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Politics Beyond the State: Environmental Activism and World Civic Politics Author(s): Paul Wapner Source: World Politics, Vol. 47, No. 3 (Apr., 1995), pp. 311-340 Published by: Cambridge University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2950691 . Accessed: 05/03/2014 04:08
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POLITICSBEYOND THE STATE Environmental Activismand CivicPolitics VWorld
activist groups such as Greenpeace, TNTEREST in transnational NuclearDisarmament European (END), and AmnestyInternational has been surging.Much of this new attentionon the partof students of international relationsis directedat showingthat transnational activists make a differencein world affairs,that they shape conditions causeis addressed. which influencehow theirparticular Recentscholarship demonstrates,for example, that Amnesty Internationaland Human Rights Watch have changedstate human rights practicesin countries.'Other studies have shown that environmental particular groupshave influencednegotiationsover environmental protectionof the oceans,the ozone layer,and Antarctica and that they have helped enforcenationalcompliance with international mandates.2 Still others have shown that peace groups helped shape nuclearpolicy regardin Europeduringthe cold war and influencedSoviet ing deployments in a way that allowedfor eventualsuperpower accommoperceptions
*The authorwishes to thank the John D. and CatherineT. MacArthurFoundationand the School of InternationalService at the American University for generous financialsupport for this project. The author also wishes to thank Daniel Deudney, RichardFalk, Nicholas Onuf, Leslie Thiele, and Michael Walzer for helpful comments on earlierdrafts. 1 See, for example,David Forsythe,Human Rights and WorldPolitics, 2d ed. (Lincoln:Universityof NebraskaPress, 1989); KathrynSikkink,"Human Rights Issue-Networksin Latin America,"International Organization 47 (Summer 1993); Robert Goldman, "InternationalHumanitarian Law: AmericasWatch'sExperiencein Monitoring InternalArmed Conflict,"TheAmerican University Journal ofInternational Law and Policy9 (Fall1993). 2 See, for example, Kevin Stairs and Peter Taylor, "Non-GovernmentalOrganizations and the Legal Protectionof the Oceans:A Case Study," and Barbara Brambleand Gareth Porter,"Non-GovernmentalOrganizationsand the Making of U.S. InternationalEnvironmentalPolicy," both in Andrew Hurrell and Benedict Kingsbury,eds., The InternationalPoliticsof the Environment(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992); Lee Kimble, "The Role of Non-Governmental Organizationsin Antarctic Affairs,"in ChristopherJoyner and Sudhir Chopra, eds., The Antarctica Legal Regime (Dordrecht, Netherlands:Martinus Nijhoff, 1988); Gareth Porterand Janet Brown, Global Environmental Politics (Boulder,Colo.: Westview Press, 1991); P J. Sands, "The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Enforcing InternationalEnvironmentalLaw,"in W. E. Butler, ed., Control over Compliance with International Law (Dordrecht,Netherlands:MartinusNijhoff, 1991).
World Politics47 (April1995), 311-40
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the insofaras it establishes especially This workis important, dation.3 increasing influence of transnationalnongovernmentalorganizations (NGOs) on states. Nonetheless, for all its insight, it misses a different but related dimension of activist work-the attempt by activists to shape public affairs by working within and across societies themselves. Recent studies neglect the societal dimension of activists' efforts in part because they subscribeto a narrowunderstanding of politics. They see politics as a practice associated solely with government and thus understand activist efforts exclusively in terms of their influence upon government. Seen from this perspective, transnational activists are solely global pressuregroups seeking to change states'policies or create conditions in the international system that enhance or diminish interstate cooperation. Other efforts directed toward societies at large are ignored or devalued because they are not considered to be genuinely political in character. Such a narrowview of politics in turn limits researchbecause it suggests that the conception and meaning of transnational activist groups is fixed and that scholarship therefore need only measure activist influence on states. This article asserts, by contrast, that the meaning of activist groups in a global context is not settled and will remain problematic as long as the strictly societal dimension of their work is left out of the analysis. Activist efforts within and across societies are a proper object of study and only by including them in transnationalactivist research can one render an accurate understanding of transnational activist groups and, by extension, of world politics. This article focuses on activist society-oriented activities and demonstrates that activist organizations are not simply transnational pressure groups, but rather are political actors in their own right. The main argument is that the best way to think about transnational activist societal efforts is through the concept of "world civic politics." When activists work to change conditions without directly pressuring states, their activities take place in the civil dimension of world collective life or what is sometimes called global civil society.4Civil society is that arena of social engagement which exists above the individual yet
Movementsin Western Mobilizingfor Peace:TheAntinuclear ThomasRochon, 3 See, for example,
Europe (Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPress, 1988); David Cortright,Peace Works:The Citizen's Role in Ending the Cold War (Boulder,Colo.: Westview Press, 1993). 4 On the concept of "global civil society,"see Richard Falk, Explorations at the Edge of Time
World Politics: Temple UniversityPress, 1992); and Ronnie Lipschultz,"Restructuring (Philadelphia: Millennium 21 (Winter 1992). The Emergenceof Global Civil Society,"
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69 on Wed. Perspectives State:New European 6 Ifollow a Hegelian understanding of civil society.The System of Modern Societies (Englewood Cliffs.: Prentice-Hall.6 Althoughthe conceptarosein the analysisof domesticsocieties.See Talcott Parsons.and the intermeshing trationof markets..humanrights.The term has a long and continuallyevolving.For an appreciationof the historicalroots of the term and its usage in variouscontexts. 5).'It is a complexnetworkof economic. 1750-1850.Offe. ed. but nevertheless present. the idea of world civic politics by drawingan One can appreciate levanalogybetweenactivisteffortsat the domesticand international of and the host others. if not contestable.106. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . When dividual andbelowthe state.and tutions. Habermas. For an extensiveargumentto exclude the economy from civil society. "Introduction.conceptualhistory. Laterformulations.but also transnational activistsdirect their efforts beyond the state. 7 Alberto Melucci. contemporary tentialmovementsin the developedworldboth lobbytheir respective andworkthroughtheirsocietiesto effect change."Despotismand Democracy:The Origins and Development of the Distinction between Civil Society and the State.and voluntary turalpracticesbased on friendship.which includes the economywithin its domain. see Jean Cohen and Andrew Arato.John Keane. global civil societyconsistsof strucLike its domesticcounterpart.institutions. Observations of "The Spiritual (Winter 1985).Additionally.the German mesticcollectivelife.The interpeneof symbolicmeaningsystems. affiliation.ed. affiliated with trade." in Keane. 1971).In this governments latter regard. andhumanpodomesticpeace. Civil Society and Political Theory (Cambridge:MIT Press. els.1971). static definition of civil society. they are politicizingglobalcivil society.marketforces actwith refof peoplein variouscountries shapethe wayvast numbers associations voluntary erenceto issuesof publicconcern.movementsidentify and manipulatenonstatelevers of power. (London: Verso. Jurgen Habermas.science. collectiveendeavorssignal the forof transnational the proliferation mationof a thin.Prison Notebooks (New York:InternationalPublishers. Accordingto Melucci. cultural.95. Antonio Gramsci.and modes of action to alterthe dynamicsof domovement..see Cohen and Arato (fn. religion.In targetingthese processesand instition havewidespread social.social. turesthat define and shapepublicaffairs." This content downloaded from 130.most notablythose offeredby Gramsciand Parsons.and producexpression." Social Research 52 in Habermas.introducea three-partmodel that differentiatescivil society from both the state and the economy. Civil Society and the 1988).women's. NJ.and culfamily. 1992).For example. activistsuse the realmsof transnational economiclife to influenceworldpublicaffairs.the market.Globalcivil soindividuals life which existsabovethe inciety as suchis that slice of associational across national boundaries.POLITICS BEYOND THE STATE 313 below the state.cultural influence.it is beginningto makesense on a globallevel.7The Frenchantinuclear 'There is no single. "The Symbolic Challenge of ContemporaryMovements.publicspherewhereprivate and groupsinteractfor commonpurposes.
1965-1990. "Feminism and PoliticalAction. idem. Viclav Haval. this change. 1987)."trans.: WorldwatchInstitute. 1991). 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." Social Action 35 Fighting Povertyand (January-March1985)."EcologicalDestruction and Southand NorthAmerica the Emerging Patterns of Poverty and People's Protests in Rural India. 1985). character the multifaceted illustrate Czechoslovakia states.ed. "SocialMovements. and the feminist movement in the United Kingdomrepresentsignificantattemptsto politicize various grassarenasand therebybring aboutchange. Changing eds.' Likewise. EnvironmentalDecline. "The PragmaticEnds of PopularPolitics.Solidarity Recognizingthe limits of influencingtheirrespective inand Charter77 createdandutilizedhorizontalsocietalassociations to forth so and ventures.however." Telos.When this route fails or Situationof theAge. groups could not politicize existing civil societies but actuallyhad to createthem." Worldwatch 10In these cases. PaulWilson of CaliforniaPress.Anti-NuclearProtest(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.D. 1990)."in Craig Calhoun. 1985). Andrew Buchwalter(Cambridge:MIT Press. Moved up a politicalnotch.Heraldsofa New Reformation: (Cambridge: PublicSphere (New York:Orbis Books.they seek other means of affecting these other means Analytically. GreenPolitics(London: Hutchinson.1992). Fritjof Capra and Charlene Spretnak.95. This content downloaded from 130.. 1984)." of toppling it. 10).10 cials when it seems likely to be efficacious.. 7). 49 (Fall 1981). 8 Alain Touraine. 9 Harry Boyte. conditionsand practices.9 modes of politicalexpression and nurturing nally. See Michnik the power of the state with its Soviet supportand hence the improbability (fn. See generallyAlan Durning. ed.C. Habermas and the ThePoorof MIT Press. RichardShaull. volvingchurches.. "Actionat the Grassroots: Paper88 (Washington.If this approachfails or proves too dangerous."in Dalton and Kuechler(fn.11 widespread arefoundin civil society.69 on Wed. effortsof transnational and try to of the Earth.This was the centralidea behind the Polish "self-limitingrevolution."in CharlesMaier. ed.As with the other organizations.trans.present-day roots organizations-from new populism in the United States to develin LatinAmericaand alternative communities Christian-based in India-are both targetingtheirgovernments opmentorganizations Fioutsidestate control. 1983). and Greenpeacetargetgovernments change state behaviorto furthertheir aims. 11The dangerof engaging the state in places like Poland providedthe impetus to createhorizontal which recognized associations.no.314 WORLD POLITICS Green Party in its early years. Joyce Gelb. 1984). See generallyRussellDalton and Manfred Kuechler. this form of politics helps explainthe Friends activistgroups. bridge:CambridgeUniversityPress.106. literary savingsassociations. "Challengingthe Boundariesof InstitutionalPolitics: Boundaries of thePolitical(CamSocial Movements since the 1960s. Democracies (New York: New Socialand PoliticalMovementsin Western thePoliticalOrder: Challenging Oxford UniversityPress.Maya Latynski (Berkeley:University Prisonand Other See Adam Michnik.AmnestyInternational. bring aboutwidespread does not meanthat they ignoredthe statebut ratherthat they made a strategicdecisionto explorethe politicalpotentialof unofficialrealms offiIn each instancegroupstargetgovernment of collectiveaction. Lettersfrom Selected Writings. OpenLetters: (New York:Alfred Knopf. 1989). Essays. Anil Agarwal. Claus Offe.Oxfam. the early years of Solidarity in Poland and Charter 77 in of activistpolitics.
global warming. This article is divided into five sections. respectively. membership in these groups has grown throughout the 1980s and 1990s to a point where millions of people are currently members of TEAGs. for instance. The emphasison world-civic politics stressesthat while these latter efforts may not translate easilyinto state action. the conventional wisdom has takenthem to be politically irrelevant." World Wildlife Fund.106. their political activity does not stop there but extends into global civil society.13 This article demonstrates that. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . with the budgets of the largest organizations greater than the amount spent by most countries on environmental issues and equal to. and species extinction. Uninstruments fortunately. Ozone depletion. 13 In 1994 both Greenpeaceand World Wildlife Fund each had over six million members.As environmental dangers havebecome part of the public consciousness and a matter of scholarly concern in recent years. in doing so. transnational environmental activistgroups(TEAGs). they workthroughtransnational economic.69 on Wed. UNEP's budget was roughly$75 million. The first places my argument within the theoretical literature of international relations to highlight where my thesis is similar to and yet different from earlier efforts to underscore the role of nongovernmental organizations. the annual expenditure of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). I describe and analyze this type of activity and. In the following. much attention has been directed toward the transboundary and global dimensions of environmental degradation. The 12 In 1992 the budgets of GreenpeaceInternationaland World Wildlife Fund were roughly$100 million and $200 million. if not double. Responding in part to increased knowledge about these problems. Conservation International. while TEAGs direct much effort toward state policies.POLITICS BEYOND THE STATE 315 provesless efficacious.they should not be viewed as simply mattersof culturalor social interest. Friends of the Earth. In the followingI analyzethe character of worldcivicpoliticsby focusingon one relatively new sectorof this activity. make explicit the dynamics and significance of world civic politics.12 Furthermore. and culturalnetworksto achieve their ends. This content downloaded from 130. TEAGs have grown tremendously since the 1970s.Rather. have consequences that cross state boundaries and in the extreme threaten to change the organic infrastructure of life on earth.they involveidentifying and manipulating of powerfor shapingcollectivelife. Greenpeace. and Earth Island Institute are voluntary associations organized across state boundaries that work toward environmentalprotection at the global level.95.social. transnational activist groups have emerged whose members are dedicated to "saving the planet.
this premise. I do not mean to suggest that transnational environmental organizations have a monopoly on ecological wisdom. Conn.95. At the time the statecentric model of 14 in the developingworld. their accountability (they are not elected officials). the focus here is on so-called northern organizations. although they have offices throughout both the developed and the developing worlds. The third section outlines how environmental groups pressurecorporations and explores the political dimension of this strategy. In each of these instances activists operate outside the province of state-to-state interaction yet engage in genuine political activity. These are groups that originated in advanced industrial societies and. with importantrefFor a comprehensivestudy of environmentalNGOs and the Development erences to transnationalones. maintain their central headquartersin the North. their use and at times misuse of scientific evidence. One must question. however. The Roadfrom Rio: Sustainable (Westport. First. Like all other political actors.316 WORLD POLITICS second is an empirical presentation of the way TEAGSspecifically practice world civic politics. This is not to overlook the problems associated with transnational activist groups so much as to maintain a focus on the type of politics they employ to further their goals. An implicit assumption is that an understanding of northern organizations will shed light upon transnational activist groups in general. activists have their own problems.The fourth section describes how TEAGs empower local communities and considers the ramifications for world politics. see Julie Fisher. DEBATE BEYONDTHE TRANSNATIONALIST Throughout the 1960s and early 1970s NGOs were the objects of tremendous scholarly attention. Two caveats are in order before proceeding. are the harbingers of an ecologically sound future.106. It describes how they foster an ecological sensibility and explicates the significance of this form of politics.1993). 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . for example. although in a number of places I refer to particular instances when they become relevant. may turn out to be false. and the complex and often antagonistic relations among different transnational groups. The final section evaluates the concept of world civic politics from a theoretical perspective. one need not necessarily support the work of transnational environmental groups to understand how they operate in the international arena. In other words. although I refer to transnational environmental activist groups in general. I do not address these aspects of activist groups in detail here. Movementin the ThirdWorld Nongovernmental This content downloaded from 130.14Second. or are beyond criticism.: Praeger.69 on Wed.
1976). see Ray Maghroori and Bennett Ramberg.NJ. Bowyer Bell.C.see 18 For discussionsof the world political system with special emphasison transnational (New York:Free Press.16 Likewise.17In short. D. 1985). and telecommunications were enabling these actors to influence the ideas.eds. TheNew Sovereigns: Prentice-Hall. that the proliferation of NGOs 15 In 1967. eds. students of world politics would be better served by paying attention to these as well as.Colo. TheFutureof the International Press. Defenders of the strictly matter.. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . advances in communications technology opened the way for nonstate actors such as revolutionarygroups. values. New Forces in World Politics (Washington. if not instead of. See Gerald Sumida.. a substantial number of multinational corporations (MNCs) had assets in excess of the gross national product lead(GNP) of certain states and had projects in numerous countries.106.GeneralMotors had productionfacilitiesin 24 countriesand total sales of $20 billion.: Westview Press. Globalism versus Relations'ThirdDebate (Boulder. Seyom Brown. international wire services.1975). computer networks. 1969).19 statecentric model argued. Cliffs.POLITICS BEYOND THE STATE 317 one of its manyattacksand NGOs were worldpoliticswas undergoing enlisted in the assault. 4:553. NJ. 1982). for example. the Catholic church. 1974). Transnational Perspective Johan Galtung. especiallyessaysbyJ." Year Book of WorldAfForcesand WorldPolitics:A Feld. 1972). This total was greaterthan the GNP of all but 14 of the 124 membersof the UN at the time. Realism:International Allen and and Diversity in InternationalTheory(Boston: Holsti. and political persuasions of people around the globe.. For example.Nongovernmental 1968). ReinVanNostrand (NewYork: 17 Robert Participation Angell. Scholars argued that they were having a significant impact on questions of peace. this took some effort.Peaceon theMarch:Transnational Politics(Camand World Relations hold. The Web of World Politics: Nonstate Actors in the Global System (Englewood Cliffs. "The Corporationin World Society.3 in Cyril Black Movements and Economic Structures.George Modelski. Innovations in overseas travel.TheDividing Discipline:Hegemony Unwin.and Donald Warwock.Yale Ferguson.15 ing many scholars to argue that MNCs were curtailing state action and represented an independent variable for explaining world events. nation-states. for example. for example. fairs 1968 (New York: (New York:Praeger.: Prentice-Hall. Also in 1967 StandardOil of New Jerseyhad facilities in 45 countriesand total sales of $13. activity. 16 See. and political parties to play a greater role in world politics. RichardMansbach. 1972). the surge in transnationalactivity suggested that the state might not be the most important variablefor explaining world events. Transnational bridge:HarvardUniversityPress. Ivan Vallier.69 on Wed. eds.95.eds.Many scholars argued that since nonstate actors were growing in number and power. TheTrueWorlds:A 19 For an overviewof the debate. Said and Luiz SimLaborand PoliticalGroups Studyof Business. 1980). and KaleviJ. and the salience of political issues. international morality.18 The debate over the relative importance of the state in world affairs had an impact in the field insofar as it convinced realists-those who most explicitly privileged the state in the 1960s and 1970s-that NGOs To be sure. Abdul A.: Brookings Institution. This content downloaded from 130.1972).: Powers(Englewood as World MultinationalCorporations mons..Werner Praeger." billion. Robert Keohane andJoseph Nye.and Donald Lampert. "Transnational Legal Order(Princeton:Princeton University and RichardFalk.
and arguedinsteadthat the amountof interdependence had actuallybeen on the decrease.106. the state. That is. In order to understand world affairs. for example. Power Politics and the Realitiesof the Present System. critics had only to demonstrate the superior causal agency of the state to dismiss or greatly deflate the transnationalist challenge-which is exactly what NGOs occurred. and the Glohal PoliticalSystem Organizations Alfred (NewYork: Knopf. while important. which claimed that NGOs were eclipsing states as the key independent actors in world affairs. Werner FeldandRobert Jordan. Theory ofInternational Politics(New York:Random House. MNCs."in Maghrooriand Ramberg(fn. 22 Michael Sullivan."InternationalOrganization 35 (Summer 1981). for instance. indeed. They argued over which variable was the proper object of research in world politics.24 Unfortunately. Waltz. NGOs assumed prominence in subsequent studies only to the extent that they affected state policies.25 20 Robert Gilpin. 21 Kenneth N.20 Others challengedthe contention that transnationalism was increasinginterdependence between states and hence restricting states'abilityto controlevents. this set up the debate as an either/or proposition: either the state was the primary mover and shaker of world affairs or it was not. 19). InternationalOrganizations: A Comparative Approach (NewYork: Praeger. it could be said that the debate died down becausescholarsstudied NGOs with an eye toward"institutionalsubstitutability. "The Politics of TransnationalEconomic Relations.andHarold International Jacobson. revolutionary groups. It is important to note that Vernonwas not a proponentof the transnationalist challenge.?3One of the reasons for this is that the debate itself was framed in a way that could have had only this result.318 WORLD POLITICS was a functionof hegemonicstabilityand thus derivative of interstate behavior. compared with nation-states. As a result.See RaymondVernon. many claimedthat despite the rise in the numberof nonstateactors. transnationalists were associated with a "sovereigntyat bay" model of world politics. Networksof Interdependence. suffered premature closure. nonstate actors were of only marginal political importance.21 Furthermore. 1984).69 on Wed."Sovereignty at Bay: Ten YearsAfter.22Notwithstanding these arguments. 1979). 17). by the 1980s NGOs had made their presence felt and scholars began to take them seriously as a legitimate object of study." If NGOs cannot substitutefor the state as an This content downloaded from 130. 1983). 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."Transnationalism. The debate about NGOs. or transnational political parties? With the problem formulated in this way."in Keohane and Nye (fn. 25 In the words of John Ruggie. Scholars saw the controversyas a "unit of analysis"problem. even though the title of his book provideda catchphraseto encapsulatethe host of arguments advancedby its proponents. 23 See. 24 The term "sovereignty at bay"comes from the title of the 1971 book by RaymondVernon(New York:Basic Books).95. their influence on world affairs apart from this role was neglected. should one study. because scholars ultimately saw NGO significance in terms of state power. were not a factor in the most consequential world events at the time and that.
In my view the analytic significance of these and similar efforts can be advancedby encompassing them within a largerinvestigation into the nature of world politics. they failed to ask what constitutes relevant political behavior. "Territoriality and Beyond: ProblematizingModernity in InternationalRelations. 1993).Notable here is Rosenau'snotion of sovereignty-free actors and the influence of microprocesses on macrophenomena. Inside/Outside: International Relationsas PoliticalTheory(Cambridge: Cambridge University Walker. but it has since expandedto includeepistemological. 143. J.27 Walker's insights concerning the critical component of social movements." International Organization 47 (Winter 1993).the argument overthe properparadigm for studyrelations. Turbulence in WorldPolitics (Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPress.They institutional entity.95. 1990).Colo. Walker. B. 29 Falk (fn. 28 R. knowledge. 27James Rosenau. Which Are the FairestTheories of All. after being forced to acknowledge the centrality of the state. J."The Third Debate: On the Prospects of International Theory in a Post-PositivistEra. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .26 Interestin NGOs has emergedunderthe rubricof the thirddebateinsofaras scholarshaveadvanced a numberof propositionsregarding how. and which dimensions of collective life are most significant for bringing about changes in human practices. For one of the more provocativebooks to emerge from reflection on the third debate. scholars never questioned the essential quality of world political activity. "Mirror. Thus. and to what extent NGOs matterin world affairs based on sophisticated understandings of power.Ruggie argues that such a mind-set bleaches out much of the phenomena responsiblefor long-term political change. Having lost part of the argument. see R.: Lynne Rienner. Most of this workis partof a broader set of concerns with the solooselyassociated calledthirddebate. ing international The origins of the third debatelie in the questioningof the statecentric model of the 1970s and 1980s.POLITICS BEYOND THE STATE 319 More recently.29My work takes these propositions as a point of departurebut seeks to situate them within a broader frame of reference. a resurgence of interestin NGOs has led to effortsto conceptualize them outsidethe unit-of-analysis problem. B. This content downloaded from 130. 4). but only because they influenced state behavior. NGOs became important. that power consists in the means available to states. what power is. Press.why."International Studies Quarterly 33 (September1989).28and Falk's understanding of the antistatist logic of activist groups. ontological.One World/Many Worlds (Boulder.69 on Wed. See John Gerard Ruggie. Holsti. J. 26 See K. they become politically irrelevant." International Studies Quarterly 37 (September1987). and Yosef Lapid. and that the state system is the arena for affecting human behavior throughout the world. and agency. Throughout the earlier transnationalistdebate. Students of international relations fell back on the traditional notion that genuine political activity is the interaction of nation-states.and axiological concerns. Mirroron the Wall.1988).106.
with the formal organization of Greenpeace into a transnational environmental activist group. and floated a hot air balloon into a nuclear test site.One can get and manageswidespread activist environmental a sense of this througha studyof transnational groups.30 fall into this same trapif not understoodto be part of a more fundamentaltype of examination. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The dramatic aspect attractsjournalists and television crews to specific ac30The very term "nongovernmental of politics.320 WORLD POLITICS can Currentresearch did not affectworld affairsin their own right. much to understandregardingthe extent to which NGOs influence governmentsand the quality of their lobbyingefforts. is not meant to supplanta statecentricnotion of internationalpolitics so much as to augmentit.That is. These direct actions are media stunts. one mustbe moreinterested tureof certaintypesof politicalactionthan in rankingdifferentagents will be able to recognize that engagein politics. including the Sea Shepherds Conservation Society. exciting images orchestratedto convey a critical perspective toward environmental issues.one must focus on the politicalaction and interand traceits worldsignificance per se of these organizations pret its meaning independentof the argumentabout relativecausal in understanding the naweight.69 on Wed. then. DISSEMINATING AN ECOLOGICAL SENSIBILITY Few images capture the environmental age as well as the sight of Greenpeace activists positioning themselves between harpoons and whales in an effort to stop the slaughter of endangered sea mammals. Greenpeace has emblazoned a host of such images onto the minds of people around the world. however. Numerous other organizations.and activitiesof actorsgain relevance instead on identifyingNGO activitythat orders. engage in similar efforts.By doing so. They do so by manipulating governing structuresof global civil society. concentrates behaviorthroughoutthe world.A focus on world civic politics.It eschewsan understanding only insofaras they affectstates. Since 1972.106. plugged up industrial discharge pipes. scholars that NGOsare significant in world affairs not only because they influence states but also because they affect the behavior of larger collectivities throughout the world. 31 This This content downloaded from 130. Greenpeace activists have climbed aboard whaling ships. EarthFirst! and Rainforest Action Network.95. betraysa statecentricunderstanding organization" There is still is not to imply that studies of the influenceof NGOson states areunnecessary. parachuted from the top of smokestacks.In doing so.directs.31 focus on the meaningof This articlestudiesNGOs with a particular in which the multifarious world politics.
69 on Wed. p. Greenpeace. 7. withinhoursit can provide photographs to newspapers and circulate scripted video news spotsto televisionstationsin eightyeight countries. Warriorsof theRainbow: A Chronicle of the Greenpeace Movement(NewYork: Holt. a founding member of Greenpeace.TEAGs engage in dangerous and dramatic actions that underline how serious they consider certain environmental threats to be.95.1979).radio.1989). October 2. See also Clive Davidson. This content downloaded from 130.106. and magazinestransnational activistgroupsbring these hidden spots of the globe into people'severyday lives. significant speciesextinctiontakesplacein the heartof the rainforest. 7.thus enablingvastnumbers of people to "bear witness" to environmental abuse.see Hunter (fn. The Environmental Wars (New York:BallantineBooks. for example. Greenpeace.reharpooners searchers abuseAntarctica."FifteenYearsat the Front Lines.1990)."GreenpeaceExaminer 11 (October-December 1986). For Hunter. 1988. This was put particularlywell by Robert Hunter. Michael Brown and John May. chap.has its own mediafacilities.Through television. one may not turn away in ignorance."New Scientist 135 (July 1992). "How Greenpeace Squeezed onto Satellite Link. As Hunter put it: 32 Michael Harwood. That activists take personal risks to draw attention to environmental issues highlights their indignation and the degree of their commitment to protecting the planet.It requires that one who has observeda morallyobjectionableact (in this case an ecologicallydestructiveone) must either take action to preventfurtherinjusticeor stand by and attest to its occurrence. The GreenpeaceStory (Ontario:Prentice-HallCanada. newspapers. The firstis simplyto bring what are often hidden instancesof environmental abuseto the attention of a wide audience: kill whales on the high seas. "Daredevilsfor the Environment.For bearingwitness as used by Greenpeace. Eco-Warriors: Understanding the Radical EnvironmentalMovement (Chicago: Noble Press. Taken together. Walter Truett Anderson. David Day. Reality Isn't What It Used to Be (San Francisco:Harper and Row. 34 Bearingwitness is a type of political action that originatedwith the Quakers.33 Direct actionis basedon two strategies.and nuclear weaponsaretestedin the most desertedareasof the planet. 1989). Greenpeace documented something different. 33). who participatedin the group'searly antiwhaling expeditions. see Rik Scarce. these two strategies aim to change the way vast numbers of people see the world-by dislodging traditional understandings of environmental degradation and substituting new interpretive frames. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Also confirmedin privateinterviews at the time. 1990).34 Second. Robert Hunter." New YorkTimesMagazine. the purpose of the effort was to overturn fundamental images about whaling: where the predominant view was of brave men battling vicious and numerous monsters of the deep. 20. 33 For discussions on the media-directeddimension of ecological political action.POLITICS BEYOND THE STATE 321 tions and makes it possible for the groups themselvesto distribute their own media presentations.32 The overallintent is to use international mass communications to exposeantiecological practices andthereby inspireaudiencesto changetheirviewsandbehavior vis-a-visthe environment.Rinehart andWinston.
relations is to apprehend The challengefor studentsof international As already the effects of these efforts and their politicalsignificance. In short. 229. aboutLeviathan humanconsciousness in the making.36 tion is a so-called fluid approach." and Change(Greenwich. a completelynew set of basic images aboutwhaling.giantboatsand smallwhales.Insteadof small killing boatsandgiantwhales.scholars this as the criterionfor endowing NGOs with political significance.D."SocialMovements and Social Change:Perspectives on Linearityand Fluidity.althoughthis may of coursehappen changinggovernmental to codify by constituents as stateofficialsbearwitnessor arepressured sentiment.37 It gauges the signifHunter (fn. 37 Joseph Gusfield.The new age envilegislationor sioned by Hunter is more than passing environmental policies. See.it involves conadopting new environmental to corporations.David had become Goliath. of the GlobalSystem (Baltimore: ample.Smitten with such ideas.. 1991)."The States System in the Age of Rights"(Ph.Sociology and David Jacobson.ed. activistshope. however. andcounton this to reverberate tutionsand collectivities. privateorganivincingall actors-from governments citizens-to makedecisionsand act in deference zations.69 on Wed. Goliathwas now David. they will shift the the ideashave moreresonance even peopleto act differently of good conductand persuade standards them to do so.and ordinary awareness.imageswouldbe going out into hundred worlk. 1981). The fluid approach has been used in the study of domestic social movements but can be adopted to analyze TEAGs.322 WORLD POLITICS the of millionsof mindsaround Soon.TEAGs are not requiring thoughgovernments work to disseminatean ecologicalsensibilityto shift the governing within governideas that animatesocieties. misses the broader changes initiated by NGOs beyond state behavior.95. 33). 1991). 4:326. Conn.But this is into law shifts in publicopinion or widespread only one dimensionof TEAG directaction efforts.. for exJohns Hopkins UniversityPress. Additionally. Research Press. Leslie Sklair. take measuresto protectthe environment. if the mythologyof Moby Dick and CaptainAhab had dominated a whole new age was for overa century. outsidegovernment.: JAI in SocialMovements. 35 36 This content downloaded from 130. focusedon statepolicyandused havetraditionally mentioned. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .insteadof courage whales.whetherinstitutionalized variousinstithroughout ment or not. diss. Sociologicalperspectiveson world politics have proliferatedover the past few years.35 Raising awarenessthrough media stunts is not primarilyabout policies. governments to environmental When will.Conflicts in Louis Kriesberg. Such a focus. Princeton University.couragesavingwhales. To get at this dimension of change requires a One such orientamore sociological orientation toward world affairs.106.
""societal Blumer. gender discrimination. aim at morethan simplyenactinglegislationto protectwomen against they work to change patriarchal Additionally.This entails processes of conflictresolution. 3 Gusfield (fn.a fluid approach to cease aim not only to convincegovernments that activists recognizes makingwar but also to create more peacefulsocieties."International Social Science Journal 40 (August 1989).. 37). and interstate levels to shape world collective life.a "cultural It focuses on changes in and expressedby people in diverseways. of nonviolence. asJosephGusfieldnotes.it allowsone to observehow an environmental corporate. 377-82. of women throughoutsociety. 40 Blumer.govtrates deliberations at the individual.art.40 lifestyle. 1969).fashion.practices and. This content downloaded from 130."Social Movements. Studies in Social Movements: A Social Perspective (New York:Free Press.POLITICS BEYOND THE STATE 323 that sigicanceof activistgroupsby attendingto culturalexpressions are shifts in societies. 147-51."3'A fluid approach.interpast habitsof dominance."in Barry McLaughlin.affective. Johan Gal38 Paul Joseph. attunedto the quickeningof actionsand to changesin meaningand perceivethat somethingnew is happeningin a wide varietyof places."or "public drift. consumerhabits.95. When analyzingthe peace movement. Psychological Oxford University Future(NewYork: Starke. ed. well as shiftsin laws andpolicies. In 1970 one in ten Canadians said the environment was worthy of being on the national agenda. changesinitiatedby transnational appreciate. 2. in the wordsof Herbert pretsactivisteffortsby noticingandanalyzing.according shifts looksthroughout societyandinterprets petitive.and so forth and sees these.organizational. tivists that occur independentlyof state policies. 1993). 1990).the successes secthe housewifefindsa new labelfor discontents. 326. representations and degrading practices of the feministmovement Thus. 45 percent of Temple University Press. Consider the following. twenty years later one in three felt not only that it should be on the agenda but that it was the most pressing issue facing Canada. canbe seen"where arewarieraboutusing retaries decidenot to servecoffee and husbands in other words. ernmental. 105.A fluidapproach moveas a measureof the successof the peace in such expressions that feministgroups a fluid approach acknowledges ment. With regard to infilsensibility TEAGs.Observers and evaluative nal cognitive. Peace Politics (Philadelphia: tung. as of activistefforts.for instance.a fluid approach Applied to the international achoweverimperfectly.41In 1981.38 Similarly. "The Peace Movement: An Exercise in Micro-Macro Linkages. towardOurCommon Signsof Hope:Working 41 Linda Press.as consequences enablesone to arena. felt orientation" mood. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .69 on Wed. expressions propagating than comthat aremorecooperative to some.106.
Navy and Air Forceused whalesfor target practice. today are they commonplace. public claimed to have "boycotteda company'sproductsbecause of its recordon the environment." TerraViva:TheIndependent Daily of the Earth Summit(RiodeJaniero). 44 David Day.andin some areas is a profitvoluntary recycling makingindustry.Jr. Quoted in Riley Dunlap. a Better World(New York:Council on Eco5 See Council on Economic Priorities. 50 percent of respondentssaid that they were "avoiding the purchaseof productsby a companythat pollutes the environment"-an increaseof 18 percentsince 1987. For a criticalview of Operation Breakout. George Gallup. 71 percentof the peoplein sixteencountries. "Of Global Concern: Results of the Health of the Planet Survey.S. generally." Environment 53 (November 1993). 1990.in 1990. packaging.36."The Health of the Planet Survey.324 WORLD POLITICS those polledin a U. 74 percent supportedthe statement." and. "Doing Well by Doing Good.: World ResourcesInstitute. 28 percentof the U. Ambiguous Commitment. In the 1960s the U.43 These figuressuggest a significantshift in awareness and concern aboutthe environment overthe past two decades.additionally.95. accordingto CambridgeReports. April 22. 1988). Cynthia Pollock Shea.106.46 Finally.D. According to a 1991 Gallup poll. Al. 5.Riley Dunlap.Todayrecyclingis mandatory in manymunicipalities aroundthe world. June3.and Brazil. 1989). BeyondCompliance:A New Industry View of the Environment (Washington."Evolutionof the World Banks EnvironmentalPolicy.S. 43 George Gallup International quoted in "BushOut Institute. no. 46 Jeremy Warfordand Zeinab Partow.Shoppingfor nomic Priorities.(Between 1960 and 1990 the amountof municipal 42 Mathew Wald. and distribution phasesof industry. 1992.. Twenty-five yearslateran international effortcosting$5 million was mountedto savethreewhalestrappedin the ice in Alaska. and Alec Gallup. 157. Bruce Smart.It is alsoworth noting that people have translated this sentimentinto changesin behavior. said they were willing to pay higher prices for productsif it wouldhelp to protectthe environment.more generally.S.C. p. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . p.in 1990." Financeand Development.42 This general trendis supported aroundthe world. 1992). See.Freeingthe Whales: How the Media Created the World's Greatest Non-Event (New York:Birch Lane Press. This content downloaded from 130.69 on Wed. surveysaidthat protectingthe environment was so important that"requirements and standards cannotbe too high and continuingenvironmental improvements must be made regardless of cost".45 When multilateral development banks and other aid institutionswere establishedafter the Second WorldWar." World Watch 2 (November-December 1989). "PublicOpinion in the 1980s: Clear Consensus.Mexico. includingIndia. The Whale War (San Francisco: SierraClub Books. 1987).Todayit is incumbentupon corporations to reducenegativeenvironmental impactat the production. "Guarding the Environment: A World of Challenges.In a recentGalluppoll majorities in twentycountries gavepriorityto safeguarding the environment even at the cost of slowingeconomicgrowth. 26 (December 1989)." of Step."Environment 33 (October 1991)." Two decadesago corporations produced products with little regard for their environmental impact.twentyyearsago recyclingas a concept barelyexisted.PollFinds.South Korea.environmental impactassessments wereunheard of. See." New York Times. seeTom Rose.
Leslie Spence et J.Day (fn.IFAW. Human Rights (Toronto:Universityof Toronto Press. "BabyHarp Seals Spared. buyinghabitsand stoppedpurchasing all but dried up the marketfor such merchandise As a consequence. 49This led to a furtherdrop in price. 50 Wenzel (fn. in 1983. November 11. to the They broughtthe practice ued existenceof harpsealsin Canada.D.15 in 1983.but especially result. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .If one lookedsolelyat statebehavior one would miss a tremendousamount of significantworld political action. 33). much publicattentionor conseal hunt took placewithout attracting the 1970s and 1980s the Intercern.1993 (Washington. Allen. By 1985 the price per skin had droppedto $6. and ultimately is. 46). See George Wenzel. Journal of Political Economy 87 (April 1979). 60-64.Greenpeace. 51 This examplealso demonstrates that environmentalactivistsare not alwaysaccuratein assessing environmentalthreats and guaranteeingthe ecological soundness of the sensibilitythey wish to imtroupart.: UniversityPress of New England. 48The averageprice per seal pup skin droppedfrom $23.50 unnecessary.09 in 1979 to $10.There is no evidence that harp seals were ever an endangeredspecies." This content downloaded from 130. of harp seal killing cal sensibilityis the now greatlyreducedpractice Throughoutthe 1960s the annualCanadian pupsin northernCanada.95.using. Then.S.)47 ing their behaviorin part becauseof the messagespublicizedby acto accountfor this change.if controversial.and a host of smallerpreservation to many-as a threatto the continaccording hindsightinaccurately.51 by activist to the messages propagated Peopleactedin response directactionor foland otherTEAGs undertake When Greenpeace low other strategies to promote an ecological sensibility. table 372.48 of seal bannedthe importation EconomicCommunity(EEC) actually pelts. 124. the European with the price per skin plummeting." Forbes. idem.: Bu47 U. and others produced severe social dislocation and hardshipfor communities as far away as Greenland. 1991.This is particularly bling because the activities of Greenpeace. of an ecologiexampleof the dissemination A final.In the late 1960s and throughout Conservathe Sea Shepherds nationalFundfor Animals.that mand had alreadydroppeddramatically. 227. 128. 1991).106. 48).. table 6.. attentionof the world. as well as in the coastalcommunitiesof Newfoundlandand Baffin Island.directaction.69 on Wed.Iceland. See fn. 52-53. 1992). al. among other means.changedtheir the globe.AnimalRights. StatisticalAbstract reauof the Census. see. tivists. 1993). 48. groups saw this-in tion Society. Wenzel (fn.POLITICS BEYOND THE STATE 325 solid waste recoveredby recyclingin the United States more than modifypeoplearevoluntarily In eachof these instances quintupled.Arctic Politics: Conflict and Cooperation in the Circumpolar North (Hanover. governments respond with policy measures and changed behavior with respect to environmental of the UnitedStates."Oceans 21 (March-April 1988). may have simplybeen an afterthought groups.N.C. generally. "The Not So PeacefulWorld of Greenpeace. these are the types of changes they are seeking.12. Bureauof the Census. and the Faroe Islands.49It is significant that the EEC did so only after consumer de- Governmental policy. At times.As a in Europe. See OranYoung.H.peoplearound productsmadeout of the pelts.99. "Anti-Sealingas an Industry.
In 1990 UniroyalChemicalCompany. This as it were. according animals. the corporation decided to abandon its foam and plastic containers in response to prodding by a host of environmental groups.326 WORLD POLITICS does not necto respond. for daminozide. This content downloaded from 130.and work to preservespecies. sialissuesconcerning also nevertheless demonstrates the effects of TEAG efforts. the apple-ripeningagent Alar. They are being "stung."BeyondSelf-Interest.The failureof governments essarilymean that the efforts of activistshave been in vain.antuna caughtby settingnets nouncedthat they would ceasepurchasing on dolphinsor by any use of drift nets. see Gary Orren. that can shapewidespread MULTINATIONAL CORPORATE POLITICS decided to stop McDonald'sCorporation In 1991 the multinational box and switchto paper its traditional clamshellhamburger producing in an attemptto cut backon the use of disposable foam and packaging of the sole manufacturer plastic.69 on Wed.eachcaseraisescontroverto altertheirpractices. In the case of McDonald's.They behavior. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .boycott certainproducts. porations but it the ecological wisdomof activistpressures. found to causecancerin laboratory Starkistand Chickenof the Sea. Earth Action Network. the two largesttuna companies." in Robert Reich. and Kids against 52 On the issue of good conduct. ceased to produce and market the Alar.Finally.106. Rather. not necessarily problems Rather. Such actionhas contributed dolphinpopulationsaroundthe world. 1988). which included the Citizens Clearinghouse for Hazardous Waste.52 When people change their buying habits. These organizations.a yearlaterBumbleBee Tuna to protecting followedsuit. The Powerof PublicIdeas(Cambridge:HarvardUniversityPress. issues. societiesat of good conductthroughout they influenceunderstandings is considered acceptable of what help set the boundaries large. activistgroups-both doIn each of these instancesenvironmental rolein convincing cormesticandtransnational-playedan important To be sure.and they wish to contributeto alleviatingthem. humanbehavior..the tradename chemicalboth in the United States and abroad.it is becausegovernmentsare breathingdown their necks. voluntarily recycle garbage." a mechanismof authority It represents sting is a type of governance.however. was used on most kinds of red applesand. by an ecologicalsensibility.95.in 1990 to some. they areactingout of a beliefthat the environmental involvedare severe. ed.
The effects were dramatic.S. and the Environment(New York: 57 Michael Fumento. "Packaging and Public Image:McDonald's Fills a Big Order. p. Risk:Pesticidesin Our Children'sFood: Sum5 Natural ResourcesDefense Council. and abroad. Enthanthose declared cancerrisks240 timesgreater ProtectionAgency (EPA).In fact. Al. there is evi"McDonald'sto 53 Brambleand Porter(fn. February Quinton.57Effects such as these and continued pressureby activist groups convinced Uniroyal to cease production of the substance not only in the U. mary.activistspressured selling apples grown with Alar and pressured schools to stop serving Alar-sprayed apples. ScienceunderSeige:BalancingTechnology William Morrow. November 2. 28.John New York Times. DefenseCouncil (NewYork.joint task forceto study ways to reduce solid waste in McDonald's eleven thousand McDonald'swith feaThe taskforceprovided restaurants worldwide.106. "The Greening of McDonalds. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .1990. Do Away with Foam Packages. The EnvironmentalDefense Fund (EDF) playeda mediatingrole by organizinga six-month." British Plastics and 54 "McDonalds Admits to Bowing to Ill-Informed Opinion on Polystyrene. brokewindowsand scatteredsupplies EarthAction Networkactually in San Francisco to protestthe company's at a McDonald'srestaurant environmentalpolicies."Restaurants and Institutions 100 (December 1990). November Holusha. The demand for apples in general shrank significantly because of the scare. 2). Rather." A Report by theNaturalResources 56 Timothy Egan." New York Times. "Intolerable February 27. McDonald's packagingto the national headquarters. Brian Rubber (January1991). In 1989 NRDC produceda studythat found that Alar created safeby the U.Moreover. 61. 1989).56 lion for Washington State apple growers alone. "AppleGrowers Bruised and Bitter after Alar Scare. Michael Parrish. 238.20.55 This was publicizedon CBS's vironmental 60 Minutesand led to critical stories in numerousnewspapersand chains to stop supermarket magazines. LosAngeles Times. p.53 on the changeis that officialsat McDonaldsdid not believeit necessarilymadeecologicalor economicsenseto stop using clamshellpackagingbut that they bent to activistpressure." 4. What is clearfrom most reports sible responsesto activistdemands. it capitulated to activist pressure.69 on Wed. Like McDonalds. 1990.organizeda "send-back" Additionally. Porterand Brown (fn.S.54 UniroyalChemical Companyceased producingAlar after groups Group(PIRG) and the such as RalphNader'sPublicInterestResearch Defense Council (NRDC) organizeda massivepubNaturalResources lic outcry about the use of the producton apples in the U. 1991.POLITICS BEYOND THE STATE 327 campaignin which people mailed Pollution. Uniroyal changed its practices not for economic reasons nor to increase business nor because it genuinely felt Alar was harmful."McDonald'sCaves In.S. lowering This led to a loss of $135 milprices well below the break-even level. Phyllis Berman. but overseas as well." 2. July 9.95. This content downloaded from 130. 2). 1991."Forbes.1993). Al. 35.
"Too Much Fuss about Pesticides. 1430."Environment35 (November 1993). the first such actions came into force only in late 1992 with the United Nations moratorium on drift nets.106. idem. 57).69 on Wed. Activists waged a boycott against all canned tuna. Leslie (March24. Although governments did eventually adopt domestic dolphin conservation policies and negotiated partial international standards to reduce dolphin kills."Science Repaign. and rallied on the docks of the Tuna Boat Association in San Diego. A8. to take an active role in stopping the slaughter of dolphins by all tuna companies. 21. 1990. TEAGS were at the heart of this change. p.While the three largesttuna companies some fleets still use these strategies.in the case of dolphin-freetuna. See generallyAllan Gold. "ThreeCompanies to Stop Selling Tuna Netted with Dolphins. and it enlisted Heinz."New YorkTimes. see Fumento (fn.95. "Breakthrough 1990). along with those of Greenpeace. "Taking Off the Gloves with Bumble Bee. "Company Ends Use of Apple Chemical. the first significant actions against purse seine fishing. came in June 1994 with the United States International 58 "Revenge of the Apples." Earth IslandJournal 6 (Winter 1991)."New York Al. 1991. tunain the Eastern Tropical schools of dolphins. EII assisted in the production of the film Where Have All the Dolphins Gone?which was shown throughout the United States and abroad. "Alar'sGone.December 17. October 17." Wall Street Journal. pp. the parent company of Starkist. and more generallyidem.April 13. Times.328 WORLD POLITICS sourcessuggestingthat Alar did not pose the dencefrom nonindustry level of threatpublicizedby activists.000 dolphins died at the hands of tuna fleets. A14. 1990. 1990. For criticismsof the Alar camRoberts. NationalReview 42 (December 1990).58 Finally. Friends of the Earth."Alar: The Numbers Game.470 dolphins died in nets. Furthermore.For yearstuna fleets have set their nets on dolphins or entangleddolphinsin drift nets as a way to catchtuna. Bruce Ames. and less than one-twentieth of the number in 1989. when 15. "Misconceptionsabout Pollution and Cancer.EarthIslandInstitute(EII) launchedan international campaignin 1985 and other organizations to stop all drift-net and purse seine fishing by tuna fleets."Earth IslandJournal 59 Dave Phillips."New YorkTimes. 5 (Summer for Dolphins: How We Did It. which more directly affects dolphins. For unPacificOceanswimunder knownreasons.it promoted the idea of "dolphin-safe"tuna labels to market environmentally sensitive brands.July 30. Adrian de Wind. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . were crucial to promoting dolphin-safe tuna fishing. This content downloaded from 130. have ceased doing so. Moreover. 60 "Dolphin Dilemmas. when over 100.000. This represents one-third the mortality rate of 1992. 19-44.60These numbers represent the effects of activist efforts. 1989). demonstrated at stockholders' meetings. Its efforts. Little Thanks to the Government."Consumer's search Magazine (April 1990). and others.59One result of these efforts is that dolphin kills associated with tuna fishing in 1993 numbered fewer than 5.
investor."EarthIslandJournal This content downloaded from 130. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .95.POLITICS BEYOND THE STATE 329 Dolphin ConservationAct. activist groups did not direct their efforts at governments.S. knownas the Coalitionfor Environmentally Responsible Economies(CERES). Law Bans Sale of Dolphin-UnSafe Tuna. alongwith the GreenAlliance.research. The aimwas to establishcriteria for auditingthe environmental of large domestic and multinational indusperformance tries. and organizingjoint consultations. activistswon corporatepromises to bringtheirpractices in line with environmental concerns.orchestrating publicoutcry.they focused on corporations themselves. 7. The levers of powerin these instanceswere found in the economicrealmof collectivelife ratherthanin the strictlygovernmental realm.especially transnaPerhaps tional ones. perspective includeat least one Fortune500 companyand a numthat signatories ber of multinational GeneralMotors.106. corporations. effortin the CERES.utilize environmentally safe and sustainable andconsider demonstrated environmental commitment energysources. exposes. "U. conservenonrenewable resources throughefficient use and planning.Throughprotest.nevertheless furnisheschannelsfor effectingwidespreadchangesin behavior. the best exampleof how activistgroups. enlist the economicdimensionsof governance into their is the effortto establishenvironmental enterprises oversightof corporations.Activistsunderstandthat the economicrealm.The code calledon companiesto.minimize the releaseof pollutants.PoSun Company.Rather.69 on Wed. (formerly to pledge oil spill) and enlist corporations spiredby the Exxon Valdez is What is significantfrom an international compliance. government actionin the caseof tunafisheries largelycodifiedchanges thatwerealready takingplace. In each instance.launcheda similar United Kingdom.nor did they organize constituentpressuring.while not the centerof traditional notionsof politics. 61 9 (Summer 1994). they recognizethat the economicrealmis a form of governance and can be manipulated to altercollectivepractices. includingTEAGs such as Friendsof the Earthandthe International Alliancefor Sustainable Agriculture.61As with the Canadianseal pup hunt. met in New YorkCity to introducea tenOne monthlater pointenvironmental code of conductfor corporations. Fourteen environmental organizations. and churchinterests.In September1989 a coalitionof environmental. amongotherthings. publiincize the CERESPrinciples knownas the ValdezPrinciples. as a factorin appointingmembersto the boardof directors. They did not target politicians.
"Greenwash!" MotherJones (March-April 1991). For sympatheticviews. Uniroyal. Investors can use it as a guide to determine which companies practice socially responsible investment.95.1992). "A New Face in Corporate EnvironmentalResponsibility:The Valdez Principles. 63 For an extended discussion of NGO corporate politics that provides additional examples. the multinational corporate politics of transnationalgroups are having an effect on the way industries do business. nor is corporate "greening" necessarilywell intentioned.106.63 McDonald's. the code is being used to build shareholderpressure on companies to improve their environmental performance. they are voluntarily adopting different ways of producing and distributing products. 89ff. nor are they as effectual as mechanisms available to governments."Ecologist 22 (May-June 1992). activists thus influence corporate behavior.Taken together. these measures force some degree of corporate accountabilityby establishing mechanisms of governance to shape corporate behavior. is activist discovery and manipulation of economic means of power. This content downloaded from 130. see Stephan Schmidheiny. Jack Doyle."Dispatchesfrom the Front Lines of CorporateSocial Responsibility.anda host of otherMNCs havepledgedcompliance or areat least seriously considering doing so. Becausethese companies operatein numerous countries. see Starke(fn. no. 81 (Spring 1992). The 1990 Ceres Guide to the Valdez Principles (Boston: CERES.To be sure. At work. they have not turned businesses into champions of environmentalism.64Nonetheless. however. 64 See. And to the degree that these enterprises are involved in issues of widespread public concern that cross state boundaries. "Hold the Applause:A Case Study of CorporateEnvironmentalism. Jack Doyle."Social Policy 20 (Winter 1990). Rather. the Principles are used to alert college graduates on the job market about corporate compliance with the code and thus attempt to make environmental issues a factor in one's choice of a career. "ValdezPrinciples: Corporate Code of Conduct. environmental activist groups do not have a monopoly on ecological wisdom. 41).In the case of pension funds. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . As mentioned.Changing Course:A Global Business Perspective on Development and the Environment (Cambridge: MIT Press. Valerie Ann-Zondorak." Business and Society Review. for example. Environmentalists use the code as a measuring device to praise or criticize corporate behavior. 62 See CERES Coalition. 45). David Beers and CatherineCapellaro. Joan Bavaria. their actions have transnationaleffects. 1990). and others have not been changing their behavior because governments are breathing down their necks." Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 18 (Spring 1991). Finally. Smart(fn.69 on Wed.This is not to say that their actions are more environmentally sound than before they responded to activists or that their attempt to minimize environmental dangers is sincerely motivated. activist pressuremust be understood as a form of world politics.330 WORLD POLITICS laroid. The CERESPrinciplesare valuablefor a numberof reasons.62 Via the CERES Principles and other forms of pressure.
Often after having supported numerous failed projects. As demographic and economic constraints grow tighter. Many of the earth's most diverse and biologically rich areas are found in parts of the world where the poorest peoples draw their livelihood from the land. then.Consequently. these people exploit otherwise renewable resources in an attempt merely to survive. financed.: Zed Books.106. sumptionsCorrect?" This content downloaded from 130. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . H.. FirstWorld in the ThirdWorldto restoreandguardthe environment.1989).J. 1990). 66 The relationship between the world'spoor and environmentaldestructionis a complicatedone. in SouthEastAsia (AtPolitics:Ecological Destruction PhilipHurst. WWF is a conservation group dedicated to protecting endangered wildlife and wildlands worldwide.ed. Robin Broad. is an example of such an organization. Environment and the Poor: Development Strategiesfor a Common Agenda(NewBrunswick.95. See. as it is known outside English-speaking countries. JeffreyLeonard.66Ecological sustainability in these regions. and RobertW.Rainforest lantic Highlands.POLITICS BEYOND THE STATE EMPOWERING LOCAL COMMUNITIES 331 FordecadesTEAGshaveworkedto conservewildlifein the developing this has involvedpeople in the FirstWorldworking world. gramsin the fieldwith little local participation While such effortssaveda numberof speciesfrom extinctionand set in motion greaterconcernfor ThirdWorld environmental protecat actually preserving species tion. World Wildlife Fund (wwF) or World Wide Fund for Nature. "The Poor and the Environment:Friends or Foes?"World Development 22 (June 1994). Katesand Viola Haarmann. and operated proor input. N. on the whole theywereunsuccessful and their habitats from degradation and destruction. It originated in 1961 as a small organization in Switzerland. must involve improving the quality of life of the rural poor through projects that integrate the management of natural resources with grassroots economic development.forexample.69 on Wed.Typically.J. Over the past thirty years it has grown into a full-scale global environmental organization with offices in over twenty countries. WWF has established a wildlands and human needs program. N. enstrapped by economicpressures vironmentalorganizationsdeveloped.: Transaction Books.65 A key reason for this was that they attended more to the needs of plants and especially animals than to those of the nearby human communities. Within the past decade. making grants to finance conservation efforts in various countries. a 65 See. in the North-believed thatThirdWorld TEAGs-onesheadquartered the value of wildlife or were simply too people could not appreciate to conservenature. for example. a number of TEAGshave come to subscribe to this understanding and undertake appropriate actions."Wherethe Poor Live:Are the AsEnvironment34 (May 1992).
"People-CenteredConservation:An Introduction.: WWF. 81 (Winter 1990). where WWVF communal waste disposal sites."Ambio 18.and Walden Bellow. no.C.67 It informsa WWFboringcommunitiesthat surround initiatedKilumMountainprojectin the Cameroonthat is developing indigenouscrops. 4 (1989). GabrielleWalters. Nyamaluma ConservationCamp Lupande Development Project. seminatinginformationabout the long-term effects of environmenFinally.68 has lent technical assistance to set up sanitary Lucia. 65).It struchumaneconomicwell-beingwith environmental turesa game managementsystemin Zambia. the Ladakh Project. 69 Roger Stone.S.69 on Wed."Third World NetworkFeatures.andthe volveslocalresidentsin antipoaching channelingof revenuesfrom tourismand safarisbackinto the neighthe preserves. Basic Needs: Integrating Conservationand Development in the Annapurnaand Michiru Mountain ConservationAreas of Nepal and Malawi. Maumi Hotel.C. 1989). and others undertake similar actions."Wildlands and Human Needs:A Program of World Wildlife Fund (pamphlet)(Washington.no.D.70 67 See World Wildlife Fund.October 12-13. Lucia. "Conservation Fund Letter. 1993. 8 (1989). The AfricanMadagascar Program(pamphlet) (April 1994).John Hough and Mingma Norbu Sherpa. "Development: The MarketIs Not Enough. and disreintroducing nurseriesfor reforestation.for example.no." Topic Magazine (U. no.106."Zambia's Information Agency). "Zambia'sInnovativeApproach to Conserva#1652. World Wildlife Fund.it is operativein a project in St. FundLetter.Cameroon. "The View from Kilum Mountain. AID Grant #OTR-0158-A-00-8160-00 (Washington. and protected mangroves from being used for fuel by planting fast-growing fuel-wood trees. improved marketing of fish to reduce overfishing."World Wildlife Fund Letter. "North-South Conflicts in Global Ecology. parliaments. tally harmfulpractices. and executive offices.Roger Stone. Roger Stone. Hurst (fn. Rather."WorldWildlife 68 Proceedings of the workshop on Community Forest/Protected Area Management. TEAGs are not trying to galvanize public pressure aimed at changing governmental policy or directly lobbying state officials. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . December 11. 3 and Development in St. indeed."Foreign Policy. TEAGs work with ordinary people in diverse regions of the world to try to enhance local capability to carry out sustainable development projects.which inand conservation efforts. 1989). sponsoredby the CameroonMinistry of Environment and Forests. 187 (1989).1988-1989 Annual Reporton theMatchingGrantfora Programin Wildlands and HumanNeeds. This content downloaded from 130. 70 See VandanaShiva. The New Forests Project. 7 (1989). 1991. Michael Wright. no." WorldWildlife (1988).: WWF. Zambian Wildlands and Human Needs Game Plan. no. Yaounde.D. Newsletter (Mfuwe) (March 1990).95. U."BottomUp vs.John Cavanaugh. The guiding logic is that local people must be enlisted in protecting their own environments and that their efforts will then reverberatethrough wider circles of social interaction to affect broader aspects of world environmental affairs.S. their activity takes place far from the halls of congresses.69 vWF is not alone in these efforts. Robin Broad.332 WORLD POLITICS method of conservationto be applied to all WWF projectslinking protection. In these kinds of efforts. the Association for Research and Environmental Aid (AREA).WWFProjectFolder tion.
penetrated by MNCs. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . hands-on eco-development projects stimulate and release popular energies in support of community goals. national. 4 (July-August 1992). tion. and ultimately global markets.POLITICS BEYOND THE STATE 333 the effortsof TEAGs of the contentof specificprojects. "The Politics of Government-NGO (1989). and it helps them assume a more powerful role in determining affairs when interacting with outside institutions and processes. Relations in Africa. This enables them more effectively to resist outside forces that press them to exploit their environments. For example. since 1985 tens of thousands of peasants. Robert in B. Martin'sPress. and this makes for a more tightly woven web of associational life.. eds. the Indian government. and Maharashtraand have been supported by the governments of these states.106. HarperPerennial. it partially fashions communities into ecologically sensitive social agents. and often at the mercy of multilateraldevelopment banks. living under political regimes riven by rivalries and controlled by leadership that is not popularly based. for example. no. and until recently the World Bank. see Susanna Hecht and Alexander and Defendersof the Amazon (New York: Destroyers The Fate of the Forest:Developers.72 This strengthens a community's ability to determine its own affairs and influence events outside its immediate domain. communities can respond to these pressures more successfully. The Sardar Sarovarprojects are intended to produce hydroelectric energy for the states of Gujarat. The dynamics of environmental destruction often do not originate at the local or state level. Poor people who wreck their environments are generally driven to do so by multiple external pressures. Independent almost always bring local people together. 574.1990).Embedded within regional.95. L.Madhya Pradesh. Turneret al. no." World Development 17. 4 72 Bratton. To the degree that this is attentive to ecological issues.. Outfrom Underdevelopment: (New York:St. 7 See "Whose Common Future. landless laborers.and tribal people have demonstrated against a series of dams in the Narmada Valley that critics believe will cause severe environmental and social damage. For how these pressureswork in one particulararea.7'They organize people into new forms of social interaction. 1990). Cockburn." McC.69 on Wed. Resistance started locally. 43-44. See.73Once empowered. "Foreword: byHumanAction(New York:ColumbiaUniversityPresswith ClarkUniverTheEarthas Transformed sity. 1988). Adams. local people respond to the consumptive practices and development strategies of those living in distant cities or countries. however. To paraphrase Michael Bratton. but since 1985 it has spread with the formation by local and transnational groups of an activist network that operates both inside India and 71 Outside contact may also splinter traditionalassociationscausing economic and social disloca- for the Third World Prospects JamesMittelman. The Relativityof Time and Transformation. This content downloaded from 130." Ecologist (special issue) 22.
for example. the environmental As a result. 1991).75 anddevelopmental external environmental large-scale.95. (New York:W. 76 Robert Livernash. 1994). President of the World Bank."RegionalDevelopmentDialogue 10 (Summer 1989). First World donors look to them for expertise and capability.and international connection is initially facilitated when TEAGs that have offices in the developed world transfer money and resources to Third World communities.106.in 1993 selvesprofoundly withdrewits requestfor World Bank funding the Indiangovernment local communities have Sarovar Finally.and eventuallyto Brazil to attend the proceedings. Norton. Local empowerment reachout to actorsin otherrefashionwhen communities less reactive of connecgions. in the Developing World.however.69 on Wed. "Rebuildingthe World Bank.Colo.76Much of this aid went to local NGOs and helped to empower local communities.78This represents a shift on the part of 1994 74 Hilary French. 15. fromregional.distributed theEnvironmentin TropicalAsia Reclaiming Rush. in 1975 donor governments channeled $100 million through local NGOs."in Lester Brown et al. hesitantaboutfuturedam projects.the Indian and rehabitation. the amount of money going to local NGOs decreasedin 1987. It increasedthe following year. countries. thatthey arebetterorganized let themselves designs. Preston.74 to supportthe Sardar servednotice. indeed. "Withdrawfrom SardarSarovar.and other aid agenciesnow find themgovernment. TheLast Tree: by Boulder."Ecologist22 (September-October 1992).334 WORLD POLITICS While the finaloutcomehasyet to be deabroad to thwartthe project. affectswider arenasof sociallife in a positive.local communitieshave already as well as those havefficacyof largedam projects.For instance.and continents. ing to do with displacement the World Bank. 2). 78 Michael Cernea. project.Indeed. which is roughly 12 percent of all public and private development aid.: Westview Press."Nongovernmental Organizationsand Local Development.. In 1989. As local NGOs become better able to chart the economic and environmental destinies of local communities.4 billion to developing countries.throughtheirinsistencethat theywill drownbeforethey to resistother be displaced. James (New York:Asia Society.national. 163. Now: An Open Letter to Mr. This content downloaded from 130. State of the World.the solidification tions between TEAGs and local communitiesitself elicits responses This institutionsand actors. Organizationssuch as WWFspent thousands of dollarsto bringThird World NGOs to Geneva."Environment34 "The Growing Influenceof NGOs (June 1992). northern NGOs distributed $6. W.1 billion. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . meetings organizedfor the United Nations Confer77 Such funding was evident in the preparatory ence on Environment and Development (UNCED). One should note that although the overall trend is to fund local NGOs. in 1985 the figure had risen to $1. Lewis T. redefinedthe debateabout termined.77 This pattern is part of a broader shift in funding from First World governments. 7 See Brambleand Porter (fn. 117. New York.
supplement(Autumn 1987). At a lesser degree of challenge. where environmental NGOs are part of broader opposition groups. and donor'spreference for privatesectordevelopment. 80 Organizationfor Economic Cooperationand Development (OECD).79 This pattern is further accentuated when First World governments turn to transnationalNGOs in the North for similar expertise. The effects are not limited. their actions in fact have a broaderimpact and interfere with state politics. to a more robust civil society." according to the report. 118. Many of the activities and certainly the funding directly challenge or at least intersect with state policies.95.2 billion in 1987 and representing 5 percent of total ODA.69 on Wed. See Anne Drabek. by the early 1980s virtually all First World countries adopted a system of cofinancing projects implemented by their national NGOs. Nevertheless. state activity can be frustrated.1 Increased aid to local NGOs has obvious effects on local capability. According to a 1989 OECD report."Editor's Preface. 81 See Fisher (fn. "Official contributions to NGOs' activities over the decades have been on an upward trend.106. In these instances outside aid to local groups may be perceived as foreign intervention trying to diminish state power.6 percent.It enhances the ability of communities to take a more active and effectual role in their economic and environmental destinies. outside support may simply minimize the control government exercises over its territory. 14). Put most broadly. Empowering local communities diminishes state authority by reinforcing local loyalties at the expense of national identity.When funds go to NGOs. Development in Cooperation the 1990s: Effortsand Policiesof the Membersof the Development AssistanceCommittee (Paris:OECD. amounting to $2. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .0 While much of this was funneled through voluntary relief organizations such as Catholic Relief Services. Thus. 1989). however. thus. 78). it would be misleading to think about TEAGs as tradi79 Cernea (fn."World Development 15. overall there has been an upgrading in the status of NGOs concerned with development and environmental issues. 82.POLITICS BEYOND THE STATE 335 Official Development Assistance (ODA) countries. while TEAGs may see themselves working outside the domain of the state and focusing on civil society per se. this threatens government attempts at nation building. table 1. At a minimum. governments are concerned about who controls any foreign resourcesthat come into the country. TEAGs pose a challenge to state sovereignty and more generally redefine the realm of the state itself.7 percent of their funding through Third World NGOs. One should note that the reasonfor this shift in funding is a combination of the perceivedfailureof governmentsto promote development.the provedeffectivenessof NGO responsesto recentfamines throughoutAfrica.This is most clear in places like Kenya and Malaysia. In 1975 they donated only 0. in 1985 the figure rose to 3. This content downloaded from 130.
It defines the boundaries of good conduct and thus animates how a host of actors-from governments to voluntary associations and ordinary citizens-think about and act in reference to the environment.106. for example. to be sure. ronmental efforts TEAGs attempt to work independent of governmental activity at the level of communities themselves. These business enterprises interact with states. It is a sensibility not restrictedto governments nor exclusivelywithin their domain of control. work to disseminate an ecological sensibility. TEAGstry to use activism itself. They are politically relevant insofar as they affect state policies and interstate behavior. see Philip Hirsch.69 on Wed. a particular type of NGO.95. rooted in the actual experience of ordinary people. as a form of governance. That their activities end up involving them in the political universe of the state is indicative of the porous boundary between local communities and the state or."Ecologist This content downloaded from 130.82 The grassroots efforts of transnational environmental activists aim to engage people at the level at which they feel the most immediate effects-their own local environmental and economic conditions. Greenpeace. more broadly. it acts as a form of governance. literally to change the way they live their lives. WORLD CIVIC POLITICS The predominant way to think about NGOs in world affairs is as transnational interest groups. Rather. It does not mean that activist efforts in civil society gain political relevance only when they intersect state activities. "The State in the Village: 23 (November-December 1993). have political relevance beyond this. At this level.it circulatesthroughout all areasof collective life. Sea Shepherds Conservation Society. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . To the degree that such efforts have ramifications for wider arenas of social interaction-including states and other actors-they have world political significance. A similar dynamic is at work when TEAGs pressure multinational corporations. and EarthFirst!. and state governments can restrict their activities to a significant 82 For a discussion of the interface at the local level. They work to shape the way vast numbers of people throughout the world act toward the environment using modes of governance that are part of global civil society. It can alter the way people interact with each other and their environment.Rather. To the degree this sensibility sways people.336 WORLD POLITICS with their hands-ondevelopment/envitionalinterestgroups. The Case of Ban Mai. In this article I have argued that TEAGs.between the state and civil society.
Due to the reachof multinational corporations into environmental enprocesses. states govern through legal means that are supported by the threat or use of force. as changedpractices at this level translate up throughprocessesand mechanisms that areregional. civic power has no legally sanctioned status and cannot be enforced through the legitimate use of violence. which in turnshapethe characterof publiclife.They are not monopolizedby states.when TEAGs empowerlocal communities. Ultimately. I suggested that the best way to think about these activitiesis through the category of "worldcivic politics. Put differently.POLITICS BEYOND THE STATE 337 degree. in this regard.and thus their realm of operationis considerably beyond state control. practices.Moreover. refers to the quality of interaction that takes place above the individual and below the state yet across national boundaries. By contrast.however. however. and economic life.national. couragingthem to become "green" is anotherinstance of using the governingcapacitiesoutside formalgovernmentto shapewidespread activities. they are enlisting forms of governance that are civil as opposed to official or state constituted in character. civic power is the forging of voluntary and customary practices into mechanisms that govern public affairs. all states enjoy a minimum of loyalty from their citizens and administrate through a variety of nonlegal and noncoercive means. social. the authority to govern per se rests on the claim to a monopoly over legitimate coercive power. To be sure. It rests on persuasion and more constitutive employment of power in which people change their practices because they have come to understand the world in a way that promotes certain actions over others or because they operate in an environment that induces them to do so.The concept of world civic politics clarifies how the forms of governance in global civil society are distinct from the instrumentalities of state rule.theybypass stateapparatuses and activate that operatesat the commugovernance nity level.106. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . When TEAGs disseminate an ecological sensibility. or empower local communities.95. by workingto improve people's in day-to-dayeconomiclives ecologically sustainable ways.69 on Wed. pressure corporations. they arelikewise not focusedprimarily on states. they are exercising civic power across national boundaries.the effortsby TEAGs influence the activities of largercollectivities.As numerous communities procure sustainable development the effortsof TEAGs take effect."When TEAGs work through transnational networks associated with cultural.Rather. At the most foundational level.Civil. They are turning formerly nonpolitical practices This content downloaded from 130. Finally.and globalin scope.
As Gramsci and others have argued.T. they are. 84 More recent formulationsof civil society."trans. and even activist groups are regulated. that is..87At other times. ed.civil society sits at an intermediatestage of collectivedevelopment that finds its apex at the state.Democracy in America. eds.Y. overlapping with civil society itself. 1969). civil society is a sphere or "moment"of political order in which individuals engage in free association. churches. Mayer (Garden City. it is also one in which citizens can come together to realize joint aims. 5). councils. or run by the state itself. the state and civil society are practically indistinguishable as schools.86 While distinct analytically. 6). politicizing global civil society. societies are less saturatedby the presence of the state and a robust civil society enjoys a significant degree of independence. States CentralPerspectives and Societies (New York:New YorkUniversityPress."in Held et al.and nonlegalistic forms of association with the intention of pursuing "greataims in common. 87 Gramsci (fn. the thinker most associated with contrasting the two. monitored.338 WORLD POLITICS into instruments of governance. it is inaccurate to assume a sharp distinction.83As it is more generally understood. "The Limits of the State: Beyond Statist Approaches and Their Critics. 1967). M.include the family as part of civil society. private interests. as it were. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .The state's job. The distinction between state and civic power rests on the more fundamental differentiation between the state and civil society as spheres of collective life. According to Hegel. See Hegel's"Philosophy of Right. and divisiveness.: Doubleday. is a complex network of governmental institutionsand executive offices-that toincluding the military.civil society is never wholly autonomous or completely separate from the activities of states. Jacob P. state rule often permeates civil society to consolidate power. on the other hand. Although it is an arena of particularneeds. civil society is the arenabeyond the individual. gether constitute a legal or constitutional order. universities. See Cohen and Arato (fn. is to enable universalinterest-in contrastto privateinterest-to prevail." as Tocqueville put it. N. 520.69 on Wed. 1983). This content downloaded from 130. The boundaries of the state are always ill defined and essentially amorphous. 86 David Held. Knox (London: Oxford University Press. however.95. 238ff 88 Timothy Mitchell.informed by new understandings of the public/private distinction.The state.84It is there that people engage in spontaneous. 85 Alexis de Tocqueville.does not supersedecivil society but rather contains and preservesit in order to transformit into a higher level of social expression.88Because the boundaries between 83 As a moment of social organization.106. But even here.it allows for the realizationof ethical life in contrastto the abstractmoralityavailablein civil society. official authority and aims to administer and control a given territory. customary.the bureaucracy." American PoliticalScience Review 85 (March 1991).. "Introduction: on the Modern State.This order is undergirded by formal.In Hegelian terminology.5 The state. In these instances.
and publicdomain.Y. empower localcommunities.Government. While globalcivil societyis anait is shapedby.69 on Wed. and the notion of world civic politicsis not meantto obscurethis. is not the entanglements with statesand the state system and overlaps acthat make efforts in global civil society "political. The same is true at the global level. 2.the It is the employmentof means to order.pressurecorporations. Generically. see Paul Wapner. its politicalcharacter consistsin the ability Rather.In each instance.this activityhas nothingto do with governon the one hand. and shapespublic life.is an institutionthat ment or the state.90 managehumanbehaviorin mattersof commonconcernand involvement. social. and World Civic Politics(Alcussion of this type of action.when TEAGsdisor work to seminate an ecological sensibility.activistefforts intersectwith the domainof the state even if this is not the initialintention.porous. theireffortsareneitherimmunefromnor wholly independentof state activity. 90 Cited in Sheldon Wolin. by virtue of its authorityto make coordinates The state.: SUNY Press. 1960).A9 is that it What is absolutely essentialto recognize. and culturalpracticesthroughoutthe world and vice versa. Brown.and in turnshapes. of course.While not emphasizedabove. that emergedin the modhand. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Politics and Vision:Continuityand Innovation in Western Political Thought (Boston: Little.States'actionsgreatlyinfluencethe content and significanceof economic. At stakein this analysis.then. on the other decisionsbinding on the whole community. to use diverse mechanismsof governanceto alter and shape wideThat these networkshappento imbricate the domain spreadbehavior.is a particular modalityof government ern period and came to be associatedwith politicalrule itself.It led to his "loweringthe sights"of This content downloaded from 130.however.POLITICS BEYOND THE STATE 339 the stateand civil societyareelusive. in which the interfaceof For an extended disglobal civil society and the state system is criticalto strategiespursuedby TEAGs.EnvironmentalActivism bany.forthcoming).when actions take placein one realm-although they have a distinctqualityof efficacyaboutthem-they haveconsequences for the other.direct. of states revealsmore about the contoursand textureof the playing fieldwithinwhich activistsandothersoperatethanaboutthe character of politicsitself. lyticallya distinctsphereof activity.9'Pos89 There are.Imthat politicsin its most generalsense conplicit is the understanding cerns the interfaceof power and what Cicero called respublico.106. the state system. is the conceptof world politics. 91 Machiavelliwas one of the first to recognizethis conflation.N." Transnational tivism does not simply become politicallyrelevantwhen it intersects with statebehavior.and mobile.95. at least.many instanceswhen activistsdo target the state.
"in James Rosenau and Ernst-Otto Czempiel.It specifiesthe qualityof governance associated of staterule. ies. politicsis not meantto replaceor subsumeinterstate It must it is offeredas a way of augmentingscholarlyunderstanding.N.and orderwidespread aims civic world politics The conceptof sues of publicinvolvement. removingsuch mattersas salvationand moralityfrom the domain of political lifeinsofar as he recognized the limited capacities of state apparatuses. a sensitivity to world civic politics makes clear that this cannot be done to the exclusion of the more general societal efforts employed by TEAGs and NGOs-a failure to take note of the world civic efforts of nonstate actors leaves one with only a partial picture of world affairs and thus presents an incomplete understanding of world politics itself. systemand will remain Statesarethe main actorsin the international the In this conceptof world civic future. administrative.See James Rosenau.it is be consideredalongsidestate-centered still worthwhile measuringand interpretingthe lobbying efforts of and refining scholarly comprehension of NGO influence on states. The Discourses (New York:Cambridge University Press. it fromthe instrumentalities employand distinguishes of world civic politics:a boundaries A final note on the conceptual focuson the civildimensionof worldcollectivelife is not meantto obscure the centralimportanceof interstaterelationsin world affairs.92 of governingeffortsnot the politicalcharacter to clarifyconceptually activists with the state. Oran Young. This content downloaded from 130. Cambridge Orderand Changein WorldPolitics (Cambridge: without Government: eds. for indefinite the so Rather. the state has become the most able mechanismto reachinto and the extenaffectthe lives of vast numbersof people. Hanover. Nonetheless.95.Other actorsgovernpublicaffairs. sessingas it does military. 1992). isregarding practices otheractorsshape. of government capability sivegoverning exhauststhe realmof the political. of a conferenceheld (Summaryand recommendations mental Change and InternationalGovernance" at Dartmouth College.however. 1988). analyses.Notwithstanding neither andthe state. "Governance.For this reason. relations. 5 Mar 2014 04:08:15 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ... 92 This point rests on the distinction between government and governance. regard.106.direct. The Prince (Middlesex: Penguin Books.George Demko.See Niccol6 Machiavelli.69 on Wed.340 WORLD POLITICS bodandjuridical legislative.Order and Change in World Politics. June 1991). TEAGs politics-that is. 1988). idem. Governance "GlobalEnvironUniversityPress.H. and KilapartiRamakrishma.
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