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selection practices -Interviews: Are themost frequently used selection tool.

-Should bestructured to ensure against distortion due to interviewers biases. -Are the best forassessing conscientiousness, interpersonal skills, and person-organization fitof the applicant. written tests Renewed Employerinterest in using written tests for selection. -Tests must be showvalidates connection to job-related performance requirements. performance-simulation tests -Work Sample Tests:On the job live interviews. -Assessment Centers:Get a sense on what you can do. A set of performance-simulation tests designedto evaluate a candidates managerial potential. training and development programs basic literacy skills technical skills interpersonal skills problem solving ethics training basic literacy skills - ____problems costcorporate America about $60 billion per year in lost productivity.Organizations increasingly have to teach employees basic reading and mathskills. technical skills - : Most training is directedat upgrading and improving an employees technical skills, increasinglyimportant for two reasons: new technology and new structural designs in theorganization. interpersonal skills - Almost all employees belongto a work unit, and their work performance depends on their ability toeffectively interact with their co-workers and boss. performance evaluation -Purposes ofPerformance Evaluations: Making general human resource decisions. -Promotions,transfers, and terminations. -Evaluations also identify training anddevelopment needs. -Validatingselection and development programs. -Providing feedbackto employees on how the organization views their performance and is often thebasis for reward allocations including merit pay

raises. If employees aregoing to be motivated to perform then: -Performanceobjectives must be clear. -Performancecriteria must be related to the job. -Performance must beaccurately evaluated. -Performance must beproperly rewarded. providing performance feedback 1. Focus on specific behaviors 2. Keep feedback impersonal 3. Keep feedback goal-oriented 4. Make feedback well timed 5. Ensure understanding 6. Direct negative feedbacktoward behavior that recipient can control.

organizational structure defines how job tasks are formally divided, group, andcoordinated. organizational structure elements Work specialization, departmentalization, and chain ofcommand, span of control, centralization, decentralization, and formalization. -Work Specialization: Or division of labor, which describes the degree to whichactivities in the organization are subdivided into separate jobs. Work can beperformed more efficiently if employees are allowed to specialize. (Howspecialized are jobs going to be, if youre doing one little piece then youhave high specialization, and

boredom if you go too far.) The essence of workspecialization is to divide a job into a number of steps, each completed by aseparate individual. Departmentalization The basis by which jobs are grouped together. Groupactivities by: Function (Cross Functional Teams), Product, Geography, Process(DMV. One line for pictures and one for the exams), Customers (Banks). -Unity Of Command The idea that asubordinate should have only one superior to whom he or she is directlyresponsible. If the unity of command is broken, then the employee might have tocope with conflicting demands or priorities from several superiors. Span Of Control: The number of subordinates a manager can efficiently andeffectively direct. It is important because it largely determines the number oflevels and managers an organization has. All things being equal, the wider orlarger the span, the more efficient the organization. Centralization : Refers to thedegree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in theorganization. In centralized organizations, top managers make all the decisions,and lower-level managers merely carry out their directives decentralized decision making is pushed down to the managers closest tothe action. flatter organizations Formalization The degree to whichjobs within an organization are standardized. If a job is highly formalized,the incumbent has a minimum amount of discretion over what, when, and how to doit. common organizational designs 1. simplestructure 2. bureaucracy 3. matrix structure simple structure An organizationstructure characterized by a low degree of departmentalization, wide spans ofcontrol, authority centralized in a single person, and little formalization

bureaucracy An organization structure with highly routine operatingtasks achieved through specialization, much formalized rules and regulations,tasks that are grouped into functional departments, centralized authority,narrow spans of control, and decision making that follows the chain of command. strengths of bureaucracy High volume, minimum duplication of personnel and equipment,enhanced communication, and centralized decision making. weakness of bureaucracy Subunit conflictswith organizational goals, obsessive concern with rules and regulations, lackof employee discretion to deal with problems. matrix structure An organization structure that creates dual lines ofauthority and combines functional and product departmentalization