!at canHt 6e duplicated.(W 2EAIE1D 8a-<PuneD !ttp:77>>>.must insist on tig!tl.e >asD /or man.siaD !a3e pro3ed to 6e /ragileD and in an.uto 1or+ersD 2002 "89 0. -e 0inners i/ there are losers Sam GindinD !olds t!e 8ac*er Chair in Social Science7 Department o/ 8olitical Science at Mor* Ani+ersit. mar+et e3en as it protected its o>n mar+ets. :here 0ill onl.!tm# "4D9CSS2&&$# SecondD t!e /e> success storiesD li+e t!ose in Sout! East . in 0oronto. .(W 2EAIE1D 8a-<PuneD !ttp:77>>>.id "militar.e >asD /or man.spending during t!e Korean and Aietnam >ars# and >as also gi3en /ree access to t!e =.is doing greatD 6ut t!e people in it arenHt.-earsD Director o/ 2esearc! and .ssistant to t!e 4resident o/ t!e Canadian . 0!is meant t!atD li+e Europe 6e/ore "and unli+e t!e t!ird >orld more generall-# it recei3ed a /orm o/ 8ars!all .in 0oronto.>ere rele3ant<6ut 6ecause o/ its special importance to t!e =nited States during t!e Cold 1ar.S.ssistant to t!e 4resident o/ t!e Canadian .mont!l-re3ie>.mont!l-re3ie>.6condemning ot!er countries to 6eing losers "not to mention t!e losers >it!in t!eir o>n countries#. Some J>innersJ mig!t indeed emergeD 6ut onl. 1#! . 0!e t!ird >orld can onl.(W 2EAIE1D 8a-<PuneD !ttp:77>>>.uto 1or+ersD 2002 "89 0.org70$02gindin.in t!ird >orld so<called success stories li+e @raCil and 8exico: J0!e econom.J Success stories turn into /ailures Sam GindinD !olds t!e 4ac+er C!air in Social ScienceD Department o/ 4olitical Science at Wor+ =ni3ersit.uto 1or+ersD 2002 "89 0.org70$02gindin.do not !a3e to cut t!emsel3es o// /rom trade and in3estmentD t!oug! t!e.mont!l-re3ie>.merican generalD >!en as+ed a6out economic de3elopment in !is countr-D responded >it! >ords t!at still capture so muc! o/ t!e present realit.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1#! ':: Cap decreases po+ert.regulating t!em to strengt!en t!eir internal de3elopment. % & :he -ene/its o/ capitalism do not tric*leCdo0n Sam Gindin7 !olds t!e 4ac+er C!air in Social ScienceD Department o/ 4olitical Science at Wor+ =ni3ersit. 0!e.org70$02gindin.mo3e to>ards o3erall de3elopment i/ t!ere is a /ocus on mo6iliCing and de3eloping t!eir !uman and natural resources to address internal needs. In t!e mid</i/tiesD a (atin . . 0!e most prominent exampleD Sout! KoreaD did not ac!ie3e >!at it did 6ecause its policies >ere so cle3er<t!oug! t!e.ssistant to t!e 4resident o/ t!e Canadian .e >asD /or man.

disad3antageous.a>are o/ t!e >e6 o/ t!eir relations >it! all ot!er pla-ers D and t!at t!is >e6 presents itsel/ to t!e indi3idual in t!e /orm o/ constraints on t!e use o/ t!eir resources. In a >orld in >!ic! in/ormation is an issue and in >!ic! externalities are laden >it! signi/icanceD 1#" .per/ect competition implies t!at eac! pla-er is totall. ot onl. or is t!ere an. 8arxismD as an economic t!eor-D is 6uilt upon a radical separation >!ic! explains capitalism 6.!omogeneous 6ecause capitalism is supposed to mo3e in accordance >it! general la>s >!ic! lead to its o3ert!ro>D >!ate3er t!e nature o/ t!e societ. e3ert!elessD t!e 8arxist 3ie> o/ t!e econom.in a natural state o/ eFuili6riumD stretc!es t!e postulate o/ !omogeneit. !ttp:77>>>.is concerned >it! !eterogeneous economic processes in >!ic! necessit.org7Q3ie>R19%)# 0!e neo<classical t!eor. 'gliettaD Economist S 4ro/ o/ Economic ScienceD B92 "8ic!el . Capitalism relies on an impossi-le postulate o/ homogeneit.o/ 4aris f: anterreD Scienti/ic Counselor at CE4IID mem6er o/ t!e =ni3ersit.ne>le/tre3ie>. and per/ect economic e?uili-rium( 'gliettaD Economist S 4ro/ o/ Economic ScienceD B92 "8ic!el . 4er/ect competition does not exist and maximum competition is disad3antageous< Capitalism leads to uneFual de3elopment.ne>le/tre3ie>.and e3en indi3iduall.gliettaG 5renc! EconomistD 4ro/essor o/ Economic Science at t!e =ni3ersit.and t!e C!allenge o/ Social C!ange.under t!e e//ects o/ t!e uneFual de3elopment in!erent in capitalism.domain o/ social practiceD 6ut t!e c!aracteriCation o/ t!e >!ole s-stem as an eFuili6rium created 6.to all indi3iduals in pursuit o/ t!eir goals 6.to its 3erlimits. ot onl.assign t!e same identit.o/ 4aris f: anterreD Scienti/ic Counselor at CE4IID mem6er o/ t!e =ni3ersit.8G o3em6er<Decem6er 199'G e> (e/t 2e3ie> :Capitalism at t!e 0urn o/ t!e Centur-: 2egulation 0!eor.Institute o/ 5ranceD and a consultant to Groupama<. 2egulation t!eor.reason >!. 5urt!ermoreD t!e o3ert!ro> o/ capitalism !eralds t!e coming o/ a transparent and !omogeneous s-stem o/ per/ect planning.re?ecting t!e postulate o/ !omogeneit-.Institute o/ 5ranceD and a consultant to Groupama<. !ttp:77>>>.and contingenc-D t!e constraint o/ t!e past and t!e creation o/ t!e ne> are intert>ined.and t!e C!allenge o/ Social C!ange.li6eralismD >!ic! amounts to a representation o/ t!e s-stem as a pure econom.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1#" ':: Cap sol+es social di+isions Cap sets classes against eac! ot!er.org7Q3ie>R19%)# t!ere is no suc! t!ing as a general eFuili6rium o/ per/ect competition.does t!e axiom o/ rationalit.8G o3em6er<Decem6er 199'G e> (e/t 2e3ie> :Capitalism at t!e 0urn o/ t!e Centur-: 2egulation 0!eor.inspired 6. 0!is is t!e en3ironment in >!ic! t!e pro6lems o/ regulation arise.gliettaG 5renc! EconomistD 4ro/essor o/ Economic Science at t!e =ni3ersit. It deals >it! processes t!at emergeD are reproducedD t!en >it!er a>a.maximum competition s!ould 6e t!e 6est possi6le /orm o/ relations!ip 6et>een economic agentsD /or competition in t!ese contexts entails t!e adoption o/ 6e!a3ioural strategiesD t!e e//ects o/ >!ic! could 6e sociall.is mar+et exc!ange no longer percei3ed as a s-mmetrical relation 6et>een contracting partiesG t!e la6our /orce is also put on one side o/ a 6asic social di3ision >!ic! sets one class o/ indi3iduals against t!e ot!er.de/ining an economic 6e!a3iour pattern t!at can 6e applied to an.remains strongl.in >!ic! it de3elops.

9ne /acet o/ t!is expansion is t!e glo6alisation o/ =S nuclear >ar planning +no>n as Jadapti3e planningJ.to general nuclear >ar.innocent people as !ig!er -ield >eapons.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1## ':: Cap Ke. >ould 6e a6le to >age and >in an. 1e can expect not!ing less o/ t!e corporate media.t!e p!rase Jde/ense o/ 3ital interestsJ.spot on 1!at lies at t!e !eart o/ suc! a polic.u+7en7200&70*7$'1%&.toe t!e part.>ar li+e 6ut !ig!l.an./eature o/ contemporar. It is also understood t!at t!e de3elopment o/ t!ese nuclear >eapons ma. 5or strategic planners t!e >orldHs population is >!at t!e.D *<1)D !ttp:77>>>. 0!is is not a producti3e mixG surel. 1!at is /rig!tening is t!at e3entual sel/ induced extinction is a rational conseFuence o/ our s-stem o/ >orld order muc! li+e t!e destruction o/ t!e s-stem o/ >orld order destro-ing itsel/ and muc! o/ t!e ecological 6asis /or t!e support o/ li/e long 6e/ore it >ould 6e a6le to tra3erse >orm!oles." 40# inde/initel-.t!e C0@0 treat-D >!ic! is meant to 6an nuclear testing. 0!ere >ill exist no real escalator. In 6ot! cases t!e main impediments to =S action >ere t!e notion t!at nuclear >eapons >ere not politicall. 0!is is one o/ t!e /arces o/ man. to Space Capitalism threatens human sur+i+al( It is the root o/ nuclear 0ar7 en+ironmental destruction7 and northC south con/lict( :he expansionist capitalism o/ the a//irmati+e 0ill push the AS to militari. 0!e @us! administrationHs uclear 4osture 2e3ie> stipulated t!at nuclear >eapons are needed in case o/ Jsurprising militarde3elopmentsJ not necessaril. 8oreo3erD t!e potential t!ird >orld targets o/ =S attac+ >ould also !a3e greater incenti3e to ensure t!at t!e.6ecause o/ t!e destructi3e potential o/ intelligence. 5ull spectrum dominance means t!at t!e =S Eart!J. Strategic nuclear superiorit.similar to t!e interaction 6et>een t!e mo6ilisation sc!edules o/ t!e great po>ers prior to 191).Q 0!ere exists good reason to suppose t!at a maladapti3eD intelligentD organism >ould indeed cause its o>n extinction simpl.dmiral 8iesD stated t!at nuclear 6allistic missile su6marines >ould 6e a6le to Jmo3e undetected to an.+ill as man. 0!e de3elopment o/ t!e 2 E4 dra>s us closer to t!e prospect o/ nuclear >arD including accidental nuclear >arD 6ecause lo>er -ields >ill lo>er t!e 6arrier 6et>een con3entional and nuclear >ar.narc!ism and .omo sapiens an intelligent maladapti3e organism doomed to sel/ extinction. relations!ip 3er. 1as!ington is asserting t!at i/ an.re/er to as a Jtarget ric! en3ironmentJ.uman Sur3i3al: 2ussellHs 4ro6lem.on nuclear >arD t!e most immediate t!reat. =S nuclear /orcesD . 0!is is +no>n as t!e lo>ering o/ t!e t!res!old o/ nuclear >ar.Jusea6leJ in suc! a context and 6ecause o/ t!e So3iet deterrent.nuclear >arD ecological c!ange and nort!<sout! con/lict.nation >ere to !a3e t!e temerit.to success/ull.ll t!ree I >ould argue can 6e traced to a single source t!at 6eing t!e pat!ological nature o/ state capitalism. J1!at >e sa.s-stem.reFuire t!e resumption o/ nuclear testingD a +e.dministrationHs lac+ o/ readiness to a6ide 6.increase t!e c!ances o/ 1## . It s!ould 6e stressed t!at t!is is a message o//ered to t!e >!ole >orld a/ter all it is no> a target ric! en3ironment.org.t-pe o/ >ar ranging /rom a small scale contingenc. Suc! strategic re/orms are meant to ma+e nuclear >ar a more 3ia6le polic.also !a3e a nuclear deterrent. I/ t!e =S is ma+ing its arsenal more usea6le 6.o/ t!eir deterrents.re/erred to as Jescalation dominanceJ.goesJ or -ou go is t!e message 6eing con3e-ed.is !otl. I s!all /ocus in t!is essa.>!at is +no>n as J/ull spectrum dominanceJ pre3iousl.>e are >itnessing a ma?or expansion in t!e =S glo6al militar./ire>all 6et>een t!ese t>o /orms o/ >ar/are >!ic! means t!at in an.e space and ma*e hair trigger accidental launch and glo-al nuclear 0ar an increased pro-a-ilit. 0!e C0@0 is a +e. . In doing so >e >ill come to Currentl.is to 6e used to t!reaten ot!er states so t!at t!e. . 1e !a3e ?ust seen in IraF >!at is meant 6.s!ort notice. I s!all argue t!at >e /ace >!at I re/er to as J2ussellHs pro6lemJ: :are . 0!e So3iet deterrent is no more and t!e =S currentl. 0!e Clinton era commander o/ appreciate t!e nexus 6et>een t!is t!reatD glo6alisation and nort!<sout! con/lict. 0!ere exist strong parallels 6et>een =S nuclear planning and t!e German Imperial Sta//Ls Sc!lie//en plan.our o>n institutions.( 6ar*o7 200 ":Ind-media =KD :.launc! pointJ t!reatening Jan. 0!e Clinton administration >as more explicit stating in its 2001 4entagon report to Congress t!at =S nuclear /orces are to J!edge against de/eat o/ con3entional /orces in de/ense o/ 3ital interestsJ.target on Eart! at 3er. 0!e passage ma+es clear t!at t!is statement is not limited to c!emical or 6iological >eapons. 8uc! speculation and mo3ie ma+ing is de3oted to>ard suc! sur3i3al t!reatening e3ents as asteroid stri+es and mantle !ead plumes.ad3anced speciesD in order to reac! suc! !eig!ts as inter< galactic tra3elD >ould need to 6e a species t!at places a premium on cooperation and solidarit-. .reason /or t!e .ind-media. 1e can notc! anot!er one /or t!e propaganda modelG it is to 6e expected t!at our pat!ological institutions >ould not d>ell @ertrand 2ussell t!roug!out !is long career as a pu6lic intellectual and political acti3ist !ad reason to re/lect on t!e /ollies o/ !umanit.6andoning t!e C0@0 treat-D in order to de3elop a ne> generation o/ more Jusea6leJ nuclear >eapons t!at >ill lo>er t!e t!res!old o/ nuclear >arD >ill place t!e 40 regime under /urt!er strain and greatl.glo6al nuclear non proli/eration regimes /or "8ar+o Cont.is t!e desire to maintain glo6al strategic superiorit.!tml# t!e real t!reats to !uman sur3i3alD t!reats >!ic! are sel/ induced. prior to 191) >as a rational conseFuence o/ its internal nature.de/end itsel/ against =S in3asionD armed >it! con3entional >eapons onl-D t!en instant anni!ilation a>aits. During t!e cold >ar t!e =S t>ice contemplated using nuclear >eapons in suc! a /as!ion 6ot! in AietnamD t!e /irst at Dien @ien 4!u and during ixon administration planning /or Joperation duc+ !oo+J.and on t!eir in!erent pat!olog-.line.limited to c!emical or 6iological >eapons.o3er time succeed in 0!ere exist t!ree t!reats to sur3i3al namel. .ignored is t!e t!reat to !uman sur3i3al posed 6.science /iction storiesD suc! as Star 0re+D >!ic! posit t!e existence o/ !ideous innatel.n a3aricious intelligent species >ould onl. .optionD on t!e 6asis t!at lo>er -ields >ill not immediatel.con3entional crisis in3ol3ing nuclear po>ersD t!ere >ill exist a strong incenti3e to stri+e /irst. 0!e idea !ere is t!at t!e =S >ould 6e a6le to execute a nuclear stri+e against an. no text deleted# t!e =S signed t!e C0@0 in order to extend t!e nuclear non proli/eration treat. (o>ering t!e t!res!old o/ nuclear >ar >ill also en!ance pressures /or glo6al nuclear proli/eration.pursuing t!e de3elopment o/ nuclear >eapons t!at its designers 6elie3e >ill 6e Jusea6leJ >!at t!e Clinton administration re/erred to as lo> -ield eart! penetrating nuclear >eapons and >!at t!e @us! administration re/ers to as t!e 2apid uclear Eart! 4enetrator .itler no dou6t >ould !a3e !ad a similar conception o/ JdeterrenceJ. 1!at is totall.intelligent species.>or+ing to>ards ac!ie3ing a /irst stri+e capa6ilit-D t!en ot!ers suc! as 2ussia and C!ina must react in order to ensure t!e 3ia6ilit.

1#3 . .+no>n as JescalationJ or J/ull spectrumJ dominanceD compel 1as!ington to pursue :space controlJ. 0!ese glitc!es in command and control s-stems pro?ection inD /rom and t!roug! spaceJ. During t!e rise o/ sea commerceD nations 6uilt na3ies to protect and en!ance t!eir commercial interests. missile launc! sites.>arning s-stem as t!e spear o/ a =S /irst stri+e.s a result t!ere >ill ine3ita6l. 0o pre3ent t!e loss o/ all nuclear /orces in a su6seFuent /ollo> on stri+e t!e 2ussianHs >ould need to launc! a /ull scale response as soon as possi6le.>ill continueD >it! a >idening 6et>een M!a3esL and M!a3e notsL.o>e3er t!e militarisation o/ space no> means t!at t!ese satellites >ill 6ecome open gameG t!e 6enign en3ironment in space >ill disappear i/ t!e militarisation o/ space continues. 1it!out Fuestion t!is >ould 6e percei3ed 6.outposts and t!e ca3alr. 0!e document goes onD :t!e emergence o/ space po>er /ollo>s 6ot! o/ t!ese models.!oles t!at pre3ent it /rom >arning o/ an attac+ t!roug! t>o +e..o/ t!e nort!ern lig!tsD >as /ired o3er or>a-.>ell as+ >!at !as all t!is to do >it! state capitalismQ Consider t!e t!in+ing 6e!ind t!e militarisation o/ spaceD outlined /or us 6.Capitalism K Generic /urt!er nuclear proli/eration.and economic.. 0!is means t!atD according to a report >ritten under t!e c!airmans!ip o/ Donald 2ums/eldD Jin t!e coming period t!e =S >ill conduct operations toD /romD in and t!roug! spaceJ >!ic! includes Jpo>er . researc! roc+etD part o/ a stud.result in t!e s-stem attac+ing 2ussian earl>arning satellites.emerged to protect our >agon trainsD settlements and roads.cannot 6e o3er<emp!asised. 0ec!nical /ailure ma. 0!e roc+et >as percei3ed 6. During t!e >est>ard expansion o/ t!e continental =nited StatesD militar.>as a3erted in 199* 6ecause 2ussiaHs earl. 0!us i/ t!e =S >ere to Jconduct operations toD /rom in and t!roug! spaceJ it >ill do see remotel.militar.. >ere ultimatel. 0!ere exists a Jdeadl.its space 6ased assets. Calamit.S. 0!roug!out t!e nuclear age t!ere !a3e 6een a num6er o/ close callsD due to 6ot! !uman and tec!nical errorD t!at almost lead to a /ull scale nuclear exc!ange 6et>een 1as!ington and 8osco>.>arning satellites >ould !a3e demonstrated t!at t!ere >as no launc! o/ =S nuclear /orces./orces !a3e e3ol3ed to protect national interests and in3estments – 6ot! militar.arise an arms race in space.a single roc+et to ac!ie3e t!is e//ect 6ecause it >as no dou6t percei3ed 6. @ecause t!e =S itsel/ !as a !air trigger launc! on >arning posture a 2ussian attac+ >ould 6e /ollo>ed 6. 8oreo3erD :t!e glo6aliCation o/ t!e >orld econom. 0!e militarisation o/ space greatl.corridorsD one /rom t!e .6enign 6ecause 6ot! sides !ad earl. Consider /or instance a curious e3ent t!at occurred in 199*. 0!e 2ussian s-stem t!en 6egan a countdo>n to /ull scale nuclear responseG it ta+es onl.connectionJ 6et>een glo6al >eapons o/ mass destruction proli/eration and =S /oreign polic-. 0!e importance o/ t!is simpl.o/ nuclear .2ussian planners t!at t!is single roc+et >as meant to disa6le t!eir command and control s-stem as a result o/ electromagnetic pulse e//ects.t!e 2ussian earl.Space CommandG :!istoricall. In t!e /uture i/ an e3ent suc! as 199* >ere to occur in space t!e 2ussians no longer >ould !a3e t!e le3el o/ com/ort pro3ided 6. 0o>ard t!is endD 1as!ington !as resisted e//orts in t!e = to create an arms control regime /or space. 0!e demands o/ unilateral strategic superiorit-D long standing =S polic.tlantic t!e ot!er /rom t!e 4aci/ic.increases t!e c!ances o/ a /ull scale accidental nuclear >ar.t!e 2ussianHs as t!e /irst s!ot in a =S nuclear /irst stri+e. I/ t!ese satellites >ere to 6e ta+en out t!en t!is ultimate guarantee disappearsG t!e 2ussian ground 6ased radar s-stem !as a num6er o/ +e. Dartmouth 2K9 1#3 9ne ma.>arning satellites placed in specialised or6its >!ic! could 6e relied upon to pro3ide real time imager. .a /ull scale =S attac+G t!e =S !as a num6er o/ Jreser3e optionsJ in its >ar plansD t!us suc! an accidental launc! could trigger a glo6al c!ain o/ nuclear release around t!e glo6e.

.– >!atD !o>e3erD i/ it is t!is 3er. at the Institute /or Sociolog.prospect o/ a c!ange in po>erD t!e looming possi6ilit.google.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1#2 ':: 8ragmatism Anderstanding capitalism5s per+asi+e tendencies and the ps.t!e /alse opening.com76oo+sQ idR(Gxi/*2stt=CSprintsecR/rontco3erSdFRt!e`6orro>ed`+ettleSeiR3GtoSsa!EB.itsel/ as toda-Ls 8aster<Signi/ier. Democrac.o/ t!is c!angeD ma+es us endure t!e existing po>er relations – t!at is to sa-D t!ese existing relations are sta6iliCedD rendered tolera6leD 6.o/ c!ange – Mgood luc+ is ?ust around t!e cornerL.as t!e space o/ a 3irtual alternati3e: t!e 3er.-8rG+&a=@# 0!us t!e present crisis compels us to ret!in+ democrac.# 0!e opponents o/ capitalist glo6aliCation li+e to emp!asiCe t!e importance o/ +eeping t!e dreams ali3e: glo6al capitalism is not t!e end o/ !istor-D it is possi6le to t!in+ and act di//erentl.o/ its o>n G in ot!er >ordsD it is a positi3e ontological constituent o/ t!e existing order.Fua ideolog. 4g.rt o/ Killing. 1#2 .7 )<u-l<ana7 0! "Sla3o?D pro/essor o/ sociolog.stem allo0s us to escape current modes o/ political thought – searching /or pragmatic political solutions loc*s us into the dominant and oppressi+e structures o/ the status ?uo Fi.at t!e Institute /or Sociolog-D (?u6l?anaD :IraF: 0!e @orro>ed Kettle – =topia and t!e Gentle . 11&<11)D !ttp:776oo+s.an a>areness o/ t!e possi6ilit. "In a strict !omolog-D su6?ects accept t!ere economic situation i/ it accompanied 6./unctions principall.e*7 pro/essor o/ sociolog.lure o/ a possi6le c!ange >!ic! guarantees t!at not!ing >ill actuallc!angeQ 1!at i/ it onl.chological reasoning -ehind the s./ull acceptance o/ t!e desperate closure o/ t!e present glo6al situation t!at can pus! to>ards actual c!angeQ In t!is precise >a-D t!e 3irtual alternati3e displa-s an actualit.

and practiceD >e must depend on strong et!ical 6elie/sD e3en t!oug! suc! 6elie/s ma.must surel. 1e !a3eD >e !opeD learned to 6e cautious and tentati3e in t!e claims >e ma+e /or our t!eoretical anal-ses and our prescriptions /or practice . I/ >e are to engage as moral agents in t!e struggles /or social ?ustice t!at are integral to critical social >or+ t!eor.+ind o/ certaint.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 1#9 ':: 8erm %1& 1( 8erm doesn5t sol+e – Either7 '( :he.!a3e its limits. exclusi+e – can5t critici.5ll ad+ocate the perm – the * is a criticism o/ their methodolog. can no lin* o//ense in the 2'C 8erm 0on5t sol+e – 0e must /ull. – it5s impossi-le to di+orce pro<ects 0ithin capitalism /rom the mindset o/ exploitation( :he. 0!e deconstruction o/ regimes o/ 0rut! as sociall..no longer 6e a6le to claim uni3ersal or transcendental moral guarantees. can5t use implications o/ a /la0ed methodolog.e plan as a -ad idea and ad+ocate it as a good idea at the same time 2( Se+erance – i/ the perm sol+es7 it5s se+erance /rom the original assumptions o/ the 1'C( It5s a +oter – ma*es them a mo+ing target -ecause the. @ut t!e aut!ors o/ t!is 6oo+ also 6elie3e t!at suc! uncertaint.(inda Da3ies and 4eter (eonardD 4g xii par & 5inall-D t!ere is also a tension t!at arises /rom t!e postmodern assault on an. to le+erage o//ense against the criticism( Er7 4( :he.5ll use the perm as a test o/ competition – that pro+es the a// and alternati+e are multuall.in t!eir material and emotional li3es.o/ dogmatic assertions a6out 6ot! +no>ledge and 3alues. commit to critical re/lection Da+ies and )eonardD pro/s E 8cGill =ni3ersit-D 0! (inda Da3ies and 4eter (eonardD pro/essors in t!e Sc!ool o/ Social 1or+ E 8cGill =ni3ersit-D 200) IntroductionG in Social 1or+ in a Coporate Era: 4ractices o/ 4o>er and 2esistance edited 6. .manu/actured !as e//ecti3el.nd >!ile >eD as social >or+ educatorsD researc!ers and practitioners needD per!apsD less intellectual certaint-D >e mig!t re/lect on t!e /act t!at most clients o/ social >or+ers < t!ose li3ing >it! po3ert-D racism and social exclusion < are in need o/ more certaint.put paid to t!e credi6ilit.and culturall. 1#9 .

to li3e it ..J Is @ro>n not all too un< letCsc!ean in !er reduction o/ J ietCsc!eJ to a pro3ocati3e correction o/ democrac. 9n t!e occasions >!en t!e :/rame<up. .protects are not protected 6. diacriticsD Aolume &&D o.t!roug! some supplementar.ereD t!e t!e/t is o/ t!e legal /rame>or+D and t!e /rame itsel/ ">!et!er it protects or not# !as 6ecome t!e t!ing o/ 3alue.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 130 ':: 8erm %2& :he a// is a re/ormist gesture that domesticates the *riti* Fi. 0!e disco3er. .Itsel/Orecall simpl.re/erred to actual political e3ents around !im O sa-D t!e Jsla3e re6ellionJ o/ t!e 4aris Commune t!at !e /ound so s!atteringQ H @ro>n t!us accomplis!es a domestication o/ ietCsc!eD t!e trans/ormation o/ !is t!eor.all too gli6l.can 6e understood as grounded in t!ese constituti3e inconsistencies o/ t!e democratic pro?ectD as >a-s o/ dealing >it! t!ese inconsistenciesD 6ut >it! t!e price t!atD in tr-ing to get rid o/ t!e imper/ections o/ democrac-D o/ its non<democratic ingredientsD >e inad3ertentl. is disco3ered "usuall. . .!o> t!e populist appeal to a direct expression o/ t!e peopleHs General 1illD 6-passing all particular interests and pett.con/lictsD ends up sti/ling democratic li/e itsel/.itsel/ .in/ormation t!at exceeds t!e /rame<up#D legal structures are 3alidated and sancti/ied. 0!e /rame<up compromises t!e legal s-stemD leading to >rong/ul accusation and condemnation o/ an innocent.>!ic!D t!roug! !is exaggerationD renders 3isi6le t!e inconsistencies and >ea+nesses o/ t!e democratic pro?ectQ 1!en s!e proclaims ietCsc!eHs implicit "and also explicit# anti<democratic pro?ect Junli3ea6leDJ does s!e not t!ere6.lose democrac. 130 .real political pro?ects >!ic! directlre/erred to ietCsc!eD up to and including aCismD and t!at ietCsc!e !imsel/ constantl.su6seFuentl.into an exercise in Jin!erent transgressionJ: pro3ocations >!ic! are not reallJmeant seriousl-DJ 6ut aimD t!roug! t!eir Jpro3ocati3eJ c!aracterD to a>a+en us /rom our democratic<dogmatic slum6er and t!us contri6ute to t!e re3italiCation o/ democrac.6e condemned on :>rong/ul grounds. 0!e compromise is negati3el.nd t!e /rame >ould remain unresponsi3e to its o>n corrupti6ilitand exclusionar.it. 0!ere is little pro3ision /or assessing t!e :/rame. @ut t!is >ould al>a-s lea3e t!e supplement outside o/ t!e /rame. 10$<10%# 0!us all t!e dangers t!at lur+ in democrac. . :he perm simpl.@ro>nHs 3ersion as t!e extreme aggra3ation o/ t!e Jdemocratic paradoxJ to t!e point o/ direct sel/<inconsistenc-.o/ a /rame<up leads to a li6eral responseOto sa3e t!e /rameO e3en i/ t!ose it apparentl. 0!is is !o> t!e esta6lis!ment li+es its Jsu63ersi3eJ t!eorists: !armless gad/lies >!o sting us and t!us a>a+en us to t!e inconsistencies and imper/ection o/ our democratic enterprise O God /or6id t!at t!e.gesture o/ rendering pro6lematic t!e 3er.notion o/ Jdemocrac-D J o/ mo3ing else>!ere O o/ !a3ing t!e courage to ela6orate a positi3e I>ea6le pro?ect J6e-ond democrac-.3ie>ed 6ecause t!e ac< cused ma. itsel/Ot!e claims it ma+esD and its a6ilit. In a .pass o3er t!e /act t!at t!ere >ere 3er.t!e supplement c!allenging o/ its norms./rame>or+.to adapt to damage caused 6. 1!atD t!enD >ould 6e t!e "re#solution o/ t!is opposition 6et>een Jt!esis J "(acan as a t!eorist o/ democrac-# and Jantit!esisJ "(acan as its internal critic #Q 1e suggest t!at it is t!e ris+.and tr.e*7 2002 "Sla3o?D n 3efense of )ost CausesD pp.6ut necessar.mig!t ta+e t!e pro?ect seriousl. re/rames the alternati+e to match the a//Sthis lea+es the main pro-lem unaddressed Khanna7 8ro/essor o/ English and )iterature at Du*e7 200 "2an?anaD :5ramesD ContextsD Communit-D PusticeD. 2D Summer# Culler also >rites o/ negati3e /raming: t!e police /rame<upD or manu/acturing e3i< dence.egelian modeD one is t!us tempted to classi/.

# 1!at t!is means is t!atD e3en i/OorD rat!erD especiall. SoD apropos t!e second 3iolent transpositionD t!at o/ 8aoD it is too eas. "0o put it e3en more pointedl-D suc! a searc! /or t!e intruder >!o in/ected t!e original model and set in motion its degeneration cannot 6ut reproduce t!e logic o/ anti<Semitism.too /acile to 6lur t!e 3iolence o/ t!e cut and to accept 8aoHs re/ormulation as a logical continuation or JapplicationJ o/ 8arxism "rel-ingD as is usuall. In eac! caseD t!ere is a displacement o/ t!e original constellation: /rom t!e most ad3anced countr.t!e late Engels >it! !is more positi3ist< e3olutionar.o> are >e not to recall 5. .eit!er to condemn !is rein3ention o/ 8arxism as t!eoreticallJinadeFuateDJ as a regression >it! regard to 8arxHs standards "it is eas.t!e same JeternalJ idea o/ re3olutionar. In t!e same >a.and onl. 9ne o/ t!e most de3ious traps >!ic! lur+ /or 8arxist t!eorists is t!e searc! /or t!e moment o/ t!e 5allD >!en t!ings too+ t!e >rong turning in t!e !istor. Sc!ellingHs claim t!at Jt!e same 131 .in t!is >a.to s!o> t!at peasants lac+ su6stanceless proletarian su6?ecti3it-#D 6ut it is eFuall.attri6uting it to a /oreign element "t!e J6adJ Engels >!o >as too stupid to understand 8arxHs dialecticsD t!e J6adJ (enin >!o did not grasp t!e core o/ 8arxHs t!eor-D t!e J6adJ Stalin >!o spoilt t!e no6le plans o/ t!e JgoodJ (eninD and so on#.Pustice.is uni3ersalit.o/ t!e state into a possession and ornament /or t!e /amil-.siaticJ uni3erseD to struggle against t!e rene>ed J.8ao BedongHs Communist mo3ement.P. Jww In contrast to male am6itionD a >oman >ants po>er in order to promote !er o>n narro> /amil.siatic in particularJQ It is t!is . 0!e ac!ie3ement o/ 8ao is !ere tremendous: !is name stands /or t!e political mo6iliCation o/ t!e !undreds o/ millions o/ anon-mous 0!ird 1orld la-ers >!ose la6or pro3ides t!e in3isi6le Jsu6stanceDJ t!e 6ac+groundD o/ !istorical de3elopmentOt!e mo6iliCation o/ all t!ose >!om e3en suc! a poet o/ Jot!erness J as (e3inas dismissed as t!e J-ello> perilJD as >e see in >!at is argua6l.t!e caseD on t!e simple metap!oric expansion o/ class struggle: Jtoda-Hs predominant class struggle is no longer 6et>een capitalists and proletariat in eac! countr-D it !as s!i/ted to t!e 0!ird 3ersus t!e 5irst 1orldD 6ourgeois 3ersus proletarian nationsJ#.o/ 8arxism: >as it alread.o/ t!e 1est >as Jt!e m-t!ical in general and t!e .o/ t!e JoriginalJ teac!ing to su6mit to and sur3i3e t!is J6etra-alJG to sur3i3e t!is 3iolent act o/ 6eing torn out o/ oneHs original context and t!ro>n into a /oreign landscape >!ere it !as to rein3ent itsel/Oonl.1%*<1%%# In modern !istor-D t!e politics o/ re3olutionar.endorse t!e displacement in t!e !istor.6et>een t!e 5renc! 2e3olution and t!e Cultural 2e3olutionOto put it in 4latonist termsD >!at unites t!e t>o is precisel. o/ the 6arxist impulse – 0e cannot re<ect the ugl.siatic Jradical strangenessJ >!ic! is mo6iliCedD politiciCedD 6./or itD not to com/orta6l.1.understanding o/ !istorical materialismQ 1as it t!e re3isionism and t!e ort!odox. parts and conditionall.count !im as a 8arxistD since t!e social 6ase o/ t!e 8aoist re3olution >as not t!e >or+ing class. Does t!is not recall . 0!e /irst t!ing >e must do is to /ull.re?ect t!e J6adJ side o/ t!ings 6.siaticJ t!reatOt!e greatest ad3ersar.i/Oone su6mits t!e 8arxist past to rut!less critiFueD one !as /irst to ac+no>ledge it as JoneHs o>nD J ta+ing /ull responsi6ilit.egel introduces !is notorious notion o/ >oman+ind as Jt!e e3erlasting iron. In t!e case o/ 8aoD t!e Fuestion is e3en >!et!er one can legitimatel.agent.to emerge as a uni3ersal C!urc! "recall t!atD amongst t!e t>el3e apostlesD 4aul occupies t!e place o/ Pudas t!e traitorD replacing !im^#D 8arx needed (eninHs J6etra-alJ in order to enact t!e /irst 8arxist re3olution: it is an inner necessit. act =0ith good manners> Fi. support re+olutionaries i/ the.o/ SpiritD .e*7 2002 "Sla3o?D n 3efense of )ost CausesD pp.eideggerHs insistenceD t!roug!out t!e 19&0sD t!at t!e main tas+ o/ 1estern t!oug!t toda. It does not in3ol3e in/erior 3aluesG it in3ol3es a radical strangenessD a stranger to t!e >eig!t o/ its pastD /rom >!ere t!ere does not /ilter an.o/ t!e Second InternationalQ 1as it (eninQww 9r >as it 8arx !imsel/ in !is late >or+D a/ter !e !ad a6andoned !is -out!/ul !umanism "as some J!umanist 8arxistsJ claimed decades ago#Q 0!is entire trope !as to 6e re?ected: t!ere is no opposition !ereD t!e 5all is to 6e inscri6ed in t!e 3erorigins.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 131 ':: 8erm % & 8erm /ails – must accept the entiret. 963iousl-D t!e socio<!istorical context !ad c!anged radicall.6orn.o/ t!e communit-J: >oman+ind Jc!anges 6intrigue t!e uni3ersal end o/ t!e go3ernment into a pri3ate endD trans/orms its uni3ersal acti3it.o/ 8arxism concentrated in t>o great passages "orD rat!erD 3iolent cuts#: t!e passage /rom 8arx to (eninD as >ell as t!e passage /rom (enin to 8ao."as 8arx expected# to a relati3el.6ac+>ard countr-Ot!e re3olution Jtoo+ place in t!e >rong countr-JG /rom >or+ers to "poor# peasants as t!e main re3olutionar.into a >or+ o/ some particular indi3idualD and per3erts t!e uni3ersal propert.terror casts its s!ado> o3er t!e epoc! >!ic! spans /rom 2o6espierre to 8aoD orD more generall-D t!e disintegration o/ t!e Communist 6loc in 1990 Oits last installment >as t!e 8aoist Cultural 2e3olution. In !is 4!enomenolog.as C!rist needed 4aulHs J6etra-alJ in order /or C!ristianit.interests orD e3en >orseD !er personal capriceD incapa6le as s!e is o/ percei3ing t!e uni3ersal dimension o/ state politics.>as to de/end t!e Gree+ 6rea+t!roug!D t!e /ounding gesture o/ t!e J1estDJ t!e o3ercoming o/ t!e pre<p!ilosop!icalD m-t!icalD J./amiliar 3oice or in/lectionD a lunar or 8artian past.!is >eirdest textD J0!e 2usso< C!inese De6ate and t!e DialecticJ "19$0#D a comment on t!e So3ietOC!inese con/lict: 0!e -ello> peril^ It is not racialD it is spiritual.

in >!ic! >omen endea3or directl.us in its e//ecti3enessJQHKHw . po>er >!ic!D >!en it is +ept in its proper placeD can 6e 6enign and paci/-ingD turns into its radical oppositeD into t!e most destructi3e /ur-D t!e moment it inter3enes at a !ig!er le3elD t!e le3el >!ic! is not its o>n: t!e tame /emininit.to in/luence decisions concerning t!e a//airs o/ stateD manipulating t!eir >ea+ male partnersD e//ecti3el. 132 .and +ins!ipG 6ut >oe to a societ. .Jempo>erJ t!emsel3esD to t!e !orror o/ s-mpat!etic li6eralsD al>a-s read. .li/eD is t!e po>er o/ protecti3e lo3eD turns into o6scene /renC.emasculating t!em . . Is t!ere not somet!ing similar in t!e terror aroused 6. In s!ortD it is accepta6le /or a >oman to protest against pu6lic state po>er on 6e!al/ o/ t!e rig!ts o/ t!e /amil.t!e prospect o/ t!e a>a+ening o/ t!e anon-mous .>!ic!D >it!in t!e closed circle o/ /amil.are /ine i/ t!e.protest at t!eir /ate and allo> us to !elp t!em "t!roug! large<scale !umanitarian acti3it-#D 6ut not >!en t!e. .sian massesQ 0!e. .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 132 principle carries and !olds us in its ine//ecti3eness >!ic! >ould consume and destro. .to support t!e re3olt o/ t!e poor and dispossessedD so long as it is done >it! good manners .>!en displa-ed at t!e le3el o/ pu6lic and state a//airs .

struggles can 6e addressed on condition t!at t!e mode o/ its addressing is t!roug! t!e mar+et: /or exampleD t!e en3ironmental catastrop!e can 6e dealt >it! 6mar+eting pollution rig!ts and t!e !uman catastrop!e o/ po3ert.t!e disciplinar. 13 .6e ac!ie3edH "5oucault 2002: 211#. 1!ile I re/er t!e reader to t!e literature /or a discussion o/ Ke-nesianismD12 in >!at /ollo>s I >ant to deal >it! t!e modern /orm o/ go3ernmentalit-: neoli6eral go3ernance.o/ East (ondon !he 4eginning of "istory ''<9 0!is dou6le /unction can 6e descri6edD in general termsD using 5oucaultHs term cgo3ernmentalit-H.presents itsel/ as a pro6lem o/ Hsocial sta6ilit-H D a crisis t!at actualises t!e predisposition to>ards t!e rupture o/ accumulationD to>ards t!e interruptionD slo>ing do>nD or re/usal to maintain and increase t!e speed o/ /lo>s >!ic! are necessar.is all internal to t!e net>or+D and it is /or t!is reason t!at it deplo-s tactics rat!er t!an la>s: tactics and strategies aimed at creating a context in >!ic! t!e nodes interact >it!out escaping t!e 3alue practices o/ capita1. Social sta6ilit.>a-s in >!ic! t!e 3ast arra.ere t!e state did not implement la>s esta6lis!ing prices and >ages ">!en it tried t!is in emergencsituations it usuall. . eoli6eral go3ernance 1!at toda.in t!e reproduction o/ li/e and o/ our species on t!e 6asis o/ t!is mar+et normalisation. 10 5or our purposes !ereD go3ernmentalit. Examples o/ t!ese practices are post<>ar Ke-nesianism and t!e current discourses o/ neoli6eral go3ernance.is called Hgo3ernanceH is t!e name gi3en to t!e neoli6eral strategies o/ go3ernmentalit-.ccording to t!is logicD e3er.s in t!e case o/ t!e Ke-nesian /ormD go3ernance too emerges out o/ a crisis t!at increasingl.t!atD t!roug! a certain num6er o/ meansD suc!<and<suc! ends ma.stringent pro6lems o/ accumulationD gro>ing social con/lict and a crisis o/ reproduction./ailed#D 6ut promoted guidelines and an institutional context in >!ic! unions and capital >ould negotiate >it!in an o3erall /rame>or+. – this mo+e disposes things such that mar*et norms dictate struggles and social actuali.role o/ t!e mar+et t!roug! t!e esta6lis!ment o/ a Hcontinuit.common 3alues across t!e social 6od-. . o/ ordering societ. In ot!er >ordsD Hsocial sta6ilit-H in t!e case o/ Ke-nesianism >as seen as t!e output o/ a production process t!at !ad cgo3ernmentH as its H/acilitatorH and class struggle as its en/orcer on t!e glo6al scene.o/ po>ersH 6ased on normalised mar+et 3alues as trul. Go3ernance t!us see+s to em6ed t!ese 3alues in t!e man. It depends on participation on t!e 6asis o/ t!e s!ared 3alues and discourse o/ t!e mar+et. 0!is is an art o/ go3ernment t!atD unli+e cenclosuresHD is not 6ased on decree 6ut on managementD alt!oug! t!isD as >e s!all seeD is also predicated on t!e iron /ist o/ t!e state. eoli6eral go3ernance emerges as an attempt to manage clas!ing 3alue practices in line >it! t!e reFuirements o/ capitalist priorities in an increasingl. 2at!erD t!e pro6lem and solution o/ aut!orit.integrated >orld.J 0!is management does not come /rom a transcendental aut!orit.t!at is external to t!e net>or+ itsel/D suc! as in t!e pro6lematic o/ t!e 8ac!ia3ellian prince.pro6lem raised 6. 1e cannot !ere discuss t!is categor./or t!e expansion o/ capital >it!in t!e 8<C<8H c-cle. ./or accumulation is one o/ t!e rationales o/ capitalist go3ernmentalit-.o/ social and en3ironmental pro6lems are addressed. 1it! go3ernmentalit-D t!e Fuestion is Hnot o/ imposing la> on men 6ut o/ disposing t!ings: 9 t!at is o/ emplo-ing tactics rat!er t!an la>sD or e3en o/ using la>s t!emsel3es as tactics – to arrange t!ings in suc! a >a.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 13 ':: 8erm %!& :he a// ushers in neoli-eral go+ernance as the normal 0a.attempting to rela. classic example o/ t!is cgo3ernmentalit-H is t!e producti3it.can 6e dealt >it! 6. .o/ Ke-nesian policiesD 6ut also t!e !idden parametric assumptions o/ post<Second 1orld 1ar Ke-nesian models. Go3ernance sets itsel/ t!e tas+ o/ tac+ling t!ese pro6lems /or capital 6.ation7 shutting do0n alternati+es to capitalism( 8assimo De 'ngelis B3 (ecturerD =ni3ersit.microcredit and export promotion. 0!ese >!ere t!e result o/ a long institutional process grounded on t!e crisis and struggles o/ t!e 19&0sD t!e >orld>ide re3olutionar.in detailD as 5oucaultHs >or+ on t!is issue is dense >it! !istorical details and insig!ts.compati6le >it! t!e priorities and /lo>s necessar./erments /ollo>ing t!e 2ussian 2e3olutionD and 6ecame t!e +ernel not onl. It t!us promotes acti3e participation o/ societ. eoli6eral go3ernance is a central element o/ t!e neoli6eral discourse in a particular p!ase o/ itD >!en neoli6eralism and capital in general /ace particularl.deals t!at >ere at t!e !eart o/ t!e Ke-nesian era.is t!e management o/ net>or+s o/ social relations on t!e /ront line o/ con/licting 3alue practices.

and t!e irreduci6le contingenc. SecondD it /ails to distinguis! 6et>eenD on t!e one !andD t!e contingenc.place o/ po>erD 1it! no agent >!o is Hnaturall-H entitled to it.112<11& \ "0!is passage is >ort! Fuoting in e5tensoD since it presentsD in a clear and concise >a-D t!e >!ole line o/ reasoning t!at >e s!ould Fuestion O e3er-t!ing is !ereD rig!t up to t!e simplistic parallel 6 D.place o/ po>erD non< transparenc."+ing# and t!e millenarian radical utopia >!ic! stri3es to accomplis! a radical rupture.O t!at is to sa-D to ma+e t!e anal-sis and accept t!e nonexistence o/ t!e 6ig 9t!er O is t!e radical democratic politics >!ose premises is t!at Hsociet.is a +ind o/ /antas-D >!ic! conceals t!e structural Hlac+ in t!e 9t!erH "irreduci6le social antagonism#D and in so /ar as t!e aim o/ ps-c!oanal-tic treatment is to tra3erse t!e /antas.potential o/ millenarian radicalsD o/ t!eir explosion o/ re3olutionar. 0!e /irst t!ing t!at stri+es us is t!e M6inar. ./all into t!e trap o/ aiming at t!e impossi6le dream o/ Htotal transparenc-HQ # 13! . 0!irdD suc! a simpli/ied 6inar.ppendix I: canis a non canendoD iraF t!e 6orro>ed +ettle pg. 1!ile t!e traditional !ierarc!ical po>er presupposes a HnaturalH 6earer o/ po>erD it asserts di//erence "!ierarc!ical social order# as t!e 6asic structural principle o/ social li/eD in contrast to millenarian H/undamentalismHD >!ic! asserts antagonism.and transparenc. So >!at a6out t!e /ourt! option: t!e com6ination o/ contingenc. 5irstD in its rapid re?ection o/ utopiaD it lea3es out o/ t!e picture t!e main utopia o/ toda-D >!ic! is t!e utopia o/ capitalism itsel/ Oit is 5rancis 5u+u-ama >!o is our true utopian.and impenetra6ilit.o/ social li/eD and so on.o/ social li/e. It is eas.negati3it-Q 0!e 3er.# O once >e !a3e eliminated t!ese Ht!ie3es o/ "our# en?o-mentHD social !armon. et>een aCism and Communism a la Ernst olte.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 13! ':: 8erm %"& :he perm operates in the democratic /rame0or* 0hich dooms it to /ail -ecause o/ the -inar. 9n t!e ot!er !andD democraccom6ines t!e assertion o/ contingenc.and antagonismQ In ot!er >ordsD >!at a6out t!e prospect o/ a radical social trans/ormation >!ic! >ould not in3ol3e t!e >ell<>orn scarecro> Hcomplete /ullness and transparenc.>ill 6e restoredG on t!e ot!er !andD t!e Hdemocratic in3entionHD >it! its notion o/ t!e empt. created -.o/ (?u6l?anaD 200! YSla3o?D ."t!e empt.doesnHt existH "(aclau# not eo ipso a post</antasmatic politicsQ 0!ere is a >!ole series o/ pro6lems >it! t!is line o/ reasoning.o/ t!e socialHQ 1!. .opposition also ignores t!e distinction 6et>een t!e traditional /unctioning o/ po>er grounded in a cnaturaliCedH aut!orit.t!e localiCation o/ t!e origin o/ E3il in a particular social agent "Pe>sD +ula+s .o/ social li/eD andD on t!e ot!erD t!e democratic logic o/ t!e empt.s!ould e3er.to see !o> t!ese t>o p!enomena are independent o/ eac! ot!er: i/ an-t!ingD a /unctioning democrac.place o/ po>er# >it! di//erence: >!ile it admits t!e irreduci6le c!aracter o/ social antagonismsD its goal is to transpose antagonisms into a regulated agonistic com< petition. Is not Sta3ra+a+isHs dismissal o/ millenarian radicalism all too precipitateD o3erloo+ing t!e tremendous emancipator.presupposes a 6asic sta6ilitand relia6ilit.place o/ po>erD t!en t!e opposition di//erence7 antagonism as t!e /undamental structuring principle "to use (aclauHs o>n terms#. TiUe*D Institute /or Social Sciences at t!e =ni3ersit. 5urt!ermoreD in so /ar as t!e utopia o/ a !armonious societ.pro?ect o/ a radical social re3olution automaticall. democrac.logicL on >!ic! Sta3ra+a+is relies: on t!e one !andD in one 6ig arc!D premodern millenarian utopiasD Communism and aCismD >!ic! all impl.least >e s!ould do !ere is to complicate t!e picture 6.introducing t>o couples o/ opposites: /irst t!e opposition /ull7empt.

o/ Sociolog. Etienne @ali6arD in )a Crainte des masses "199%#D distinguis!es t!e t>o opposite 6ut complementar.true progressi3e struggle toda-. more dangerous than7 e+en the most -ase conser+atisms( :he ma.as to 6e AileD.are up to.e*D 4ro/.6ecause t!e./ig!t su6?ecti3e 3iolenceD 6ut li6eral communists are t!e agents o/ t!e structural 3iolence t!at creates t!e conditions /or explosions o/ su6?ecti3e 3iolence.emerging et!nic and7or religious "in s!ort: racist# /undamentalisms.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 13" ':: 8erm %#& :his ma*es the a// ethicall.>ant to resol3e all t!ese secondar. structures 0hich maintain them( Fi.>!at t!e.o/ e3er.to enter into tactical alliances >it! li6eral communists in order to /ig!t racismD sexism and religious o6scurantismD 6ut itLs important to remem6er exactl. YSla3o?D : o6od. (?u6l?anaD 200#.ma.mal/unctions o/ t!e glo6al s-stemD li6eral communists are t!e direct em6odiment o/ >!at is >rong >it! t!e s-stem.. 4recisel. indistinct /rom7 and politicall. 13" .6e necessar. (ondon 2e3ie> o/ @oo+sD Aol.mptomatic o/ glo-al po0er relations7 -ut the. It ma. 0!e. rein/orcing the +er. do so 0hile /undamentall. contri-ute to the remediation o/ some o/ the +iolence s. 2' o. 0!e same Soros >!o gi3es millions to /und education !as ruined t!e li3es o/ t!ousands t!an+s to !is /inancial speculations and in doing so created t!e conditions /or t!e rise o/ t!e intolerance !e denounces.modes o/ excessi3e 3iolence in toda-Ls capitalism: t!e o6?ecti3e "structural# 3iolence t!at is in!erent in t!e social conditions o/ glo6al capitalism "t!e automatic creation o/ excluded and dispensa6le indi3idualsD /rom t!e !omeless to t!e unemplo-ed#D and t!e su6?ecti3e 3iolence o/ ne>l.ll ot!er enemies – religious /undamentalistsD terroristsD corrupt and ine//icient state 6ureaucracies – depend on contingent local circumstances. %\ 1e s!ould !a3e no illusions: li6eral communists are t!e enem. . marginall.at =ni3.

are one<issue mo3ements t!at lac+ t!e dimension o/ uni3ersalit-G t!at isD t!e.is politics >it!out politicsD so t!e ans>er to t!ose >!o >ant ?ust t!e "Fuite adeFuatel.named# ne> social mo3ements is t!e same as t!e ans>er o/ t!e Paco6ins to t!e Girondin compromisers: JWou >ant re3olution >it!out a re3olution^J 0oda-Hs c!allenge is t!at t!ere are t>o >a-s open /or sociopolitical engagement: eit!er pla. In ot!er >ordsD t!e +e(eninist lesson toda.started to >arn a6out t!e 8arxists manipulating t!e cro>d o/ J!onestJ protesters.discern t!e signs o/ a +ind o/ general unease.de/inition ecumenicD openD tolerantD read.to listen to allG e3en i/ one insists on oneHs demandsD t!e./orm o/ negotiation.t!e game o/ t!e s-stemD engage in t!e long marc! t!roug! t!e institutionsD or get acti3e in ne> social mo3ementsD /rom /eminism to ecolog. 0!e.onl.is t!at politics >it!out t!e organiCational /orm o/ t!e part.1$ Is t!is also not t!e case >it! toda-Hs le/t li6eralsQ 0!e. 9t!er>ise t!e momenturn >ill 6e lostD and >!at >ill remain is a marginal distur6anceD per!aps organiCed as a ne> GreenpeaceD endo>ed >it! a certain e//icienc. 13# .t!e 3er.o/ peace/ul protesters#. 0!e s-stem is 6. 4lea /or (eninist IntoleranceD.(eninist one: !o> to actualiCe t!e mediaHs accusationsD !o> to in3ent t!e organiCational structure t!at >ill con/er on t!is unrest t!e /orm o/ a uni3ersal political demand. ItHs t!e same >it! all ne> social mo3ementsD up to t!e Bapatistas in C!iapas: s-stemic politics is al>a-s read.to listen to t!eir demandsD t!us depri3ing t!em o/ t!eir proper political sting. there7 0hat 0e need to unite it is to uni+ersali. 2ecall !o>D at SeattleD @ill Clinton !imsel/ de/tl.6ut also strictl.limited goalsD mar+eting strateg-D and so /ort!. 0!e ten<-ear !one-moon o/ triump!ant glo6al capitalism is o3erG t!e longo3erdue se3en<-ear itc! is !ere<>itness t!e panic+ed reactions o/ 6ig mediaD >!ic! /rom 0ime magaCine to C suddenl. 0!e pro6lem is no> t!e strictl. .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 13# ':: 8erm %3& :he mo+ement is alread.listed under t!e name o/ Seattle.e*D 2002 "Sla3o?D Senior 2esearc!er at t!e Kultur>issensc!a/tlic!es Institut in Essen Yamong ot!er t!ings\D :.s!ould listen to t!e message o/ t!e demonstrators "a message t!atD o/ courseD Clinton interpretedD depri3ing it o/ t!e su63ersi3e sting attri6uted to t!e dangerous extremists introducing c!aos and 3iolence into t!e ma?orit.li+e to e3o+e racismD ecolog-D >or+ersH grie3ancesD and so on to score points o3er t!e conser3ati3es >it!out endangering t!e s-stem.re/erred to t!e protesters on t!e streets outsideD reminding t!e gat!ered leaders inside t!e guarded palaces t!at t!e. .ndD againD t!e limit o/ t!ese mo3ements is t!at t!e.stem onl.are depri3ed o/ t!eir uni3ersal political sting 6.ereD (eninHs reproac! to li6erals is crucial.>e can alread. Cultural InFuir-D 1interD 4roFuest# 0oda.exploit t!e >or+ing classesH discontent to strengt!en t!eir position 3is<a<3is t!e conser3ati3es instead o/ identi/-ing >it! it to t!e end.e the struggleJ cooperation 0ithin the exsting s.are not political in t!e sense o/ t!e uni3ersal singular: t!e.to antiracism.es it and stops the re+olution Fi.do not relate to t!e social totalit-. legitimi. 2ecall t!e series o/ e3ents usuall.

C0e must dogmaticall. stic* to the re+olution or it 0ill -e diluted and rearticulated -ac* into capitalist structures Fi. .a//ord to 6e indi//erent i/ t!e li6eral option is in po>er.li6erals as !orror.nd t!e same !olds /or ps-c!oanal-sis: starting /rom t!e rise o/ t!e ego<ps-c!olog.are 6ot! >orse. 0oda-D in a time o/ continuous s>i/t c!angesD /rom t!e digital re3olution to t!e retreat o/ old social /ormsD t!is t!oug!t is more t!an e3er exposed to t!e temptation o/ losing its ner3eD o/ precociousl. Cultural nquiryD 1interD 4roFuest& So !o> are >e to respond to t!e eternal dilemma o/ t!e radical (e/tQ S!ould one strategicall. 133 .ideolog.ne>.in t!e 19&0sD ps-c!oanal-sts !a3e 6een losing t!eir ner3eD la-ing do>n t!eir "t!eoretical# armsD !astening to concede t!at t!e oedipal matrix o/ socialiCation is no longer operati3eD t!at >e li3e in times o/ uni3ersaliCed per3ersionD t!at t!e concept o/ repression is o/ no use in our permissi3e times.long t!ese linesD Claude (e/ort !imsel/D >!om no one can accuse o/ communist s-mpat!iesD recentl.a6andoning t!e old conceptual coordinates.and political practice is e//ecti3el.support center<le/t /igures li+e @ill Clinton against t!e conser3ati3esD or s!ould one adopt t!e stance o/ JIt doesnHt matterD >e s!ouldnHt get in3ol3ed in t!ese /ig!ts<in a >a-D it is e3en 6etter i/ t!e 2ig!t is directl. . 0!e media constantl.part o/ t!e consensus "at least t!at o/ t!e disintegrating >el/are state#: uni3ersal su//rageD t!e rig!t to /ree educationD uni3ersal !ealt! careD care /or t!e retiredD limitation o/ c!ild la6orD and so on.t!e model o/ t!is de/eatD o/ t!is ina6ilit.appear muc! too !ig!<recall t!e catastrop!ic conseFuences o/ t!e German Communist 4art-Hs decision in t!e earl. to radicall. In principleD o/ courseD one s!ould 6e indi//erent to>ard t!e struggle 6et>een t!e li6eral and conser3ati3e poles o/ toda-Hs o//icial politics. .in po>erD sinceD in t!is >a-D it >ill 6e easier /or t!e people to see t!e trut! o/ t!e situationQJ 0!e ans>er is t!e 3ariation o/ old StalinHs ans>er to t!e Fuestion J1!ic! de3iation is >orseD t!e rig!tist or t!e le/tist oneQJ 0!e.o>e3erD one can onl. 1!at one s!ould do is adopt t!e stance o/ t!e proper dialectical paradox. 9t!er>iseD t!e price to 6e paid ma.made a crucial point in !is ans>er to 5rancois 5uret: toda-Hs li6eral consensus is t!e result o/ 1*0 -ears o/ t!e le/tist >or+ersH struggle and pressure upon t!e stateG it incorporated demands t!at >ere one !undred or e3en /e>er -ears ago dismissed 6.s proo/D one s!ould ?ust loo+ at t!e list o/ t!e demands at t!e end o/ t!e Communist 8ani/esto.in t!is >a.can >e generate somet!ing e//ecti3el. .to recogniCe !o> t!e ne> is !ere to ena6le t!e old to sur3i3e.ge >isdom claims t!at >e are entering a ne> Jpost!umanJ eraG postmodern political t!oug!t is telling us t!at >e are entering a postindustrial p!ase in >!ic! t!e old categories o/ la6orD collecti3it-D classD and t!e li+e are t!eoretical Com6iesD no longer applica6le to t!e d-namics o/ moderniCation.e*7 2002 "Sla3o?D Senior 2esearc!er at t!e Kultur>issensc!a/tlic!es Institut in Essen Yamong ot!er t!ings\D :.gainst t!is temptationD one s!ould rat!er /ollo> t!e unsurpassed model o/ 4ascal and as+ t!e di//icult Fuestion: !o> are >e to remain /ait!/ul to t!e old in t!e ne> conditionsQ 9nl.t!irties not to /ocus on t!e struggle against t!e aCisD >it! t!e ?usti/ication t!at t!e aCi dictators!ip is t!e lastD desperate stage o/ t!e capitalist dominationD >!ic! >ill open e-es to t!e >or+ing classD s!attering t!eir 6elie/ in 6ourgeois democratic institutions. .) . restructure societ.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 133 ':: 8erm %2& $egotiation coopts our a-ilit.6om6ard us >it! t!e need to a6andon t!e old paradigmsD insisting t!at i/ >e are to sur3i3e >e !a3e to c!ange our most /undamental notions o/ personal identit-D societ-D en3ironmentD and so /ort!.ones#D all ot!ers are toda. 0!e 0!ird 1a.part /rom t>o or t!ree o/ t!em ">!ic!D o/ courseD are t!e +e. e> . 4lea /or (eninist IntoleranceD.

0!e s!ort<term economic interests o/ eac! indi3idual capitalist con/licted >it! t!eir longer term collecti3e interests: Capital ta+es no account o/ t!e !ealt! and lengt! o/ li/e o/ t!e >or+erD unless societ. Senior Researcher at the Institute for Social Studies (Ljubljana). :0!e 4olitical Econom. 8acmillan 4ress (0D 0o disentangle t!e origins and /unctions o/ >el/are policies let us 6egin >it! 8arxHs o>n stud. I donLt 6elie3e in com6ining t!ings.t!e >or+ing class against t!eir exploitationD -et ultimatel.o/ t!e 1el/are State. oD I donLt 6elie3e in t!isG I 6elie3e in clear cut positions. Con ersations with !i"e#. 0!e outside inter3ention o/ t!e state >as necessar.and /iercel.>a.o/ @at!D 39 Ian Goug! 4ro/.t!em: H0!e esta6lis!ment o/ a normal >or+ing da.cts in t!e nineteent! centur-.t!e anon-mous pressures o/ t!e mar+et on eac! /irmD Wet 8arx >as clear t!at t!is inter3ention >as not initiated 6. I t!in+ t!at t!e most arrogant position is t!is apparentD multidisciplinar.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 132 ':: 8erm %9& @e cannot com-ine things – 0e must clearl.struggling /or its o>n interests >it!in t!e state.to nulli/.. 19%9.t!e most arrogant position.at t!e =ni3ersit. under /ree competitionD t!e immanent la>s o/ capitalist production con/ront t!e indi3idual capitalist as a coerci3e /orce external to !im./orces it to do so .to 6e !onest and to expose -oursel/ to criticism is to state clearl. 132 .pre3enting t!e o3er<exploitation and ex!austion o/ t!e la6our /orce. 45] 9n t!e one !andD I do consider m-sel/ an extreme Stalinist p!ilosop!er.is t!e result o/ centuries o/ struggle 6et>een t!e capitalist and t!e >or+er.legislation >as t!e result o/ unremitting struggle 6.t!is approac! to muc! >el/are polic.e demonstrated !o> t!e 0en .o/ M>!at I am sa-ing is not unconditionalD it is ?ust a !-pot!esisLD and so on.>!ere -ou are. 8iecemeal re/orm legitimi.H . sta*e out positions Žižek.o/ t!e @ritis! 5actor.representati3es o/ t!e capitalist classD indeed it >as persistentl.o/ @at!. o/ Social 4olic.ser3ed t!e longer<term interests o/ capital 6.es capitalism – radical action is needed( GoughD pro/ E =ni3ersit.modest. @ut t!is still lea3es us >it! se3eral pro6lems. p.t!is centur-.t!enD it >ould appear t!at la6our indirectl.opposed 6.and dogmaticall.aids t!e long<term accumulation o/ capital and strengt!ens capitalist social relations 6. . Wou must ta+e t!e ris+ and !a3e a position. I t!in+ t!at t!e onl.ct and ot!er /actor. 0!at is to sa-D itLs clear >!ere I stand. !!" [Slavoj. It is reall. & 0!e core o/ trut! !ere lies in t!e /act t!at t!e >or+ing class is 6ot! an element o/ capital "H3aria6leH capital# and a li3ing class o/ !uman 6eings struggling to enlarge t!eir needs and li3ing standards. I !ate t!is approac! o/ ta+ing a little 6ut /rom (acanD a little 6ut /rom 5oucaultD a little 6it /rom Derrida.ours . .H2 4aradoxicall. 9ne could appl.

1!ile tal+ingD I am ne3er merel.t!e 6ig 9t!er can 6e personi/ied or rei/ied in a single agent: JGodJ >!o >atc!es o3er me /rom 6e-ond and o3er all real indi3iduals or t!e Cause >!ic! addresses me "5reedomD CommunismD ation# and /or >!ic! I am read. – coloni.o/ !uman 6eings is constituted 6.it are its s-m6olic dimension: /rom t!e purel. 0!en t!ere are rules and meanings I am a>are o/D 6ut !a3e to act on t!e outside as i/ I am not a>are o/ t!em < dirt.is grounded on our accepting o/ and rel-ing on a complex net>or+ o/ rules and ot!er +inds o/ presuppositions.oneD namel.a deep split: t!ere are rules "and meanings# t!at I /ollo> 6lindl-D out o/ customD 6ut o/ >!ic!D upon re/lectionD I can 6ecome at least partiall. 0!en t!ere is t!e 6ac+ground o/ participating in t!e same li/e<>orld >!ic! ena6les me and m.partner in con3ersation to understand eac! ot!er.disconcert one o/ t!e pla-ers or directl.a>are "suc! as common grammatical rules#D and t!ere are rules t!at I /ollo>D meanings t!at !aunt meD un6e+no>nst to me "suc! as unconscious pro!i6itions#.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 139 ':: 8erm %10& .Gestures and 4er/ormati3es# 0!ere areD !o>e3erD man. o/ the a//5s gesture( :he -ig other manages the a//5s interaction 0ith others to reproduce an inherentl.to en3ision a game >it! t!e same rulesD 6ut >it! a di//erent imaginar-D in >!ic! t!is /igure >ould 6e called JmessengerJ or JrunnerJ or >!ate3er.interact >it! ot!ersG our speec! acti3it.cut t!e game s!ort 0!e 6ig 9t!er operates at a s-m6olic le3el.e*7 2003 "Sla3o?D "ow to 6ead )acanD C! 2 Empt. degree o/ acceptance o/ the =-ig other> – or social structure5s intelligi-ilit.illustrated 6.es the entiret./ormal s-m6olic standpointD J+nig!tJ is de/ined onl.or o6scene innuendos >!ic! one passes o3er in silence in order to maintain t!e proper appearances. 0!is is >!.to gi3e m. 0!is s-m6olic space acts li+e a standard against >!ic! I can measure m-sel/. 0!is le3el is clearl. 0!is triad can 6e nicel.t!e >a.t!eir names "+ingD FueenD +nig!t#D and it is eas. 0!e rules one !as to /ollo> in order to pla.t!e game o/ c!ess. 5irstD t!ere are t!e grammatical rules I !a3e to master 6lindl. 0!e rules t!at I /ollo> are mar+ed 6.entangled le3els: t!e S-m6olicD t!e Imaginar-D and t!e 2eal. unethical con/iguration Fi. 5or (acanD t!e realit.t!e mo3es t!is /igure can ma+e.t!ree mutuall.e<ect the permutation – an.di//erent /rom t!e imaginar.a Jsmall ot!erJ "indi3idual# interacting >it! ot!er Jsmall ot!ersDJ t!e 6ig 9t!er al>a-s !as to 6e t!ere./eatures o/ t!e J6ig 9t!erJ >!ic! get lost in t!is simpli/ied notion.li/e.and spontaneousl-: i/ I >ere to 6ear in mind all t!e time t!ese rulesD mspeec! >ould come to a !alt.6. 139 .di//erent pieces are s!aped and c!aracteriCed 6. 5inall-D real is t!e entire complex set o/ contingent circumstances >!ic! a//ect t!e course o/ t!e game: t!e intelligence o/ t!e pla-ersD t!e unpredicta6le intrusions t!at ma. 1!atD t!enD is t!is s-m6olic order composed o/Q 1!en >e spea+ "or listenD /or !at matter#D >e ne3er merel.

acclaimed 5renc! translation >as pu6lis!ed in t!e mid< 19*0s.lead a no<nonsenseD do>n<to<eart! li/eG rat!erD !e o>ns suc! a car in order to signal t!at !e leads !is li/e under t!e sign o/ a no< nonsenseD do>n<to<eart! attitude. 1!at (acan ela6orates as t!e Jt>o/old momentJ o/ t!e s-m6olic /unction reac!es /ar 6e-ond t!e standard t!eor. (acanHs "implicit# re/erence !ere is to Georg (u+acsH "istory and Class ConsciousnessD a classic 8arxist >or+ /rom 192& >!ose >idel.considers !imsel/ to 6elong to t!e ran+s o/ t!e proletariatG in p!ase t>oD in t!e name o/ 6elonging to itD !e ?oins in a general stri+e.!as no use#D doesnHt simpl.transmits some contentD 6utD simultaneousl-D renders !o> t!e su6?ect relates to t!is content.t!is Jt>o/old mo3ementJ is indicati3e in its !idden re/erences: in p!ase oneD a man >!o >or+s at t!e le3el o/ production in our societ.o6?ect. .o/ t!e per/ormati3e dimension o/ speec! as it >as de3eloped in t!e tradition /rom P. 5or (u+acsD consciousness is opposed to mere +no>ledge o/ an o6?ect: +no>ledge is external to t!e +no>n o6?ectD >!ile consciousness is in itsel/ HpracticalHD an act >!ic! c!anges its 3er. 120 .instantD lies t!e >!ole progress o/ a /unction in >!ic! action and +no>ledge alternate. In t!is eFui3ocationD operating at e3er.ustin to Po!n Searle: 0!e s-m6olic /unction presents itsel/ as a t>o/old mo3ement in t!e su6?ect: man ma+es !is o>n action into an o6?ectD 6ut onl.and o>ns a land<ro3er "/or >!ic! !e o63iousl.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 120 ':: 8erm %11& :he permutation taints the *rit* – the gestures 0e s.# 9ne does somet!ingD one counts onesel/ as "declares onesel/# t!e one >!o did itD andD on t!e 6ase o/ t!is declarationD one does somet!ing ne> < t!e proper moment o/ su6?ecti3e trans/ormation occurs at t!e moment o/ declarationD not at t!e moment o/ act. 0o >ear stone<>as!ed ?eans is to signal a certain attitude to li/e.in !o> t!e gestures o/ s-m6oliCation are ent>ined >it! and em6edded in t!e process o/ collecti3e practice.utterance not onl.to return its /oundational place to it in due time.(.(acan to clari/./unctions as a re/lecti3e notion: it al>a-s in3ol3es t!e assertion o/ utilit. E3en t!e most do>n<to<eart! o6?ects and acti3ities al>a-s contain suc! a declarati3e dimensionD >!ic! constitutes t!e ideolog.realit-: !e acts di//erentl-.Gestures and 4er/ormati3es# 1e can see no> !o>D /ar /rom concei3ing t!e S-m6olic >!ic! rules !uman perception and interaction as a +ind o/ transcendental a priori "a /ormal net>or+D gi3en in ad3anceD >!ic! limits t!e scope o/ !uman practice#D (acan is interested precisel. 0!e !istorical example e3o+ed 6. . 9ne s!ould ne3er /orget t!at utilit.o/ e3er-da.as meaning. "9nce a >or+er Jconsiders !imsel/ to 6elong to t!e ran+s o/ t!e proletariatDJ t!is c!anges !is 3er.m-oli. man >!o li3es in a large cit. 0!is re/lexi3e moment o/ declaration means t!at e3er.e*7 2003 "Sla3o?D "ow to 6ead )acanD C! 2 Empt.m-olic rules that limit us Fi.e meaning 0ith coproduce the s.li/e.

. 0!is approac! is 3alidated 6. It contrasts >it! t!e !umanitarian approac! t!at calls /or action >it!out +no>ledge to sa3e li3es in t!e immediate /uture >it!out >aiting /or a political anal-sis.o/ t!e social order. "D2G9C7E&0&# Capitalism /urt!er precludes t!e a6ilit.7 @hose 1ungerW Concepts o/ Damine7 8ractices o/ 'id p( 120X I/ /acing images o/ distant !unger is an experience o/ t!e traumatic realD >!at /ollo>sD in t!e response t!at >e ma+eD is t!e reconstitution o/ su6?ecti3it.s!tml. GE 9 .o/ an extremel. that promotes a /alse reconciliation 0ith the trauma o/ our desires and our complicit.E 4290EC0I9 95 0.t!roug! t!e rational and international control o/ productionD i. 0!e international agreements t!at !a3e 6een reac!edD suc! as t!e K-oto agreement on glo6al >armingD are generall.glo6al in nature and must 6e addressed on a glo6al scale.10D 2001D p.(IS0 . 5or BiCe+D social /antas.t!e de3elopment o/ production under capitalism can 6e sol3ed onl.>it! su//ering.>ea+ c!aracterD and e3en t!ese !a3e /loundered on t!e roc+s o/ national competition.is to 6e seen as an escape /rom t!e traumatic realD a >a. EfC.D t!e conscious direction o/ t!e d-namic interaction 6et>een man and t!e rest o/ t!e natural >orld. 121 .a di//erent detac!ment or o6?ecti3it-D one t!at in its o>n >a.C./rica.org7articles720017?an20017corr<?10. B01D retired 4ro/essor o/ 8anagement at 9x/ordD . 9nl.o/ a3oiding t!e need to con/ront t!ese trut!s.e. 5or t!ese criticsD /amine !as deep causesD /or exampleD in t!e e//ects o/ coloniCation and structural ineFualitiesD and t!e (i3e . 0!is 3ie> o/ /amine as a disaster >it! a scienti/ic causeO>!et!er t!e science in Fuestion is 8arxist economics or natural scienceOleads to a detac!ment /rom disaster relie/ in /a3or o/ a searc! /or /urt!er +no>ledgeD >!ic! alone can pro3ide a reason to act.mo6iliCing t!e >orldHs scienti/icD tec!nological and economic resources can suc! an immense c!allenge 6e con/ronted. En3ironmental pro6lems are in!erentl.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 121 ':: 8erm %12& Detachment D'S:he permuation is <ust another distancing strateg. It is 6ased on a strict separation o/ !umanitarian and political actionsD on an assumption o/ neutralit-D and on a 3aluation t!at !olds t!e preser3ation o/ !uman li/e to 6e a6o3e and distinct /rom an.4429.>s>s. Critics point to t!e role o/ t!e ideological in (i3e .E E AI29 8E 0D Panuar. 0!e pro6lems created 6. o/ @ales7 2000 VLenn.cooperati3el.and communit.eFuallrepudiates in3ol3ement and empat!. 09 0. !ttp:77>>>.t!roug! a reinstatement o/ >!at >e call social realit-7social /antas-.political :he lin* -et0een capitalism and the nationCstate ensures the /ailure o/ socialism Po!n Ka.6. in su//ering Ed*ins7 )ecturer in 8olitics at the Ani+ersit.to address t!e en3ironment in t!at it remains tied to a s-stem o/ competing nation<states. 0!e discourse o/ c!arita6le response to disasterD t!e narrati3e o/ t!e 1est as rescuerD per/orms t!e ideological role o/ concealing t!e JtrueJ causes o/ /amine and su//ering t!at lie in t!e dominance o/ t!e 1est and its exploitation o/ . It produces t!e master signi/ier and mas+s t!e Jnot!ingJ 6e!ind t!e curtain.o/ concealing antagonism and t!e impossi6ilit.id narrati3e is ideological in t!at it pro3ides a >a.id. S9CI.

little scope to 6e!a3e in an.o/ t!e alien po>er< capital < to >!ic!D as t!e nast.!tm.most ad3anced countries re3ealed t!at < not>it!standing t!e relati3e pri3ileges o/ t!eir >or+ing peopleD as compared to t!e conditions o/ countless millions in t!e /ormer colonial territories < t!e.some extraordinaril.o/ t!em >it! deep spiritual and et!ical 3alues.G.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 122 ':: 8erm %1 & Changing the capitalist s.o/ SussexD EnglandD :@e-ond Capital: 0o>ard a 0!eor.secondar.t!e legal loop!oles o/ t!e capitalist stateD can ro6 !im or !er >it! t!e greatest ease e3en o/ t!eir !ard earned pension /undsD K as >e !a3e /ound out a/ter t!e curious deat! o/ 8ax>ellD su6?ecting t!em to t!e conditions o/ gra3e existential insecurit-D totall.su6ordinate location in t!e command structure o/ capitalD t!ere is no di//erence 6et>een t!e >or+ers o/ t!e most Hunderde3elopedH countries and t!eir counterparts in t!e most pri3ileged capitalist societies .7 minor alterations lac* e//ecti+eness Da3id Korten B02D 4resident o/ t!e 4eople<Centered De3elopment 5orumD E0.>a.s regards t!eir necessaril.BI ED Septem6er<9cto6er 2002D p.disappear in t!e midst o/ a ma?or crisis and escalating unemplo-mentD t!e sort >e are experiencing toda-.t!eir location in t!e command structure o/ capitalD and not 6.o>n a !and/ul o/ non< 3oting s!ares in a pri3ate compan-D 6ut t!e 2o6ert 8ax>ells o/ t!is >orldD protected 6.unaltered t!e exploitati3e class relations o/ t!e alienating capital s-stem. 5orD despite all t!eoretical o6/uscationD t!e deciding issueD appl-ing to all grades and categories o/ >or+ers e3er->!ereD >as and remains t!e structural su6ordination o/ la6our to capitalD and not t!e relati3el. "D2G9C7E&0*# Gill: So -ou are not 6laming t!ese pro6lems on indi3idual e3il capitalists 6ut on an organiCational structure and a s-stem o/ relations!ipsQ Korten: 8. Capitalism is inescapa-le 0ithout complete re<ection 6es. >or+er in t!e =. Suc! relati3e pri3ileges can easil. 0!e class position o/ no matter !o> 3ar-ing groups o/ people is de/ined 6.ot!er t!an >!at t!e s-stem demands.If 8. 0!ere are certainl.ca7pcd/720027et!ixXmagaCineXissueX2*.as an organiCational s-stem t!at is structured to re>ard t!e >orst in us.at t!e merc. 8oreo3erD a closer loo+ at t!e internal po>er structure o/ e3en t!e capitalisticall.aros 9" Ist3an 8esCarosD 199*D 4ro/essor at =ni3ersit. !ttp:77iisd1. @ut most in t!e corporate s-stem are ordinar.!ig!er standard o/ li3ing o/ >or+ing people in t!e pri3ileged capitalist countries .o/ 0ransition. or in Great @ritain ma.are caug!t in a s-stem t!at gi3es t!em 3er.iisd.people >!o use t!is s-stem./ocus is on t!e econom.sociological c!aracteristicsD li+e Hli/e<st-leH .S.tale de3ised to /rig!ten t!e c!ildren goesD Ht!ere can 6e no alternati3eH.decent peopleD man.!a3e preser3ed /undamentall. .dis!onest and greed. 0!e.stem is *e. 122 .

. "8oranD 2002: 12*#.D (aclau correctl.>it! an account o/ !o> to 6ridge t!e gap 6et>een openness on t!e one !and and closure on t!e ot!er. 5or i/ one acceptsD i/ onl. "8oranD 2002: 129#. "cited in Camp6ellD 199'a: 1'2# ma+es little sense as long as it is not supplemented t!eoreticall. 5or !imD t!e gap 6et>een undecida6ilit. 9le 1x3er o6ser3es in t!is context t!at :Ym\an. 1!ic! is >!. 5or >it!out suc! a t!eor-D deconstructi3ism ris+s getting caug!t on t!e a6stract le3el o/ meta<politics in >!ic! its p!ilosop!ical pre/erences /or opening up and transgression are translated as somet!ing eFuall. "(aclauD 199$: *9<$0#.eal politics re?uires ma*ing ris*.is al>a-s constituted in t!e dialectics 6et>een t>o opposing terms >!ic! /unction as eac! ot!erLs negation !ampers t!em in reac!ing t!is goal.and actualit. -ehind them( :hese decisions are capa-le7 though7 o/ ma*ing ne0 relationships possi-le( :heir +ersion o/ postmodern uncertaint. decisions7 and standing /irml.uno6?ectiona6le platitudes. 5ier+eD 2001G .8oran rig!tl.nd in 3irtue o/ >!atQ .strata o/ social relations appear as essentiall. 0!us >!ile it is no dou6t true t!at t!e deconstruction o/ securit.presupposes ot!ernessD t!en e3er.!a3e so /ar not adeFuatel.lin+ed 6necessar.o/ t!e decision ta+en in an undecida6le terrain: >it!out a t!eor.>ould remain unt!eorised.a6soluteD di//erence. IndeedD t!e t!eoretical maxim t!at identit.desira6le on t!e less a6stract le3el o/ politics "see also 1x3erD 2000: 2'&#. 0!us alt!oug! deconstructi3ists are rig!t to stress t!e principle openness o/ all articulations o/ 6elongingD t!e.– >!o agrees >it! (aclau t!at deconstruction is a necessar.o/ 1ales. . 5or i/ :>it!out t!e radical structural undecida6ilit.o/ t!e decision i/ it is not appear :eit!er as su6stanceless cant or a ne> moral a6solutism.tacitl-D t!at identit.logics.ansenD 199%#. @ut !o>Q . 5ier+eD 2001: 119 #.points to t!e limits o/ deconstructi3ism as a political strateg-: :Decisions !a3e to 6e ta+en. -et0een sel/ and other( .>ill contri6ute to political /orms o/ identi/ication t!at are less exclusi3e to>ards t!e ot!er "1-n PonesD 1999G 1x3erD 2000#. "1x3erD 199$: 122G c/.is al>a-s constituted t!roug! an antagonistic relations!ip >it! t!e ot!erD it 6ecomes unclear !o> one can en3isage desecuritised >a-s o/ mediating 6elonging 6et>een sel/ and ot!er "c/.o6ser3es t!at deconstruction in turn :reFuires !egemon-D t!at isD a t!eor.>!ic! necessaril.callsD summons or moti3ates it.closure7decision needs itsel/ to 6e supplemented >it! a t!eor.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 12 ':: 8erm %1!& :he a//5s commitment to undecida-ilit.stories is a necessar.precondition /or desecuritisation and t!e repoliticising o/ 6elongingD it does not in itsel/ pro3ide a guarantee against totalising discourses o/ closure.>ill automaticall. 8arie Curie 1or+ing 4apersD o % 0!ere is one crucial pro6lem >it! t!e deconstructi3ist positionD !o>e3er.entails t!at onl.t!e particular contents o/ a speci/ic /riend7enem. @ut >it!out a t!eor.o6?ects t!at :deconstruction runs t!e ris+ o/ appearing eit!er as a critical 4uritanism or as a series o/ empt-D i/ largel.as t!e necessarprecondition /or e3er.al>a-s reFuires a constituti3e outside logicall./iguration can 6e FuestionedD 6ut ne3er t!e antagonistic logic itsel/ "see also or3alD 2000#.t!at t!e deconstructi3e inter3ention 6rings a6outD man.does not demand an 9t!erD does not demand antagonismD onl. In a similar critiFueD Critc!le. I/ identit.o/ !o> to 6rea+ /ree /rom t!e us7t!em dic!otom-D t!ere is not!ing to guarantee t!at t!e deconstruction o/ a securit.o> does one ma+e a decision in an undecida6le terrainQ.stor.Ypoststructuralist\ aut!ors – including Camp6ell – 6alance 6et>eenD on t!e one !andD "/ormall-# sa-ing t!at identit.lead to t!e institutionalisation o/ a ne>D -et eFuall.positi3e articulation o/ identit. to accessing this /orm o/ politics( 2ens Kan 6unsterD 200! Department o/ International 4oliticsD =ni3ersit.ence DerridaLs claim t!at :deconstruction isD in itsel/D a positi3e response to an alterit. undermines an.assuming t!at identit. :0!e Desecuritisation o/ Illegal 8igration: 0!e Case /or a European @elonging >it!out Communit-.is al>a-s 6ased on an antagonistic relations!ip to an ot!erD is al>a-s constituted as an a6solute di//erence.di//erence"s# t!at can 6e non<antagonistic andD on t!e ot!erD actuall.o/ decisionD t!at distance 6et>een structural undecida6ilit.ence t!e deconstructi3e emp!asis on t!e importance o/ ontological openness7 undecida6ilit.and actualit. serious political commitment erecting an ine+ita-le and antagonistic -arrier o/ identit. "Critc!le-D 1992: 199 4roCoro3D tooD comes to similar 12 . pre+ents decision7 0hich is *e. 5or >!ile deconstructi3ism em6races t!e o6?ecti3e o/ desecuritisationD its t!eoretical maxim t!at identit.mo3e against closure and for politics – !as pointed out t!at ma+ing politics possi6le is not t!e same as pro3iding a politics.t!eorised t!e re3erse mo3e /rom deconstruction to t!e decision as an et!ical act.

decision presupposes contingenc.and undecida6ilit.t!at closes o// /or alternati3e >a-s o/ deciding on 6elongingD it is at t!e same time also et!ical 6ecauseD li+e an.is undesira6le 6ecause it per/orms its ordering /unction in an exclusionar.irresponsi6le and !ence unet!ical. 1!at is neededD t!ere/oreD is not onl.. 0!usD >!ile it >as argued t!at securit.>a.is conditioned 6.ot!er decisionD it passages t!roug! t!e moment o/ undecida6ilit-. "4roCoro3D 200): 1&#.are all eFuall.in t!e desire to re/rain /rom t!e closure t!at e3er.decision inaugurates.decision reFuires undecida6ilit-D :all decisions are responsi6le and !ence Met!icalL in Derridean terms. 0!us to mo3e 6e-ond deconstructi3ismD it is necessar.o/ decisionD 6ut on a//irming t!e decision itsel/ as an et!ical actD >!ose aut!enticit. WetD since all decisions e//ect a closure o/ t!e radical openness _D t!e./or t!e decision as an act. 5or i/ it is true t!at e3er.:on t!e impossi6le attempt to esta6lis! t!e /act o/ et!icalit. 0o put t!is di//erentl-D in /ocusing upon t!e su6stance o/ t!e decisionD a deconstructi3ist stance ris+s ignoring t!e et!icalit.Capitalism K Generic conclusions. .Mgoing t!roug!L 6ot! t!e tra3ersal o/ undecida6ilit.caug!t a6o3e :t!e a6-ss o/ undecida6ilit.et!ical 12! .o/ deciding as suc!.and its closure.o/ a decisionD 6ut also a t!eort!at can a//irm t!e decision as an et!ical act in a radicall.separates t!e et!ical "t!e unconditional in?unction o/ undecida6ilit-# /rom t!e domain o/ politics "t!e domain o/ practical inter3entions >!ic! al>a-s /ail to li3e up to t!is et!ical in?unction#D t!e mo3e to>ards desecuritisation as an act reFuires t!at >e accept t!e in!erentlpolitical c!aracter o/ e3er.is not ?ust :lamenting t!e o63ious. In contrast to deconstructi3ist t!oug!t >!ic! explicitl. "4roCoro3D 200): 1&#. 5or !imD Dartmouth 2K9 12! t!e idea t!at an.G it is also pro6lematic /rom an et!ical point o/ 3ie>.undecida6le terrain.a deconstructi3ist position t!at !ig!lig!ts t!e impossi6ilit. 0!e et!ical in?unction _ concerns not t!e su6stance o/ t!e decisionD 6ut t!e responsi6ilit.s a resultD deconstructi3ism remains /rustratingl.not /ocus too narro>l.

0!usD on t!e one !andD t!e /ailure o/ t!e socialdemocratic strateg.condemned t!e So3iet s-stem to staggering /rom one crisis to anot!er.o/ SussexD EnglandD :@e-ond Capital: 0o>ard a 0!eor.to counterpose suc! a strategic o3erall alternati3e to t!e existentD and not to remed-D in an integra6le >a-D some i/ its most glaring de/ects.en3isaged Fuest /or emancipationD e3en t!e memor.untena6le< !ad to /ounder 6ecause t!e !ierarc!ical command structure o/ t!e postre3olutionar.t!emsel3es occupiedD as i/ it >as t!eir 6irt!<rig!tD t!e top ec!elons./rom its o>n standpoint<declared t!at M1!olismL >as t!e odeiological enem-D assured in t!e +no>ledge t!at e3en t!e s!arpest partial criticism 6ecomes Fuite impotent i/ it totaliCing /rame>or+ o/ intelligi6ilit"and potential legitimac-# is categoricall. 9nl. .al>a-s M!-6ridL esta6lis!ed >orld into >!ic! t!e /orces o/ a critiue >ant to ma+e an inroad.t!e >ould<6e re/ormers.o/ 0ransition.mirrored capitalHs command structure in its o>n >a-D liFuidatingD toget!er >it! countless militants >!o tried to remain /ait!/ul to t!e originall.6ot! represented t!e line o/ least resistance under t!eir speci/ic !istorical conditionsD accommodating t!emsel3es as modes o/ social control to t!e inner demands o/ t!e incorrigi6l. 0!e ruling ideolog-<understanda6l.di//erent socio!istorical circumstancesD /ate/ull.nd t!roug! t!eir sel/<contradictor.s time >ent 6-D t!e socialist political ad3ersaries o/ commodit.enterprise o/ MrestructuringL >it!out c!anging t!e structure itsel/ as t!e em6odiment o/ t!e !ierarc!ical social di3ision o/ la6our<?ust li+e spcial democrac. In realit-G /ar /rom 6eing co!erent and compre!ensi3e socialist negations o/ t!e esta6lis!ed orderD t!e. =nderstanda6l-D t!ere/oreD t!ese t>o principal practical per3ersions o/ t!e international >or+ing class mo3ementD emanating /rom 3er.6ecame !opelessl.and politicall.>ere /or a long time /alsel.could not contemplate restructuring t!e esta6lis!ed structure except 6. 0!e point o/ t!e socialist pro?ectD as originall. 0!e.>anted to re/orming capitalism >it!out altering its capitalist su6stance<t!e."gi3en its >illing acceptance o/ t!e constraints imposed 6t!e parameters o/ Hsel/<re/orming capitalismH# !ad to ta+e t!e /orm o/ totall.or 6.6.aros 9" Ist3an 8esCarosD 199*D 4ro/essor at =ni3ersit.t!e re>ards >!ic! t!e ruling order could o//erD and t!e capital s-stem as suc! success/ull.accepted as t!e common /rame o/ re/erence 6t!e socialdemocratic7la6ourite interlocutors.preser3ing its o3erall c!aracter as a !ierarc!ical structureD since t!e.anserious negation o/ t!e gi3en conditions must 6e sustaina6le >it!in it o>n /rame>or+ o/ a social >!oleD i/ it is to !a3e an!ope o/ success against t!e MLincorporatingL po>er o/ t!e potentiall.identi/ied.undermined all 6elie/ in t!e 3ia6ilit.means o/ arti/icial states o/ emergenc.easier to sa. 5or t!e latter could onl. It is al>a-s incompara6l.MnoL t!an to dra> e3en t!e 6are outlines o/<a positi3e alternati3e to t!e negated o6?ect.ruled Mout o/ courtLD >it! t!e !elp o/ t!e exorciCing pseudo<p!ilosop!ical s>ear>ord o/ M1!olismL "or o/ its se3eral eFui3alents#.and t!e corresponding la6our camps 6ecame 6ot! economicall. 12" . .concei3edD >as precisel. ./ragmented 6.a6andoning in t!e end t!e once !eld socialist aims.t t!e same timeD and not>it!standing its 3er6al radicalismD t!e Stalinist s-stem closel.on t!e 6asis o/ a co!erent strategic 3ie> or t!e o3erall social complex can e3en a partial negation o/ t!e existent 6e considered plausi6le and legitimate 5orD t!e alternati3e ad3ance<>!et!er explicitl. 0!usD t!e positi3e appro3al o/ t!e o3erall /rame>or+ and command structure o/ capital 6ecame t!e a6solute premiss o/ all legitimate political discourse in t!e capitalist countriesD and >as >illingl.o/ t!e genuine socialist o6?ecti3es.social orderD >it! its aut!oritarian political extraction o/ surplus<la6our ">!ic! s!ould !a3e 6eenD insteadD t!e o6?ect o/ a sustained attac+# >as al>a-s retained 6.adapted itsel/ to all partial criticism coming /rom t!e socialdemocratic partiesD undermining at t!e same time t!e original socialist 3ision as a strategic alternati3e.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 12" ':: 8erm %1"& 2e/orm is impossi6le<capitalism is structured to ma+e alternati3es seem ta6ooD no c!ance o/ escaping /rom >it!in t!e s-stem 6es.nd on t!e ot!er !andD all e//orts at MrestructuringL t!e Stalinist s-stemD /rom K!rusc!e3Ls Mde<StaliniCationL to Gor6ac!e3Ls Mperestroi+aL<6roug!t a6out >!en running societ.societ. .!ierarc!ical capital s-stem.implication<6.o/ t!e socialist alternati3e >it! >!ic! t!e./acilitate<as indeed 3arieties o/ re/ormism did<t!e continued operation o/ cpaitalLs mode o/ meta6olic control >it!in t!e ne> L!-6ridL s-stemD not>it!standing its crisis.

.in a most contradictor.!ollo> indeed.ma*ers de/end cap 0hen it -ene/its them7 allo0ing them to manipulate re/orm mo+ements and ma*ing them useless 6es.repeat li+e a 6ro+en record t!at t!e pro6lems >!ic! /orced t!em Mo// t!e railsL are not o/ t!eir o>n ma+ing 6ut s!ared 6. 5or >!at is particularl. 0!ings !a3e signi/icantl. 5or t!e consummation o/ t!e capital s-stemHs glo6al ascendanc-D despite /i3e centuries o/ expansion and accumulationD carried >it! it t!e condemnation o/ t!e o3er>!elming ma?orit.Hindustrial econom-H "a eup!emism /or capitalist countries#D /rom Papan to German. 0!e displacement o/ capitalHs inner contradictions could >or+ >it! relati3e ease during t!e p!ase o/ t!e s-stemHs !istorical ascendanc-. .and social ad3ancement in t!e HmetropolitanH countriesD predicated on t!e expectation o/ producing an endlessl. .longer on t!e 6ac+s o/ t!e man-D in s!arp contrast to t!e past.multiplied t!e pri3ileges o/ t!e /e> and t!e miser.nailed t!eir /lags to t!e mast o/ HmoderniCationH.o>e3erD it pro3ed Fuite incapa6le o/ sol3ing t!e gra3e pro6lems >!ic! people must con/ront in t!eir e3er-da.and /rom t!e =nited Stares to 5ranceD not to mention Ital.aros 9" Ist3an 8esCarosD 199*D 4ro/essor at =ni3ersit.se3ere ?udgement on it. I/ an-t!ingD t!e penetration o/ capital into e3er.deli3ered intensi/ied po3ert-D c!ronic inde6tednessD insolu6le in/lationD and crippling structural dependenc-.c!anged in t!e last /e> decadesD as compared to t!e expansionar.a//ecting t!e prospects o/ de3elopment in t!e /uture. 0!e.s a resultD t!e s-stem as a >!ole is 6eing rendered Fuite unsta6leD e3en i/ it >ill ta+e some time 6e/ore t!e !ill implications o/ t!is s-stemic insta6ilit.o/ t!e man-.6ro+en promisesD t!e.6roug!t no solutions on t!e model o/Hmo6ile propert-Hs ci3iliCed 3ictor-H "8arx#D in t!at it simpl.radicall.o/ SussexD EnglandD :@e-ond Capital: 0o>ard a 0!eor.past.capital !as certainl.in >!ic! t!is process !as 6een 6roug!t to its conclusion pronounces a 3er.can onl.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 12# ':: 8erm %1#& 8olic.o/ !uman+ind to a !and<to<mout! existence.t!at Hcapitalism >or+sH.ne> condition !as emerged in t!e course o/ t!e last /e> decadesD gra3el.trumpeted inter3ention it onl.transpireD calling /or structural remedies in place o/ manipulati3e postponement.s a result o/ t!e slanted glo6al de3elopment accomplis!ed in t!e last !undred -earsD under t!e domination o/ a !and/ul o/ capitalisticall.c!anged. .no longer possi6le to ma+e plausi6le ne> sets o/ 3acuous promises 6ut t!e old promises too must 6e >iped out o/ memor-D and some real gains o/ t!e >or+ing classes in t!e pri3ileged capitalist countries must 6e Hrolled 6ac+H in t!e interest o/ t!e sur3i3al o/ t!e ruling socioeconomic and political order. 0!is is >!ere >e stand toda-.eads o/ go3ernments <li+e Po!n 8a?or in England < declare >it! smug sel/< complacenc. 12# . 0!e slanted de3elopment o/ t!e last centur.single corner o/ t!e Hunderde3elopedH >orld onl.!a3e to de/end t!emsel3es on account o/ t!eir misera6l.decades o/ loudl.o>e3erD a radicall. Signi/icantl-D t!is process could un/old onl. 0!us t!e.re/use to entertain t!e Fuestions: /or >!omQ "certainl. It promised HmoderniCationHD 6ut a/ter man.o/ 0ransition.ad3anced countriesD t!e terms o/ 8arxHs original eFuation !a3e /undamentall.re/use to see t!e 6latant contradiction 6et>een t!eir sel/<con/ident declaration o/ /ait! t!at Hcapitalism >or+sH and t!e /orced admission t!at a/ter all it doesnHt "a conclusion >!ic! t!e. 0!e triump!alist cele6rations o/ a /e> -ears ago no> sound 3er.em6arrassing to remind t!e ideologists o/ t!e capital s-stem t!at not so long ago t!e.e3er.and all t!e ot!er mem6ers o/ t!e European Economic Communit-. It is t!en not onl. .gra3e toda.alters t!e situation. . 0!ere areD o/ courseD t!ose >!o can see not!ing >rong >it! t!e existing state o/ a//airs.not /or 90 percent o/ t!e >orldHs population# and /or !o> longQ Curiousl-D t!oug!D >!en t!e./ormD storing up enormous pro6lems /or t!e time a!ead o/ us.pro6lems 6.ne3er explicitl.corner o/ our planetD little and large ali+e. So muc! so in /act t!at it is no> !ig!l.gro>ing ca+e./ailed policies and constantl. .S mentioned 6e/oreD capitalHs !istorical ascendanc. It >as possi6le to deal under suc! conditions >it! man.s>eeping t!em under t!e carpet o/ un/ul/illed promisesD li+e moderniCation in t!e H0!ird 1orldH and e3er greater prosperit. In t!e course o/ t!e last centur.in its 6road outlines !as 6een 6roug!t to its conclusion .o>e3erD t!e consummation o/ capitalHs !istorical ascendanc.dra>D alt!oug! it stares t!em in t!e /ace#.li/e all o3er t!e >orld./rom t!e point o/ 3ie> o/ t!e capital s-stem is t!at e3en t!e pri3ileges o/ t!e /e> cannot 6e sustained an.aggra3ated t!ese pro6lems. 0!e >a.in3aded and su6dued e3er.

Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 123 ':: 8erm %13& Complete re<ection is essential – postCpolitics pre+ents an.# MradicalL is its radical a6andonment o/ t!e Mold ideological di3idesLD usuall.t!at good ideas are Mideas t!at >or+L means t!at one accepts in ad3ance t!e "glo6al capitalist# constellation t!at determines >!at >or+s "i/D /or exampleD one spends too muc! mone.MrepressesL t!e politicalD tr-ing to contain it and paci/.parameters o/ >!at is considered Mpossi6leL in t!e existing constellation. 123 . It is !ere t!at >e encounter t!e gap t!at separates a political act proper /rom t!e Madministration o/ social mattersL >!ic! remains >it!in t!e /rame>or+ o/ existing sociopolitical relations: t!e political act "inter3ention# proper is not simpl.pre?udice and appl. 0!e 6est /ormula t!at expresses t!e paradox o/ post<politics is per!aps 0on.M/oreclosesL itD so t!at t!e postmodern /orms o/ t!e et!nic 3iolenceD >it! t!eir MirrationalL excessi3e c!aracterD are no longer simple Mreturns o/ t!e repressedL 6utD rat!erD represent a case o/ t!e /oreclosed "/rom t!e S-m6olic# >!ic!D as >e +no> /rom (acanD returns in t!e 2eal . 0!e Centre >asD 6. 4ost<politics t!us emp!asiCes t!e need to lea3e old ideological di3isions 6e!ind and con/ront ne> issuesD armed >it! t!e necessar.expert +no>ledge and /ree deli6eration t!at ta+es peopleLs concrete needs and demands into account. mo+ement ground in status ?uo s. 0o sa./ormulated in t!e guise o/ a parap!rase o/ Deng fiaopingLs motto /rom t!e 19$0s: MIt doesnLt matter is a cat is red or >!ite: >!at matters is t!at it actuall.t!e colla6oration o/ enlig!tened tec!nocrats yeconomicsD pu6lic opinion specialists_# and li6eral multiculturalists: 3ia t!e process o/ 0oda-D !o>e3erD negotiation o/ interestsD a compromise is reac!ed in t!e guise o/ a more or less uni3ersal Conesus. .on education or !ealt!careD t!at MdoesnLt >or+LD since it in/ringes too muc! on t!e conditions o/ capitalist pro/ita6ilit.t!e Mreturns o/ t!e repressedLD 6ut muc! more e//ecti3el.@lairLs c!aracteriCation o/ e> (a6our as t!e M2adical CentreL: in t!e old da-s o/ MideologicalL political di3isionD t!e Fuali/ication MradicalL >as reser3ed eit!er /or t!e extreme (e/t or /or t!e extreme 2ig!t.t!emD >!ate3er t!eir ideological origins . In post<politicsD t!e con/lict o/ glo6al ideological 3isions em6odied in di//erent parties >!ic! compete /or po>er is replaced 6.catc!es miceL: in t!e same 3einD ad3ocates o/ e> (a6our li+e to emp!asiCes t!at one s!ould ta+e good ideas >it!out an. 9ne can also put it in terms o/ t!e >ell<+no>n de/inition o/ politics as t!e Mart o/ t!e possi6leL: aut!entic politics isD rat!er t!e exact oppositeD t!at isD t!e art o/ t!e impossi6le – it c!anges t!e 3er.de/initionD moderate: measured %%6.#.somet!ing t!at >or+s >ell >it!in t!e /rame>or+ o/ t!e existing relationsD 6ut somet!ing t!at c!anges t!e 3er. 1!at ma+es e> (a6our "or @ill ClintonLs politics in t!e =S.e* 1999 "Sla3o? BiCe+D 0!e 0ic+lis! Su6?ect pp 19'<9# >e are dealing >it! anot!er /orm o/ t!e denegation o/ t!e politicalD postmodern post<politicsD >!ic! no longer merel.t!e old standardsD t!e term M2adical CentreL is t!e same nonsense as Mradical moderationL./rame>or+ t!at determines !o> t!ings >or+.nd >!at are t!ese Mgood ideasLQ 0!e ans>er isD o/ courseD ideas t!at >or+.stems( Fi.

to +eep ali3e t!e 3er.?uggling t!e ideas o/ t!e 5ran+/urt Sc!ool >it! deep ecolog. in sel/<st-led :le/tist. In t!is dar+ening age >!en capitalism – t!e m-sti/ied social order par excellence – t!reatens to glo6aliCe t!e >orld >it! capitalD commoditiesD and a /acile spirit o/ :negotiation.6ta+ing t!e most principled stand against t!e corrosion o/ nearl. periodicalsG or possi6l. into radical ecologists. can onl- lead to a 6lurring o/ latent and serious di//erences – and ultimatel. . in German-.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 122 ':: 8erm %12& Capitalism cannot -e ended 0ith compromise( ' total re<ection o/ the s.turns out to 6e its o>n terrain in a m-sti/ied /orm. it is necessar.>!ile comparing in trul.a6ilit. .l Gore or Gar.t!e ou3elle Droite in 5ranceD or t!e :Green .# Except >!ere its pro/its and :gro>t! opportunities.o/ premises D to demand clarit.6iocentric /as!ion t!e :na3igation s+ills. It is not dogmatic to insist on consistenc-D to in/er and contest t!e logic o/ a gi3en 6od.dol/. 8ore t!an at an. 0!e >isdom o/ ma+ing /riends >it! e3er-one t!at underpins t!is academic :discourse.idea o/ uncompromising critiFue. 2o6in Ec+ersle.to earn plaudits /rom t!e 4rice o/ 1alesD .periodicals li+e 0!e 0rumpeterG or more 6raCenl-D accolades to Gramsci 6.all sel/<pro/essed oppositional ideas.must ta+e upon itsel/ t!e tas+ p/ preser3ing and extending t!e great tradition /rom >!ic! it !as emerged .consists o/ its a6ilit. – t!e language o/ its pro/essoriat no less t!an its political esta6lis!ment – >!ic! in3aria6l. S!ould t!e dar+ness o/ capitalist 6ar6arism t!ic+en to t!e point >!ere t!is enterprise is no longer possi6leD !istor.to t!e compromise o/ all principles and t!e loss o/ political direction. o/ 6irds >it! t!e >or+ings o/ t!e !uman mind.capitalism can 6e resisted onl. 122 .Institute7 03 "8urr.!as no di//icult. 0!e measure o/ social ecolog-Ls rele3ance and t!eoretical integrit. 200% p.time in t!e pastD social ecologists s!ould a6andon t!e illusion t!at a s!ared use o/ t!e >ord :social. to see+ a :common ground.and CommunalismD. renders all o/ us into socialistsD or t!at :ecolog-D. to maintain agenc.thing short o/ the re+olutionar. and a+oid -ac*lash( 'n. demands o/ the alternati+e 0ill ma*e capitalism stronger 4oo*chin7 En3ironmental t!eorist and /ounder o/ t!e Social Ecolog.Sn-derD still less /rom academicsD spiritualists and m-stics.– as t!e rational de3elopment o/ !umanit-Ls potentialities /or /reedom and consciousness – >ill indeed reac! its de/initi3e end.in a time o/ cultural t>ilig!t.ence t!e popularit. 0!e social and cultural decomposition produced 6.@oo+c!in is an En3ironmental t!eorist and /ounder o/ Social Ecolog-D :Social Ecolog. =ntil social /orces emerge t!at can pro3ide a 3oice /or 6asic social c!ange rat!er t!an spiritual redemptionD social ecolog.:social deep ecolog-.tradition – not o/ an. are concernedD capitalism no> delig!ts in a3o>als o/ t!e need to :compromiseD.o/ :mar+et socialism. IndeedD Fuite to t!e contrar-D eclecticism and t!eoretical c!aosD not to spea+ o/ practices t!at are more t!eoretical t!an t!reatening and t!at consistent more o/ posturing t!an con3incingD >ill onl. and :compromise D.to 6e rationalD et!icalD co!erentD and true to t!e ideal o/ t!e Enlig!tenment and t!e re3olutionar. in deep ecolog. %)<%$.dim t!e lig!t o/ trut! and critiFue.stem is necessar.

google. IndeedD t!e state can continue to consolidate existing arrangements t!roug! t!e 3arious means o/ repressionD including crime control. .@8. 2001D !ttp:776oo+s.: 129 . 0!e mo3ement to>ard a socialist societ.lead to t!e collapse o/ t!e existing order.suppresses resistance t!at t!reatens its sur3i3al.!uman !as alread.>it! a political consciousness on t!e part o/ t!e oppressed and t!e correct political action.t!ose >!o are oppressed. .O ma+es large portions o/ t!e population read. S!eldenD :CritiFue o/ legal orderD.o> >ill t!is mo3ement ta+e placeQ 5rom our anal-sis t!us /ar >e +no> t!at t!e existing capitalist societ.192SdFRT22capitalist`legal T22SsourceR6lSotsRo+?da+a(n2SsigRs6A1'f)IIxKg(/+')XKF$KdrPeES!lRenSeiR$t@pSsC(.c!ance 6ut t!roug! t!e praxis o/ t!eir Fuest /or itD t!roug! t!eir recognition o/ t!e necessit.can create a ne> situationD one >!ic! ma+es possi6le t!e pursuit o/ a /uller !umanit-.and actualit.a//ecting 6ot! t!e oppressors and t!ose >!om t!e.and social realit.to consider alternati3es to t!e capitalist s-stem. 1e realiCe also t!at t!e consciousness o/ t!e pu6lic !as traditionall. 6eginning is t!e realiCation o/ t!e alienation >e su//er under capitalism.gro> out o/ t!e struggles against t!e oppression o/ capitalism and t!e construction o/ a ne> >orld.8SsaRfSoiR6o o+XresultSctRresultSresnumR10 0!e contradictions o/ capitalism do not ine3ita6l.6egun in t!e aut!entic struggle to trans/orm t!e situation.c!ange must come a6out >it! a ne> consciousness among t!e oppressed. 1!en >e 6eome conscious o/ t!e extent to >!ic! >e are de!umaniCed under t!e capitalist mode o/ production and consumptionD >!en >e realiCe t!e source and nature o/ our alienationD >e 6ecome acti3e in a mo3ement to 6uild a ne> societ-. .I2c89a>n . Sooner or laterD t!enD t!e oppressed 6egin to struggle against t!eir oppression.com76oo+sQ idR-GG?'A9.cannot 6e >illed into 6eingD 6ut reFuires t!e conscious acti3it. 0!ere/oreD an. o/ criminal ?ustice at = (AD 01 "2ic!ard Uuinne-D 2andall G.CSpgR4. o/ oppressors similar to that o/ the 1ac Nuinne.t!at ser3es t!e existing order .pro/.JH . o/ sociolog.o/ t!e 9ppressed: 1!o are 6etter prepared t!an t!e oppressed to understand t!e terri6le signi/icance o/ an oppressi3e societ-Q 1!o su//er t!e e//ects o/ oppression more t!an t!e oppressedQ 1!o can 6etter understand t!e necessit.6een manipulated 6.can occur onl. 0!e contradiction o/ capitalism itsel/ O t!e disparit.recogniCe its causesD so t!at t!roug! trans/orming action t!e.oppressD it is t!e latter >!o mustD /rom t!eir sti/led !umanit-D >age /or 6ot! t!e struggle /or a /uller !umanit-G t!e oppressorD >!o is !imsel/ de!umaniCed 6ecause !e de!umaniCes ot!ersD is una6le to lead t!is struggle.o/ t!e oppressorQ 0!ere is need o/ a critical consciousnessD led 6. and Shelden B017 pro/.192SlpgR4.to /ig!t /or it.s 4aulo 5reire !as >ritten in 4edagog. @ut t!e struggle to 6e more /ull.at ort!ern Illinois = and /ounder o/ critical criminolog.an o//icial ideolog. 0!e li6erating social institutions >ill onl.lt!oug! t!e situation o/ oppression is a de!umaniCed and de!umaniCing totalit.O >it! its stateD ruling classD and legal s-stem O e//ecti3el. In ot!er >ordsD a socialist societ. 0o surmount t!e situation o/ oppressionD men must /irst criticall.o/ t!ose >!o see+ a ne> existence .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 129 ':: 8erm %19& 8erm ne+er sol+es – social mo+ements that re<ect capitalist domination cannot occur 0ithin the realm o/ the methodolog.o/ li6erationQ 0!e>ill not gain t!is li6eration 6.o>D t!enD are t!e oppressed to mo3e 6e-ond t!e ideolog.6et>een possi6ilit. 1e as+ at t!is point: .

an.is not a prison. 0!ere is no reason >!.o/ t!e 0!ird 1a. "0!is is >!. choice -et0een coCoption and complete re<ection al0a.could /orce t!roug! neo<li6eral policies. In m.it is t!e /irst option t!at is ta+en.t!e past need endlessl. 4ursuing t!e latter option once again poses t!e Fuestion o/ agenc-.or politicall-D or indeed 6.o/ t!e t>o..is notD t!ere/oreD eFui3alent to t!e deat! o/ social democrac-. "In t!is respect it does not matter at all >!et!er t!e extraction o/ surplus la6our is regulated economicall. /ailsCthe necessar.re3ersed in certain countries in t!e course o/ European !istorical de3elopment.arguedD t!e imperati3es o/ capitalist reprodution set limits to >!at anre/ormist mo3ement can ac!ie3e.repeat itsel/.# 1it!out an adeFuate</irml.e/orm empiricall.c!allenged.o/ social democrac-D !o>e3erD t!at usuall.s long as capitalism continues to generate in?ustice and insta6ilit-D mo3ements see+ing its re/orm >ill emerge to c!allenge it.in t!is >a.can t!e centres o/ concentrated capitalist po>er in t!e econom./easi6le com6ination and proportionalit.stem impossi-le 8esCaros 9* Ist3an 8esCarosD 199*D 4ro/essor at =ni3ersit.3ie>D !o>e3erD t!ese mo3ements >ill still /ace t!e classical di//iculties in!erent in re/ormism./ter>ord 12* le/t can emerge.a6solute controlling po>er<on !is >orld o/ 6ellum omnium contra omnes.) It is t!e traged. 190 .correcti3e <in t!e /orm o/ a politicall. 0!is is >!. @ut !istor.and t!e state 6e e//ecti3el.gainst t!e 0!ird 1a-J 0!e 6an+ruptc.o//ers a stri+ing example in t!is respect. 9nl.o/ 0ransition.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 190 ':: 8erm %20& :he unrestraina-le nature o/ capital ma*es re/orming the s.o/ Wor+D J.e.s results in coCoption Callinicos 01 .o/ capitalLs unrestraina6le dri3e pre3ailD t!e mani/old interacting reproducti3e units must 6e turn into a co!erent s-stem >!ose o3erall de/ining principle and orienting o6?ecti3e is t!e !ig!est practica6le extraction o/ surplus<la6our.a more or less !ap!aCard and unsustaina6le aggregate o/ economic entities exposed to t!e dangers o/ slanted de3elopment or outrig!t political suppression.indeterminate<i. 0!e +e. .some promising capitalistic 6eginnings are !alted and e3en completel.o/ SussexD EnglandD :@e-ond Capital: 0o>ard a 0!eor.# 4ost<2enaissance Ital. 0!roug! see+ing a democratic trans/ormation o/ societ-D in >!ic! t!e mass o/ people de3elop t!e political /orms reFuired /or t!em to ta+e control o/ t!eir li3es and 6egin to address t!e pro6lems o/ t!e planetD t!is le/t could o//er a genuine alternati3e to t!e dead<end into >!ic! t!e 0!ird 1a.lex CallinicosD 2001D 4ro/essor o/ 4olitics at t!e =ni3ersit. 1!at is important to stress !ere is t!at t!e positi3e potentialities o/ capitalLs unrestraina6le d-namics cannot 6e realiCed i/ t!e 6asic reproducti3e units are ta+en in isolationD a6stracted /rom t!eir sociopolitical setting .o66es >ants to impose (e3iat!an as t!e necessar. 0!e disillusionment caused 6.itsel/. 0o ma+e t!e producti3e potentialit. it could also 6e utterldestructi3e and sel/<destructi3e 6.surplus<la6our<extraction oriented<totaliCing command structure t!e gi3en units o/ capital do not constitute a s-stemD 6ut onl. 0!e anti<capitalist mo3ement t!at 6egan at Seattle is creating t!e conditions in >!ic! a ne> . In particularD as I !a3e alread.leads.remedial role o/ t!e state is de/ined in relation to t!e state imperati3e o/ unrestraina6ilit-. .re/ormist go3ernmentsH surrender to capital !as !elped to create t!e context in >!ic! /irst t!e e> 2ig!t and t!e 0!ird 1a. It reFuires t!e de3elopment o/ a mass mo3ement centred on t!e organiCed >or+ing class t!at see+s t!e democratic reconstruction o/ societ-. Con/ronted >it! t!ese limitsD t!e mo3ement >ill !a3e to c!oose 6et>een a6andoning its attempt to ac!ie3e a /airer and more !umane >orld or see+ing t!e remo3al o/ t!e s-stem itsel/. 5or alt!oug! t!e inner dri3e o/ t!e producti3e microcosms is irrepressi6leD its c!aracter is totall.

>it! it.ssociate 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!.S.s S!eldon 1olin laments: J0!e le/t is amorp!ous_ I despair o3er t!e le/t.at 1orcester 4ol-tec!nic Institute in 8assac!usettsD B09 "Po!n San6onmatsuD .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 191 ':: 8erm %21& 4erm doesnLt sol3e< >e need a complete o3ert!ro>D not modest re/orms San-onmatsu B09D .concei3a6le social mo3ement issue t!e (e/t could e3er care a6out O >ar and peaceD indi3idual li6ertiesD /eminismD ecolog-D la6orD and animal rig!ts.I(E 9@.J 0!e /orces resisting c!ange appear to 6e Jtoo po>er/ul to 6e c!allenged.dre> !undreds o/ t!ousands. @ut >!ere are t!e demonstrations toda.at 1orcester 4ol-tec!nic Institute in 8assac!usettsD 8a-7Pune 2009D 0i++un :1!. 0!e economist 2o6ert P. ma. During t!e ramp< up to t!e =. @ut not one as large as it >as 6e/ore t!e crisis.o/ massi3e pu6lic in3estments in/rastructure and educationD coupled >it! t!e imposition o/ more stringent regulator.6.0 1. Wet t!e (e/t as suc! is dead O or mig!t as >ell 6e.J Similar perspecti3es !a3e ec!oed t!roug!out t!e alternati3e media O a >illingness to re/orm t!e tax codeD or to increase go3ernment regulationD or to re/orm t!e 5ederal 2eser3eD 6ut not to c!allenge t!e true prerogati3es o/ t!e po>er/ulD nor to Fuestion t!e 6asic di3ision o/ t!e >orld into o>ners and >or+ersD !a3es and !a3e<nots. In a recent article /or t!e radical economics ?ournal Dollars and SenseD /or exampleD economist 8arie Duggan argues t!at >e need to J/ix t!e /inancial sectorDJ not do a>a.conser3ati3es arenHt O t!e. orD !o>e3erD are li6eral intellectualsD >!o as a 6od.encompasses e3er.J 191 .suc! an alternati3e is desira6le to t!e pu6lic at large.e6sco!ost.6e small in num6er in Europe 6ut t!e. !ttp:77>e6. In 19'2D t!e uclear 5reeCe mo3ement inspired 1 million people to marc! against nuclear >ar in Central 4ar+..controls on t!e /inancial sector.J 1!at is more surprisingD per!apsD is t!at e3en more radical t!in+ers on t!e le/t !a3e said little a6out t!e need /or an alternati3e to capitalism.Capitalism S!ouldnLt @e Sa3ed.adopting a ne> e> DealD a Ke-nesian strateg.modest re/ormsD urging t!e 96ama administration to rall. 1e !a3e a /e> 3oices !ereD a magaCine t!ereD and t!atHs a6out it.ere_ >e donHt !a3e t!at.8. 0!roug!out t!e 19'0s and 1990sD t!e ational 9rganiCation o/ 1omen and ot!er li6eral /eminist groups sponsored pro<c!oice rallies in 1as!ington t!at regularl. in3asion o/ IraF in 200&D millions o/ people staged anti<>ar rallies around t!e >orld.or indirectl.an appearance.ssociate 4ro/essor o/ 4!ilosop!. 0!e FuestionD t!oug!D is >!et!er an-one is c!allenging t!e de/enders o/ t!e status Fuo at all.to t!e call o/ a +inderD gentler capitalism O c!ie/l. Certainl.are a co!erent organiCation t!at +eeps going. or !as an-one 6egun to ma+e t!e case /or >!. . S!illerD similarl-D >rites t!at t!e J6est t!ing t!at_ 96ama can do is to set up permanent ne> structures to !arness t!e inno3ations o/ /inance to impro3e peopleHs li3es on 8ain Street.>ould li+e to see less go3ernment regulation o/ t!e mar+etD not more.against t!e 6ailout o/ t!e 6an+s and 6ro+erage /irmsD let alone against t!e capitalist s-stem t!at is ruining our planetQ 1!o is out t!ere tr-ing to 6uild a 3i6rantD 6road<6ased socialist mo3ementQ Ironicall-D t!e un/olding crisis directl. . In /actD t!e (e/t !as -et to organiCe a single signi/icant con/erence on >!at a successor s-stem to capitalism mig!t loo+ li+e. 0!ese /orces could 6e o3ercome O i/ onlt!ere >ere su//icient pressure /rom t!e grassroots to do so.com7e!ost7detailQ3idR2S!idR10)SsidR11&1*2'e<c$&6<)%'*<'caa< $$c'c1*$/e'aT)0sessionmgr10S6dataRPn pdG=9B1!3c&Ut6Gl2BUT&dT&dVd6Rap!S. JWesDJ s!e >ritesD Jt!e =nited States needs a /unctioning /inancial sector so t!at small 6usinessesD studentsD and e3en G8 !a3e access to credit.J 1!ile t!at is trueD it is still onl.6e J>ell meaning_ !e in!erits a s-stem o/ constraints t!at ma+e it 3erdi//icult to ta+e on t!ese ma?or po>er con/igurations. E3en 4aul KrugmanD not>it!standing !is a/orementioned call /or an end to securitiCationD !as called /or onl. It goes no>!ere.!a3e ta+en pains not to call into Fuestion t!e /undamental structures o/ t!e existing order. R&9%*&*&&# 19(I S=GGES0S 0. (e/t parties ma.

out o/ t!is dilemma so as to prolong t!e li/e< span o/ re3olutionar. 5urt!ermoreD 6ot! t!e existing 0.inertia as soon as t!e >orst moment o/ t!e crisis is o3er and t!us it 6ecomes possi6le to contemplate again Mt!e line o/ least resistanceL. Emeritus E =ni3.accelerate its o>n demise "and t!ere6.dictated 6. Sussex# 199" YIsta3anD @e-ond Capital: 0o>ards a 0!eor.is t!at socioeconomic structures and t!eir corresponding /rame>or+ o/ political institutions tend to act against radical initiati3es 6.in3ol3es up!ea3al and t!e disconcerting prospect o/ t!e un+no>n.t!eir 3er.politicsD since suc! limited economic ac!ie3ements made >it!in t!e con/ines o/ t!e old premises O act in t!e opposite direction 6.ampl.s!ortenD instead o/ extending as it s!ouldD t!e /a3oura6le MmomentL o/ ma?or political inter3ention# i/ it consents to de/ine its o>n scope in terms o/ limited economic targets >!ic! are in /act necessaril.nd no one can consider Mradical restructuringL t!e line o/ least resistanceD since 6.o/ 0ransition\ p. 192 .t!e esta6lis!ed socioeconomic structure in crisis. 0!usD radical politics can onl.>it! t!e dominant institutional /rame>or+.limited 6.s !istor.E di//icult. 0!e claimed Mreco3er-L itsel/ reac!ed on t!e 6asis o/ t!e M>ell tried economic moti3ationsLD acts as t!e sel/<e3ident ideological ?usti/ication /or re3erting to t!e su6ser3ientD routine role o/ politicsD in !armon.ES "4ro/.its 3er.nature it necessaril.relie3ing t!e most pressing crisis s-mptoms andD as a resultD rein/orcing t!e old reproducti3e mec!anism s!a+en 6.testi/iesD at t!e /irst sign o/ Mreco3er-LD politics is pus!ed 6ac+ Into its traditional role o/ !elping to sustain and en/orce t!e gi3en socio<economic determinations. o immediate economic ac!ie3ement can o//er a >a. .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 192 ':: 8erm %22& :he perm promotes the illusion that capitalism can sol+e its o0n pro-lems – pre+enting radical politics /rom occurring( 6ESF'.t!e crisis. 9&0 t!e MmomentL o/ radical politics is strictl. 0!e 6reac! opened up at times o/ crisis cannot 6e le/t open /ore3er and t!e measures adopted to /ill itD /rom t!e earliest steps on>ardsD !a3e t!eir o>n logic and cumulati3e impact on su6seFuent inter3entions. .t!e nature o/ t!e crises in Fuestion and t!e temporal determinations o/ t!eir un/olding.

ho0 +ague 0e are and 0hat 0e can do to /ix it – <ust as +ague as the plan( *.( &. 6ixing -urdens – the.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 19 ':: Kague 'lternati+e 1. ha+e ?uestions o/ ho0 the alternati+e SE)KES( :hat5s not a theoretical o-<ection to the *7 it5s <ust a misnamed sol+enc. Don5t +ote a// – don5t +ote a// 0hen there5s no a-use( 6a*e them 8.EKE 0e a-used them( Keep a high threshold 0hen e+aluating theoretical o-<ections to the alternati+e E+en i/ 0e are a-usi+e7 re<ect the argument not the team 19 . CrossCx chec*s – 0e clari/ied the /unction o/ the alternati+e and ans0ered an. argument( $. In/initel. regressi+e – it5s impossi-le to *no0 exactl. ?uestions( ). *no0 0hat the alternati+e DEES and @1': I: IS7 the. $o a-use – 0e 0on5t shi/t our ad+ocac. $ot +ague – the alt 1'S ' :EI:( 2.

.HrealisticH and HmatureH attitude./ailure o/ e3erattempt actuall. 0oda-D !o>e3erD t!e outdatedness o/ t!e >el/are state and socialist imaginaries is a clic!N – t!e real dilemma is >!at to do >it! – !o> t!e (e/t is to relate to – t!e predominant li6eral democratic imaginar-.7 00 "Sla3o?D pro/essor o/ sociolog.claim t!at t!e point is to treat t!e democratic imaginar.egemon-D =ni3ersalit-D pg &2) – &2$D !ttp:776oo+s. It is m.#D and engages in a !egemonic 6attle >it!in itD or it ris+s t!e opposite gesture o/ re/using its 3er.to occup.at t!e Institute /or Sociolog-D (?u6l?anaD Contingenc-D .in3o+ed in order to categoriCe grand ideological pro?ects as unrealistic utopiasD is itsel/ to 6e inserted into t!e great modern utopian pro?ects.prospect o/ radical c!ange pa3es t!e >a.t!at >ill gi3e "Cont. . 0!at is to sa.displa-s t!e lie o/ t!e existing orderD 6ut in a >a.to c!ange somet!ing in t!e 6asic /unctioning o/ glo6al capitalismQ .means o/ !is ludic procedures destined to Hsu63ertH t!e existing orderD actuallser3ed as its supplement.stem is +ulnera-le and there are alternati+es – e+en i/ 0e can5t imagine them re<ection is *e.is also open: it is not Hnecessar.contention t!at (aclauHs and 8ou//eHs Hradical democrac-H comes all too close to merel.termsD o/ /latl.– as 5redric Pameson !as pointed out – >!at c!aracteriCes utopia is not a 6elie/ in t!e essential goodness o/ !uman natureD or some similar nai3e notionD 6utD rat!erD 6elie/ in some glo6al mec!anism >!ic!D applied to t!e >!ole o/ societ-D >ill automaticall.es itsel/ -.com76oo+sQidRd4grG)KE$d0CSprintsecR/rontco3erSdFRT22`T09`T09`Contingenc-D`!egemon-D `uni3ersalit-T22SeiRcmdoSp9 (orE8*uK08E@# 0!e /irst t!ing to note a6out t!is neoli6eral clic!N is t!at t!e neutral re/erence to t!e necessities o/ t!e mar+et econom-D usuall.>!ic! suspends t!e per/ormati3e e//icienc. no text deleted. sa. at the Institute /or Sociolog.t!e name /or suc! a mec!anism >!ic!D properl. In !is Seminar on t!e Et!ics o/ 4s-c!oanal-sisD1& (acan de3eloped an opposition 6et>een H+na3eH and H/oolH as t!e t>o intellectual attitudes: t!e rig!t >ing intellectual is a +na3eD a con/ormist >!o considers t!e mere existence o/ t!e gi3en order as an argument /or itD and moc+s t!ee (e/t /or its HutopianH plansD >!ic! necessaril.a utopian pro?ect o/ social trans/ormation >it! no realistic c!ance o/ actualiCationG no less ideological is t!e anti<utopian stance o/ t!ose >!o crealisticall-H de3alue e3erglo6al pro?ect o/ social trans/ormation as cutopianDH t!at isD as unrealistic dreaming and7or !ar6ouring HtotalitarianH potential – toda-Hs predominant /orm o/ ideological HclosureH ta+es t!e precise /orm o/ mental 6loc+ >!ic! pre3ents us /rom imagining a /unndamental social c!angeD in t!e interests o/ an allegedl.ere D !o>e3erD I t!in+ t!at @utler is rig!t >!en s!e emp!asiCes t!at anot!er >a.a/ter t!e /all o/ SocialismD t!e +na3e >as a neoconser3ati3e ad3ocate o/ t!e /ree mar+et >!o cruell.ing that there are no alternati+es( :he capitalist s./irm con3ictionD mpolitico<existential premise t!at t!e old H$' motto So-ons rNalistes demandons lHimpossi6le^ still !olds: it is t!e ad3ocates o/ c!anges and resigni/ications >it!in t!e li6eral<democratic !oriCon >!o are t!e true utopians in t!eir 6elie/ t!at t!eir e//orts >ill amount to an-t!ing more t!an cosmetic surger. 0oda-D !o>e3erD t!e relations!ip 6et>een t!e couple +na3e–/ool and t!e political opposition 2ig!t7(e/t is more and more t!e in3ersion o/ t!e standard /igures o/ 2ig!tist +na3e and (e/tist /ool: are not t!e 0!ird 1at!eoreticians ultimatel.as an Hempt.appliedD >ill 6ring a6out t!e optimal state o/ societ-Q SoD againD t!e /irst ans>er o/ t!e (e/t to t!ose – (e/tists t!emsel3es – >!o 6emoan t!e loss o/ t!e utopian impetus in our societies s!ould 6e t!at t!is impetus is ali3e and >ell. 0!is means t!at t!e (e/t !as a c!oice toda-: eit!er it accepts t!e predominant li6eral democratic !oriCon "democrac-D !uman rig!ts and /reedoms .nd are not t!e conser3ati3e /ools – t!ose conser3ati3es >!ose original modern model is 4ascal and >!o as it >ere s!o> t!e !idden cards o/ t!e ruling ideolog-D 6ringing<to lig!t its underl-ing mec!anisms >!ic!D in order to remain operati3eD !a3e to 6e repressed – /ar more attracti3eQ 0oda.as counterproducti3e sentimentalismG >!ile t!e /ool >as a deconstructionist cultural critic >!oD 6.re?ected all /orms o/ social solidarit.o/ t!is speec!.it is more important t!an e3er to !old t!is utopian place o/ t!e glo6al alternati3e openD e3en i/ it remains empt-D li3ing on 6orro>ed timeD a>aiting t!e content to /ill it in . In t!e -ears immediatel."a ne> mo6iliCing glo6al 3ision#. 0!e second ans>er s!ould 6e a clear line o/ distinction 6et>een utopia and ideolog-: ideolog.6ring out t!e 6alanced state o/ progress and !appiness one is longing /or – andD in t!is precise senseD is not t!e mar+et precisel.and t!e Hreall-<existing<SocialistH imaginar-D t!e (e/t does need a ne> imaginar./or totalitarianism. Sometimes it is important to re/use it terms to let t!e term itsel/ >it!erD to star3e it o/ its strengt!H "P@D p.in t!e /ace o/ t!is (e/tist +na3er. .agree >it! (aclau t!at a/ter t!e ex!austion o/ 6ot! t!e social democratic >el/are state imaginar.toda-Hs +na3esD /igures >!o preac! c-nical resignationD t!at isD t!e necessar.lead to catastrop!eG >!ile t!e le/t<>ing intellectual is a /oolD a court ?ester >!o pu6licl.signi/ierHD and to engage in t!e !egemonic 6attle >it! t!e proponents o/ t!e glo6al capitalist e> 1orld 9rder o3er >!at its content >ill 6e.# 19! .e*7 pro/( o/ sociolog. to create them( Fi.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 19! ':: $o alternati+e Capitalism naturali. (aclauD o/ courseD >ould pro6a6l. I /ull.re?ecting toda-Hs li6eral 6lac+mail t!at courting an.t!e dominant norm in order to produce an internal su63ersion o/ its terms.is not onl. 1%%#. It is m.HradicaliCingH t!is li6eral democratic imaginar-D >!ile remaining >it!in its !oriCon.google.

Hmadness o/ t!e musician J>!o !eaped up and mixed toget!er t!irt.deplo-s t!e re3ersal t!at c!aracteriCes t!e .pointD o/ courseD is t!at toda-Hs Hmad danceHD t!e d-namic proli/eration o/ multiple s!i/ting identities also a>aits its resolution in a ne> /orm o/ 0error.o/ Spirit: t!e pre<2e3olutionar. In !er second inter3entionD @utler super6l.turns into its oppositeD t!is Hmad danceHD is resol3ed 6. 0!e onl.ariasD ItalianD 5renc!D tragicD comicD o/ e3er.turnsJ "DiderotD ep!e> o/ 2ameau#H D 1) suddenl.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 19" us capitalism >it! a !uman /ace.some 6leeding<!eart li6erals as (in+s/asc!ismusD so 6e it^ 19" .egelian dialectical process: t!e aggra3ated HcontradictionH in >!ic! t!e 3er.turns into its radical opposite: t!e re3olutionar.sortG no> >it! a deep 6ass !e descended into !ellD t!enD contracting !is t!roatD !e rent t!e 3aults o/ !ea3en >it! a /alsetto toneD /rantic and soot!edD imperious and moc+ingD 6.HrealisticH prospect is to ground a ne> political uni3eralist. .nd m.stance pursuing its goal >it! an inexora6le /irmness.t!e passage /rom t!e H>orld o/ sel/<alienated SpiritH to t!e 0error o/ t!e 5renc! 2e3olution in 0!e 4!enomenolog.assuming t!e place o/ t!e exception >it! no ta6oosD no a priori norms "H!uman rig!tsHD cdemocrac-H#D respect /or >!ic! >ould pre3ent us also /rom Hresigni/-ingH terrorD t!e rut!less exercise o/ po>erD t!e spirit o/ sacri/ice _ i/ t!is radical c!oice is decried 6.opting /or t!e impossi6leD /ull.6.di//erential structure o/ meaning is collapsingD since e3erdetermination immediatel.t!e sudden emergence o/ a ne> uni3ersal determination. 0!e 6est illustration is pro3ided 6.

>iped o// t!e 6oo+s t!e /ollo>ing decadeD a/ter t!e protesters !a3e gone !omeD or a/ter a ne> administration comes to po>er.capitalism >it! single<issue campaigns. It is utopian to 6elie3e t!at >e can re/orm capitalism.um6. 9ur 3er.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 19# ':: 8lan is good cap SingleCissue campaigns li*e the a//irmati+e are nothing more than mas*ing re/orms that sustain the s.capitalism itsel/ and create a ne> ci3iliCation./ix t!ings. 0!ese struggles all !a3e 3alue and are needed. 0!ere is one single<issue campaign I can >!ole!earted endorse: t!e total and permanent eradication o/ capitalism. 19# .sur3i3al is at sta+e. ser+es to promote it 1erod7 political acti+ist7 Colum-ia graduate7 0# "PamesD :Strategies t!at !a3e /ailed.D spi+es in t!e trees to stop t!e c!ain sa>s or Greenpeace 6oats in /ront o/ t!e >!aling s!ips to 6loc+ t!e !arpoons#D /or t!e most part t!e campaigns are directed at passing legislation in Congress to correct t!e pro6lem.modi/ied /oodsD stop !uman cloningD stop t!e deat! sFuads in Colom6iaD stop t!e 1orld @an+ and t!e 1orld 0rade 9rganiCationD stop t!e extermination o/ speciesD stop corporations /rom 6u-ing politiciansD stop !ig! sta+es educational testingD stop t!e 6o3ine gro>t! !ormone /rom 6eing used on mil+ co>sD stop micro radio /rom 6eing 6annedD stop glo6al >armingD stop t!e militariCation o/ spaceD stop t!e +illing o/ t!e oceansD and on and on. Wet t!e great 6ul+ o/ t!e energies o/ radicals is spent on t!ese campaigns. .lt!oug! some o/ t!ese campaigns use direct action "e. Could an-one t!in+ t!at t!e campaigns against glo6al >armingD or to /ree (eonard 4eltierD or to aid t!e East 0imorese oug!t to 6e a6andonedQ Single issue campaigns +eep us a>are o/ >!atHs >rongD and sometimes e3en >in. !ttp:77site. 0!ere are doCens o/ t!em: campaigns to preser3e t!e /orestsD +eep rent controlD stop >!alingD stop animal experimentsD de/end a6ortion rig!tsD stop toxic dumpingD stop t!e +illing o/ 6a6.edu7/acult-7salCmanXg7Strate7Get5re70*.>>>.stem( :he onl. =n/ortunatel-D re/orms t!at are >on in one decadeD a/ter endless agitationD can 6e easil.thing less onl. 8ost o/ t!ese e3ils can onl. 1!at >e are doing is spending our li3es tr-ing to /ix up a s-stem >!ic! generates e3ils /ar /aster t!an >e can e3er eradicate t!em. escape /rom capitalism is its total destruction7 an. @ut in and o/ t!emsel3esD t!e.cannot destrocapitalismD and t!us cannot reall.sealsD stop nuclear testingD stop smo+ingD stop pornograp!-D stop drug testingD stop drugsD stop t!e >ar on drugsD stop police 6rutalit-D stop union 6ustingD stop red<liningD stop t!e deat! penalt-D stop racismD stop sexismD stop c!ild a6useD stop t!e re<emerging sla3e tradeD stop t!e 6om6ing o/ Wugosla3iaD stop t!e logging o/ red>oodsD stop t!e spread o/ ad3ertisingD stop t!e patenting o/ genesD stop t!e trapping and +illing o/ animals /or /ursD stop irradiated meatD stop geneticall.6e eradicated /or good i/ >e destro.!tm# 10.g. 1e cannot a//ord to aim /or an-t!ing less. Single<issue campaigns. 1e cannot destro.

It a//irms t!at e3er.recon/iguring political agenc. !ttp:77/indarticles.as Jdiscursi3e.t!eoretical and political 6urden placed upon t!e proletariat 6.egelian epistemolog.and argue insteadD as Spi3a+ doesD /or strategic<< uses<o/<essentialism as a correcti3e to t!e excesses o/ teleological t!in+ing and /ixed notions o/ class.K.to get rid o/ essentialism and macro<narrati3es.2' o >a-.ing narrati+es7 -ut in turn the. . 0!is strand o/ post< structuralismD one t!at once againD can 6e directl.6oils do>n to su6stituting in political practice e3er.traditionD in generalD is its post<structuralist extremism. Gi6son<Gra!amHs >or+D in particularD and o/ t!e >!ole radical democrac.particular anal-sis >ill ne3er /ind t!e ultimate cause o/ e3ents.s (aclau and 8ou//e clari/-D Jour anal-sis re?ects t!e distinction 6et>een discursi3e and nondiscursi3e practices.J .traced 6ac+ to (aclau and 8ou//eHs .nd to tr.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 193 ':: Gi-sonCGraham %1& Gi-sonCGraham reduce e+er.m!erst Sc!oolHs Jpro3isional ontolog-J is incapa6le o/ escaping t!e per/ormati3e trap o/ tr-ing to get rid o/ essentialism 6. E3en 5oucaultD t!e great master o/ discontinuit-D distances !imsel/ /rom suc! mirror<re3ersal solutions >!en t!eoriCing t!e limits o/ discourse and accounting /or t!e Jdi3ergenceD t!e distancesD t!e oppositionsD t!e di//erencesJ t!at constitute t!e episteme o/ a period.com7p7articles7miXFa&9*27isX2001017aiXn'9&2'917pgX1# 0!e t!ird /eature o/ P.J 0!e postmodern 8arxist approac! to ontolog.o/ consciousnessJ to t!e Jp!ilosop!.a paradigm s!i/t /rom t!e Jp!ilosop!.&& 193 . 0!e . ma*e the 0orld into one large essentiali.essentialiCing all o/ realit.J&1 0!e pro6lem >it! t!is approac! is t!at once >e enter t!is >orld o/ epistemological /oundationalism predicated on t!e claim t!at t!ere is Jnot!ing 6ut discourseDJ >e enter a >orld o/ relati3ism in >!ic! all >e can do is Jcreate discursi3e /ixingsDJ as P.epistemological premise t!at >!at reall.K.o6?ect is constituted as an o6?ect o/ discourse.a6ermas argueD >e in!a6it an intellectual regime c!aracteriCed 6.2$ 5or postmodern 8arxists it is not enoug! to point out t!atD as 6ot! 5oucault and . Gi6son<Gra!am t!emsel3es prescri6eD t!at >ill guarantee t!at Jan.egemon.o/ language.s P.to discourse t!at ultimatelo3erloads its t!eoretical apparatus and causes it to 6uc+le 6eneat! t!em.s /ar as postmodern 8arxism is concernedD t!e onl.to redistri6ute t!e !ea3. Gi6son<Gra!am t!emsel3es ma+e clearD Jto e3en concei3e o/ HcapitalismH as HcapitalismsH is still ta+ing HcapitalismH /or granted. R AC Da+is7 01 "2ene 5rancisco :end o/ anti<capitalism as >e +ne> it: 2e/lections on postmodern marxism.occurrence o/ Jcontinuit-J >it! Jdiscontinuit-J as a >a.matters is Jdiscourse.>a.t!roug! Jrace<class<genderDJ as opposed to ?ust classD is still a /utile endea3or: essentialism is still essentialism >!et!er one essentialiCes around one or t!ree categories.ing discourse( :his causes their epistemological pro<ect to collapse into itsel/ 8oite+in7 doctoral program in sociolog.and Socialist Strateg-D&0 is predicated on t!e /ault. .K.J2% or is it good enoug! /or postmodern7post<8arxists to recogniCe t!e pit/alls em6edded in .J&2 It is t!is ideological postmodern insistence on reducing all o/ social realit.J29 .thing to discourse and re<ect essentiali.to compensate /or constructions o/ capitalism t!at are too totaliCing is t!roug! t!e unconditional surrender o/ t!e 8arxist pro?ect.

"t!ereLs no suc! t!ing as a >or+ing class let alone a use/ull.to su63ert capitalism. 0!eir researc! on Pagna exposes a Jdi3erse economic communit-DJ as t!e. 0!e general argument o/ 6ot! 6oo+sD s!rouded in t!e "post#8arxian ?argon associated >it! ?ournals li+e 2et!in+ing 8arxismD is t!at capitalism isnLt a total s-stemD t!at it is onl.promotes t!e migrant >or+/orce solution to lac+ o/ su6sistence# or t!e state ">!ic! isD in all contextsD aut!oritarian#.net>or+sD indi3idual enterprisesD small 6usinessesD small /armers "mainl.politicala//airs.//airsD 1272%70$ @oo+ 2e3ie>: . Gi6son<Gra!am are !a3ing none o/ t!at.>it! t!e >or+ing classes o/ t!e capitalist centers# are t!e 6est met!od o/ resisting t!ose glo6al processes and de3eloping local and glo6al alternati3es to t!em.net7article7article3ie>7)$027 .K. (acsamanaD 1omen and Glo6aliCation and Da3id @aconD 0!e C!ildren o/ .needs >it!out rel-ing eit!er on capitalist glo6aliCation "t!at onl.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 192 ':: Gi-sonCGraham %2& Gi-sonCGraham are -ogus – their alternati+e to capitalism excludes pragmatic methods @endlandD managing editor o/ 4olitical . 8arxist and anti<imperialist politics t-picall./g!anistanD J>ar on terrorDJ and e3en contemporaralternati3es to capitalism and imperialism suc! as AeneCuelaLs @oli3arian 2e3olution "in >!ic! >or+ersL cooperati3esD an important su6?ect o/ Gi6son<Gra!amLs 6oo+D !a3e pla-ed an important role# or .o>ard mentionedD and >ar in IraF and . . =se/ul anal-sis o/ t!is process "see /or example Delia D.partialD and t!at ot!er modes o/ production exist alongside it >!ic! ordinar. In arri3ing at t!ese /ormulationsD P.ignores and excludes socialist and national alternati3es to capitalism and imperialism .//airsD 0# Poel 1endlandD managing editor o/ 4olitical .e3aded.nne E. Gi6son<Gra!am !ttp:77>>>. 0!eir critiFue o/ de3elopment completel.K.underde3elop certain geograp!ical portions o/ t!e glo6al la6or mar+et in order to /orce people into decisions li+e 6ecoming migrant >or+ers.mNricas are simpl.sian 8igrant Center "a group t!at con3inces migrant >or+ers to sa3e t!eir remittances in local cooperati3e in3estment pro?ects#.#D simpl.people >!o s!are a Jmutuall. 192 .50.call itD composed o/ /amil. Wou >onLt /ind @us! or .imperialismD is part o/ a logical /rame>or+ and set o/ practices t!at purposel.lternati3a @oli3ariana para las . 4ostcapitalist 4olitics is 6illed as a /ollo><up to t!e duoLs 199$ 6oo+D 0!e End o/ Capitalism "as 1e Kne> It#.de/ined concept o/ class# use continuall.on outside imperati3es or goals and >!ic! can pro3ide /or peopleLs needs in non<capitalistic >a-s.putD !as suggested t!at t!is glo6aliCation o/ t!e di3ision o/ la6orD a process t!at !as its origins in capitalist centers and gi3en its particular c!aracter 6.tenants#D and ot!ers >!ic! can 6e de3eloped t!roug! suc! in3estment pro?ects t!at do not rel. IndeedD local initiati3esD also descri6ed as 6eing modeled in di//erent communities in ot!er parts o/ t!e >orldD are posed as t!e alternati3e to glo6al capitalist de3elopment.P.guilar and .interdependentJ economic communit. 4ostcapitalist 4oliticsD 6. 2esources can 6e Jmars!aledJ /or communit.t!e . Gi6son<Gra!am adopt an anti<state postureD re?ect anti<capitalist alternati3es suc! as socialismD and e3en re/use to ac+no>ledge t!e dominant glo6al e3ents t!at are determining so muc! o/ >!at goes on in t!e >orld .conclude t!at 6road organiCation o/ people in t!ose marginal regions into communities o/ nation and classes "in solidarit. IndeedD t!eir cataloging o/ non<capitalist modes o/ sur3i3al in Pagna and t!eir argument /or an alternati3e de3elopmentD suc! as local in3estment initiati3es li+e t!ose de3eloped 6.ustralian 4rime 8inister Po!n .

ustralian economist 0im .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 199 ':: Gi-sonCGraham % & Gi-sonCGraham are s*etch./or our o>n su63ersi3e purposes – t!e relations!ip is /raug!t >it! negati3e implications.us. 0o 6e 6luntD t!e role o/ .ccording to . 2eading Gi6son<Gra!am and t!eir a//iliation >it! .ustralian imperialism among its neig!6ors in t!e . 0!us >e ma.sian 4aci/ic islands.//airsD 1272%70$ @oo+ 2e3ie>: . 199 .P.politicala//airs.IDLs explicit mission !as 6een trans/ormed /rom promoting general international Jpo3ert.idD according to ./orcing aided countries to ad!ere t!e general principles o/ t!e glo6aliCing pro?ect "austerit-D s!rin+ing pu6lic sectorsD etc.net7article7article3ie>7)$027 1!ile t!eir exca3ation o/ important cooperati3e pro?ects pro3ides >ort!>!ile lessons /or people interested in socialist alternati3es to capitalism and imperialism t!at loo+ 6e-ond no longer existing models /or a 6roader socialist conceptD t!ere is a distur6ing element to t!is 6oo+ as e3idenced 6.J .ndersonD under t!e rig!t<>ing .ID# /or t!e researc! on Pagna. In ot!er >ordsD aid /rom .o>ard go3ernmentD ./or International De3elopment ".genc.us.Gi6son<Gra!amLs relations!ip to . 4ostcapitalist 4oliticsD 6.us.ndersonD !as 6ecome one o/ promoting . – the.nderson notes t!at prior to .# to also promoting speci/ic . Speci/icall-D 6.ID ser3ed as a mec!anism ">it!in t!e international ?urisdiction o/ t!e I85 and 1orld @an+# to impose neoli6eral imperati3es on regional countries .o>ardD !o>e3erD t!is role !as s!i/ted /rom merel. Gi6son<Gra!am !ttp:77>>>.ustraliaLs Jnational interest.ID is not innocent.5re grounded in capitalism @endlandD managing editor o/ 4olitical .K.>ealt!. 1!ile Gi6son<Gra!am are li+el.reductionJ pro?ects to pro3iding resources to suc! pro?ects lin+ed to .ustralian interests suc! as .o>ard .to regard t!eir relations!ip to .us.us.ustralian .ID as an innocent one – somet!ing li+eD >e used t!eir mone.t!e location o/ t!is 6oo+ >it!in t!e /rame>or+ o/ t!ose 3er.Gi6son<Gra!am !a3e re?ected socialist alternati3es to capitalism and national li6erationist alternati3es to imperialism.countries. IndeedD read >it! t!e lin+age Said soug!t to expose in mindD it is possi6le to understand >!.//airsD 0# Poel 1endlandD managing editor o/ 4olitical .relations!ips t!at Gi6son<Gra!am ignore .mapping non<capitalist and underde3eloped sectors in Pagna and discouraging socialistD 6road classD international and national alternati3esD Gi6son<Gra!amLs >or+ aids in opening t!e 4!ilippines to . . 5or exampleD in t!e pre/ace to t!is 6oo+D Gi6son<Gra!am ac+no>ledge t!e receipt o/ a grant /rom t!e .ustralian imperialism in t!e lig!t o/ SaidLs pro?ect mentioned at t!e opening o/ t!is re3ie> is re3ealing.ustralian 6ased corporate enterprises.neoli6eral pro?ects /unded 6.us.see >!.ustraliaLs imperialist agenda.id came >it! Jgood go3ernanceJ conditions t!at !a3e come to t-pi/.us. =nder .

s 1e Kne> It#D especiall.e.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 200 ':: Gi-son Graham %!& 8ostmodern 6arxism re+amps capitalism – Gi-sonCGraham indict 8olite+inD doctoral program o/ =C Da3isD 01 2ene 5rancisco 4oite3inD mem6er o/ t!e S2 editorial collecti3e.end up actuall.someone elseQ 8.is not!ing 6ut li6eral politics >it! post<structuralist delusions o/ grandeur.< and in P. Gi6son<Gra!amHs cele6rator.in postmodern 8arxist politicsD is t!at t!e ex<steel>or+ers do not pursue t!e Jort!odoxJ line o/ >or+erHs c!allenging capitalist control o/ industrial propert-D nor do t!e.is 6ot! li6eral and reactionar-. It is also interesting t!at PK Gi6son<Gra!am maintain t!at c!allenging t!eir anal-sis o/ 0!e 5ull 8ont-D or not endorsing t!e politics o/ t!e /ilmD Jis in!erentl.seem to care a6out circuits o/ capital or structural needs o/ accumulation.K.m I t!e onl.J)$ 0!e.K.toget!erQ Is prostitution 9K as long as t!e prostituteHs surplus is not 6eing appropriated 6.as JnoncapitalistJ 6ut also as 8arxist t!in+ing s!ould 6e enoug! to demonstrate t!e political 6an+ruptc.6ased upon sel/<3alue and identi/ication across di//erence. @.J!inted at di//erent narrati3es o/ class trans/ormationD ne> a>areness o/ class politics and an expanded range o/ class emotions.in >!ic! t!e c!aracters in t!e /ilm pursue >!at P.at t!e =ni3ersit. 9/ particular interest /or P. . Gi6son<Gra!am re/er to as Jnoncapitalist commodit.J e3er mind t!at old predicta6le J/eeling o/ regret t!at t!e climactic one<nig!t<stand striptease is so economicallinconseFuentialJ to t!e >ell<6eing o/ t!e ex<steel>or+er strippersD t!eir /amiliesD and t!e communit-. E3en t!oug! t!e ex<steel>or+ers are still poor at t!e end o/ t!e mo3ieD >!at mattersD according to P.>it! t!e >a-s in >!ic! 0!e 5ull 8ont.)* 0!e mo3ie s!o>s !o> t!e tragic loss o/ t!e to>nHs steel mill creates a cascade e//ect t!at ends up recon/iguring t!e social /a6ric o/ t!at communit-. +e.K.K. .com7p7articles7miXFa&9*27isX2001017aiXn'9&2'917pgX117QtagRcontentGcol1 @ut 6. Gi6son<Gra!amD is t!at t!ere >as a process o/ J6ecomingJ t!at allo>ed t!e communit.sex >or+Q 1ould PK.relations are ne3er Fuestioned or c!allenged.productionDJ suc! as >or+er collecti3es or sel/<emplo-ed >or+ers.as long as it 6rings t!e communit. Gi6son<Gra!amHs reading o/ 0!e 5ull 8ont. 0!at t!is +ind o/ argument can 6e presented not onl.to come toget!erD not as ex<>or+ers and ex<managersD or as !us6ands and >i3esD 6ut as a Jcommunal economic identit.as possi6le >!ile o6scuring and co<opting t!e 8arxist tradition.mig!t manage to get along a/ter>ardsD calling t!eir striptease enterprise a Jnoncapitalist commodit.in t!e doctoral program in sociolog. It is one t!ing to sa. In t!e postmodern7post<8arxist JnoncapitalistJ >orldD corporations get to +eep o>ners!ip o/ t!e means o/ production and t!eir pro/itsD >!ile >or+ing class communities continue to lap dance t!eir >a. 200 .t!roug! Jidenti/ication across di//erenceJ rat!er t!an doing union organiCing.also >elcomed t!e >a.t-pes o/ relations!ips and identitiesD /rom constructions o/ masculinit. Gi6son<Gra!amHs re3ie> o/ t!e /ilm as >ell < propert.recon/iguring t!e 3er.practice cannot !appen on epistemological groundsD and t!at all >e can do is ma+e capitalism as user /riendl. Gi6son<Gra!am are t!e >a-s in >!ic! t!e mo3ie o3erlaps >it! some o/ t!e t!emes o/ 0!e End o/ Capitalism ".D t!e.K.J @ut it is anot!er t!ing to argue t!at re3olutionar./ar t!e most anticlimactic and disappointing outcome o/ t!e postmodern 8arxist approac! is t!at in its desire to get rid o/ Jcapitalocentrism DJ)) t!e.J)% 0!is is important 6ecause it is t!e Jcommunal economic identit-J o/ t!e success/ul striptease 3enture t!at constitutes t!e precondition /or imagining and engaging in Jnoncapitalist commodit. 0!e pro6lem >it! P. Gi6son<Gra!am still em6race as Jnoncapitalist economic relationsJ ex<maFuila >or+ers along t!e =.<8exican 6order deciding to do sex >or+ a la 0!e 5ull 8ont.productionJ t!at is J/ull o/ potential and possi6ilitiesJ is >is!/ul t!in+ing at 6est and totall. Gi6son<Gra!am t!roug! t!eir reading o/ 0!e 5ull 8ont.o/ Cali/orniaD Da3isD 2001 0!e end o/ anti<capitalism as >e +ne> it: 2e/lections on postmodern 8arxism !ttp:77/indarticles.K.t!e end o/ t!e mo3ieD t!e ex<steel>or+ers are /orced to ret!in+ and renegotiate man.ludicrous at >orst.S.t!at >e are at a political con?uncture in >!ic! t!e t!ing to do is to >or+ !ard /or re/ormD not Jre3olution.and gender roles to economic identities e3en t!eir >i3es !a3e to get ser3ice ?o6s to ma+e ends meet.P. .o/ t!is paradigm. P.K.J o>!ere is t!is more o63ious t!an in P.K.main point !ere is t!at t!roug!out 0!e 5ull 8ont. Gi6son<Gra!am call Jnon<< capitalist economic relations.one >!o realiCes t!at >!at PK.J)' I disagree strongl-.conser3ati3e and capitalocentric . Gi6son<Gra!amHs cele6rator.to reclaim t!eir economic agenc-.e is currentl.is political 6ac+ground and >or+ experience include lo><income< !ousing organiCingD prison re/orm ad3ocac-D and media acti3ism.productionJ is actuall.see+ to eliminate 6. .reading o/ 0!e 5ull 8ont.cannot use t!e JoldJ la6or7capital class struggle t!ing# and t!e >a.in >!ic! t!e unemplo-ed men Jare una6le to dra> sustenance /rom old models o/ resistance<st-le politicsJ "i. 0!e politics ad3ocated 6.part o/ t!e ex<steel>or+ersH successD and an important strateg.disguising li6eral re/orm as Jnoncapitalism.is t!at regardless o/ !o> sound t!e process o/ J6ecomingJ mig!t 6e /or t!at communit-D and regardless o/ !o> >ell t!e.6east t!e.reading o/ 0!e 5ull 8ont-D a /ilm a6out a group o/ @ritis! steel>or+ers >!o lose t!eir ?o6s due to deindustrialiCationD and end up re/as!ioning t!emsel3es as strippers as a >a.

rat!er simple.K.in t!e doctoral program in sociolog.at t!e =ni3ersit.< and t!ere/ore 6e made easier to get rid o/.o/ Cali/orniaD Da3isD 2001 0!e end o/ anti<capitalism as >e +ne> it: 2e/lections on postmodern 8arxism !ttp:77/indarticles. radical politics !as 6een so ine//ecti3e /or t!e last t>o decades is t!e stu66orn 8arxist insistence upon Jt!e image o/ t>o classes loc+ed in struggle DJ a situation t!at J!as in our 3ie> 6ecome an o6stacle toD rat!er t!an a positi3e /orce /orD anticapitalist endea3orsDJ1% t!en !o> a6out getting rid o/ t!is >!ole class struggle t!ing and JreimagineJ la6or and capital as allies rat!er t!an enemiesQ 1' 1ould not t!at ma+e t!e >!ole tas+ o/ social trans/ormation muc! easierQ 4er!apsD 6ut as >e >ill see s!ortl-D getting rid o/ capitalism is easier said t!an done.s 1e Kne> It# : .com7p7articles7miXFa&9*27isX2001017aiXn'9&2'917pgX117QtagRcontentGcol1 0!e /irst t!ing t!at ?umps out a/ter reading 0!e End o/ Capitalism ". the process o/ re<ecting capitalism 8olite+inD doctoral program o/ =C Da3isD 01 2ene 5rancisco 4oite3inD mem6er o/ t!e S2 editorial collecti3e. 201 .e is currentl. Gi6son<Gra!am succeeds in doing t!e latter : in a +ind o/ t!eoretical a6racada6raD capitalism is de/initel.capitalism !as 6een Ht!oug!tH t!at !as made it so di//icult /or people to imagine its supersessionDJ1$ t!en it logicall.is political 6ac+ground and >or+ experience include lo><income< !ousing organiCingD prison re/orm ad3ocac-D and media acti3ism. .in >!ic! t!ere are at least t>o >a-s o/ smas!ing t!e capitalist state: >e can !a3e t!e (eninist re3olution or >e can c!ange t!e de/inition o/ capitalism and ma+e it disappear .gone 6. @ut despite t!e t!eoretical sop!istication o/ t!eir >or+ < a no<!olds 6arred em6racing o/ post< structuralist t!eor.=. . 5eminist CritiFue o/ 4olitical Econom.< once t!e epistemological /ire>or+s dissipateD t!e argument o/ t!e 6oo+ is actuall.t!e end o/ t!eir 6oo+.is t!e >a.nd i/ t!e pro6lem o/ >!.S. . I/ >!at is >rong >it! (e/t politics Jis t!e >a. P./ollo>s t!at >!at is to 6e done is to c!ange its de/inition so t!at it can 6e Jt!oug!tJ di//erentl.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 201 ':: Gi-sonCGraham %"& Gi-sonCGraham o+ersimpli/.

a6stracted /ormulations o/ 8arxism and li6eralism. 0!is approac! is t-pical o/ a pattern t!at D to Fuote 1end@ro>nD Jresponds less to t!e antidemocratic /orces o/ our time t!an to a g!ostl.condition /or t!e primac.com7p7articles7miXFa&9*27isX2001017aiXn'9&2'917pgX117QtagRcontentGcol1 0!e End o/ Capitalism ". In ot!er >ordsD t!is e//ort see+s to resol3e a pro6lem in a "certain# !istor.em6racing t!e 8arxist la6el in order to render it uselessD ma+es a lot o/ sense.J19 Simpl.at t!e =ni3ersit. .in t!e doctoral program in sociolog.going a/ter Q Is it capitalism or is it 8arxQ 0!eir 6oo+ spends so muc! time on >!at is supposedl.J20 202 .e is currentl. doctrine that 0ould o+erthro0 capitalism 8olite+inD doctoral program o/ =C Da3isD 01 2ene 5rancisco 4oite3inD mem6er o/ t!e S2 editorial collecti3e.o/ Cali/orniaD Da3isD 2001 0!e end o/ anti<capitalism as >e +ne> it: 2e/lections on postmodern 8arxism !ttp:77/indarticles. re<ect capitalism – the.and politics is t!at 8arxism !as to go "ot!er>ise -ou do not !a3e to 6ecome a postmodern to address t!eir concerns#D P.to>er t!an >it! t!e plig!t o/ t!e >or+ers >!o clean t!eir campuses.putD postmodern 8arxist politics !as more to do >it! t!e micropolitics o/ t!e i3or.o>e3erD once it 6ecomes clear t!at a necessar. Gi6son<Gra!amHs anti<8arxist !ostilit-D >!ile acti3el.p!ilosop!ical stando// 6et>een !istoricall.o/ postmodern t!eor.K. .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 202 ':: Gi-sonCGraham %#& Gi-sonCGraham does not e//ecti+el.o/ ideas rat!er t!an a pro6lem in !istor-.doctrine t!at calls /or t!e s-stematic o3ert!ro> o/ capitalismD getting rid o/ 8arx"ism# is also to get rid o/ t!e need /or re3olution >it! a 6ig J2. . trash 6arxism and eliminate the onl.s 1e Kne> It. .is political 6ac+ground and >or+ experience include lo><income< !ousing organiCingD prison re/orm ad3ocac-D and media acti3ism.nd once againD all t!is is done >it! impecca6le logic: Gi3en t!at 8arxism is still t!e onl.>rong >it! 8arxism t!at at times it reads more li+e 0!e End o/ 8arxism .s 1e Kne> It# 6egs anot!er Fuestion: 1!o are t!e.

assmannD .t!e point.&* Democratic rule can result in ma?oritarian ruleD undermining t!e rig!ts o/ minorities or o/ raciall. 20 . Democratic principles o/ go3ernmentD t!e rule o/ la>D and a ci3ic culture too+ centuries to emerge in 1estern Europe and ort! .can also undermine t!e rig!ts o/ >omenD as in a @a!amian re/erendum in 2002 in >!ic! 3oters decided against granting c!ildren 6orn o/ @a!amian mot!ers and /oreign /at!ers t!e same citiCens!ip rig!ts as c!ildren 6orn o/ @a!amian /at!ers and /oreign mot!ers.?!u. doesn5t ensure human rights or the ethical treatment o/ 0omen – this is /rom their author 1o0ardC1assmann7 'uthor7 Canada .nd t!is is precisel.did not emerge t!roug! some eas-D predicta6leD and ine3ita6le coincidence o/ capitalism and rig!ts.o/ 1esterners. "2!oda E.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 20 ':: 1o0ardC1assmann Capitalism isn5t a prere?uisite to democrac. – the democratic process existed long -e/ore 'dam Smith e+er coined the 0ord =capitalism(> :here5s no e+idence to pro+e that the democratic s.ut!orD Canada 2esearc! C!air in Glo6al Studies and 4olitical Science at 1il/rid (aurier =ni3ersitand 5ello> o/ t!e 2o-al Societ. @ot! Pac+ Donnell. o/ Canada7 0" 1.distinct groupsD as in t!e all<>!ite Jdemocrac-J o/ Sout! . impacts to a disad to the alt &. – it cites social mo-ili.ation as the internal lin* to political and ci+il rights( :he alternati+e is the most e//ecti+e site o/ social mo-ili.ation7 0hich means the * sol+es an.ot!er t-pe o/ political s-stem to protect !uman rig!ts.uman 2ig!ts (eap/rogging in t!e Era o/ Glo6aliCationD. =ntil >ell into t!e t>entiet! centur-D >!at are no> +no>n as !uman rig!ts >ere s-stematicall.t!e rule o/ la> and 6.!ere stands as a su6stitute /or !uman rig!ts.a ci3ic culture o/ acti3ism and political /reedom are more li+el.&$ e3ert!elessD modern democratic states 6uttressed 6.mericaD >it! inter3ening episodes o/ dictators!ip and /ascism.esearch Chair in Glo-al Studies and 8olitical Science at @il/rid )aurier Ani+ersit.does not necessaril.stem relies upon capitalism to sustain democrac.!tml# Democrac.edu7?ournals7!umanXrig!tsXFuarterl-7302%72%. and Dello0 o/ the .and 8ic!ael 5reeman !a3e >arned t!at political democrac. :heir e+idence goes our 0a.al Societ.1!o>ard< !assmann. .impl.protection o/ !uman rig!ts.o.uman 2ig!ts Uuarterl-D 200*D !ttp:77muse. . 8a?oritarian democrac. 2. . :urn C democrac.o/ CanadaD :0!e Second Great 0rans/ormation: .denied to t!e 3ast ma?orit.t!an an. 2ig!ts<6ased li6eral democratic societies certainl.o>ard<./rica during t!e apart!eid era or as in Israel at present.

Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 20! ':: Cap Sustaina-le %1& Capitalism is not sustaina6le. 0!ere are man. expandC not sustaina-le and is the root cause o/ climate change( @e need to act no0( 8earceD Englis! Science .to realise t!is uses more po>er and t!us more /ree energ.anot!er C<>ord is missing: communism.6ased on t!e scarcit. @.o/ li/e is necessar.t!at !as ac!ie3ed a sustaina6le econom. Capitalism >ill !a3e to 6e replaced >it! a s-stem t!at does not depend on expansion 6ut is 6ased on t!e real needs o/ people and t!e planet. 20! .countr. . 8a-6e t!at is >!. capitalism as t!e main o6stacle to a sustaina6le /uture "10 8arc!D p 2&#. 1e al>a-s >ant more and moreD leading to our o>n destruction. 1!en :time is mone-.– as de/ined in t!e 1'%0s 6.com7e!ost7pd/Q3idR2S!idR%SsidR&9'&69))<ada/<)*/1<ae1d<21/'%9/1$'*'T)0sessionmgr111# 8one-.D t!e more processes >ill 6e speeded up to 6e economic. o/ economics ma+es a 6asic assumption t!at time is t!e ultimate scarce good >e !a3e.is Cu6a "see t!e 115Ls (i3ing 4lanet 2eport 200$D p 19 – 6ased on data Cu6a supplies to t!e =nited ations#.direct useD 6ut also indirect use as capital and materials in production and consumption.nd >e !a3e to de3elop tec!nolog. 8earceD Englis! Science . I suggest t!e pro6lem is t!at t!e :science.e6sco!ost.ut!or and PournalistD B02 "5red 4earceD Englis! Science .to expand – to /ind ne> mar+etsD ne> resources and ne> >a-s to accumulate to maintain pro/it /or its in3estments. Capitalism needs to continuall.to minimise t!e use o/ /ree energ-: not onl. 0!e econom.and /or all natural s-stems.e6sco!ost.to ac!ie3e a sustaina6le /uture. 0!e C<>ord missing /rom e3er-oneLs lips is t!e one t!at matters: capitalism. It cannotD t!ere/oreD o//er a sustaina6le /uture. @us! "& 5e6ruar-D p 1*#. 1e !a3e to de3elop a macroeconomic t!eor.its natureD capitalism needs continuall. 0!e onl.large c!ange in our >a.com7e!ost7pd/Q3idR2S!idR%SsidR&9'&69))<ada/<)*/1<ae1d<21/'%9/1$'*'T)0sessionmgr111# .lo> standard o/ li3ing: it is clear t!at an extraordinaril. Call t!is >!at -ou >illD 6ut it is not capitalism or an-t!ing resem6ling it. Cu6a >ould 6e percei3edD at least in >estern nationsD as !a3ing a relati3el.C<>ords relating to t!e pro6lem o/ climate c!ange and its possi6le solutions: car6on tradingD car6on seFuestration – and no> corn<6ased 6io/uelsD according to George 1.mat!ematical p!-sicist 1illard Gi66s – and more car6on dioxide.200'D e> Scientist :Dirt-D Sex!ttp:77>e6. 0!e la>s o/ t!ermod-namics s!ould !a3e taug!t us t!at Gi66s /ree energ.drian 4olloc+ portra-s 8one-.!as to slo> do>n.200'D e> Scientist :Dirt-D Sex!ttp:77>e6.is t!e ultimate scarce good – not /or t!e indi3idual consumer 6ut /or !umanit.ut!or and PournalistD 5e6ruar.ut!or and PournalistD 5e6ruar. 0!e tec!nolog.ut!or and PournalistD B02 "5red 4earceD Englis! Science .o/ /ree energ-.

o/ t!eir o>n accordD >ill sometimes capsiCe and 6e una6le to rig!t t!emsel3es completel.n-times.single 6usiness can rationall. o/. . . :Capitalisms 5ault (ines.ma+ers got coc+sure.>!ole /orests o/ cant 6ut lea3es readers at a loss as to >!ere to go /rom !ere.t!e >!ole s-stem cras!edD since a lot o/ people are al>a-s rec+less and stupid. :0!e pro/it<maximiCing 6usinessman rationall.t!oug!t t!e.small 6eer.tendenciesD as so maneconomists !ad come to 6elie3e./rom running o// t!e rails. :.lo> interest rates and deregulation rat!er t!an t!e antics o/ croo+s and /ools. .6e counted on to counteract mar+etsL tipp. 1ere a lot o/ people rec+less and stupidQ 9/ course^ @ut t!at cannot explain >!.are :prett. I/ pressedD I suspectD !e mig!t also ac+no>ledge some 20<20 !indsig!t in !is insistence t!at t!e go3ernment s!ould !a3e prepared /or an e3ent t!at !ardl.doing >!atD exactl-Q 4osner t!in+s laisseC</aire economics !as not!ing rele3ant to sa.n. . rational decisions result in crisis( P9 . "See: PapanD :lost decade.'AC1 @oo+ 2e3ie>er W0.rational 6ut collecti3el.generaliCation !as sur3i3ed 4osnerLs merciless scrutin-D not one populist clic!N remains standing.6ecause intelligent 6usinesses and consumers /ollo>ed mar+et signals.. 0!e s-stem o/ /inancial regulation >ill need an o3er!aulD 6ut 4osner argues t!at t!e time /or t!at is not no>D in t!e !eat o/ crisis. clears a>a. 0!e.guard against its o>n 6an+ruptc-D 6ut not t!e simultaneous 6an+ruptc. is to misunderstand t!e >!ole pro6lem 6. !ttp:77>>>.ardl-. .com7200970*71%76oo+s7re3ie>72auc!<t.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 20" ':: Cap Sustaina-le %2& :he 2002 collapse pro+es that capitalism unsustaina-le -ecause indi+iduall. 5ailure o/ Capitalism. :.n->a-D no one is sure >!at to do. 0!e crisis came a6out precisel.!tml 4opulists and li6ertarians >ill !ate t!is 6oo+D t!oug! I >ouldnLt >ant to predict >!ic! group >ill !ate it more. .6ring do>n t!e entire econom-.lasD economists and polic.!ad consigned depressions to !istor-.. per/ect storm o/ irresponsi6ilit-Q .0.s a resultD t!emissed >arning signs and /ailed to prepare /or t!e >orst. . During t!e !ousing 6u66leD /or exampleD sitting out t!e mortgage 6oom meant /orgoing large pro/its. 20" .t!e last pageD not a single laC.irrational.suggests a /e> re/orms 6ut concedes t!e... *71)72009.an-one t!oug!t possi6le..o/ e3er-6odelse. 4osner >ritesD :it is di//icult to clim6 o// >it!out pa-ing a 6ig price..6laming capitalists /or a /ailure o/ capitalism.. :E3en i/ -ou +no> -ouLre riding a 6u66le and are scared to 6e doing soD.. 4osner >ritesD :t!at >e need a more acti3e and intelligent go3ernment to +eep our model o/ a capitalist econom.e !al/!eartedl. 0o see t!e crisis t!roug! populist spectaclesD as 4resident 96ama does >!en !e attri6utes it to :irresponsi6ilit-D.a starting point O 6ut an indispensa6le one. In ot!er >ordsD it is onl. .# or can monetar. @. :0!e mista+es >ere s-stemic O t!e product o/ t!e nature o/ t!e 6an+ing 6usiness in an en3ironment s!aped 6.nd so O !ere is t!e part li6ertarians >ill !ate O mar+etsD entirel. :1e are learningD.polic. @. depression is too remote an e3ent to in/luence 6usiness 6e!a3ior./or -ears at a stretc! .ignores small pro6a6ilities t!at !is conduct in con?unction >it! t!at o/ !is competitors ma. So people made decisions t!at >ere indi3iduall. 0!e rest o/ t!e economics pro/ession is all o3er t!e map. 0!e pro6lemD /undamentall-D is t!at mar+ets cannotD and rationalls!ould notD anticipate t!eir o>n collapse.

in t!at it operates as a sel/</ulilling prop!ec-.2& @ot! are occurringD and t!e second is !elping ma+e t!e /irst a /ait accompliH.t!e unemplo-ed on state 6ene/its.conseFuence o/ economic glo6aliCation implied to its audience a su6?ect position as a concerned part. 0!e causal c!ain is not linear.and social polic.in t!e Graduate Sc!ool o/ Social 1or+ and Social 2esearc! at @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 200$ C!apter 9neG in 1el/are Discipline: DiscourseD Go3ernanceD and Glo6aliCation 4g * par & – pg ' par 1 8.S.more t!an mourning: 6.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 20# ':: Cap Good %1& Glo-ali.a6out t!e rest o/ t!e >orld t!at t!e =nited States !as told to itsel/ in no small part to produce a >el/are state retrenc!ment rig!t !ere at !omeD1% t!e result is t!at t!e =nited States 6ecame a model /or ot!er >el/are states .anticipationD >e >ere regretting >!at !ad not -et !appenedD rat!er t!an >aiting to grie3e a/ter a loss occurred . Sc!ramD teac!es social t!eor.S. 0!is =.o/ scaling 6ac+ t!e >el/are state in t!e /ace o/ glo6aliCation D and no>!ere !as t!e idea o/ glo6aliCation !ad as de3astating conseFuences /or social policies /or t!e most 3ulnera6le in societ.!ereD I argueD is t!at t!e dissemination o/ =.19 0!e crisis narrati3e o/ >el/are retrenc!ment as a necessar.o/ it materialiCing in practice .o/ t!e 3er.o/ >!at I am calling glo6aliCation discourse operated as a /orm o/ circular causalit.discourse !as come to in3ol3e 6ot! t!e !ig! degree to >!ic! >el/are polic.as in t!e =nited States.S.in a ne> glo6al econom-.o/ t!e idea o/ attac+ing >el/are dependenc.s t!e latter spreads around t!e >orldD its glo6aliCationD as it >ereD !elps ma+e a sel/</ul/illing prop!ec.discourse are occurring.and must accept t!at drastic actions need to 6e ta+en to a3oid t!e impending catastrop!e 6e/ore it arri3es. Irrespecti3e o/ >!et!er all >estern >el/are states !ad actuall.22 0!ere is t!ere/ore 6ot! economic glo6aliCation and t!e .to retrenc! in order to compete internationall.1' 0!e glo6aliCation o/ >el/are polic.c!ampioned. discourse o/ >el/are state retrenc!ment as una3oida6le in t!e /ace o/ economic glo6aliCation !as to 3ar-ing degrees >it! 3ar-ing e//ects 6ecome a model to 6e emulated 6. .>as occurringD t!e crisis narrati3e o/ >el/are state retrenc!ment in t!e /ace o/ economic glo6aliCation 6ecame in t!e =nited States its o>n pretext. 0!ere/oreD irrespecti3e o/ !o> muc! increased glo6al economic acti3it.and t!e dissemination o/ t!at perspecti3e to ot!er countries . 20# . 5or someone li+e PacFues DeridaD glo6aliCation discourse is t!ere/ore a /orm o/ melanc!ol.>ell 6ecome its o>n sel/< /ulilling prop!ec-.nd as t!e latter spreads around t!e >orldD it also increases consideration o/ policies o/ >el/are state retrenc!ment D al6eit in some countries more t!an in ot!ersD including most especiall-D and per!aps not ironicall-D t!e =nited StatesD >!ere t!e discourse o/ glo6aliCation and its preoccupation >it! >el/are state retrenc!ment as an una3oida6le corollar.to retrenc! t!e >el/are state in t!e /ace o/ glo6al competition. o> t!at t!e =nited States as a >orld economic leader !as so dramaticall. @ot! /orms o/ t!e glo6aliCation o/ >el/are polic. J>el/are dependenc-DJ t!at t!e unemplo-ed are passi3e and need to 6e made acti3e participants in t!e >or+/orce.polic-ma+ers in ot!er ad3anced industrial societies. In a 3icious c-cleD glo6aliCation discourse ma+es itsel/ real. 21 In EuropeD >el/are re/orm is /ocused on Jla6or acti3ationDJ >!ic! impliesD li+e t!e =.ation discourse shapes their politics and -ecomes sel/Clegitimating – the onl. are entrenched in this discourse SchramD pro/ E @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 0# San/ord 5.>as /ramed in terms o/ t!e necessit. 0!e iron.6egun to scale 6ac+ its social protections in t!e name o/ ma+ing itsel/ more a6le to compete in a glo6al economic competitionD ot!er countries !a3e de3eloped similar discoursesD o/ten in t!e name o/ Jla6or acti3ationDJ to promote >or+ and reduce reliance 6.alreadentered into >!at !as 6een called a Jrace to t!e 6ottomJ stemming /rom glo6al economic competitionD t!e idea !as created anticipation to t!e point t!at t!e retrenc!ment in social >el/are protections t!at did ta+e place !as increased t!e currenc. .same idea to t!e point t!at scaling 6ac+ !as 6e] come >!at !as to 6e done in order to compete success/ull.<st-le glo6aliCation discourse ends up coming 6ac+ !ome to rein/orce concerns in t!e =nited States a6out t!e need to retrenc! its social >el/are policies.>!o must s!are t!e narrati3eHs sense o/ urgenc.idea /urt!ered t!e possi6ilit.mericaniCation o/ >el/are discourse spreading around t!e de3eloped >orld.argument goes /urt!er to suggest t!at t!e ultimate iron. reason their authors appear right is -ecause the. (i+e a g!ost o/ a not<-et</ull-<6orn >orld s-stemD glo6aliCation discourse !aunted t!e political imagination o/ t!e >est until preoccupation >it! its 3er. In t!is >a-D glo6aliCaion discourse could 3er.1$ 0!e =nited States !as led t!e >ain c!ampioning t!e necessit. onet!elessD >!ile glo6aliCation discourse loo+s li+e a process t!at starts >it! a stor.>ere /irst most aggressi3el.

contextualiCed.ma. <usti/ied as the -est possi-le 0orldCthis -lindness to alternati+e ris*s extinction 6es. .6e responding to internal demograp!ic and economic pressures more so t!an to o6?ecti3eD external economic pressures stemming /rom glo6aliCationD and t!e.a politicall.t!esis includes t!e idea t!at economic glo6aliCation is neit!er o6?ecti3e nor external in t!e sense t!at its e//ect is captured in Fuantitati3e indicators o/ international economic acti3it.c!oice needs to 6e appropiatel. 5irstD polic-ma+ers are ma+ing c!oices at least as muc! as t!e.cele6rated# as t!e ultimate Hre3olutionH in economic a//airs ma. Wet a/ter e3er.to internal economic and demograp!ic c!angesD eac! in t!eir o>n pat!< dependent >a-D o3erloo+ t!at glo6aliCation discourse structures and limits t!e c!oices t!at polic-ma+ers ma+e to scale 6ac+ t!e >el/are state in eac! countr-D eac! in t!eir o>n >a-.so < /ore3er in t!e /utureD and ma-6e e3en t!erea/ter.are responding in a linear causal >a.ation discourse shapes their politics and leads to retrenchment o/ social ser+ices SchramD pro/ E @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 0# San/ord 5.ac+no>ledged c!ange in t!e control structure o/ capital t!e pro6lematical c!aracter o/ t!e underl-ing process >!ere6.o/ polic.o/ Sussex 9" Ist3an 8esCarosD 199*D EnglandD :@e-ond Capital: 0o>ard a 0!eor.underlined t!e s-stemHs uncontrolla6ilit-. 0!e pernicious marginaliCation o/ !uman rationalit.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 203 ':: Cap Good %2& Glo-ali.con3enient and sel/<ser3ing glo6aliCation discourse t!at implies >el/are state retrenc!ment is t!e ine3ita6le necessar.are not t!e most li+el..enormous s!i/ts occur >it!out prior !uman design >as ne3er Fueried 6.in t!e Graduate Sc!ool o/ Social 1or+ and Social 2esearc! at @r-n 8a>r CollegeD 200$ C!apter 9neG in 1el/are Discipline: DiscourseD Go3ernanceD and Glo6aliCation 4g 9 par 2 – pg 10 par 1 8.in t!e course o/ capitalHs !istorical un/olding repeatedl.conseFuence o/ increased international economic competition. SecondD t!eir c!oices are 6eing structured 6.6elatedl.o/ 0ransition.and personal responsi6ilit.arenas to structure c!oices a6out >!at responses polic-ma+ers >ill c!oose to internal /actors li+e a surplus o/ retirees and a lac+ o/ lo><>age >or+ers.J Statisticall-D it mig!t 6e true t!at t!e >el/are states most integrated into t!e >orld econom.indeed 6e rel-ing on past practices to respond to t!ese internal c!anges./orced recognition immediatel.t!e de/enders o/ t!e s-stem.6e in /act t!e destruction o/ !umanit-D and t!ere/ore some meaning/ul alternati3e to t!e pre3ailing trends s!ould 6e contemplated.aros 4ro/essor at =ni3ersit.and social polic. 4olic-ma+ers ma. Sc!ramD teac!es social t!eor. Capitalism is /alsel.nal-sts >!o insist t!at >el/are cut6ac+s !a3e occurred 6ecause polic-ma+ers in eac! countr. @ut t!ose statistics need to 6e placed in context.to 6e ma+ing >el/are state cut6ac+s. 203 . WetD I argue t!at t!is is at 6est an incomplete explanation t!at represents a classic case o/ Jmissing t!e /orest /or trees. 0!e rationalit.to respond to internal demograp!ic and economic pressures . I am more interested in >!at I am calling glo6aliCation discourseD >!ic! operates >it!in and across national polic. Uuite t!e contrar-D t!e accomplis!ed /acts >ere al>a-s presented as c!ange /or t!e 6etterD indeed as t!e 6est possi6le state o/ a//airs destined to endure < and rig!t/ull.are 6eing /orced inexora6l. It could ne3er 6e admitted t!at t!e ultimate logic o/ suc! 6lindD uncontrolla6le trans/ormations >!ic! periodicall!ad to 6e recogniCed "and o/ course a/ter e3er.

lex CallinicosD 2001 J.inco!erence o/ t!e mo3ement < t!at isD t!e presence >it!in it o/ a 3ariet.t!e nation<state < pro3ides t!e 0!ird 1a.o/ Wor+ 01 .re?ect. alternati+e is a capitalist construction the process o/ the criti?ue opens up ne0 alternati+es( Callinicos 4ro/essor o/ 4olitics at t!e =ni3ersit.incompati6le alternati3e models.!ostilit. 0!roug! attempts t!eoreticall.to articulate and practicall.>it! its starting point.o/ ideological currentsD GreenD socialistD 0!ird 1orldistD anarc!ist < t!at are t!emsel3es internall.6.gainst t!e 0!ird 1a-J Socialist planning >asD o/ courseD discredited 6. 0!e emergence o/ t!e anti<capitalist mo3ement pro3ides an opportunit.to Stalinism. .>!ic! !e meant t!e deat! o/ >!at 1 called economic statismD t!at isD an economic s-stem steered 6.explain >!at t!eir alternati3e >ould 6e. Implicitl. @ut t!e discourse in >!ic! t!is Fuestion !as tacitl.t!e collapse o/ t!e 6ureaucratic command economies o/ t!e So3iet =nion and t!e ot!er Stalinist states.to end t!is stulti/ied de6ate .t one le3elD t!e demand t!at anti<capitalist critics speci/.t!e c!oice presented is t!at 6et>een neo<li6eralism and economic statism "usuall.legitimate reFuest t!at no one could reasona6l.does t!is suppress t!e >!ole range o/ ot!er possi6ilities extending 6et>eenD and indeed 6e-ondD t!ese t>o optionsD 6ut t!e disintegration o/ one purported 3ariant o/ socialism is !eld to discredit all t!e ot!ers < re/ormistD re3olutionar-D utopian and anarc!ist < e3en t!oug! t!e. 202 .t!eir alternati3e to capitalism is a per/ectl.to de3elop a muc! clearer sense o/ !o> >e can transcend capitalism.s >e sa> in t!e introductionD >!at Giddens descri6ed as Ht!e deat! o/ socialismH < 6.in its Stalinist 3ersion#. ot simpl.complex is li+el.are united in t!eir Fuarrelsome di3ersit.c!ie/l. . 0!is /ailure pro3ides de/enders o/ neoli6eralism >it! t!eir standard response to anti<capitalists < t!e demand t!at t!e. 0!e 3er.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 202 ':: Socialism 4ad :he argument that Stalines?ue socialism is the onl.to encourage t!e ela6oration o/ di//erentD mutuall./igured since t!e collapse o/ Hexisting socialismH !as 6een one t!at ser3esD in e//ectD to close do>n t!e de6ate a6out alternati3es.to implement t!ese models >e are li+el.

In !is lectures on KantD . 0!e >ar against terrorismD >aged in t!e name o/ sel/<preser3ationD !as seriouslundermined !uman rig!ts and ci3il li6ertiesG it !as also 6een used to ?usti/.dorno states t!at it is :onl.dorno 2000D 10)#.!arnessed to commodi/ied o//ers o/ satis/action t!at de/lect and distort t!em. 0!is is >!.in3isi6le >eapons o/ mass destructionD Saddam . =ni3. 0o rise a6o3e natureD t!enD reason must 6ecome :cogniCant o/ its o>n natural essence.t!is pro6lemD nature must /irst 6ecome conscious o/ itsel/ ". D .a3ing surrendered t!e tas+ o/ sel/<preser3ation to t!e economic and political s-stemsD >e remain in t!rall to untamed sur3i3al instincts t!at could >ell end up destro-ing not ?ust t!e entire speciesD 6ut all li/e on t!e planet.un6ridled sel/< preser3ation.mind/ulness o/ nature is necessar.ussein >as said to represent a serious t!reat to t!e li3es o/ citiCens in t!e 1est.(IS8D. 0o remed.0E In t!e passage in egati3e Dialectics >!ere !e >arns against sel/<preser3ation gone >ildD . 5amine and disease are o/ten t!e result o/ ra3aging t!e land in t!e name o/ sur3i3al imperati3es. "19%&D 2'9#.dopting t!e 5reudian goal o/ ma+ing t!e unconscious consciousD .to t!e detriment o/ social programs li+e >el/are and !ealt! care.dorno c!ampions a /orm o/ rationalit.must 6e /undamentall.t!e capitalist econom-D sel/<preser3ation no> dictates t!at pro/its increase exponentiall.tric+le do>n to t!e poorest mem6ers o/ societ-.insisting on mind/ulness o/ nature in t!e sel/D . "199'6D 1&'#.dorno once called our underground !istor.to accommodate instincts t!at no> run >ild o>ing to our /orget/ulness o/ nature in oursel3es. 209 .4I0.dorno ma+es similar remar+s >!en !e summariCes !is solution to t!e pro6lem o/ sel/<preser3ation gone >ild.or+!eimer and . @.. 0o 6e more /ull."19%2D 2&1#.0I9 = DE2 (.dorno also insists t!at t!is critical sel/<understanding 6e accompanied 6- radical socialD politicalD and economic c!anges t!at >ould 6ring to a !alt t!e sel/<immolating domination o/ nature.@E28. In additionD sel/< preser3ation !as gone >ild 6ecause our instincts and needs are no> /irml. .D92 9 . In t!e /inal anal-sisD societ.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 209 ':: Case out0eighs %1& Capitalism is the root cause o/ 0ar and en+ironmental destruction( Coo*7 4ro/.t!at >ould tame sel/<preser3ationD 6ut in contrast to . o/ 4!il. In ot!er >ordsD >e must recogniCe t!at our 6e!a3ior is moti3ated and s!aped 6.dorno 199'aD 1*&#. @ecause sel/<preser3ation remains irrationalD >e no> encounter serious en3ironmental pro6lems li+e t!ose connected >it! glo6al >arming and t!e green!ouse e//ectD t!e depletion o/ natural resourcesD and t!e deat! o/ more t!an one !undred regions in our oceans. 0a+en in c!arge 6.WI G .instinctsD including t!e instinct /or sel/<preser3ation ".(IAE: . 1ars are >aged in t!e name o/ sel/<preser3ation: >it! !is no> notoriousl.6ut not su//icient to remed.s it no> standsD t!e o>ners o/ t!e means o/ production ensure our sur3i3al t!roug! pro/its t!atD at 6estD onl.S 9 C.ensla3ed or murdered t!eir in!a6itants outrig!t. 9>ing to sel/< preser3ation gone >ildD >e !a3e coloniCed and desta6iliCed large parts o/ t!e >orldD ad3ersela//ecting t!e li3es o/ millionsD >!en >e !a3e not simpl.t!e murderD rapeD and torture o/ t!ousands .as re/lection upon _ sel/<preser3ation t!at reason >ould 6e a6o3e nature.trans/ormed in order rationall. 1indsorD 200# YDe6ora!D :S0.rationalD >e must re/lect on >!at . . 6ethin#ing 7ar5ismD 1'"&#:)&&<))%\ SE(5<42ESE2A.a6ermasD !e t!in+s t!at t!e taming o/ sel/<preser3ation is a normati3e tas+ rat!er t!an an accomplis!ed /act.

are ne> o6?ects t!at emerge /rom commensuration in t!e /orm o/ pricesD standardiCed gradingD precise measurement regimesD and care/ul 6oo++eeping. Commensuration is a po>er/ul means o/ classi/-ing t!e >orld.emp!asiCing di//erences in magnitudeD and 6. In mar+etsD prices and Fuantities are t!e most prominent /orms o/ commensuration. 1!en so muc! pu6lic polic. 0!ese /e> examples suggest !o> commensuration canD as 0!eodore 4orter !as s!o>n "199*: )1– )*#D re/as!ion t!e >orld. Simpli/ication is a /undamental /eature o/ state domination "ScottD 199': 2–&#. It is radical /or its capacit. or sacred 3alues >!ic! cannot legitimatel. 0!e s-m6olic 3alue o/ somet!ingD t!e moral implications o/ actionD t!e importance o/ somet!ing >!ose 3alue is de/ined against mar+et 3alues "t!at isD sacred or incommensura6le t!ings#D or 3alue t!at is explicitl. Commensuration s-stematicall.s 8arc Aentresca "199*# !as arguedD :citiCensD. :5utures options.to compare.relati3e: t!e 3alue o/ somet!ing is al>a-s determined in relation to ot!er t!ings as expressed on a metric. as rei/ied social entitiesD depend on t!e commensuration o/ disparate peoples t!at a census produces. 9rganiCationsD 4olic.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 210 ':: Case Eut0eighs %2& :he /ree mar*et necessitates things li*e =progress> and =gro0th7> and there/ore must create a /rame0or* 0ithin 0hich these things are good( Mou should hold all o/ their impact claims suspect )e+in7 8ro/essor o/ Sociolog.relies on cost<6ene/it anal-ses as a means o/ e3aluating alternati3esD t!ings >it!out mar+et prices or t!ings /or >!ic! it is !ard to esta6lis! prices o/ten disappear /rom anal-sis.6ecome inscri6ed in la>D ens!rined in politicsD routiniCed in organiCationsD or ta+en /or granted in cultureD t!eir in/luence is pro/ound and !ard to dislodge. Suc! legi6ilit. 1e get used to t!in+ing a6out t!e >orld in terms o/ preciseD !ierarc!ical distinctionsD suc! t!at someone is t!oug!t o/ as t!e second<6est re6ounder or in t!e top & percent o/ !er class. as a meaning/ul categor-D and :nation statesD.deri3ed /rom t!e location o/ some acti3itoutside o/ mar+etsD get ignored "1aringD 19''G EspelandD 199'#. people and o6?ectsD and is a prereFuisite /or regulation. I/ all 3alues can 6e expressed according to t!e same metricD commensuration can turn complex decisions into simple c!oices t!at !inge on selecting t!e 6iggest num6er.uniting t!em 6ased on t!eir s!ared relations!ip to a t!ird t!ingOa metric.reducing !o> muc! in/ormation >e !a3e to pa.attention toD and 6.porta6le and eas.and t!e En3ironment: Institutional and Strategic 4erspecti3esD 2002# atural Commensuration is a process /or comparing and integrating di//erent o6?ects and practices.6e expressed in terms o/ tradeo//s or in relation to ot!er 3alued t!ings. Common products o/ commensurati3e processes include 3otesD standardiCed test scoresD ran+ingsD opinion pollsD 6atting a3eragesD and cost<6ene/it ratios.integrating into oneD compre!ensi3e /ormD in/ormation t!at >as originall. @ut commensuration as a /orm o/ 3alue integration is ?ust one o/ its core dimensions.o6scuring di//erences or similarities along ot!er dimensions "suc! as /ormD !istor-D geograp!ical contexts#D commensuration directs attention in patterned >a-s.7 02 "4eterD :4ollution 5utures: CommensurationD Commodi/icationD and t!e 8ar+et /or .organiCes and discards in/ormation. CommensurationD as one prominent /orm o/ simpli/icationD renders complexD !eterogeneous relations more legi6le and more a3aila6le /or scrutin-. It simpli/ies complex cogniti3e tas+s in t>o general >a-s: 6.to create ne> o6?ects or su6?ects.s expressions o/ 3alueD t!e relations!ip t!at commensuration constructs and expresses 6et>een t!ings is /undamentall.di//erent /orms. . Yend page 12*\ 4art o/ t!e appeal o/ commensurati3e practices is t!at t!e. @. Yend page 12)\ Commensuration trans/orms Fualitati3e di//erences into Fuantitati3e onesD >!ere t!e di//erence 6et>een t!ings is su6sumed and expressed as magnitude. 5or exampleD t!is emp!asis on magnitude /acilitates strati/ication in t!e /orm o/ !ierarc!ical ran+ings. Commensuration is also radical /or >!at it renders in3isi6le or irrele3ant. 210 .seem to o//er a tec!nical solution to a core pro6lem in politics: !o> to ad?udicate 6et>een peopleHs con/licting 3alues. 0!is means t!at commensuration cannot accommodate particular /orms o/ 3alue: a6solute or intrinsic 3alueD 3alue t!at is de/ined as :pricelessD. .irD. 0!e simpli/ication t!at commensuration produces also /acilitates control. It constructs relations among disparate t!ings 6.ma+es it easier to manipulate and :manage. at $orth0estern Ani+ersit. 1!ate3er ar6itrariness c!aracteriCed t!e origins o/ t!ese classi/icationsD once t!e.produced in man. um6ers t!at are t!e culmination o/ commensurati3e processes "suc! as prices# are !ig!l.

Capitalists do. 0!e go3ernment doesnLt control capitalistsG capitalists control t!e go3ernment. It >onLt 6e done 6ecause go3ernments donLt !a3e t!e last sa-D t!e.e.lt!oug! 6uilding >or+er<controlled political partiesD and t!en using t!ose parties to >in elections and get control o/ go3ernmentsD and t!en using t!ose go3ernments to esta6lis! socialismD seemed li+e a plausi6le enoug! strateg>!en it >as initiated in t!e mid<nineteent! centur-D itHs >a. =ni3ersit.um6. It !asnLt 6een done and it >onLt 6e doneD e3en t!oug! numerous go3ernments !a3e 6een in socialist !ands in EuropeD sometimes /or decades. 211 .!asnHt >or+ed. 8odern go3ernment "i.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 211 ':: .>>>.edu7/acult-7salCmanXg7Strate7Get5re7C.stem pre+ents them /rom sol+ing the pro-lems o/ capitalism( 1erod7 acti+ist7 0! "PamesD :Getting 5reeD. Capitalism goes rolling on no matter >!o controls t!e go3ernment.o/ 8assac!usetts @ostonD !ttp:77site.D t!e nation<state s-stem# is an in3ention o/ capitalists.donLt control societ-.past time /or us to recogniCe and admit t!at it simpl.ing .ing is integral to the capitalist s.ole pla.running /or o//ice.+no> !o> to use it and +eep it /rom 6eing turned against t!em. .capitalism 6. It is t!eir tool and t!e. a//5s reliance on the political s.oleCpla.!tm# 1e canLt destro.stem – the.

Giroux argues t!at t!e state o/ paranoia instituted 6.and securit. In t!is >a-D t!e scale and /reFuenc. 0!e tas+ is to /ollo> t!e lead o/ t!at anxiet. .ret!oug!t in lig!t o/ current trans/ormations in t!e nature o/ po>er and resistance to po>er.Studies< =ni3ersit./amiliar explanations seem incapa6le o/ constituting an opposition adeFuate to t!e present moment.t t!e same time t!at >e con/ront an o6?ecti3e social emergenc-D we are also faced with a crisis of familiar e5planations. It !as 6een producedD rat!erD o3er a considera6le amount o/ time 6. .time pro?ected 6.!as produced present crisesD as >ell as a democratic deli6eration a6out s!ared >orlds and /utures.in t!e present t!at is 3er. It is important to recogniCe t!e extent to >!ic! t!e sense o/ emergenc.stem( )isso+o+7 .approac! to t!e anal-sis o/ crisis in t!is essa.t!e @us! and @lair administrations a/ter t!e e3ents o/ Septem6er 11D 2001 is a c-nical manipulationKa distraction /rom 6ot! t!e real reasons /or t!is catastrop!e and t!e real ra3ages >roug!t 6.o/ disaster solicits not onl.proposed 6. IndeedD t!e e//ecti3eness o/ t!e control o3er communications 6.t!at >e do experience t!is ot!erD deeper emergenc-D in an unarticulated >a-G t!us it 6ecomes an instinctual sense t!at can 6e exploited precisel.itsel/D as >ell as t!e exercise o/ democrac-.t!e MM>ar on terrorLL s!ould 6e replaced >it! a re3italiCed MMpu6lic timeLL t!at >ould permit 6ot! a critical examination o/ !o> !istor.t!e s-stem t!ese administrations representD as >ell as an excuse /or a ne> p!ase o/ imperialist ad3enturism.sis o/ the pro-lem out0eighs their case impacts( :he '//irmati+e5s manipulation o/ emergenc.in order to disco3er its real connectionsD including 6ot! its dangers and possi6ilities.asana S!arpD t!e rule o/ /ear in t!e present precludes an a//irmation o/ socialit.to t!e extent t!at it is not properl.t!is tradition need to 6e partl.t!in+ing neglects our collecti3e responsi6ilit.2 .emergenc. exploits /ear to prop up an unsustaina-le s.t anot!er le3elD !o>e3er D t!ese proli/erating inter3entions and /orti/ications t!emsel3esD along >it! a dramatic series o/ disasters 6ot! political and naturalD produce a temporalit.o/ emergenc.to t!e /uture and atrop!ies t!e critical imagination.responsi3e and indicates an actual crisisD t!e terms o/ >!ic! are essential to speci/-. (i+e>iseD in t!e context o/ t!ese tendenciesD t!e +inds o/ democratic agenc.t!at >e need to respondD o3er t!e long termD to a 3er.culture 6.an anxious preoccupation >it! >!at is immediate or s!ortterm.nd according to . .apparatusD as 8i+e Da3is predicted.6e redra>n 6. 212 .& I contend in t!is essa. C!aos re/uses an explanationD 6ut a crisis !as causesKit represents a contradictionD a clas! o/ imperati3es and principles t!at can 6e identi/ied. num6er o/ contemporar.Capitalism ature SocialismD 19:1D 200'D 2% O )0.* .ssistant 4ro/essor< Department o/ Educational (eaders!ip and 4olic.o6?ecti3e processes.nicall.c!anging t!e pu6lic con3ersation."de/-ing e3enD it sometimes seemsD capitalismLs o>n distorted reason#D and its glo6al reac! and scale.t!e notion o/ crisis and emergenc. is a trapC it c.time >!ile appropriating irruption and unpredicta6ilit. 0!e extended parox-sm o/ /ear o/ t!e un+no>nD t!e 9t!erD and t!e outside /or >!ic! t!is attac+ !as ser3ed as t!e excuse !as also 6ecome t!e plat/orm /or an energetic expansion o/ t!e militar.as /igures o/ a re3olutionar.1 0!e decline o/ utopian t!in+ingD in t!is anal-sisD is associated >it! a decline in t!e capacit.o/ c!allenging t!e irresponsi6ilit./or relations!ips >it! ot!ers across past and /uture generations. .enr.o/ 0exas at San .o>e3er exploitedD redirectedD or !-stericaliCedD t!is underl-ing intuition is at some le3el trul.a /anatical millenarianismD 6ut also an immanentl. 8.o> can it 6e interrogated and de3eloped into an actual and use/ul +no>ledge t!at mig!t respond to t!e Fuestions t!at our !istorical moment proposesQ 0!e essential tas+ o/ anal-sisD in t!is regardD is to mo3e /rom a simple description o/ 6rea+do>n and mere measurement o/ panic to t!e illumination o/ a pro6lem. (i+e>iseD .t!at t!e s!ado> cast o3er contemporar.s @indez points outD t!e urgenc.ntonio D 2002 oa! De (isso3o.explored and understood.o/ emergenc.elites depends on t!e realit.real social and ecological emergenc-. 1!at can >e ma+e o/ t!is collecti3e MMcommon senseDLL in GramsciLs termsQ$ .rational /ore6oding and anxiet-.t!in+ers !a3e argued t!at pu6lic discourse !as 6ecome corrupted 6.is materiallgrounded >it!in t!e structure o/ capitalism itsel/. 4opular concerns a6out a decline in democratic engagementD as >ell as progressi3e and e3en radical denunciations o/ creeping corporatiCationD o/ten seem una6le to compre!end t!e most salient /eatures o/ po>er in t!e presentK its destructi3enessD its irrationalit.is situated in a critical t!eoretical and 8arxist /rame>or+D alt!oug! I also suggest t!at t!e contradictions /oregrounded 6.process.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 212 ':: :ime/rame Eur anal. 0!us Pezro[me @indez claims t!at an orientation to time dominated 6.o/ an exclusi3e orientation to t!e s!ort term is precisel. 0!ere/oreD t!e present condition cannot simpl. In t!e latter part o/ t!is paperD I outline t!e principles o/ an emerging /orm o/ oppositional praxisD one t!at in3erts t!e negati3it.real.

t!at J.lt!usserHs Jo3erdeterminationJ into a pro6lem o/ language and discourse < and t!ere/ore into a post<structuralist agenda. Gi6son<Gra!amHs approac!D >!en t!e. Gi6son<Gra!amHs anti<8arxist !ostilit-D >!ile acti3el. .o>e3erD once it 6ecomes clear t!at a necessar.condition /or t!e primac.nd once againD all t!is is done >it! impecca6le logic: Gi3en t!at 8arxism is still t!e onl.K.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 21 ':: 8ostmodern 6arxism %1& Gi-sonCGraham does not e//ecti+el..com7p7articles7miXFa&9*27isX2001017aiXn'9&2'917pgX117QtagRcontentGcol1 0!e End o/ Capitalism ". 0!is approac! is t-pical o/ a pattern t!at D to Fuote 1end@ro>nD Jresponds less to t!e antidemocratic /orces o/ our time t!an to a g!ostl. trash 6arxism and eliminate the onl. .m!erst Sc!oolD t!is is >!ere post<structuralist t!eor.going a/ter Q Is it capitalism or is it 8arxQ 0!eir 6oo+ spends so muc! time on >!at is supposedl.at t!e =ni3ersit. re<ect capitalism – the.o/ ideas rat!er t!an a pro6lem in !istor-. t!e openness and incompleteness o/ e3er. ..doctrine t!at calls /or t!e s-stematic o3ert!ro> o/ capitalismD getting rid o/ 8arx"ism# is also to get rid o/ t!e need /or re3olution >it! a 6ig J2. . .m!erst Sc!ool does is to e//ecti3el.innocent tric+ 6.at t!e =ni3ersit.trans/orm .not .o/ Cali/orniaD Da3isD 2001 0!e end o/ anti<capitalism as >e +ne> it: 2e/lections on postmodern 8arxism !ttp:77/indarticles.>rong >it! 8arxism t!at at times it reads more li+e 0!e End o/ 8arxism .de3eloped !is concept o/ o3erdetermination 6e-ond some rat!er cr-ptic comments .em6racing t!e 8arxist la6el in order to render it uselessD ma+es a lot o/ sense.determination .t!e . 0o su6stitute Derrida /or .J1) 4eople /amiliar >it! DerridaHs >or+ >ill recogniCe immediatel. In ot!er >ordsD t!is e//ort see+s to resol3e a pro6lem in a "certain# !istor.o/ postmodern t!eor.in t!e doctoral program in sociolog.J19 Simpl.K.lt!usser actuall. 1!at t!is seemingl.is political 6ac+ground and >or+ experience include lo><income< !ousing organiCingD prison re/orm ad3ocac-D and media acti3ism.identit-G t!e ultimate un/ixit.e is currentl.lt!usser mig!t 6e a cle3er tric+ t!at allo>s postmodern 8arxism to sound legitimateD 6ut it is certainl..o/ e3er.com7p7articles7miXFa&9*27isX2001017aiXn'9&2'917pgX117QtagRcontentGcol1 0!e ..lt!usserian 8arxism. doctrine that 0ould o+erthro0 capitalism 8olite+inD doctoral program o/ =C Da3isD 01 2ene 5rancisco 4oite3inD mem6er o/ t!e S2 editorial collecti3e. 0a+e /or example P.a6stracted /ormulations o/ 8arxism and li6eralism.is political 6ac+ground and >or+ experience include lo><income< !ousing organiCingD prison re/orm ad3ocac-D and media acti3ism.and politics is t!at 8arxism !as to go "ot!er>ise -ou do not !a3e to 6ecome a postmodern to address t!eir concerns#D P. 21 .p!ilosop!ical stando// 6et>een !istoricall.to>er t!an >it! t!e plig!t o/ t!e >or+ers >!o clean t!eir campuses.1& @ut /ortunatel.e is currentl.lt!usserHs o3erdetermination can 6e understood as signaling t!e irreduci6le speci/icit.1* 0!is +ind o/ post<structuralist<>ol3es<dressed<up<in<8arxist<clot!es tric+D so entrenc!ed >it!in t!e postmodern 8arxist traditionD needs to 6e re?ected and denounced..ne3er /ull.putD postmodern 8arxist politics !as more to do >it! t!e micropolitics o/ t!e i3or. .s 1e Kne> It.t!at >!at Gi6son<Gra!am !a3e done is attri6ute to .o/ Cali/orniaD Da3isD 2001 0!e end o/ anti<capitalism as >e +ne> it: 2e/lections on postmodern 8arxism !ttp:77/indarticles.m!erst Sc!oolHs sleig!t o/ !and is made possi6le in part 6ecause ..o/ e3er.lt!usserian t!oug!t to 6ecome more clear.identit.sa.can come to t!e rescue D ma+ing it possi6le /or .J20 'lthusser5s concept o/ o+erdetermination 0hen descri-ing capitalism must -e re<ected 8olite+inD doctoral program o/ =C Da3isD 01 2ene 5rancisco 4oite3inD mem6er o/ t!e S2 editorial collecti3e.lt!usser >!at is in /act DerridaHs de/inition o/ t!e JsignDJ >!ic! /or !im is one o/ t!e /undamental 6uilding 6loc+s o/ language./or t!e .s 1e Kne> It# 6egs anot!er Fuestion: 1!o are t!e.in t!e doctoral program in sociolog.

.in t!e doctoral program in sociolog.e is currentl.or+!eimer and .is political 6ac+ground and >or+ experience include lo><income< !ousing organiCingD prison re/orm ad3ocac-D and media acti3ism. 5or exampleD >!at a6out t!e 6ul+ o/ t!e 1estern 8arxist tradition since t!e 5ran+/urt Sc!oolQ . 0!e /act is t!at postmodern 8arxistHs Jcontri6utionsJ are not as original nor as pro/ound as t!emig!t !a3e us 6elie3e.o/ Cali/orniaD Da3isD 2001 0!e end o/ anti<capitalism as >e +ne> it: 2e/lections on postmodern 8arxism !ttp:77/indarticles.>!o !as read 1alter @en?amin or .!a3e also 6een t!eoriCing at more concrete le3els o/ anal-ses t!e irreduci6ilit.lso le/t out is t!e ric! 8arxist sc!olars!ip t!at >as addressing t!eir concerns long 6e/ore t!ere >as a postmodern 8arxist sc!ool. . CritiFue o/ 4olitical Econom.to class.stem into a relational process 8olite+inD doctoral program o/ =C Da3isD 01 2ene 5rancisco 4oite3inD mem6er o/ t!e S2 editorial collecti3e.in >!ic! t!e "in#/amous 6ase7superstructure metap!or o/ societ.gets set in stone as t!e Jo//icialJ de/inition o/ !istorical materialismQ 9r >!at a6out .to economic la>sD as an-6od.o/ culture and its irreduci6ilit.com7p7articles7miXFa&9*27isX2001017aiXn'9&2'917pgX117QtagRcontentGcol1 . 5urt!ermoreD postcolonial 8arxism and critical t!eor.as it not 6een predicated on a re?ection o/ t!e economic reductionism em6edded in t!e passage /rom t!e 4re/ace to t!e Introduction to .m!erst Sc!ool !a3e 6een t!eoriCing and clari/-ing t!e relational mec!anisms em6edded in class politics.2& 21! .at t!e =ni3ersit.22 .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 21! ':: 8ostmodern 6arxism %2& 8ostmodern 6arxism morph the class s.are not t!e /irst ones to tal+ a6out class as a relational processD lots o/ 8arxists 6e/ore t!e .ntonio Gramsci can certi/-.o/ su6?ecti3it.nd despite t!e postmodern 8arxist excitement >!en tal+ing a6out class as a relational processD in /act it is impossi6le to tell t!at t!e.dornoHs relentless critiFue o/ instrumental rationalit-Q 8arxismD in spite o/ >!at t!e postmodern 8arxists >ant us to 6elie3eD !as long 6een ma+ing t!e case /or t!e centralit.

epistemological premise t!at >!at reall. .s P.o/ consciousnessJ to t!e Jp!ilosop!.m!erst Sc!oolHs Jpro3isional ontolog-J is incapa6le o/ escaping t!e per/ormati3e trap o/ tr-ing to get rid o/ essentialism 6. 0!is strand o/ post<structuralismD one t!at once againD can 6e directl.as Jdiscursi3e.a6ermas argueD >e in!a6it an intellectual regime c!aracteriCed 6.nd to tr.to redistri6ute t!e !ea3.to compensate /or constructions o/ capitalism t!at are too totaliCing is t!roug! t!e unconditional surrender o/ t!e 8arxist pro?ect.t!roug! Jrace<class<gender DJ as opposed to ?ust classD is still a /utile endea3or: essentialism is still essentialism >!et!er one essentialiCes around one or t!ree categories. E3en 5oucault D t!e great master o/ discontinuit-D distances !imsel/ /rom suc! mirror<re3ersal solutions >!en t!eoriCing t!e limits o/ discourse and accounting /or t!e Jdi3ergenceD t!e distancesD t!e oppositionsD t!e di//erencesJ t!at constitute t!e episteme o/ a period.is political 6ac+ground and >or+ experience include lo><income< !ousing organiCingD prison re/orm ad3ocac-D and media acti3ism. .matters is Jdiscourse.J&2 It is t!is ideological postmodern insistence on reducing all o/ social realit. J2% or is it good enoug! /or postmodern7post<8arxists to recogniCe t!e pit/alls em6edded in . 0!e .K.a paradigm s!i/t /rom t!e Jp!ilosop!.occurrence o/ Jcontinuit-J >it! Jdiscontinuit-J as a >a.to discourse t!at ultimatel.o3erloads its t!eoretical apparatus and causes it to 6uc+le 6eneat! t!em. simpl.e is currentl.s /ar as postmodern 8arxism is concernedD t!e onl.J 0!e postmodern 8arxist approac! to ontolog6oils do>n to su6stituting in political practice e3er.o/ Cali/orniaD Da3isD 2001 0!e end o/ anti<capitalism as >e +ne> it: 2e/lections on postmodern 8arxism !ttp:77/indarticles.K.egemon.and Socialist Strateg-D&0 is predicated on t!e /ault.o6?ect is constituted as an o6?ect o/ discourse.2' o >a-.t!eoretical and political 6urden placed upon t!e proletariat 6.&& 21" .com7p7articles7miXFa&9*27isX2001017aiXn'9&2'917pgX117QtagRcontentGcol1 .J .at t!e =ni3ersit.particular anal-sis >ill ne3er /ind t!e ultimate cause o/ e3ents.J29 .traditionD in generalD is its post<structuralist extremism.egelian epistemolog.s (aclau and 8ou//e clari/-D Jour anal-sis re?ects t!e distinction 6et>een discursi3e and nondiscursi3e practices.in t!e doctoral program in sociolog. Gi6son<Gra!amHs >or+D in particularD and o/ t!e >!ole radical democrac. Gi6son<Gra!am t!emsel3es ma+e clearD Jto e3en concei3e o/ HcapitalismH as HcapitalismsH is still ta+ing HcapitalismH /or granted.J&1 0!e pro6lem >it! t!is approac! is t!at once >e enter t!is >orld o/ epistemological /oundationalism predicated on t!e claim t!at t!ere is Jnot!ing 6ut discourseDJ >e enter a >orld o/ relati3ism in >!ic! all >e can do is Jcreate discursi3e /ixingsDJ as P.recon/iguring political agenc.traced 6ac+ to (aclau and 8ou//eHs .and argue insteadD as Spi3a+ doesD /or strategic<< uses<o/<essentialism as a correcti3e to t!e excesses o/ teleological t!in+ing and /ixed notions o/ class.o/ language. It o//irms t!at e3er. t!ird /eature o/ P. . . Gi6son<Gra!am t!emsel3es prescri6eD t!at >ill guarantee t!at Jan.>a. – this collapses their pro<ect 8olite+inD doctoral program o/ =C Da3isD 01 2ene 5rancisco 4oite3inD mem6er o/ t!e S2 editorial collecti3e.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 21" ':: 8ostmodern 6arxism % & 8ostmodern 6arxism surrenders the 6arxist pro<ect -.to get rid o/ essentialism and macro<narrati3es.essentialiCing all o/ realit.K.2$ 5or postmodern 8arxists it is not enoug! to point out t!at D as 6ot! 5oucault and . /ocusing on discourse to shape realit.

com7p7articles7miXFa&9*27isX2001017aiXn'9&2'917pgX117QtagRcontentGcol1 0!e +e.D t!e institutional# 6ecause Je3er.&' 0!is is >!.e is currentl. .is 5oucaultHs notion o/ JdiscourseJ more complex and nuanced t!an t!e one presented in postmodern7post<8arxismD t!e Jnondiscursi3eJ is de/ined as constituted 6.ultimatel.o/ Cali/orniaD Da3isD 2001 0!e end o/ anti<capitalism as >e +ne> it: 2e/lections on postmodern 8arxism !ttp:77/indarticles.point in assessing t!e postmodern7post<8arxist epistemological and ontological 3ia6ilit.o6?ect is constituted as an o6?ect o/ discourseJ &9 misses t!e point t!at t!e moment o/ t!e nondiscursi3e and extradiscursi3e is 6ot! irreduci6le and essential .o> manmore 4tolemaic circles o/ Jdiscursi3e /ixingsJ is it going to ta+e 6e/ore it 6ecomes clear t!at postmodern 8arxismHs 6an+rupt epistemolog-7ontolog.sa-ing t!at it is 9K to not deal >it! t!e centralit. .o/ t!e nondiscursi3e aspects o/ institutions and t!e econom. ot onl.t!e postmodern7post<8arxistHs incapa6ilit.at t!e =ni3ersit.and7or re/usal to account /or t!e irreduci6ilit.JinstitutionsD social relationsD economic and political con?unctureJ < and as explicitl. .in t!e doctoral program in sociolog.disFuali/ies t!em /rom articulating a 3ia6le (e/t pro?ect.g. 0o retort 6.o/ t!e nondiscursi3e "e. is /la0ed – the nondiscursi+e is not addressed 8olite+inD doctoral program o/ =C Da3isD 01 2ene 5rancisco 4oite3inD mem6er o/ t!e S2 editorial collecti3e.nonreduci6le to discourse .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 21# ':: 8ostmodern 6arxism %!& 8ostmodern 6arxist epistemolog.is political 6ac+ground and >or+ experience include lo><income< !ousing organiCingD prison re/orm ad3ocac-D and media acti3ism.is t!is: one o/ 5oucaultHs su6tleties in t!eoriCing t!e Jnondiscursi3eJ are present in t!e postmodern7post< 8arxist model.cannot articulate a 3ia6le pro?ect /or radical politicsQ 21# .

intellectualD or an. >e >is! to t!in+ o/ t!e complex interaction 6et>een t!ese Ysic\ complexitiesDJJ t!e postmodern intellectual 6ecomes t!e de /acto ne> 3anguard.J)0 In a political uni3erse controlled 6.com7p7articles7miXFa&9*27isX2001017aiXn'9&2'917pgX117QtagRcontentGcol1 5irstD in t!e postmodern7post<8arxist >orldD it is t!e ">!iteD middleclass# postmodern intellectual >!o gets constituted as t!e ne> Jre3olutionar.o/ Cali/orniaD Da3isD 2001 0!e end o/ anti<capitalism as >e +ne> it: 2e/lections on postmodern 8arxism !ttp:77/indarticles.o/ o6?ecti3e criteria in deciding >!at constitutes social p!enomenaD postmodern intellectuals are t!e agenc.e is currentl. ones in po0er 8olite+inD doctoral program o/ =C Da3isD 01 2ene 5rancisco 4oite3inD mem6er o/ t!e S2 editorial collecti3e. . Simpl. Gi6son<Gra!am claimD it is Jrat!er !o> >e >is! to t!in+J a6out social pro6lems t!at constitutes t!e de/ining criteria /or 3alidit.su6?ect. It is no longer t!e material conditions or t!e !istorical con?uncture o/ a particular situation t!at determine >!at is to 6e doneD 6ut as PK.ot!er su6?ecti3it.. In t!e postmodern 8arxist >orldD t!e !-pereducated postmodern sc!olar is t!e one in c!arge o/ leading and de/ining >!ic! struggles count and !o> t!e..putD it is no longer up to t!e >or+ing classD or Fueer people o/ colorD or >omenD or t!e part.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 213 ':: 8ostmodern 6arxism %"& 8ostmodern 6arxism disregards the 0or*ing class – the h.in t!e doctoral program in sociolog.su6?ect . In a political practice t!at denies t!e possi6ilit.in c!arge o/ allocating legitimac.postmodern 8arxist p!-sicsD >!ere t!ere are no longer o6?ecti3e mec!anisms o/ oppressionD 6ut >!at matters is Jrat!er !o>.and politics < in a context >!ere t!e J>eJ is constituted 6.is political 6ac+ground and >or+ experience include lo><income< !ousing organiCingD prison re/orm ad3ocac-D and media acti3ism.putD t!e postmodern intellectual is t!e ne> re3olutionar. . 213 .>ill 6e /oug!t. Simpl.at t!e =ni3ersit.a postmodern intelligentsia.to decide >!ic! pro?ect is legitimate enoug! to merit recognition < and commitment.pereducated are the onl.to political claims .

> 8olite+inD doctoral program o/ =C Da3isD 01 2ene 5rancisco 4oite3inD mem6er o/ t!e S2 editorial collecti3e.pac+aged in postmodern gi/t >rapping.at >!at postmodern7post<8arxist t!eor.e is currentl.at t!e =ni3ersit. .enoug!D postmodern7 post< 8arxists do not regard t!ese positions as a surrender o/ t!e 8arxist pro?ect at allD 6ut rat!erD as t!e exact /ul/illment o/ t!at commitment.J Gone is t!e pro?ect o/ getting rid o/ it .end up recon/iguring and consolidating capitalism 6ac+ in.K<.Gi6son<Gra!amHs st-le o/ postmodern7post<8arxism deli3ers >!at 6oils do>n to good old</as!ioned li6eralism: a mildD state<administered Jeconomic ?usticeJ plat/orm centered around indi3idual pri3ate li6ertiesD neatl.*0 212 . .o/ Cali/orniaD Da3isD 2001 0!e end o/ anti<capitalism as >e +ne> it: 2e/lections on postmodern 8arxism !ttp:77/indarticles. 0!e 6ottom line is t!is: 1!en one loo+s closel.com7p7articles7miXFa&9*27isX2001017aiXn'9&2'917pgX117QtagRcontentGcol1 postmodern 8arxistHs reading o/ 0!e 5ull 8ont.t!in+ing and politicsD P.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 212 ':: 8ostmodern 6arxism %#& 8ostmodern 6arxism consolidates capitalism and ma*es it more =user /riendl.contempt /or re3olutionar.o//ersD and a/ter it is done Jrepresenting capitalism t!roug! t!e lens o/ o3erdetermination DJ)9 all one can strategiCe a6out is !o> to ma+e capitalism more Juser /riendl-.in t!e doctoral program in sociolog. Strangel.is political 6ac+ground and >or+ experience include lo><income< !ousing organiCingD prison re/orm ad3ocac-D and media acti3ism.demonstrates is t!at in t!eir desire to get rid o/ JcapitalocentrismJ < t!e alleged o6session o/ 8arxists >it! seeing JcapitalismJ e3er->!ere < t!e.actuall. In t!eir unre/lecti3e romanticiCing o/ re/ormD and in t!eir 1!at t!e !aug!t.

(ocal exc!ange 6et>een to>n and countr-sideD /oreign trade 6et>een di//erent climactic Cones are 6ased on t!is principle.( E1SG Green PusticeG 4g.mar+et /ailure 6ut also Jgo3ernment /ailureJ. production /or oneHs o>n use#. li+es – the alternati+e destro. 1e +no> t!at >e need to 6e a6le to re/orm capitalism i/ >e are to sur3i3eD 6ut !o> to go a6out itQ @ot! our economies and our ecos-stems need to sta!ealt!-.uman societ.>ere a6le to extract resources e//icientl. 1$D *$1 >ordsD C!arles PusticeD 0!e Dail.istor. .is /ull o/ examples o/ empires li+e t!e 2omans and t!e @a6-loniansD t!at gre> 6ecause t!e.nti<Capitalist 8ani/esto. 1e +no> tin+ering >it! re/orming capitalism doesnHt >or+ 6ecause >eH3e spent t!e last centur. @ut Sen !ere elides certain important distinctions.competition. Pust as 8icroso/t upgrades /rom 1indo>s 9* to 1indo>s f4D >e need to upgrade t!e Jeconomic so/t>areJ to +eep t!e s-stem /rom cras!ing. 219 .is unimagina6le >it!out language: i/ mar+ets are as 6asic as t!atD t!en restricting or a6olis!ing t!em t!reatens t!e 3er/unctioning o/ !uman societies. 0rade o/ t!is +ind is rig!tl.capitalism doesnHt >or+.e>s# 1e can tr. Capitalism needs an upgrade. 0!ere are mar+ets and mar+ets.suc! as can.n .upert Dail. 0!atHs >!at 4eter @arnes discusses in !is intriguing 6oo+D Capitalism &.H 0!is ma+es t!e restriction –let alone t!e a6olition – o/ mar+et mec!anisms necessaril.and regulate capitalism 6ut >e !a3e anot!er pro6lem >!ic! glo6al >arming !as demonstrated: >!en /aced >it! t!e /acts a6out glo6al >arming t!e most po>er/ul go3ernment in t!e >orld >as in/luenced 6corporations to suppress t!e science and minimiCe t!e extent o/ t!e pro6lem to t!e pu6lic .D t!e solution is to c!ange t!e rules so t!at t!e Jcommons sectorJ 6ecomes an economic po>er to 6alance t!e po>er o/ corporations and go3ernments. $e0s 03 "@ritis! Colum6ia#D .economic practices !a3e 6een em6edded in larger social relations!ipsD and regulated according to one or more o/ t!e /ollo>ing principles –reciprocit-D redistri6utionD and !ouse !olding "i.and t!e Eart!Hs ecos-stems.o/ a computer operating s-stem.nd in almost e3er.2I Cap is ine+ita-leC an. 0!e comparison o/ mar+et exc!anges to con3ersation !asD moreo3erD t!e e//ect "/amiliar in de/ences o/ capitalism# o/ naturaliCing t!e mar+et.0D pu6lis!ed 200$ and also a3aila6le on t!e internet.gotten >orse. Suppose >e use t!e analog.regarded as complementar-. In s!ortD glo6al >arming demonstrates not onl. 1e +no> tr-ing to destro. Karl 4olan-i in !is classic >or+ 0!e Great 0rans/ormation "19))# argued t!at in t!e long run o/ !uman !istor.a 3iolation o/ !uman /reedom.case no<one sa> it coming. re/orm 0ill /ail 8rince . 0!is set 6ac+ t!e cause o/ pre3ention at least 10 -ears < at an incalcula6le cost to !umanit. ItHs not as i/ >e !a3enHt !ad /or>arning o/ t!is.s li+ing( Callinicos – 4ro/essor o/ European Studies – 200 ".da. 1!ere mar+ets existedD t!e. . Suc! trade need not impl. 0!is time itHs di//erent 6ecause >e can see it coming and >e can pre3ent it.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 219 '//irmati+e C Cap ine+ita-le %1& Capitalism is em-edded into our e+er.did so in t!e /orm o/ local trade "/airs and mar+et da-s and t!e li+e# and long< distance trade: 6ot! external trade and local trade are relati3e to geograp!ical distanceD t!e one 6eing con/ined to goods >!ic! cannot o3ercome itD t!e ot!er onl.>it! one anot!erH must /ind expression in a mar+et econom-.# 8ore seriousl-D Sen claimsD in e//ectD t!at Ht!e rig!t to interact economicall. .lexD :. @asicall.doing t!at and t!ings !a3e onl.e. 8ore next >ee+.pril )D 200% 1ednesda-D 5inal EditionD (9C.6ut destro-ed t!emsel3es 6ecause t!e >ere not a6le to extract resources sustaina6l-.

precapitalist 3aluesD 6ut none !as succeeded in cutting itsel/ o// /rom capitalist in/luences: /rom t!e mar+etD /rom t!e mediaD /rom t!e legal s-stemD and /rom ot!er in/luences o/ t!e modern >orld.didnHt >ant to sellD 6ut t!e la> demanded t!at t!e compan-Hs dut. =n/ortunatel-D t!e legal s-stem is structured against progressi3e ideas. Instead o/ allo>ing a s!are!older la>suit against an.ssociationLs Campus Pournalism 4ro?ect7 2000 "Po!n K.and sociall. 0!e compan. Some .mericaHs economic gro>t!. 0!e 19$0s and 19%0s sa> t!e creation o/ secular alternati3e rural communesD communities >!ose mem6ers tried to eliminate all mar+s o/ distinction 6et>een t!emD to 6e sel/<su//icientD and to li3e simpl-.ssociationLs Campus Pournalism 4ro?ectD .responsi6le policies.attention to consumer demands.mis! and 8ennonite communities are 6ased on precapitalist 3aluesD as are some ot!er /ait!<6ased groups.irresponsi6le or e3il doesnHt ma+e sense.conscious >a-D ./riendl. Communities suc! as t!ese !a3e attempted to em6od. 9/ courseD consumer protests and 6o-cotts are onl.>onLt !a3e t!e resources to mount a serious ad3ocac.to retain or re<create t!e 6est parts o/ precapitalism.products and pac+aging. 1!ile >e can learn /rom our antecedent societiesD >e cannot return to t!em. . Capitalism is simpl.a s-stem o/ mar+ets.compan. E3en nonpro/it organiCations and cooperati3es are not antit!etical to capitalism and t!e mar+etG t!ese groups simpluse capitalism /or aims di//erent /rom t!e single<minded pursuit o/ pro/its. 0!e claim 6.people are loo+ing /or en3ironmentall.progressi3e magaCine or institution t!at tries to de/.rguments and In/luence 4eopleD pg 12< 1)# 4rogressi3e capitalism is not a contradiction in termsD /or progressi3es support capitalism in man. In 2000D @en and Perr-Hs Ice Cream >as /orced to sell out to a 6ig corporation t!at mig!t ignore its commitment to manprogressi3e causes. @e canYt go -ac*0ards( Capitalism is ine+ita-le( Po!n Is-isterD 4ro/essor EconomicsD =.t!e rules o/ capitalism >onHt 6e around /or 3er. 9ne o/ t!e most e//ecti3e tactics o/ t!e en3ironmental mo3ement >as encouraging consumers to consider en3ironmental 3alues >!en ma+ing capitalist c!oices a6out >!at products to 6u-. )$# Some in t!e capitalist >orld tr. 1!at ma+es capitalism so destructi3e isnHt t!e 6asic /oundation 6ut t!e institutions t!at !a3e 6een created in t!e >ors!ip o/ t!e J/ree mar+et. 0!e door !as 6een closed. 220 .>a-s. 0!e communes !ad some successesD 6ut most e3entuall. Crusades against Coca<Cola /or its massi3e output o/ non<rec-cled plastic 6ottles in .o/ progressi3e ideas.to raise t!ese issues at stoc+!older meetings and pressure t!e companies to adopt en3ironmentall.long and certainl.D coordinator o/ t!e Independent 4ress .stem( @ilson7 coordinator o/ t!e Independent 4ress .acting in a morall-D sociall-D and en3ironmentall.and demandD t!e expenses and re3enuesD t!e idea o/ entrepreneurs!ip and inno3ationD and t!e need to adapt to t!e mar+et are essential.one part o/ ma+ing Jcapitalism /or e3er-one.J =n/ortunatel-D progressi3es spend most o/ t!eir time attac+ing capitalism rat!er t!an ta+ing credit /or all t!e re/orms t!at led to .to stoc+!olders >as to consider onl.some le/tists t!at capitalism is in!erentl. Imagine >!at >ould !appen i/ our capitalist la>s >ere designed to promote progressi3e ideas instead o/ impeding t!em.o> t!e (e/t can 1in .progressi3e groups are no> 6u-ing stoc+ in companies precisel. Cal E Santa CruCD in 2001 "Capitalism and PusticeD p. 0oda-D a manu/acturer >!o ignores en3ironmental issues puts its pro/its at ris+ 6ecause so man.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 220 '//irmati+e C Cap ine+ita-le %2& Capitalism is ine+ita-le( E+en the groups that resist it are part and parcel o/ the s.collapsed.merica or against companies supporting /oreign dictators!ips are part o/ t!e continuing 6attle to /orce companies to pa. @ut t!e rules o/ suppl.t!e mone.n.merican la>s s!ould encourage t!ese goals.in3ol3ed.J 8an.

/or socialism<t!e.merican li/e to eliminate.merica is not capitalism as a s-stem 6ut capitalism as a religion.ssociationLs Campus Pournalism 4ro?ectD . Instead o/ >or+ing to persuade people to accept progressi3e ideasD t!e /ar le/t tal+s to itsel/ ">!ic! ma.>ant to ma+e mone.!elps sta6iliCe t!e J/ree mar+etJ capitalist s-stem 6.6e a 6lessingD gi3en t!e >a.mericaD and compare a ric! su6ur6 >it! a poor to>n< t!e cit.>ant to start 6usinessesD and t!e./a3oring t!e >ealt!-: go an->!ere in .and 6e success/ul. 1e >ors!ip t!e accumulation o/ >ealt! and treat t!e !orri6le ineFualit6et>een ric! and poor as i/ it >ere an act o/ God. 0!e aim is not to o3ert!ro> capitalism 6ut to o3er!aul it.e3er-t!ing else >ill 6e 6etter /inanced in t!e place populated 6ric! people.!aCardous su6stances.rguments and In/luence 4eopleD pg 1*< 1$# Capitalism is /ar too ingrained in .in 3ainD /or a /air c!ance to s!are in t!e capitalist >ealt!. 0o some peopleD t!is goal means selling out le/tist ideals /or t!e sa+e o/ capitalism. 0!e poor do not pra.>ant ?o6sD t!e. Gi3e it a social<?ustice tune<upD ma+e it more e//icientD get t!e economic engine to !it on all c-linders /or e3er-6od-D and stop putting out so manen3ironmentall.stri3e to 6e a part o/ t!e capitalist s-stem. 1!atHs >rong >it! .o> t!e (e/t can 1in .it communicates# and tries to sell copies o/ t!e Socialist 1or+er to an uninterested pu6lic.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 221 '//irmati+e C Cap ine+ita-le % & Capitalism is too deepl. 221 .potential o/ t!e proletariat.les( @ilson 2K "Po!n K.mericaD -ou >ill /ind t!at t!e people >!o li3e t!ere are not see+ing go3ernment control o3er /actories or e3en more social >el/are programsG t!e-Hre !oping7 usuall.ma+ing it seem as i/ t!e onl.Communist 4art. rooted in our li/est. 4rospecti3e acti3ists /or c!ange are instead c!anneled into pointless discussions a6out t!e re3olutionar. 0!e 2e3olutionar. I/ -ou go into t!e most impo3eris!ed areas o/ .alternati3e to /ree<mar+et capitalism is a return to Stalinism.D coordinator o/ t!e Independent 4ress .ser3icesD sc!oolsD par+sD and practicall. @ut t!e rig!t t!ri3es on !a3ing an ine//ecti3e opposition. 1orst o/ allD >e allo> t!e go3ernment to exacer6ate t!e /inancial di3ide 6. 0!e.

0!e presence and /ullness o/ t!e capitalist monolit! not onl.o/ Capitalism to coexist t!us produces not onl.s 1e Kno> It## pgs 2*$<2*' I/ t!e unit. Su6sumed to t!e !egemonic discourse o/ De3elopmentD it identi/ies a di3erse arra. Capitalism presents itsel/ as a singularit. 0!e ina6ilit.and more li+el.in t!e sense o/ !a3ing no peer or eFui3alentD o/ existing in a categor.to reproduce and expand t!emsel3es according to internal la>s. 0!usD in t!e =nited StatesD i/ /eudal or ancient classes existD t!e- exist as residual /ormsG i/ sla3er.itsel/.is a monolit!ic conception o/ classD at least in t!e context o/ :ad3anced capitalist.and 4ro/essor o/ Geosciences at t!e =ni3ersit. 9ne e//ect o/ t!e notion o/ capitalist exclusi3it.re/ers to a social clea3age along t!e axis o/ capital and la6or since capitalism cannot coexist >it! an.o/ 8assac!usettsD .a li/e /orce 6ut al>a-s /rom >it!outG it could ne3er reproduce itsel/ 6ut al>a-s !ad to 6e reproducedD o/ten an arduous i/ not impossi6le process.existsD it exists as a marginal /orm i/ socialism or communism existsD it exists as a pre</igurati3e /orm. Sla3er-D independent commodit.contrast tends to appear 6.:de3eloped.our impact are scare tactics that should -e ignored P. countries.s a sui generis economic /ormD Capitalism !as no true analogues.o/ Capitalism con/ronts us >it! t!e mammot! tas+ o/ s-stemic trans/ormation it is t!e singularitand totalit. 0!e term :class. 9t!er modes o/ production t!at lac+ t!e organic unit.to coexist >it! ot!er economic /orms. one o/ t!ese /orms trul.denies t!e possi6ilit. .o/ alternati3es 6ut also t!eir /uture unli+eli!ood – pus!ing socialist pro?ects to t!e distant and unrealiCa6le /uture. usuall.o/ Capitalism coexisting >it! non<capitalist economic /ormsD t!e coexistence o/ capitalism >it! non<capitalist economic /ormsD t!e coexistence o/ capitalism >it! non<capitalism mar+s t!e 0!ird 1orld as insu//icient and incomplete.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 222 '//irmati+e C Gi-sonCGraham %1& :he alternati+e is a /antas.operates to discourage pro?ects to create alternati3e economic institutions and class relationsD since t!ese >ill necessaril6e marginal in t!e context o/ CapitalismLs exclusi3it-.o/ /eeding on its o>n crisesG its reproduction >as ne3er dri3en /rom >it!in 6.C all . =nli+e socialismD /or exampleD >!ic! is al>a-s struggling to 6e 6ornD >!ic! needs t!e protection and /ostering o/ t!e stateD >!ic! is /ragile and easil.and /ull.uman Geograp!. nations# are seen as not /unn.6ut residual or pre</igurati3e non<capitalist relations.coexists >it! Capitalism.realiCed >it!in a particular social /ormationD it tends to 6e dominant o/ alone.productionD /eudalismD socialismD primiti3e<communism and ot!er /orms o/ econom.dri3en gro>t! process. Capitalism 6.6.K. Socialism !as ne3er 6een endo>ed >it! t!at m-t!ic capa6ilit. Gi-sonCGrahamD 4ro/essor o/ .o/ Capitalism are more capa6le o/ 6eing instituted or replaced incrementall.o/ economic or class di3ersit.at t!e . 2at!er t!an signaling t!e real possi6ilit. 222 .o/ countries as t!e s!ado>ot!er o/ t!e ad3anced capitalist nations. Its organic unit.de/ormedD Capitalism ta+es on its /ull /orm as a natural outcome o/ an internall.in t!e present 6ut pre/igures a monolit!ic and modernist socialism – one in >!ic! e3er-one is a comrade and class di3ersit.all lac+ t!e s-stemic properties o/ Capitalism and t!e a6ilit. 1!ere Capitalism does coexist >it! ot!er /ormsD t!ose places "t!e so<called 0!ird 1orldD /or exampleD or 6ac+>ard regions in >!at are +no>n as t!e :ad3anced capitalist.itsel/G and also in t!e sense t!at >!en it appears /ull.gi3es capitalism t!e peculiar po>er to regenerate itsel/D and e3en to su6sume its moments o/ crisis as reFuirements o/ its continued gro>t! and de3elopment.ustralian ational =ni3ersit.t!e present impossi6ilit..o/ Capitalism t!at ma+es t!e tas+ so !opeless.m!erstD 199# "0!e End o/ Capitalism ".does not exist. CapitalismLs singularit.

1e la6oriousl.K. 1!en t!e socialist 6u66le in Eastern Europe 6urstD capitalism /looded in li+e a miasma.constituent. 0!e 6an+ing s-stemD t!e national stateD domestic productionD t!e 6uilt en3ironmentD nature as productD media culture – all are conditions o/ CapitalismLs totaliCing existence t!at seem to lose t!eir autonom-D t!eir contradictor.presented >it! t!e re3olutionar. 0!is is most o63ious in metap!ors o/ containment and su6sumption.di//erent lines o/ social antagonism are o/ten con3ened >it!in :t!e plenar.. E3en oppressions experienced along entirel. CapitalismD >!ic! is a name /or a /orm o/ econom-D is in3o+ed in e3er. Capitalism is presented as t!e em6raceD t!e containerD somet!ing large and /ull. 0!is means t!at t!e le/t is not onl. 0!e >ealt!.ation P..a >!ole !ost o/ t!ings in addition to capitalism – 6ut capitalism ne3ert!eless exerts its massi3e gra3itational pull.s>allo>ing up its conditions o/ existence.>!ileD on t!e ot!erD >e !a3e allo>ed it – under t!e name o/ capitalism < to coloniCe t!e entire social space.o/ 8assac!usatesD . It seems >e !a3e 6anis!ed economic determinism and t!e economistic conception o/ class as t!e ma?or axis o/ social trans/ormationD onl. 1e are all capitalist no>.m!erstD 199# "0!e End o/ Capitalism ". Gi-sonCGrahamD 4ro/essor o/ . on<capitalism /orms o/ productionD suc! as commodit.o/ capitalism.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 22 '//irmati+e C Gi-sonC Graham %2& 1olding onto ideas *ills le/tist policiesCe+er.to ens!rine t!e autonom.s 1e Kno> It## pgs 2*9 0!e t!ird c!aracteristic o/ CapitalismD and per!aps its 6est +no>n is its tendenc. Capitalism not onl.pr.eac! piece loose – t!eoriCing t!e legal :s-stemD. 1e cannot get outside capitalismG it !as no outside. 22 .industrial societies are summaril.sel/<emplo-ed >or+ers or t!e production o/ !ouse!old goods and ser3icesD are seen as some!o> ta+ing place >it!in capitalism. It is not surprising t!at t!ere seems to 6e no room /or a t!ri3ing and po>er/ul non<capitalist econom-D politics and culture t!oug! it is !eartening to consider t!at t!ese ne3ert!eless ma.ouse!old production 6ecomes su6sumed to capitalism as capitalist :reproduction.and 4ro/essor o/ Geosciences at t!e =ni3ersit. .production 6. It 6ecomes t!at >!ic! !as no outside 6.uman Geograp!. o/ capitalism "Spi3a+ 19'': 1&*# or >it!in capitalism .to present itsel/ as t!e social totalit-. political demand li*e the plan can5t o+erturn capital and ma*es the mista*e o/ helping the +ictims o/ glo-ali.ustralian ational =ni3ersit.capa6ilitto 6e read as conditions o/ its nonexistence.6e seen to li3e :in t!e pores. E3en socialism /unctions as t!e dual or place!older o/ capitalism rat!er t!an as its acti3e and contradictor.social dimension.casts a >ider net t!an ot!er t!ingsD it also constitutes us more /ull-D in a process t!at is more li+e a saturation t!an li+e a process o/ o3er determination.tas+ o/ trans/orming t!e >!ole econom-D it must replace t!e entire societas >ell. Socialism is ?ust capitalismLs oppositeD a great emptiness on t!e ot!er side o/ a mem6raneD a social space >!ere t!e /ullness o/ capitalism is negated.geograp!. 9n t!e one !and >e !a3e ta+en 6ac+ social li/e /rom t!e econom.exist. 9ur li3es are dripping >it! capitalism.c!aracteriCed as capitalist social /ormations. 4eople >!o are not t!emsel3es in3ol3ed in capitalism exploitation ne3ert!eless ma.at t!e .once again – t!is time in a 3ast meton-mic emplacement "(aclau and 8ou//e 19'*#. /or exampleD as a /ragmented and di3erse collection o/ practice and institution t!at is constituted 6.

and >el/are state structures in t!e 19'0s >ill depend on t!e le3el and /orms o/ class struggle. 9n t!e ot!er !andD t!ose >!o see it as t!e creation o/ la6ourD as a socialist island >it!in a capitalist seaD >ill /ix t!eir standard to t!e >el/are state as it exists.t!e. 9nce t!e contradictor.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 22! '//irmati+e C 8erm sol+enc. 1939. 0!is 6oo+ !as tried to appl. In t!is >a-D a struggle ma.impact on capitalism is appreciatedD t!en t!e political strateg. 0!e positi3e aspects o/ >el/are policies need de/ending and extendingD t!eir negati3e aspects need exposing arid attac+ing.to an anal-sis o/ t!e >el/are state.at t!e =ni3ersit. It is to 6e !oped t!at t!is 6oo+ >ill contri6ute to an understanding o/ t!e current >el/are stateD arid !ence to t!is struggle /or its trans/ormation a>a.( Ian Gough 4ro/.6e mounted to realise in practice t!e ideolog. 2eturning to t!e t>o radical perspecti3es on t!e >el/are state criticised in C!apters 1 andD >e can discern t!e political implication o/ eac!.nature o/ t!e >el/are state and its contradictor. %1& :he perm is necessar.a crucial roleD and t!is is especiall.3alidit. It >ill not de3elop in t!is direction >it!out continuous and in/ormed struggle. o/ Social 4olic.o/ t!e 1el/are State. It is at t!is stage t!at t!e concept o/ H!uman needsH 6ecomes rele3ant in clari/-ing >!at is positi3e and >!at is negati3e. I/ its arguments !a3e an.o/ @at!. In t!is endemic and ongoing con/lictD ideas and theories a6out t!e >orld pla. eit!er positionD I !a3e arguedD is adeFuate.true in t!e sp!ere o/ social polic-.o/ t!e >el/are state propounded in man. 8acmillan 4ress (0D 0!e /uture de3elopment o/ social polic. :0!e 4olitical Econom. 22! . to sol+e the -ene/icial aspects o/ 0el/are polic.ort!odox text6oo+s: a s-stem /or su6?ecting economic /orces to conscious social control and /or meeting !uman needs.o/ all >!o >or+ in itD use it or are concerned >it! it can 6e re/ined.8arxist political econom.must 6e capa6le o/ translation into political strateg-. 0!ose o/ a socialist persuasion >!o regard t!e >el/are state as a creature o/ capitalD pure and simpleD >ill !a3e not!ing to do >it! de/ending or extending it. 0!e latter sc!ool >ill 6e 6lind to its de/ectsD t!e /ormer >ill 6e una>are o/ its potential./rom H>el/are capitalismH and in t!e direction o/ H>el/are socialismH.

0!e incoming 96ama .resourcesG and t!e emergence o/ climate c!ange re/ugees /rom island nations or lo><l-ing areasD >!o ma.dministration calls it Jsmart policies. .J 0!e alternati3e is protectionismD a rolling 6ac+ o/ t!e open glo6al econom-D and political i/ not armed con/lict. Instilling t!e practice o/ et!ical capitalism is possi6le and practical.Inno3ations program at t!e Carnegie Council /or Et!ics in International .related to 6usiness acti3itiesD !o> can 6usiness models 6ecome more sustaina6leQ Glo6al !uman ci3iliCation !as all t!e moral tools it needs.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 22" '//irmati+e C 8erm sol+enc.>it! t!em or engender political 3iolence and unrestD e3en terrorism.s 4eter Da3id 4edersen o/ E<SFuare !as notedD >e neit!er !a3e t!e time nor t!e need /or anot!er ideolog. 0!ese /orces can come toget!er to produce products t!at are rec-cledD car6on neutralD /ree rangeD or /air tradeD and policies t!at 6attle climate c!angeD po3ert-D and glo6al diseases. Consumers increasingl.carr.itsel/. on<action is !ig!l. (oo+ing at climate c!ange aloneD t!e possi6le long<term ris+s include a s!i/t in ara6le landG s!arpening competition /or energ.needed is moderationD a middle ground 6et>een total /reedom and principled action. In /actD >!at is criticall. (i+e>iseD politicians are under pressure to implement policies t!at mitigate t!e stresses o/ glo6aliCation . 0!e Golden 2ule is a /eature o/ more t!an 100 >orld religious and cultural canonsOJDo unto ot!ers as -ou >ould !a3e t!em do unto -ou.ris+-.or Jism. !ttp:773cr. 1C2"<2009. Gi3en t!at car6on emissions are primaril.//airs :is Et!ical Capitalism 4ossi6leQ.csr>ire.com7node71&1$0 5rom t!ese de3elopmentsD one could conclude t!at t!e glo6al economic s-stem is in!erentl.demand products t!at coincide >it! t!eir moral a>areness./la>edD t!at it is unet!ical and doomed to destro.J Et!ical principles t!at emp!asiCe reciprocal rig!ts and responsi6ilities !a3e long c!aracteriCed !uman societies. %2& 8erm is a mo+e to0ard ethical capitalism – 0e don5t ha+e time /or utopian uphea+als De3in Ste0art CC Director o/ t!e Glo6al 4olic.J 22" .

0o ac!ie3e t!is I must smas! Capitalism and see it in a t!ousand pieces. Gi-sonCGrahamD 4ro/essor o/ . In t!is 3ision t!e econom.and c!ange.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 22# '//irmati+e C 8erm Sol+enc. 1!en capitalism is represented as a uni/ied s-stem coextensi3e >it! t!e nation or e3en t!e >orldD >!en it is portra-ed as cro>ding out all ot!er economic /ormsD >!en it is allo>ed to de/ine entire societiesD it 6ecomes somet!ing t!at can onl. s-stemic replacement still seem to 6e dominant in t!e 8arxist political imagination. t!at call /ort! a 3ision o/ re3olution as 9ne o/ our goals as 8arxists !as 6een to produce a +no>ledge o/ capitalism. 0!e re3olutionar.rat!er t!an a ludicrous or utopian goal. 1e !ear – and /ind it eas. P.at t!e .m!erstD 199# "0!e End o/ Capitalism ".and 4ro/essor o/ Geosciences at t!e =ni3ersit.appears as t!e last strong!old o/ unit.o/ an-t!ing else. 22# .or locall.to 6elie3e – t!at t!e le/t is in disarra-.in a >orld o/ di3ersit. In return /or our la6ors o/ creationD t!e monster !as ro66ed us o/ all /orce. 4art o/ >!at produces t!e disarra. and :structures. % & :otal re<ection o/ capitalism /ragments resistance – the perm sol+es -est.s 1e Kno> It## Capitalism !as 6ecome t!e intimate enem-. I/ capitalism /unctions as a unit-D it cannot 6e partiall. one o/ t!ese t!ings is eas.o/ /orms o/ appropriation o/ surplus la6or#D a 3erlarge sector o/ sel/<emplo-ed and /amil-<6ased producers "most noncapitalist#D a !uge !ouse!old sector "againD Fuite 3arious in terms o/ /orms o/ exploitationD >it! some !ouse!olds mo3ing to>ards communal or collecti3e appropriation and ot!ers operating in a traditional mode in >!ic! one adult appropriates surplus la6or /rom anot!er#.uman Geograp!. 8intent is to !elp create t!e discursi3e conception under >!ic! socialist or ot!er noncapitalist construction 6ecomes :realistic.o/ t!e le/t is t!e 3ision o/ >!at t!e le/t is arra-ed against.and singularit.replaced. 1e !a3e uncloa+ed t!e ideologicall-<clot!edD o6scure monsterD 6ut >e !a3e installed a na+ed and 3isi6le monster in its place.K. present acti3it. Wet as :t!at >!ic! is +no>nD.6e /ragmented tooQ I/ >e t!eoriCed it as /ragmented in t!e =nited StatesD >e could 6eing to see a !uge state sector "incorporating a 3ariet.a mass collecti3e mo3ement "or 6.6e de/eated and replaced 6.and pluralit-. I must ma+e its unit. I/ capitalism ta+es up t!e a3aila6le social spaceD t!ereLs no room /or an-t!ing else.a process o/ s-stemic dissolution t!at suc! a mo3ement mig!t assist#. 0!e e> 1orld 9rder is o/ten represented as political /ragmentation /ounded upon economic uni/ication.canLt t!e econom. @ut >!.ustralian ational =ni3ersit.tas+ o/ replacing capitalism no> seems outmoded and unrealisticD -et >e do not seem to !a3e an alternati3e conception o/ class trans/ormation to ta+e its place ( 0!e old political economic :s-stems. I/ capitalism cannot coexistD t!ereLs no possi6ilit.a /antas-D 3isi6le as a denial o/ di3ersit.to see.o/ 8assac!usatesD .

o/ Critc!le-Ls position resides in a strange non seFuitur: i/ the state is here to sta. 0!ere is anot!erD no less surprisingD lesson to 6e learned /rom t!e C!inese CommunistsL presiding o3er argua6l.social democrac-#.o/ a3oiding some MtrueL radical (e/t politics – >!at t!e.YK\ 5or Critc!le-D t!e li6eral<democratic state is !ere to sta-. Sla3o? TiUe*7 :2esistance Is SurrenderD.unpredicta6le contingencies.-earsD !o>e3er./utilit.o/ all struggleD since t!e !egemon.practicesD >!ere one can M6uild a ne> >orldLG in t!is >a-D t!e /oundations o/ t!e po>er o/ capital and t!e state >ill 6e graduall. 0!e politics o/ resistance is not!ing 6ut t!e moralising supplement to a 0!ird 1a.t!e people >it! t!e guns and stic+s and one cannot expect to de/eat t!em >it! moc+ing satire and /eat!er dusters.ga3e /orm to 0!atc!erism. It isD in s!ort: we can do it better.>ritten 6. .6e done except >ait /or an out6urst o/ Mdi3ine 3iolenceL – a re3olutionar3ersion o/ . M9/ courseDL Critc!le. 0!ose >!o still insist on /ig!ting state po>erD let alone seiCing itD are accused o/ remaining stuc+ >it!in t!e Mold paradigmL : t!e tas+ toda-D t!eir critics sa-D is to resist state po>er 6. o3em6er 1*D 2003 "!ttp:77>>>.eideggerLs Monl.egelLs termsD to raise ">!at /irst appeared as# a contingenc-D a !istorical accidentD into a necessit-.>ritesD !istor. 9rD it accepts t!e /utilit.underminedD andD at some pointD t!e state >ill collapse "t!e exemplar o/ t!is approac! is t!e Bapatista mo3ement#. 0!ese positions are not presented as a >a. 0!atc!er >asnLt a 0!atc!eriteD s!e >as merel. It must 6e a politics o/ resistance to t!e stateD o/ 6om6arding t!e state >it! impossi6le demands D o/ denouncing t!e limitations o/ state mec!anisms.ardt and egriLs position#.attac+ing t!emD 6ut 6.is !ere to sta-D 6ut s!ould nonet!eless 6e resisted /rom its MintersticesL. 9rD it ta+es t!e MpostmodernL routeD s!i/ting t!e accent /rom anti<capitalist struggle to t!e multiple /orms o/ politico<ideological struggle /or !egemon-D emp!asising t!e importance o/ discursi3e re<articulation.directl.li+e 1itlerQ Surel. In toda-Ls triump! o/ glo6al capitalismD t!e argument goesD true resistance is not possi6leD so all >e can do till t!e re3olutionar. do i/ he 0ere /acing an ad3ersar.L 9rD it recognises t!e temporar. It >as 0on.an e//ect o/ t!e underl-ing principles o/ tec!nolog. It mig!tD /or exampleD accept t!e !egemon-D 6ut continue to /ig!t /or re/orm >it!in its rules "t!is is 0!ird 1a. not act 223 .o/ ultra<le/tist acti3e ni!ilism eloFuentls!o>sD one is lost t!e moment one pic+s up t!e guns and stic+s.ttempts to a6olis! t!e state /ailed misera6l-G conseFuentl-D t!e ne> politics !as to 6e located at a distance /rom it: anti<>ar mo3ementsD ecological organisationsD groups protesting against racist or sexist a6usesD and ot!er /orms o/ local sel/<organisation.nd 0hat 0ould Critchle. 9rD it emp!asises t!e /act t!at t!e pro6lem is a more /undamental oneD t!at glo6al capitalism is ultimatel.o/ glo6al capitalism and its political supplementD li6eral democrac-. 0oda-Ls (e/t reacts in a >ide 3ariet.are tr-ing to get around isD indeedD t!e lac+ o/ suc! a position.lr6. 0!is de/eat o/ t!e (e/t is not t!e >!ole stor.o/ >a-s to t!e !egemon. . Simon Critc!le-Ls recent 6oo+D nfinitely 3emandingD is an almost per/ect em6odiment o/ t!is position.o/ t!e last t!irt.pursue t!e >or+ o/ criticism.spirit o/ t!e glo6al >or+ing class is rene>ed is de/end >!at remains o/ t!e >el/are stateD con/ronting t!ose in po>er >it! demands >e +no> t!e. 0or*ing 0ithin the State allo0s us to challenge ad+ersaries such as 1itler or Cha+e.!tml& 9ne o/ t!e clearest lessons o/ t!e last /e> decades is t!at capitalism is indestructi6le.cannot /ul/ilD and ot!er>ise >it!dra> into cultural studiesD >!ere one can Fuietl. 8arx compared it to a 3ampireD and one o/ t!e salient points o/ comparison no> appears to 6e t!at 3ampires al>a-s rise up again a/ter 6eing sta66ed to deat!. 9rD it posits t!at one can undermine glo6al capitalism and state po>erD not 6.in suc! a case one s!ould Mmimic and mirror t!e arc!ic 3iolent so3ereignt-L one opposesQ S!ouldnLt t!e (e/t dra> a distinction 6et>een t!e circumstances in >!ic! one >ould resort to 3iolence in con/ronting t!e stateD and t!ose in >!ic! all one can and s!ould do is use Mmoc+ing satire and /eat!er dustersLQ 0!e am6iguit.co.!ersel/G it >as @lair "more t!an 8a?or# >!o trul.it opposes. E3en 8aoLs attemptD in t!e Cultural 2e3olutionD to >ipe out t!e traces o/ capitalismD ended up in its triump!ant return.u+73297n227CiCe01X.re/ocusing t!e /ield o/ struggle on e3er-da. In t!e =KD t!e 0!atc!er re3olution >asD at t!e timeD c!aotic and impulsi3eD mar+ed 6.is so all<encompassing t!at not!ing can reall.demandingL call /or ?ustice: no state can !eed t!is callD since its ultimate goal is t!e Mreal<politicalL one o/ ensuring its o>n reproduction "its economic gro>t!D pu6lic sa/et-D etc#. 0!e response o/ some critics on t!e postmodern (e/t to t!is predicament is to call /or a ne> politics o/ resistance. So >!at s!ouldD sa-D t!e =S Democrats doQ Stop competing /or state po>er and >it!dra> to t!e interstices o/ t!e stateD lea+ing state po0er to the . 0!e main argument /or conducting t!e politics o/ resistance at a distance /rom t!e state !inges on t!e et!ical dimension o/ t!e Min/initel. 9rD it accepts t!at t!e !egemon.7 i/ it is impossi-le to a-olish it %or capitalism&7 0h.@lair >!o >as a6le to institutionalise itD orD in . 0!is isD o/ courseD t!e o63erse o/ accepting t!e triump! o/ capitalism.is !a6ituall.epu-licans and start a campaign o/ anarc!ic resistance to itQ .social democrac-. 9rD it >agers t!at one can repeat at t!e postmodern le3el t!e classical 8arxist gesture o/ enacting t!e Mdeterminate negationL o/ capitalism: >it! toda-Ls rise o/ Mcogniti3e >or+LD t!e contradiction 6et>een social production and capitalist relations !as 6ecome star+er t!an e3erD rendering possi6le /or t!e /irst time Ma6solute democrac-L "t!is >ould 6e .t!e most explosi3e de3elopment o/ capitalism in !istor-D and /rom t!e gro>t! o/ 1est European 0!ird 1a.>it!dra>ing /rom its terrain and creating ne> spaces outside its control.or Minstrumental reasonL. retreat /rom itW @h.narc!ic political resistance s!ould not see+ to mimic and mirror t!e arc!ic 3iolent so3ereignt.God can sa3e us. WetD as t!e !istor.(e/t.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 223 '//irmati+e – 'lternati+e Dails :he alternati+e5s 0ithdra0al /rom the state /ails to attac* capitalism – onl.o/ t!e struggle.

0!e lesson !ere is t!at t!e trulsu63ersi3e t!ing is not to insist on Min/initeL demands >e +no> t!ose in po>er cannot /ul/il.it is seen to 6e. @hat should 0e sa. In compliance >it! t!is logicD t!e anarc!ic agents /ocus t!eir protest not on open dictators!ipsD 6ut on t!e !-pocris. to someone li*e ChZ+e. pre+ent the alread.using t!e AeneCuelan state apparatuses to promote !is goals.+no> t!at >e +no> itD suc! an Min/initel.case o/ t!is strange s-m6iotic relations!ip 6et>een po>er and resistance.limit onesel/ to a politics >!ic!D as Critc!leputs itD Mcalls t!e state into Fuestion and calls t!e esta6lis!ed order to accountD not in order to do a>a. =n/ortunatel-D >e li3e in t!e real >orldD >!ere >e !a3e to ma+e do >it! >!at is possi6le.8exican le/tists no> re/er to as MSu6comediante 8arcosLQ 0oda-D it is t!e great capitalists – @ill GatesD corporate pollutersD /ox !unters – >!o MresistL t!e state. 222 .o/ li6eral democraciesD >!o are accused o/ 6etra-ing t!eir o>n pro/essed principles.t!e postmodern (e/t: /ar /rom resisting state po>erD !e gra66ed it "/irst 6. 0!ose in po>er calml. Critc!le-Ls anarc!ic et!ico<political agent acts li+e a superegoD com/orta6l.not accept t!e 6asic premise o/ t!e 0!ird 1a-Q 1!.accepted itD e3en pro/ited /rom it: not onl.o>e3erD t!is c!oiceD t!oug! ris+-D s!ould 6e /ull.ugo C!o3eC !as em6ar+ed since 200$ is t!e exact opposite o/ t!e one c!osen 6. 0!e protesters sa3ed t!eir 6eauti/ul souls: t!e.demandingL attitude presents no pro6lem /or t!ose in po>er: MSo >onder/ul t!atD >it! -our critical demandsD -ou remind us >!at +ind o/ >orld >e >ould all li+e to li3e in.6om6arding t!e state >it! demandsG and t!e more t!e state tries to satis/.an attempted coupD t!en democraticall-#D rut!lessl. 0!us George @us!Ls reaction to mass demonstrations protesting !is 3isit to (ondonD in e//ect: MWou seeD t!is is >!at >e are /ig!ting /orD so t!at >!at people are doing !ere – protesting against t!eir go3ernment polic. 5urt!ermoreD !e is militarising t!e 6arriosD and organising t!e training o/ armed units t!ere.– >ill 6e possi6le also in IraF^L It is stri+ing t!at t!e course on >!ic! .>ell<selectedD preciseD /inite demandsD >!ic! canLt 6e met >it! t!e same excuse. E3en some o/ !is allies are sceptical a6out t!is mo3e: >ill it come at t!e expense o/ t!e popular mo3ements t!at !a3e gi3en t!e AeneCuelan re3olution its NlanQ ./unction not as a t-pical state socialist "or 4eronist# part-D 6ut as a 3e!icle /or t!e mo6ilisation o/ ne> /orms o/ politics "li+e t!e grass roots slum committees#. Since t!e.>it! t!e stateD desira6le t!oug! t!at mig!t >ell 6e in some utopian senseD 6ut in order to 6etter it or attenuate its malicious e//ect LQ 0!ese >ords simpl.made it clear t!at t!e.ndD t!e ultimate scare: no> t!at !e is /eeling t!e economic e//ects o/ capitalLs MresistanceL to !is rule "temporar.Cmade decision to attac* Ira?J the.demandingL anarc!ic politics exist in a relations!ip o/ mutual parasitism: anarc!ic agents do t!e et!ical t!in+ingD and t!e state does t!e >or+ o/ running and regulating societ-.t!ese demandsD t!e more guilt.L 0!e t!ing to do isD on t!e contrar-D to 6om6ard t!ose in po>er >it! strategicall. 0!e 6ig demonstrations in (ondon and 1as!ington against t!e =S attac+ on IraF a /e> -ears ago o//er an exemplar. did the protests in no 0a. also ser+ed to legitimise it.demonstrate t!at toda-Ls li6eral<democratic state and t!e dream o/ an Min/initel.donLt agree >it! t!e go3ernmentLs polic.on IraF.W M oD do not gra6 state po>erD ?ust >it!dra>D lea3e t!e state and t!e current situation in placeLQ C!o3eC is o/ten dismissed as a clo>n – 6ut >ouldnLt suc! a >it!dra>al ?ust reduce !im to a 3ersion o/ Su6comandante 8arcosD >!om man.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 222 0ith%in& the stateW 1!.endorsed: t!e tas+ is to ma+e t!e ne> part. . 0!eir paradoxical outcome >as t!at 6ot! sides >ere satis/ied .s!ortages o/ some goods in t!e state<su6sidised supermar+ets#D !e !as announced plans to consolidate t!e 2) parties t!at support !im into a single part-.

Class action is made possi6le 6.and >ell<6eing in t!e coming -ears and decades.ex!austs t!e lists o/ t!reats to our securit.studies o/ t!e relations!ip 6et>een economic de3elopment and !uman rig!tsD (andman also /inds t!at Jeconomic de3elopment Yusuall.democratic /as!ion do not go to >ar >it! one anot!er.3oluntarist: it arises onl.capitalist\ does not en!ance directl.ur6aniCation and t!e concentration o/ population.uman 2ig!ts (eap/rogging in t!e Era o/ Glo6aliCationD. 0!at inter3ening 3aria6le is class action and organiCation.are 6etter 6ets to !onor international treaties since t!e.al Societ.are associated >it! or aggra3ated 6.JcleanseJ t!eir o>n populationsD and t!e. turn '( Capitalism is *e.are muc! less li+el. J4olitical /reedoms "in t!e /orm o/ /ree speec! and elections# !elp to promote economic securit-.dependent on t!e /ree agenc.do not aggress against t!eir neig!6ors to aggrandiCe t!emsel3es or glori/.J %1 2uesc!eme-erD Step!ensD and 9ne piece o/ good ne>sD !o>e3erD is t!at Step!ensH anal-sis con/irms SenHs assertion t!at de3elopment depends on !uman agenc-: t!e Jac!ie3ement o/ de3elopment is t!oroug!l. o/ Canada7 0" "2!oda E. 0!e.?!u.org7su67pu6s7deadl-7dia9*X01./reedoms are particularl.6. 0!e.uman 2ig!ts Uuarterl-D 200*D !ttp:77muse.t!eir leaders.do not 6uild >eapons o/ mass destruction to use on or to t!reaten one anot!er.carnegie.t!e >ea+ness or a6sence o/ democrac-D >it! its pro3isions /or legalit-D accounta6ilit-D popular so3ereignt-D and openness. 2uesc!eme-erD Step!ensD and Step!ens set t!emsel3es t!e tas+ o/ determining !o>D and under >!at structural conditionsD social mo3ements /or production# can !elp to generate personal a6undance as >ell as pu6lic resources /or social /acilities.trans/ormations in social organiCationD especiall./or t!e su6ordinated classes to >rest democrac. 2uesc!me-erD Step!ensD and Step!ens !a3e YEnd 4age 2)\ s!o>n t!e connection 6et>een capitalism and democrac-: capitalism is a necessar-D t!oug! not su//icientD prereFuisite /or democrac-.o/ people. and Dello0 o/ the .to e//ect suc! a correlation.J%& @ut t!e democrac.and prosperit.can 6e 6uilt. to pre+ent extinction (arrDiamond199*D sta//D :4romoting Democrac!ttp:77>>>.arose./rom t!e po>er/ul.assmannD . . In t!e /ormer Wugosla3ia nationalist aggression 0!e /lo> o/ illegal drugs intensi/ies t!roug! increasinglpo>er/ul international crime s-ndicates t!at !a3e made common cause >it! aut!oritarian regimes and !a3e utterl.!tml lexis tears at t!e sta6ilit. 0!e. 5reedoms o/ di//erent +inds can strengt!en one anot!er. Democrac. . 0!e.endangered. (ESS9 S 95 0.ut!orD Canada 2esearc! C!air in Glo6al Studies and 4olitical Science at 1il/rid (aurier =ni3ersit.relia6le /oundation on >!ic! a ne> >orld order o/ international securit.!tml# almost all countries o/ t!e >orld no> accept capitalism. 229 . 1o0ardC1assmann7 'uthor7 Canada . 4( Democrac.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 229 '//irmati+e C Democrac.o//er 6etter and more sta6le climates /or in3estment.edu7?ournals7!umanXrig!tsXFuarterl-7302%72%.source o/ li/e on Eart!D t!e glo6al ecos-stemD appears increasingl.J%2 4articipator.o.D 9ctD p.corrupted t!e institutions o/ tenuousD democratic ones.and 5ello> o/ t!e 2o-al Societ.to >!ic! 2uesc!eme-erD Step!ens and Step!ens re/er is not purel. Democracies do not sponsor terrorism against one anot!er.must ans>er to t!eir o>n citiCensD >!o organiCe to protest t!e destruction o/ t!eir en3ironments.D 2uesc!eme-erD Step!ensD and Step!ens assertD is Ja6o3e all a matter o/ po>erJ:%) it is necessar.importantD sa-s Sen.o//ers important lessons.%0 @ot! Fuantitati3e and Fualitati3e studies /inding a correlation 6et>een capitalism and democrac. In t!e long run t!e. to democrac. is *e. Democratic go3ernments do not et!nicall. Democratic countries /orm more relia6leD openD and enduring trading partners!ips. 8ost o/ t!ese ne> and uncon3entional t!reats to securit.o/ CanadaD :0!e Second Great 0rans/ormation: . 0!is results in t!e emergence o/ ci3il societ. 0!e.spread.also s!o> t!at an inter3ening 3aria6le is necessar. in t!e 1990Ls.to /ace et!nic insurgenc-. 0!e 3er.to organiCe.3alue legal o6ligations and 6ecause t!eir openness ma+es it muc! more di//icult to 6reac! agreements in secret. online: 0!is !ardl.as a counter>eig!t to state po>er. In a re3ie> o/ man.6ecause D >it!in t!eir o>n 6ordersD t!e- respect competitionD ci3il li6ertiesD propert. Social opportunities "in t!e /orm o/ education and !ealt! /acilities# /acilitate economic participation.E 01E 0IE0.complex seFuencesOrooted in t!e actual !istorical experiences o/ 3arious countriesOt!at resulted in su6ordinate YEnd 4age 2*\ social classesH de3eloping t!e capacit. Countries t!at go3ern t!emsel3es in a trul. Economic /acilities "in t!e /orm o/ opportunities /or participation in trade and class action and !uman agenc.rig!tsD and t!e rule o/ la>D democracies are t!e onl.o/ Europe and could easil.impro3ements in education and communicationD and 6. 4recisel.responsi6le 6ecause t!e.1!o>ard<!assmann.are more en3ironmentall.o>ard<.re/erred to t!e man.political or ci3il rig!tsDJ 6ut t!at Jsocial mo6iliCation !as a direct relations!ip >it! t!e expansion and contraction o/ political and ci3il rig!ts. uclearD c!emicalD and 6iological >eapons continue to proli/erate. CE 0=2W 0!e experience o/ t!is centur.esearch Chair in Glo-al Studies and 8olitical Science at @il/rid )aurier Ani+ersit.i/ t!e structural conditions are appropriate.

t!e strongest glo6al econom.% percent /rom 19$0 to 19'0..aspx# G(9@. .in gro>t!D >it! t!e /astest< and second</astest<gro>ing ma?or economies in t!e >orld.com7ga7de/ault. in de+eloping countries( :he Ea*land :ri-uneD B03 "0!e 9a+land 0ri6une Sta// 1riterD Septem6er 200%D 0!e 9a+land 0ri6une :Glo6al Capitalism Sa3es t!e C!ildren. C!ina and India !a3e led t!e >a.>orld>ide economic 6oom. Suc! gro>t! in de3eloping countries is t!e result o/D according to t!e 1orld @an+D J /urt!er integration into >orld mar+etsD 6etter /unctioning internal mar+ets and rising demand /or man.all meansD letHs sa3e t!e >orld O !elp it gro>. 1!en a de3eloping countr.commenda6leD 6ut >e canHt ignore t!e main e3ent. drops O pla-ed a roleD 6ut t!e most important /actor in t!is glo6al good<ne>s stor.4aulson calls it J/ar and a>a.a6out t!e deleterious second<order e//ects O pollutionD etc. 1!en a goateed anarc!o<s-ndicalist commits an act o/ 3andalism at an anti<glo6aliCation protestD !e mig!t t!in+ t!at !eHs stri+ing a 6lo> against 0!e 8anD 6ut !eHs reall.J In 1990D 1.2* 6illion people li3ed on less t!an m1 a da-.uplands o/ sustained economic de3elopmentD >e can >orr. 8illions die e3er-ear /rom diseases associated >it! contaminated >ater and poor sanitation./alling po3ert.is gro>ing at a * percent clipD !ig!er t!an t!e & percent o/ t!e period /rom 19$0 to 19'0 and t!e ).J 0!e glo6al econom.ation and Capitalism are *e. 0!is is all 3er.commodities .Secretar.IH3e seen in m.to !a3e access to clean >ater and to sanitation.gets ric!erD it means t!at people li3ing t!ere are less li+el.9 percent gro>t! since 2000D contri6uting Jto rapidl.places around t!e >orldD !o>e3erD economic gro>t! is still a matter o/ li/e and deat!. !ttp:77glo6al. India !as seen its mortalit. 0reasur. .o/ t!e same name O mig!t 6e Jsa3e t!e c!ildren. (ac+ o/ pota6le >ater and sanitation O roug!l.J ItHs ne3er too late to /ind oneD and a good candidate O >it! apologies to t!e international c!arit.J In s!ort: glo6aliCation and capitalism. @.IDS and ot!er diseases in t!e 0!ird 1orld recentl-.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2 0 '//irmati+e C 8o+ert. 2 0 ..( capitalism !as long lac+ed /or a ringing slogan li+e J>or+ers o/ t!e >orld unite. In too man.rall-ing against t!e c!ance some desperatel. Glo-ali. In a >orld>ide instance o/ tric+le<do>n economicsD t!e gro>t! is diminis!ing t!e ran+s o/ t!e poor. O o/ gro>t!.or girl !as to li3e a !ealt!ier li/e. recent article in t!e ?ournal (ancet concluded t!at Jundernutrition is t!e underl-ing cause o/ a su6stantial proportion o/ all c!ild deat!s. to the glo-al eradication o/ po+ert. Go3ernmentsD p!ilant!ropists and acti3ists !a3e 6een pouring massi3e resources into /ig!ting .J 8alnutrition >ea+ens a c!ildHs immune s-stem and ma+es !im more suscepti6le to diarr!eaD malariaD pneumonia and ot!er diseases.rates in all de3eloping regions o3er t!e past /e> -ears. @etter practices to protect against disease and to en!ance nutrition O more 3accinations and mosFuito netsD more 6reast</eeding and 3itamin .on a 3ast scale /or centuries are 6ecoming more li3a6le. :urn %1G2& .ccording to t!e 1orld @an+D de3eloping countries !a3e a3eraged &.rates !ad /allen as part o/ an extraordinar.is economic gro>t!.enr.6usiness li/etime./acti3a.to 6e malnouris!ed and O as in/rastructure impro3es O more li+el. 0!is is a 6oon to !ealt!. C!ina accounted /or almost all t!e recent drop in people li3ing on less t!an m1 a da-D experiencing a decline o/ &00 million since 1990.rate /or c!ildren under t!e age o/ * decline /rom 12& per 1D000 in 1990 to %) in 200*.J 0!e =nited ations C!ildrenHs 5und ?ust announced t!at deat!s o/ -oung c!ildren >orld>ide !it an all<time lo>D /alling 6eneat! 10 million annuall-. 0!usD >!at !a3e 6een sin+s o/ !uman miser.1 6illion people lac+ clean >aterD and 2 6illion lac+ sanitation O also increases t!e ris+ o/ illnessD o63iousl-.poor little 6o. It is no coincidence t!at as = ICE5 >as reporting t!e drop in c!ild mortalit-D t!e 1orld @an+ >as reporting glo6al po3ert. @ecause >e in t!e 1est !a3e reac!ed t!e sunn. In 200)D less t!an a 6illion didD e3en t!oug! >orld population increased 20 percent in t!e interim.

o/ t!ose caused 6. Structural 3iolence di//ers /rom 6e!a3ior 3iolence in at least t!ree ma?or respects.o/ 3iolence needs to 6egin >it! a loo+ at t!e structural 3iolence in t!is countr-. KStructural 3iolence operates more or less independentl.insane must 6egin >it! t!e recognition t!at t!ese institutions are onl. 0!e Fuestion as to >!ic! o/ t!e t>o /orms o/ 3iolence – structural or 6e!a3ioral – is more importantD dangerousD or let!al is mootD /or t!e.o/ 3iolenceD especiall.signi/icant scale "/rom !omicide and suicide to >ar and genocide#.prisons and !ospitals /or t!e criminall.lcoc+ attempted to arri3e at t!e num6er o/ excess deat!s caused 6.in income and li3ing standardsD and t!e lo>est discrepancies in deat! rates and li/e expectanc-G and t!e !ig!est o3erall li/e expectanc.cademic .at t!e .approac! to a t!eor.people die 6ecause o/ relati3e po3ert. In ot!er >ordsD e3er.and political 3iolenceD suc! as 1orld 1ar II "an estimated )9 million militar. 0!e /inding t!at structural 3iolence causes /ar more deat!s t!an 6e!a3ioral 3iolence does is not limited to t!is countr-.gainst Wout! AiolenceD JAiolence: 9ur Deadl.t!e aCi genocide o/ t!e Pe>s o3er a six<-ear period.on t!ose relati3el. During t!e past decadeD t!e discrepancies 6et>een t!e ric! and poor nations !a3e increased dramaticall.t>o millionD 19*)<19%&#D and e3en a !-pot!etical nuclear exc!ange 6et>een t!e =. 0!is isD in e//ectD t!e eFui3alent o/ an ongoingD unendingD and acceleratingD t!ermonuclear >arD or genocideD perpetrated on t!e >ea+ and poor e3er. 0!e 1) to 19 million deat!s a -ear caused 6structural 3iolence compare >it! a6out 100D000 deat!s per -ear /rom armed con/lict.are not >!ere t!e ma?or 3iolence in our societ.S.Jstructural 3iolenceJ I mean t!e increased rates o/ deat!D and disa6ilit. 0!e let!al e//ects o/R structural 3iolence operate continuousl-D rat!er t!an sporadicall-D >!ereas murdersD suicidesD executionsD >arsD and ot!er /orms o/ 6e!a3ioral 3iolence occur one at a time.Epidemic and its CausesJD p.related to eac! ot!erD as cause to e//ect.ar3ard 8edical Sc!oolD Director o/ t!e Center /or t!e Stud. Comparing t!is /reFuenco/ deat!s /rom structural 3iolence to t!e /reFuenc. is an ongoing thermonuclear 0ar against the poor GI))IG'$ 9# "PamesD 4ro/essor o/ 4s-c!iatr.large proportion o/ t!em# are a /unction o/ class structureG and t!at structure itsel/ is a product o/ societ-Hs collecti3e !uman c!oicesD concerning !o> to distri6ute t!e collecti3e >ealt! o/ t!e societ-.>!ic! I mean t!e non< natural deat!s and in?uries t!at are caused 6.indi3idual terms is impossi6le and >rong<!eaded.ta+es placeD and t!e perpetrators >!o /ill t!em are /ar /rom 6eing t!e main causes o/ most 3iolent deat!s.compared t!e li/e expectancies o/ t!ose li3ing in t!e ot!er socioeconomic s-stems against S>edenD t!e.>it!out realiCing t!at tr-ing to understand t!em and t!eir 3iolent 6e!a3ior in purel. "2&2 million#D it is clear t!at e3en >ar cannot 6egin to compare >it! structural 3iolenceD >!ic! continues -ear a/ter -ear.microcosms. 191<19$# 0!e deadliest /orm o/ 3iolence is po3ert-./ound t!at 1' million deat!s a -ear could 6e attri6uted to t!e Jstructural 3iolenceJ to >!ic! t!e citiCens o/ all t!e ot!er nations >ere 6eing su6?ected .and ci3ilian deat!sD including t!ose 6.Council o/ t!e ational Campaign . . ot a da. 1!en t!e.2. @.and discrimination t!at c!aracteriCes t!eir li3es. 2 1 .ne3ert!eless !a3e let!al conseFuences /or ot!ers.decadeD t!roug!out t!e >orld.appear to !a3e !ad ot!er "natural or 3iolent# causes.ma?or militar.o/ indi3idual actsG independent o/ indi3iduals and groups "politiciansD political partiesD 3oters# >!ose decisions ma.S.and epidemiologicall.t!eor.d3isor.a ps-c!ological t!eor-D t!at e3ol3es /rom t!e experience o/ men in maximum securit.genocide – or a6out eig!t million per -earD 19&9<19)*#D t!e Indonesian massacre o/ 19$*<$$ "per!aps *%*D000 deat!s#D t!e Aietnam >ar "possi6l. 5ocusing merel.t!ose >!o are a6o3e t!em.o/ t!e >orld.S.goes 6.lo> deat! rates experienced 6. :urn %2G2& 4( 8o+ert.su//ered 6.insane >it!out 6eing /orci6le and constantl./e> men >!o commit >!at >e de/ine as murder could distract us /rom examining and learning /rom t!ose structural causes o/ 3iolent deat! t!at are /or more signi/icant /rom a numerical or pu6lic !ealt!D or !umanD standpoint./i/teen -earsD on t!e a3erageD as man. I am contrasting JstructuralJ >it! J6e!a3ioral 3iolenceDJ 6. S>eden >as t!eir model o/ t!e nation t!at !ad come closest to eliminating structural 3iolence.and alarmingl-.t!ose >!o occup. Structural 3iolence is also t!e main cause o/ 6e!a3ioral 3iolence on a sociall.n.speci/ic 6e!a3ioral actions o/ indi3iduals against indi3idualsD suc! as t!e deat!s >e attri6ute to !omicideD suicideD soldiers in >ar/areD capital punis!mentD and so on.n.as >ould 6e +illed 6. Ko!ler and .>it! t!e 3iolent people >!o /ill our prisons and mental !ospitals /or t!e criminall.t!e 6ottom rungs o/ societ-D as contrasted >it! t!e relati3el.socioeconomic ineFuities on a >orld>ide 6asis. Wou cannot >or+ /or one da.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2 1 '//irmati+e C 8o+ert. 0!ese are not acts o/ God. KStructural 3iolence is normallin3isi6leD 6ecause it ma.earing a6out t!eir li3esD and a6out t!eir /amilies and /riendsD -ou are /orced to recogniCe t!e trut! in Gand!iHs o6ser3ation t!at t!e deadliest /orm o/ 3iolence is po3ert-. and t!e =. .reminded o/ t!e extreme po3ert. 0!ose excess deat!s "or at least a demonstra6l. 0!e.are inextrica6l.o/ AiolenceD and a mem6er o/ t!e .-ear o/ e3er. It !ad t!e least ineFuit. .

"See . http://www. 0!e up>ard trend line s!o>s ric!er nations gro>ing more rapidl.5is!er "200&#D >e can see t!e gro>t! rates o/ nations in 5igure $D unaccounted /or population siCe. Since 19'0D more t!an 200 million people !a3e mo3ed a6o3e t!e po3ertt!res!old measure.real possi6ilit. 5rom t!e >or+ o/ Stanle. 2006.org/capitalism/introduction/index. @alton7 4ro/essor Emeritus o/ Economics at t!e =ni3ersit.siaD >!ere institutional economic c!ange !as 6een nota6leD populous C!ina and no> India are /ollo>ing . Davis and President.on a3erage t!an poorer nations. %1& Cap is *e.ppendix 2 /or a static ran+ing o/ countries 6. to sol+e po+ert. Professor Emeritus of Economics. 5igure %D !o>e3erD magni/ies t!e dots according to population siCeD re3ealing a do>n>ard trendD a catc!ing up.o/ Cali/orniaD Da3is7 200#( (Gary M Walton.design or lac+ o/ opportunit-D !a3e not glo6aliCed is stri+ing. 0!is positi3e conclusion reFuires ela6oration 6ecause it rests on 6ot! actual gro>t! rates and population siCe.integrated s-stems. Especiall.t!e ad3anced7ric! nationsD e3en as t!e less glo6aliCed /all /art!er 6e!ind.siaD especiall.in . In contrastD t!e num6er o/ poor people in .ong KongD SingaporeD PapanD 0ai>anD and Sout! Korea out o/ po3ert-.html) 2ecent declines in t!e num6er o/ t!e >orldLs poor are primaril. 0!e /aster gro>t! rates o/ nations entering into t!e >orld mar+et s-stem is positi3e ne>sD !olding out t!e 3er.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2 2 '//irmati+e C Cap sol+es po+ert.o/ poorer nations :catc!ing up. 0!e polic. E3idence on t!e economic gro>t! e//ects o/ expansi3e mar+ets and integration into >orld exc!ange is gi3en in 5igure * >!ic! s!o>s t!e p!enomenal gro>t! rate o/ economies t!at !a3e mo3ed a>a./rica continues to gro>D as insecure propert.s!i/ts allo>ing pri3ate !oldings o/ land in C!ina and greater /reedom to create commercial enterprises to produce and exc!ange goods are re3olutioniCing li/e t!ere.fte.rig!ts and >ea+ regimes o/ la> and order discourage in3estmentD productionD and exc!ange t!roug!out muc! o/ t!e continent.measures o/ openness to international trade./rom centrall-<plannedD closed economic s-stemsD to openD glo6all. to t!e material com/orts en?o-ed 6. Foundation for Teaching Economics.# 0!e comparison to 6ot! ad3anced ric! nations and to t!ose >!ic!D 6. University of California.a result o/ institutional impro3ements in . 2 2 .in C!ina and India.

@ut t!e current pus! /or sociall.to>ards pro/its O man.currentl.lsoD t!eir p!ilant!ropic programs are muc! more li+el.o/ e//orts to create sociall. It is nota6leD !o>e3erD t!at some &0 percent o/ t!e responses to t!e Fuestion as+ing a6out 6usiness goals indicate t!at some companies are tr-ing to reac! 3er. .t>o<t!irds sa. .conscious /irmsD t!e Mcreati3e capitalismL @ill Gates tal+ed a6out at t!is -earLs 1orld Economic 5orum.citiCensD a pattern t!at !as 6een repeated /rom railroads to /ood processing to p!armaceuticals.released a sur3e.conscious companies. 2egulation occurs >!en industries cause !arm to ordinar. Certainl.in pursuing certain +inds o/ corporate p!ilant!rop-.a role in determining /unding /or p!ilant!ropic programs.t!e.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2 '//irmati+e C Cap pre+ents po+ert.o/ corporate p!ilant!rop.treat t!e >or+ing sti// to dunning t!em /or !o> t!e.e >as also a 200% 0empleton<Cam6ridge Pournalism 5ello> in Science and 2eligionD 5e6ruar. %2& Capitalism has turned companies into helping the need.conscious 6usiness goes /urt!er O >!at >e expect /rom companies seems to 6e s!i/tingD to somet!ing more !olistic t!an pro3iding a /e> ?o6s /or communities.2%t!D 200' E ':0$ pmD !ttp:776logs.treat t!e >orld. .on pro/its.no> engage in some /orm o/ p!ilant!rop-D /or instanceD and t!ere is a 6urgeoning e//ort to de3elop muc! more sociall.doD compared >it! ?ust under !al/ o/ all respondents. In t!at 3einD 8cKinse. 2espondents /rom companies >it! t!ese goals are li+elier t!an ot!ers to sa.6net.to address at least some o/ t!e social and political issues rele3ant to t!eir 6usinessesG nearl.>e in t!e media seem to !a3e s!i/ted /rom dunning companies /or !o> t!e. and CI9. more due to consumer demand( Dit. In /actD most companies /ollo> a s!i/ting strateg.ttracting talent leads to pensions and !ealt! 6ene/its and ot!er per+s.com76usiness<6oo+s7QpR1*) Do corporations exist solel.to maximiCe t!eir 6ottom linesQ 1e donLt t!in+ soD a post t!at dre> /rom a 5or6es article loo+ing at t!e !istor. 2 .6usiness concerns s!ould pla.concrete goalsD suc! as 6uilding +no>ledge a6out potential ne> mar+ets and in/orming areas o/ inno3ation .gerald7 >riter /or 6usiness net>or+7 2002 8ic!ael 5itCgeraldD !as 6een pu6lis!ed in t!e e> Wor+ 0imesD 0!e EconomistD 5ast Compan-D Inc. In one senseD t!is is old ne>s O companies !a3e al>a-s !ad pressure not to /ocus purel."/ree registration reFuired# t!at suggests t!at 6usinesses see real opportunit.

come at t!e expense o/ t!e alleged !umanitarianHs Jmig!t.nd t!e reasons /or all o/ t!is areD to t!e protesters c!agrinD none ot!er t!an capitalismD glo6aliCation and /ree trade./ell more t!an 20 percent 6et>een 1990 and 1999D a decade o/ aggressi3e glo6aliCation. WetD t!is is precisel.uman De3elopment 2eport. stud/rom t!e Institute /or International Studies 6oasts e3en more good ne>s.2 parap!rase I t!in+D need to c!ec+. 0!e num6er o/ >orld Internet users is expected to dou6le 6.!tm Capitalism did not create po3ert-D 6ut it in!erited it.rates !a3e dropped /rom 9$ deat!s per 1D000 li3e 6irt!s to ?ust *$.@al+oD >riter /or 5ox ne>sD 10<9<02 !ttp:77>>>. @!allaD emplo-ed accounting statistics 6ased on indi3idual incomes instead o/ national incomesD >!ic! allo>ed !im to more accuratel.measure >ealt! and po3ert.sia and t!e 4aci/ic regions./oxne>s. .democraticD t!e !ig!est percentage in !uman !istor-. In a capitalist countr-D t!e onl.200* to one 6illion. .elections. In ten -earsD po3ert.( Capitalism(org7 >riters >rite a pu6lis!ed magaCine7 200!( Capitalism.J 0!e report in/orms us t!at as o/ 2002D 1)0 o/ t!e >orld is 200 countries << %0 percent << no> !old multi<part. 5ar /rom 6eing a cause o/ po3ert-D laisseC</aire capitalism is t!e onl.\ Since all men are /ree to create >ealt! under capitalismD no one is /orced into po3ert-D as in non<capitalist countries.poor are t!ose >!o c!oose to remain so o/ t!eir o>n /ree<>ill "suc! as man. % & Capitalism is not the cause o/ po+ert. Since 1990D '00 million people !a3e gained ne> access to impro3ed >ater suppliesD and %*0 million to impro3ed sanitation.in >!ic! totalitarianism << aCismD /ascism and communism << +illed more t!an 1%0 million peopleD a clear mo3e to>ard uni3ersal political /reedom is a/oot. Eig!t-<t>o countries representing *% percent o/ t!e !uman population are /ull.t!an t!e =.rates.( 4al*o7 0riter /or Dox $e0s7 2002J 2andl. 0!e aut!or o/ t!at stud-D Sur?it S. 96ser3e t!at t!e /reedom t!at a ric! man needs to maintain and add to !is >ealt!D is t!e same /reedom a poor man needs to create !is >ealt! << and t!e creation o/ >ealt! /or 6ot!D !as t!e same root << reason.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2 ! '//irmati+e C Cap pre+ents po+ert.rate !as declined e3en more dramaticall.org7index.orgD Capitalism 8agaCine is a pri3ate J/or<pro/itJ >e6site o>ned 6.o/ t!e J6ac+ to natureJ t-pes >!o >is! to li3e li+e !ippies#.!a3e t!e interests o/ t!e poor in mind.!tml 1orld po3ert.Keep in mind t!at t!e moral ?usti/ication o/ capitalism is not t!e it ser3es t!e Jneeds o/ t!e man-JD 6ut t!at it protects t!e rig!ts o/ e3er. to sol+e po+ert. reportsD /rom )) percent in 19'0 to ?ust 1& percent in 2000.is t!e 2002 edition o/ t!e =nited ations annual J. Capitalism is not egalitarianD nor JcompassionateJG Capitalism is ?ust.reFuirement o/ reason /rom t!e state is entirel. 2 ! . . 0!e onl. -ut the solution /or po+ert./ter a centur. In t!ose regions o/ t!e >orld most s-mpat!etic to li6eral re/ormD t!e ne>s is e3en 6etter. Income gaps are narro>ing. 0!e /irst stud. In t!e last &0 -earsD in/ant mortalit.capitalism.com7stor-70D29&&D$*2%'D00. 0!e num6ers on >orld economics are goodD too. @!alla concludes t!at t!e >orld po3ert.singular in principle: /reedomD t!at isD t!e 6anis!ment o/ t!e initiation o/ /orce /rom all social relations!ips.@a!amas 2000D (td.solution to sol3ing it.indi3idual << in particularD it protects t!e indi3idual /rom t!e Jman-J "ma?orit-#.is do>n.J J0!ose !umanitarians >!o claim to !elp t!e poorD 6ut oppose capitalismD do not reall. .J Y. 0a. 4u6lis!edD 200)D !ttp:77>>>.t!e /reedom t!at t!e J!umanitariansJ do not >is! to gi3e eit!er o/ t!emD since t!is Jrig!tJ to /reedom and li6ert-D can onl. @!alla attri6utes t!e decline to progress in C!ina and IndiaD t!e t>o most populous nations in t!e >orldD and t>o nations t!at !a3e made signi/icant mo3es to>ard more economic /reedom in t!e last 20 -ears. Capitalism is the onl.!al3ed in in East . 1orld po3ert.

1estern companies in t!e poorest countries pat!eir >or+ersD on a3erageD t>ice >!at t!e corresponding nati3e /irms pa-.are li+el. Capitalism is /reedomOand /reedom leads to prosperit-. 0!e >idespread 3ie> to do somet!ingD an-t!ingD to 6oost t!e econom-D ma.merica.t!in+ 0.t!e/reemanonline. :0!e go3ernment !as o3erridden contracts and re>arded man./ter t>o centuries o/ capitalismD '0 -ears o/ socialismD and a millennium o/ /eudalismD t!e contest is o3er and t!e scores are on t!e 6oard. 8ost importantD >or+ers voluntarily see+ suc! emplo-mentD and unli+e t!e repressi3e go3ernmentsD t!ese pri3ate companies !a3e no legal rig!t to initiate /orce against t!em. It is not surprising t!at during t!e capitalist epoc!D roug!l.o/ m$%0D >!ic! is dou6le t!e countr-Ls per capita GD4.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2 " '//irmati+e C Cap pre+ents po+ert. %!& Capitalism leads to a countries prosperit.1'20 to t!e presentD t!e /ree countries o/ >estern Europe and ort! .com7streettal+7capitalismX>or+s7200970&720719)&00.anti<capitalist ideologuesOpa-s an a3erage salar.note.ne0s(com7 2009 "8ic!ael Kling !ttp:77>>>.6e expedientD t!e. C!inese and Indian incomes s+-roc+eted a/ter t!ose countries adopted mar+et<6ased re/orms. (egislators and regulators s!ould appreciate t!ose 6ene/itsD t!e. . :1!ile suc! dramatic measures ma.need to +eep to !elp get t!em out o/ trou6leD. In simple termsD t!e >orld is muc! less poor t!an it used to 6eD and t!ereLs no erasing t!ose gains. Go3ernment inter3entions !urt rat!er t!an !elp 6. 0!e moral is t!e practical.>arn. 6ill t!at >ould su6stantial increase taxes o/ emplo-ees at companies recei3ing 0.24 6an+s !a3e a gra3e ris+ o/ losing ?ust t!e people t!e.a!ead o/ t!e game compare to onl. 0!e annual minimum >age t!ere is m1&)G 6ut i+eD >!ic! o>ns Aietnamese /actoriesOmisleadingl. :I !onestl.ndre> @ernsteinD >riter /or t!e /reeman >e6site and is the author of !he Capitalist 7anifesto -8niversity *ress of .org7/eatured7glo6al<capitalism<curing<oppression<and<po3ert-7 0!e /reedom o/ t!e capitalist s-stem li6erates creati3e !uman 6rainpo>er /rom 6ondage to t!e state. 1e !a3e onl.@ec+er and Ke3in 8urp!. Capitalism is *e.or statism and miser-.24 /unding is an example o/ political expedienc-.to ma+e our c!oice. 0!e ensuing ad3ances in scienceD medicineD agricultureD tec!nolog-D and industr.3iolate t!e oat! doctors ta+e: 5irstD do no !arm.. 0!e alternati3es open to !uman 6eings are star+: /reedom and prosperit.( Kling7 0riter /or mone.mone-ne>s. to sol+e po+ert. E3en i/ t!e slo>do>n means GD4 loses ground t!is -earD as t!e 9ECD no> predictsD >eLre still >a. said 4at 1ieserD an executi3e recruiterD told 0!e 1as!ington 4ost.du66ed :s>eats!ops. 9n t!e ot!er !andD statism is oppression Oand oppression leads to destitution.o/ C!icago economists Gar.>arn.!tml# >riter /or mone-ne>s. um6ers s!o> capitalism prompted an enormous gro>t! o/ >orld>ide >ealt! in recent decades.o/ t!ose >!ose poor decisions !elped create t!e messD. t!e economists >rite.to !a3e serious ad3erse conseFuences. 0!e immoral is t!e impractical.merica sa> t!eir total economic output increase $0 timesD and per capita income gro> to 6e 1& times >!at it !ad 6een pre3iousl-. forthcoming ne5t year02 Decem6er 200&!ttp:77>>>. E3en minimal capitalist elements !a3e alread.increasing ris+ and uncertaint-D @ec+er and 8urp!.. 4olitical agendas >ill replace sound 6usiness ?udgments in go3ernment<o>ned companiesD causing distorted decision<ma+ingD t!e. 1orld real gross domestic product gre> 6. 6. E3en i/ a recession slas!es 10 percent o// >orld GD4 long<term capitalism<induced gro>t! in prosperit. 2 " . . :It proposes to o3erride e3en more contracts.in a 5inancial 0imes editorial.a6out 1)* percent 6et>een 19'0 and 200%D t!e.results in communist Aietnam.produced salutar.24 /undsD t!us crippling t!eir lending a6ilit-.a /e> -ears ago.comD &<20<09 Guess >!at: Capitalism >or+sD >rite top =ni3ersit.>arn.( 4ernstein7 >riter /or t!e /reeman >e6site7 200 .generate 3ast increases in li3ing standards and li/e expectancies.>ould 6e su6stantial. =nder t!e proposed la>D 6an+s >ould 6e /orced to ris+ losing top emplo-ees or return 0.

@ut it turns out t!at peace is good 6usiness.to encourage peace.also most stridentl. ot!ing is certain in li/eD and people are moti3ated 6. 0!e capitalist peace t!eor.isnHt ne>: 8ontesFuieu and . 0o 6elie3e is does is dangerous: 0!ereHs no panacea /or creating a con/lict</ree >orld./ar more t!an economics.J 5reeing t!ose economies is critical.09 Institute./ears /rom trumping t!e po>er o/ mar+ets .. ItHs a particularl.nd capitalism is good /or peace. 8ar+ets generate economic opportunities t!at ma+e >ar less desira6le.and sta6ilit-G tec!nological inno3ation reduces t!e /inancial 3alue o/ conFuestG glo6aliCation creates economic interdependenceD increasing t!e cost o/ >ar.is 3alueless.J GartC+e responds in detailD noting t!at !e relied on t!e same data as most democratic peace t!eorists.o>e3erD most partD t!e enemies o/ economic li6ert.to international peace. @ando> is a senior /ello> at t!e Cato institute – !e ser3ed as a special assistant to 4resident 2eaganD o3em6er 10D 200* !ttp:77>>>..not eac! ot!er.and peace remains. I/ it is true t!at democratic states donHt go to >arD t!en it also is true t!at Jstates >it! ad3anced /ree mar+et economies ne3er go to >ar >it! eac! ot!erD eit!er.p!pQpu6XidR*19&# In a >orld t!at seems constantl. In particularD poorer democracies per/orm li+e non<democracies.is conclusion !asnHt gone unc!allenged.alone doesnHt -ield peace.peopleD including =. 5ree political democrac.de3eloping countries remain /ettered 6. 2ummelD an a3id proponent o/ t!e democratic peace t!eor-D c!allenges GartC+eHs met!o+dolog. It long !as 6een o63ious t!at democracies are >illing to /ig!tD ?ust usuall. 0!usD >!ile Jdemocrac.>ell lead intelligent and polic-<>ise anal-sts and commentators to dra> t!e >rong conclusions a6out t!e importance o/ democratiCation. @ut 1orld 1ar I demonstrated t!at increased trade >as not enoug! .!a3e /reer economies t!an do aut!oritarian states. 4ositi3e economic trends are not enoug! to pre3ent >arD 6ut t!enD neit!er is democrac-.as+s: 1!at causes peaceQ 8an.!ig! le3els. .economic policies most li+el.J 0!e point is not t!at democrac. 0!at doesnHt mean t!at not!ing can 6e done. 5ree</lo>ing capital mar+ets and ot!er aspects o/ glo6aliCation simultaneousl. 0!an+/ull-D 1orld 1ar II le/t >ar essentiall.cato.n mar+ets is a /ar more important /actorD leading to >!at Colum6ia =ni3ersit-Hs Eri+ GartC+e calls a Jcapitalist peace. . 8oreo3erD sanctionsD >!ic! inter/ere >it! economic prosperit-D pro3ides a coerci3e step s!ort o/ >ar to ac!ie3e /oreign polic. 0oda-Hs corollar.unt!in+a6le among leading industrialiCed < and democratic < states.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2 # '//irmati+e – Cap leads to peace Capitalism is *e. otes GartC+e: J1ar/are among de3eloping nations >ill remain una//ected 6.J 0!at isD democracies t-picall.s!ould appreciate t!e unintended peace di3idend . Contends GartC+eD Jli6eral political s-stemsD in and o/ t!emsel3esD !a3e no impact on >!et!er states /ig!t.denounce >arD o/ten in near<paci/ist terms. 0erritorial aggrandiCement no longer pro3ides t!e 6est pat! to ric!es.S.ut!or 2.go3ernmental control.entail /ree elections and are more li+el.P.dam Smit! 6elie3ed in it. @us!D !ope t!at spreading democrac. 0!e s!i/t /rom statist mercantilism to !ig!<tec! capitalism !as trans/ormed t!e economics 6e!ind >ar.>ill discourage >ar .t!e o3erlap 6et>een economic and political /reedom.o/ @ritainHs classical li6eralsD suc! as 2ic!ard Co6den D pus!ed /ree mar+ets >!ile opposing imperialism.does not !a3e a measura6le impactD >!ile nations >it! 3er.org7pu6Xdispla-. . .t!e capitalist peace as long as t!e economies o/ man.J e3en greater con/lict /ollo>ed a generation later. Wet t!e. @ut promoting open international mar+ets < t!at isD spreading capitalism < is t!e 6est means to encourage peace as >ell as prosperit. 2 # . @ut GartC+e argues t!at Jt!e Hdemocratic peaceH is a mirage created 6.e explains: JDemocrac.important lesson /or t!e anti<capitalist le/t.ends.t!e 5raser InstituteD Jrepresentati3e go3ernments are unli+el. @ut ne> researc! suggests t!at expanding /ree ItHs a reason /or e3en t!e le/t to support /ree mar+ets. .is desira6le /or man.oppose t!e 3er. Support gre> /or t!e argumentD going 6ac+ to Immanual KantD t!at repu6lics are less >arli+e t!an ot!er s-stems.and >orries t!at it Jma. 4resident George 1.J Capitalism is 6.dra> nations toget!er and raise t!e economic price o/ militarcon/lict.to contri6ute directl. . 0rade encourages prosperit.J GartC+e considers ot!er 3aria6lesD including alliance mem6ers!ipsD nuclear deterrenceD and regional di//erences.lt!oug! t!e causes o/ con/lict 3ar-D t!e relations!ip 6et>een economic li6ert.to protect ot!er /orms o/ li6ert. to 0orld peace( 4ando07 senior /ello> at t!e Cato instituteD 200" "Doug @ando>D C.a/lameD one naturall. 5or t!e s-stems naturall. 8an.< ci3il and economicD /or instance.and /reedom < t!e.is t!at creating democracies out o/ dictators!ips >ill reduce con/lict. 0!is contention animated some support outside as >ell as inside t!e =nited States /or t!e in3asion o/ IraF. ./ar t!e more important /actor. I/ mar+et critics donHt realiCe t!e o63ious economic and p!ilosop!ical 3alue o/ mar+ets < prosperit.lo> le3els o/ economic /reedom are 1) times more prone to con/lict t!an t!ose >it! 3er.reasons DJ !e notes in a c!apter in t!e latest 3olume o/ Economic 5reedom in t!e 1orldD created 6. 0!e prospect o/ economic ruin did not pre3ent rampant nationalismD et!nic !atredD and securit.

go3erned 6.6elonged to an./rom t!e Hsoul<destro-ingH >eig!t o/ /eudalism.can pursue >ort!>!ile li3esD and t!at lies in its record o/ undermining t-rannies and dictators!ips. @ut as 8ilton 5riedman once pointed outD t!ese latter conditions are ne3er /ound in t!e a6sence o/ a /ree econom-./rom t!e crus!ing 6urden o/ p!-sical la6ourD /reeing us to pursue H!ig!erH o6?ecti3es instead. 0!e pursuit o/ pro/it t!us results in !ig!er li3ing standards /or >or+ersD as >ell as c!eaper and more plenti/ul goods and ser3ices /or consumers.pre3ious generation in !istor-. 9ne o/ Karl 8arxHs most misc!ie3ous legacies >as to suggest t!at t!is relations!ip is in!erentl.more people to li3e on Eart! and to sur3i3e /or longer t!an e3er 6e/ore.s examples li+e 4inoc!etHs C!ile and 4utinHs 2ussia 3i3idldemonstrate7 a /ree econom. In realit-D >or+ers in t!e ad3anced capitalist countries t!ri3e >!en t!eir companies increase pro/its.a necessar. In 1900D t!e a3erage li/e expectanc. 0!is is o63ious in t!e relations!ip 6et>een producers and consumersD /or pro/its generall. @./lo> to t!ose >!o anticipate >!at ot!er people >ant and t!en deli3er it at t!e least cost.in t!e poorest countries at t!e end o/ t!e t>entiet! centur.or a societ.to lead a good li/e can 6e seen in t!e spectacular reduction in le3els o/ glo6al po3ert-D 6roug!t a6out 6.-ears.and despair o>es not!ing to aging roc+stars demanding t!at >e Hma+e po3ert!istor-.it is do>n to 20T. 1orld po3ert. 0o put t!is extraordinar. Despite all t!e exaggerated tal+ o/ an Him6alanceH 6et>een >or+ and /amil. 1!ile capitalism ma.!as /allen more in t!e last /i/t. @.ac!ie3ement into perspecti3eD t!e a3erage li/e expectanc.au749(ICW7summerT200%< 0'7saundersXsummer0%.amilton airil.t!at it en!ances our capacit.t!e spread o/ capitalism on a >orld scale.istoricall-D it >as capitalism t!at deli3ered !umanit. Capitalism !as also made it possi6le /or man.ma+es more sense to approac! t!e Fuestion metap!oricallrat!er t!an t!eologicall-. @.dismisses as a Hgro>t! /etis!H !as resulted in one !our o/ >or+ toda. @ut it also !olds in t!e relations!ip 6et>een emplo-ers and emplo-ees .t!e rule o/ la>.one. 0!ere is anot!er senseD tooD in >!ic! capitalism !as /reed indi3iduals so t!e.dam Smit! t!at capitalism !arnesses sel/<interest to generate outcomes t!at 6ene/it ot!ers. In 1'20D '*T o/ t!e >orldHs population li3ed on toda-Hs eFui3alent o/ less t!an a dollar per da-. to an.must dri3e >ages do>n.does not guarantee a democratic polit.not 6e a su//icient condition o/ !uman /reedomD it is almost certainl.spends a muc! greater proportion o/ !is or !er li/etime /ree o/ >or+ t!an t!e.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2 3 '//irmati+e C Kalue to )i/e turn Capitalism is *e.8agaCine7 02 "4eter SaundersD >riter /or 4olic. 2 3 .!tml# I/ >e >ant to +no> i/ capitalism is 6ad "or good# /or t!e HsoulDH it pro6a6l.li/eD t!e a3erage . 1!at Cli3e . @. +alue to li/e 0ithout po+ert.deli3ering t>ent-</i3e times more 3alue t!an it did in 1'*0.H It is due to t!e spread o/ glo6al capitalism.8agaCineD Summer 0%<0'D !ttp:77>>>."11# 0!is dramatic reduction in !uman miser.org.7 dictatorships7 and meaningless li+es Saunders7 1riter /or 4olic.t!is !as en!anced peopleHs capacit.dri3en do>n po3ert. 1e !a3e +no>n since t!e time o/ .to li3e a good li/e.in t!e Hless de3eloped countriesH >as ?ust t!irt. (ater7 it /reed millions /rom t!e dead !and o/ totalitarian socialism.in t!e ric!est countr.in t!e >orldO@ritainOat t!e start o/ t!at centur-. .perpetuall.19$0D t!is !ad risen to /ort-<six -ears. 0!e >a.>ould !ad t!e. 0!is !as /reed !uge c!un+s o/ our time /or leisureD artD sportD learningD and ot!er Hsoul<enric!ingH pursuits.19*0D t!is proportion !ad /allen to *0[( 0oda. 9n t!is less literal and more secular interpretation o/ t!e HsoulDH capitalism /ares rat!er >ell.pproac!ed in t!is >a-D sa-ing somet!ing is Hgood /or t!e soulH implies simpl.>as /i/teen -ears longer t!an t!e a3erage li/e expectanc.ustralian toda.199'D it >as sixt-</i3e -ears. .antagonistic: t!at /or emplo-ers to ma+e pro/itD t!e.rates and raised li/e expectanc-D it !as also released muc! o/ !umanit."12# .raising producti3it-D capitalism !as not onl.-ears t!an it did in t!e pre3ious /i3e !undred.cis.

0!e inaliena6le rig!ts o/ indi3iduals are largel.ndre> @ernsteinD >riter /or t!e /reeman >e6site and is the author of !he Capitalist 7anifesto -8niversity *ress of . In 2>anda in 199)D .1 percent per -ear in t!e -ears 1*00–1%00.t!e s-stem o/ prosperit-G /undamentall-D it is t!e s-stem o/ indi3idual rig!ts and /reedom.protected in t!ese countries.sia.!a3e /reedom o/ religion. 5or exampleD in /eudal EuropeD 6e/ore t!e capitalist re3olution o/ t!e late eig!teent! centur-D ser/dom and its legac.possess economic /reedomD including t!e rig!t to o>n propert-Ot!eir o>n !ome or /armOto start t!eir o>n 6usinessesD and to see+ pro/it. In 1*00 t!e European per capita GD4 >as roug!l.mericaD and .o/ a so<called :socialist. forthcoming ne5t year02 Decem6er 200&!ttp:77>>>. 5amine +illed siCa6le portions o/ t!e population in ScotlandD 5inlandD and IrelandOand caused miser.prosperous countries as England and 5rance.>!ic! !uman 6eings rise a6o3e depri3ation and miser-Oare products o/ t!e rational mind operating under conditions o/ political<economic /reedom.dditionall-D e3en t!e prosperit.tens o/ t!ousands o/ 6lac+ sla3es in Sudan.ong KongD and t!e ot!ersOare among t!e >orldLs >ealt!iest countries >it! per capita incomes in t!e range o/ at least m20D000– m&0D000 annuall-. @. Similarl-D t!e. Capitalism !as 6een instituted on t!ree continentsOin >estern EuropeD ort! . 0!ese countries !old /ree electionsD and t!eir go3ernments are su6?ect to t!e rule o/ la>./reedom o/ speec!D o/ t!e pressD and o/ intellectual expression. . 0!ere are currentl.one t!ird o/ EuropeLs population during t!e /ourteent! centur-D and recurred incessantl. AoltaireD /or exampleD >as imprisoned /or !is re3olutionar.ideasD as >as Diderot. 2 2 .contrastD t!e noncapitalist nations o/ t!e >orldD past and presentD lac+ 6ot! /reedom and prosperit-.into t!e eig!teent!.repressed e3en t!an t!ose o/ /eudal Europe. countr.lac+s electricit-D conditions are ?ust as grim. Cures /or diseaseD economic gro>t!D agricultural and industrial re3olutionsOt!e means 6. 1!at >ere t!e practical results o/ suc! repressionQ 4o3ert-D /amineD and disease >ere endemic during t!e /eudal era.is /illed >it! countries more 6rutall.ccording to one economistD economic gro>t! >as nonexistent during t!e centuries *00–1*00Oand per capita income rose 6merel. CommonersD more 6roadl-D >ere su6ordinated to t!e +ingD aristocratsD and C!urc!D and /ree t!oug!t >as punis!ed.t!e/reemanonline. 5or exampleD t!eir citiCens en?o.tied to t!e land and possessed /e> rig!ts.m21*G in 1%00D roug!l.suppressed.points in t!e de6ate.and deat! e3en in suc! relati3el.prison guards and troops.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2 2 '//irmati+e C 1uman rights turn Capitalism is critical to human rights( 4ernstein7 >riter /or t!e /reeman >e6site7 200 .li+e S>eden is 6ased on signi/icant elements o/ capitalismD including Aol3oD Saa6D and EricssonD as >ell as countless pri3ate small s!ops.org7/eatured7glo6al< capitalism<curing<oppression<and<po3ert-7 .mem6ers o/ t!e 0utsi tri6e.m2$*. In ort! KoreaD >!ere nig!ttime satellite p!otograp!s re3eal utter dar+ness 6ecause t!e countr. In SudanD /or exampleD t!e Islamic go3ernment arms . 0!e 6u6onic plague >iped out 3irtuall.merica.utu tri6esmen slaug!tered '00D000 innocent 3ictimsD mostl. Galileo >as t!reatened >it! torture and Giordano @runo 6urned at t!e sta+e /or supporting scienti/ic t!eories t!at clas!ed >it! t!e teac!ings o/ t!e C!urc!.o3erloo+ t!e +e. In communist ort! KoreaD political prisoners are ensla3edD star3edD and used /or target practice 6.ra6 militias t!at murderD rapeD and ensla3e t!e 6lac+ C!ristian population. 0!e minds and rig!ts o/ indi3idual citiCens >ere t!oroug!l.0. 1!at must 6e recogniCed is t!at /reedom is a necessar.lt!oug! le/tist agitators continue to protest glo6al capitalismD t!e. @ut capitalism is not merel. 0!ese nations OEnglandD 5ranceD t!e =nited StatesD PapanD . .dominated. 4easants >ere o/ten legall. In Sudan per capita GD4 is m29$G in 2>anda it is m22%. 0!e practical results o/ suc! oppression are t!e same as in /eudal Europe. 0!e.condition o/ >ealt!. Despite massi3e aid /rom t!e capitalist 1estD tens o/ t!ousands o/ !uman 6eings star3ed to deat! t!ere in recent -ears. 0!e >orld toda.

ll o3er t!e >orldD economic progress and gro>t! are mo3ing !and in !and >it! intensi/ied en3ironmental protection. . >as signed. num6er o/ /actors cause en3ironment protection to increase >it! >ealt! and de3elopment.>it! realit-. 0!e 1est !as to /ollo> suit and lo>er its o>n en3ironmental standards in order to sta.no less t!an a sense o/ responsi6ilit.are a6le and allo>ed to mo6iliCe opinionG ot!er>iseD t!eir pre/erences >ill !a3e no impact. 2 9 . En3ironmental destruction is >orst in dictators!ips.+no> >!ere t!eir next meal is coming /rom. 5actories in t!e 1estern >orldD t!e argument runsD >ill relocate to poorer countries >it! no en3ironmental legislationD >!ere t!e. Countries usuall.in 6usiness.t!at ma+es en3ironmental protection easier in a >ealt!.use t!em to a6use nature./or people >!o 6arel. Does t!ere reall. Suc! >as t!e case earlier in >estern EuropeD and so it is in t!e de3eloping countries toda-.is unli+el.start to regulate e//luent emissionsD and >!en t!e. 0!is tig!tening up is part o/ a glo6al trend. (ess >ell +no>nD !o>e3erD is t!at since /ree trade >as introduced 8exico !as tig!tened up its en3ironmental regulationsD /ollo>ing a long !istor.and su6duing t!e pangs o/ !unger ta+es precedence o3er conser3ation.lt!oug! multinational corporations and /ree trade are pro3ing good /or de3elopment and !uman rig!ts in t!e 0!ird 1orld D t!ere still remains t!e o6?ection t!at glo6aliCation !arms t!e en3ironment.6ating miser.tec!nologiesO>aste>ater and ex!aust emission controlD /or exampleOand 6egin to recti/.past mista+es.es protection o/ the en+ironment( $or-erg 0 "Po!anD Senior 5ello> at Cato InstituteD In De/ense o/ Glo6al CapitalismD pg 22)# .50.to 6ot!er a6out t!e en3ironment at all. 1!en t!e. 0!at is a dismal t!esisD >it! t!e implication t!at >!en people o6tain 6etter opportunitiesD resourcesD and tec!nolog-D t!e. .to 6e a top priorit. 5our researc!ers >!o studied t!ese connections /ound :a 3er. .6egin protecting t!eir natural resources >!en t!e.!a3e to 6e a con/lict 6et>een de3elopment and t!e en3ironmentQ 0!e notion t!at t!ere !as to 6e a con/lict runs into t!e same pro6lem as t!e >!ole idea o/ a race to t!e 6ottom: it doesnHt tall. >ealt!ier countr.to countries >it! poor en3ironmental standardsD and t!ere is no do>n>ard pressure on t!e le3el o/ glo6al en3ironmental protection. 0!ere !as 6een muc! tal+ o/ . En3ironmental Fualit.also 6egin regulating air Fualit-. InsteadD t!e 6ul+ o/ .!a3e still more resources t!e. 4rogress o/ t!is +indD !o>e3erD reFuires t!at people li3e in democracies >!ere t!e.merican /actories mo3ing to 8exico since .can a//ord to do so. @ut it is t!e /act o/ prosperit.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2 9 '//irmati+e – En+ironment turn %1G2& '( Capitalism incenti+i.can a//ord to tac+le en3ironmental pro6lemsG it can de3elop en3ironmentall.gro> ric!erD t!e.poor is too preoccupied >it! li/ting itsel/ out o/ po3ert.merican and European in3estments goes to countries >it! en3ironmental regulations similar to t!eir o>n. .. 1!en our standard o/ li3ing rises >e start attac!ing importance to t!e en3ironment and o6taining resources to impro3e it.t!at is 3er.societ-. . countr.can pollute >it! impunit-.strongD positi3e association 6et>een our Yen3ironmental\ indicators and t!e le3el o/ economic de3elopment.o/ complete nonc!alance a6out en3ironmental issues./riendl. 0!ere is no exodus o/ industr.

n%* 8oreo3erD as t!e num6er o/ species declineD t!e e//ect o/ eac! ne> extinction on t!e remaining species increases dramaticall-.as ninet. (i+e a mec!anic remo3ingD one 6. J0!e more complex t!e ecos-stemD t!e more success/ull. In addition to /oodD species o//er man. 1$1D (exis# o species !as e3er dominated its /ello> species as man !as. @iologicall.6e di//icult /or some.percei3ed and intert>ined a//ectsD could cause total ecos-stem collapse and !uman extinction.allo>ing certain species to 6ecome extinct << >ould not 6e sound polic-. onet!elessD t!e.are more sta6le t!an less di3erse s-stems.it can resist a stress.YK1%1\ species t!e >orld needs to support !uman li/eD and to /ind out << 6.use/ul species negati3el-. 2e3. 0!is trend occurs >it!in ecos-stems 6. Eac! ne> extinction increases t!e ris+ o/ disaster.di3erse ecos-stems are c!aracteriCed 6.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2!0 '//irmati+e C En+ironment turn %2G2& 4( Extinction Diner7 9! "Pudge .se3eral strandsD suc! a /a6ric can resist collapse 6etter t!an a simpleD un6ranc!ed circle o/ t!reads << >!ic! i/ cut an->!ere 6rea+s do>n as a >!ole.J n%9 @.d3ocateLs GeneralLs Corps o/ =S . << Scienti/ic 3alue is t!e use o/ species /or researc! into t!e p!-sical processes o/ t!e >orld. =tilitarian 3alue is t!e direct utilit.6e edging closer to t!e a6-ss.D 8ilitar.a /raction o/ t!e YK1%2\ eart!Hs species !a3e 6een examinedD and man+ind ma. (.increasesD so does t!e ris+ o/ ecos-stem /ailure. n%1 &.ma./ricaD and t!e dust6o>l conditions o/ t!e 19&0s in t!e =nited States are relati3el. n%% .t some pointD t!e num6er o/ species could decline to t!e point at >!ic! t!e ecos-stem /ailsD and t!en !umans also >ould 6ecome extinct. << 0!e main premise o/ species preser3ation is t!at di3ersit.(a> 2e3ie>D 1interD 1)& 8il. .reducing t!e num6er o/ indi3iduals. . .causing >idespread extinctionsD !umans !a3e arti/iciall.!umans dra> /rom plants and animals.simpli/ied man.ecos-stems. << Ecological 3alue is t!e 3alue t!at species !a3e in maintaining t!e en3ironment.need t!e species t!at it is exterminating toda-. @ot! trends carrserious /uture implications.desperatel. 8an-D i/ not mostD species are useless to man in a direct utilitarian sense.6e critical in an indirect roleD 6ecause t!eir extirpations could a//ect a directl. Ecological Aalue.s 6iologic simplicit.someda. .is 6etter t!an simplicit-. n%& 9nl. . @iological Di3ersit-.reducing t!e num6er o/ speciesD and >it!in species 6. 0!e spreading Sa!ara Desert in . n%$ ).s!ould t!e >orld 6e concerned no>Q 0!e prime reason is t!e >orldHs sur3i3al. Yl\i+e a netD in >!ic! eac! +not is connected to ot!ers 6. 0!ese ecos-stems in!erentl.!as decreased. Scienti/ic and =tilitarian Aalue.direct and indirect 6ene/its to man+ind. 2!0 . So >!.percent o/ t!e existing species peris!edD and -et t!e >orld mo3ed /or>ardD and ne> species replaced t!e old. n$' 2. (i+e all animal li/eD !umans li3e o// o/ ot!er species. 5or most o/ !istor-D man+ind pursued t!is domination >it! a single<minded determination to master t!e >orldD tame t!e >ildernessD and exploit nature /or t!e maximum 6ene/it o/ t!e !uman race .oneD t!e ri3ets /rom an aircra/tHs >ingsD Y!u\man+ind ma.rm-D Da3id . o one +no>s !o> man. 0o accept t!at t!e snail darterD !arelip suc+erD or Dismal S>amp sout!eastern s!re> n%) could sa3e man+ind ma. n%2 1it!out plants and animalsD a large portion o/ 6asic scienti/ic researc! >ould 6e impossi6le.s t!e current mass extinction !as progressedD t!e >orldHs 6iological di3ersit. 0!eoreticall-D eac! ne> animal or plant extinctionD >it! all its diml. 4estD n$9 erosionD and /lood control are prime 6ene/its certain species pro3ide to man. 4lants and animals also pro3ide additional ecological ser3ices << pollution controlD n%0 ox-gen productionD se>age treatmentD and 6iodegradation.a large num6er o/ specialist speciesD /illing narro> ecological nic!es. n$% In past mass extinction episodesD as man. In most casesD people !a3e assumed t!e God<li+e po>er o/ li/e and deat! << extinction or sur3i3al << o3er t!e plants and animals o/ t!e >orld. In a closelinterconnected ecos-stemD t!e loss o/ a species a//ects ot!er species dependent on it.generall.mild examples o/ >!at mig!t 6e expected i/ t!is trend continues.

org70%70%0$2)<*.and 6usiness administration E 1!eeling Pesuit =ni3ersit-D Pune 2)D 200%D !ttp:77>>>. It /ollo>s t!enD t!at 6ecause t!e /ormation o/ a social s-stem is an act o/ menD t!ere is a moral imperati3e to create t!e +ind o/ political and economic s-stem t!at permits t!e greatest possi6ilit.o>e3erD a social s-stem can 6e moral in its e//ects i/ it promotes t!e possi6ilit.and 6usiness administrationD 2003( Ed>ard W9= KI SD D pro/essor o/ accountanc.and li+eli!ood o/ moral 6e!a3ior o/ mind/ul !uman 6eings >!o act >it!in it. .Fue6ecoisli6re.Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2!1 '//irmati+e C '2: Cap not moral Capitalism is moral MEA$KI$S7 pro/essor o/ accountanc. 2!1 .!tm .indi3iduals can 6e moral agents. social s-stem suc! as capitalism is a s-stem o/ relations!ips and cannot 6e moral or immoral in t!e sense t!at a person can 6e – onl. Capitalism is t!at s-stem./or sel/< determination and moral agenc-.

3ie> s!ared 6. .nd t!oug! a /e> iniFuitous elitist po>er6ro+ers ma.ma. 1!ile it is true t!at corrupt leaders o/ten pro3o+e >arD using all manner o/ religiousD social and political means to ?usti/-D o/ten as notD entirel.indi3iduals and made up o/ indi3idual and7or group in3estors.man.greed. Aiolent re3olutionD including our o>n .uman and Ci3il 2ig!ts !a3e existed on our planet since long 6e/ore t!e rise o/ modern capitalismD /ree enterprise and multi<national corporation a3ariceD t!us t!e root pro6lem o63iousl.modern acti3ists is t!at capitalismD /ree enterpriseD multi<national corporations and glo6aliCation are t!e primar. 8ore t!an ?ust in3estor greedD corporations are dri3en 6..uman 2ig!ts pro6lem and t!at 6. I/ one examines :t!e course o/ !uman e3ents.to secure competent leaders!ip "o/ten resulting in corrupt and entirel.structured to 6e empo>ered 6.o/ 2oot Cause and Solution.are at root causeD 6ut 6ecause indi3idual mem6ers o/ a societ. struggle { does not address t!e root pro6lem and is t!us /undamentall.8arxistsD modern anarc!ists >!o resort to 3iolence to sol3e t!e pro6lem are >al+ing upside do>n and 6ac+>ardsD adding to rat!er t!an correctingD 6ot! t!e immediate and long<term . populationD eac! lending support /or t!eir o>n personal moti3esD >!ate3er t!e. (argeD pu6licl.merican re3olutionD 6ecomes a 6reeding ground /or po3ert-D diseaseD star3ation and o/ten mass oppression leading to /uture 3iolence. cause o/ !umanit-Ls pro6lems comes /rom indi3idual !uman greed and similar negati3e indi3idual moti3ation( 0!e 8arx7Engles 3ie> o/ !istor.indi3iduals or groups o/ indi3idualsD operated 6.t!roug! purc!ase or ot!er allotment o/ s!aresD o>n t!e corporation.com7uncommonsense7t!e>a-./la>ed /rom a true !istorical perspecti3e "see Gallo @rot!ers /or more details#.and7or larger corporate entit-. on<unioniCed 6usiness enterprises /reFuentl.indi3idual "or group# in3estor greed.great man./rom it. 0!ese 6usiness enterprises are deli6eratel.oot Cause Capitalism isn5t the root o/ an.goes deeper t!an t!is. 0!eor.:class struggle.stri3ing to c!ange or eliminate t!eseD t!e root pro6lem o/ >!at ills t!e modern >orld is 6eing addressed.rare indeed is a 6attle onl.t!e greed o/ all t!ose in3ol3edD including indi3iduals outside t!e enterprise itsel/ >!o pro/it indirectl.t!ese same unscrupulous miscreants o/ po>er. >or+ersL stri+e !as no !ope o/ succeeding i/ indi3idual >or+ers do not percei3e a personal 6ene/it. closel-D it can correctl.traded corporations are created 6. !ttp:77/reedomtrac+s.thing( '-erdeen Y2ic!ard .e//ecti3el.uman 2ig!ts pro6lem.S. So<called :classes. o/ peopleD unionsD corporations and political groups are made up o/ indi3iduals >!o support t!e particular group or organiCational position 6ased on t!eir o>n indi3idual needsD greed and desires and t!usD an apparent :class struggle.are indi3iduallcon3inced t!at it is in t!eir o>n economic sur3i3al 6est interest.in t!e =nited StatesD concessions suc! as t!e /ort-<!our >or+>ee+D minimum >ageD >or+ers compensation and proscri6ed !olida-s !a3e 6een grudgingl.gone to >ar against IraF >it!out t!e indi3idual support o/ indi3idual troops and a certain percentage o/ indi3idual citiCens >it!in t!e =. 2!2 . in realit-D is an extension o/ indi3idual moti3ation. 8arxists >!o soon resorted to 3iolence as a means to ac!ie3e rat!er Fuestiona6le ends. .!a3e 6een. Punior @us! and t!e neo< conser3ati3e genocidal maniacs o/ modern<da.nd li+e t!ese o/ten 6rutal earl. Companies !a3e o/ten 6een +no>n to appear 6ene3olentD o//ering 6ot! !ig!er >ages and impro3ed 6ene/itsD i/ doing so is percei3ed to 6e in t!e o3erall economic 6est interest o/ t!e immediate compan. o economic or political organiCation and no political or social cause exists unto itsel/ 6ut rat!erD indi3idual mem6ers po>er a collecti3e agenda. 0!is is a rat!er un/ortunate and !istoricall.!tml\ .Capitalism K Generic Dartmouth 2K9 2!2 '//irmati+e C '2: . .indi3iduall. (i+e>iseD ma?or political and corporate exploitation o/ t!ird<>orld nations is rooted in t!e indi3idual and ?oint greed o/ corporate in3estors and ot!ers >!o stand to pro/it /rom suc! exploitation.indi3iduals operating /rom indi3idual personal moti3ations o/ sur3i3alD desire and greed to de3elop t!ese policies into a multi<national exploiti3e realit-.nd similarl-D a corporation >ill not exploit >or+ers i/ doing so is not 6elie3ed to 6e in t!e economic 6est interest o/ t!ose >!o run t!e corporation and >!o in turnD must ans>er "at least t!eoreticall-# to indi3iduals >!o collecti3el.o//er McarrotsL o/ appeasement to >or+ers in order to discourage t!em /rom organiCing and !istoricall. (i+e>iseD nations engage in >ars o/ aggressionD not 6ecause capitalism or classes o/ societ.initiate ne/arious policies o/ glo6al genocidal oppressionD it ta+es a 3er.6eing a :class.cause o/ t!e current glo6al .incompetent leaders!ip#D lo>ering >ages more t!an is /air and eFuita6le and scaling 6ac+ o/ o/ten !ard /oug!t /or 6ene/itsD is sold to stoc+!olders as 6eing in t!e 6est interest o/ t!e 6ottom<line mar+et 3alue and t!usD in t!e 6est economic interests o/ indi3idual in3estors.ludicrous endsD 3er.concessions to a3oid pro/it< crippling stri+es and outrig!t re3olution.m-opic 3ie>D reminiscent o/ earl.capitalist masters as necessar.merica could not !a3e recentl.6erdeen 200& :0.E 1.W . 1arD po3ert-D star3ation and lac+ o/ . 5or exampleD a t!eoriCed MneedL /or o//ering salaries muc! !ig!er t!an is necessar.capitulated to 6.6e surmised t!at t!e :root.engaged in 6. .