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What does it mean that the atmosphere is a sink?

Holds the pollutants into it for long periods of time What does the word Smog mean? Smog is mixture of smoke and fog

What are the two main types of air pollution? Explain each. There are stationary sources and mobile sources Mobile sources move while polluting while stationary sources stay in one point that can be spread through wind Athens, Greece U.S. China Large cities have major air pollution issues; health cost $50$100 billion 300,000 deaths/year, health cost $50 billion China Number of deaths higher on bad air quality days

Hungary 1 in 17 deaths contributed to air pollution

What are the general effects of air pollution? Affects animals, soil, human health, Toxic poisoning, cancer, birth defects, eye irritation, and irritation of respiratory system Chronic diseases

What does it mean if pollution has synergestic effects? Means that air pollutants combined have a greater damage

Define Primary and Secondary Pollutants: Primary pollutants: emitted directly into air Secondary: produced through reactions between primary pollutants

Where do some of the natural air pollutants come from? Explain. Sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, ozone in lower atmosphere

What are the 6 criteria pollutants? LIST Sulfur Dioxide


coal power plants industrial processes can be converted to sulfate

Nitrogen Oxides NO Nitrogen dioxide - NO2 contribute to smog

Carbon Monoxide Even at low concentrations is extremely toxic to humans Binds to hemoglobin in blood 10% comes from fires, cars

Ozone (Photochemical) atmospheric interactions of nitrogen dioxide and sunlight active chemically, oxidizes or burns particles less than 10m in diameter smoke, soot, or dust

Particulate Matter (PM)

constituent of auto batteries and was once added to gasoline hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen fluoride, chlorine gases, benzene, methanol, ammonia

Effects of Air Toxins Associated with long-term and short-term exposures respiratory, neurological, reproductive, or immune diseases

Hydrogen Sulfide Natural sources such as geysers, swamps, and bogs Functional damage to plants Range from toxicity to death

Hydrogen Fluoride Extremely toxic gaseous pollutant small concentration (as low as 1 ppb) of HF may cause harm

Methyl Isocyanate common pesticide, Sevin severe irritation (burns on contact)

VOCs organic compounds used as solvents in industrial processes Hydrocarbons

Benzene Produced during incomplete combustion Major environmental source on and off road vehicles

Arcolein irritating to nose, eyes, and respiratory system Component of cigarette smoke

What causes some variability of air pollution? vary in different regions Seasonally

Las Vegas problem in arid regions Brown haze over Las Vegas partly due to naturally occurring PM 10

Haze From Afar not restricted to urban areas Significant to understanding global air pollution

Urban Air Pollution Smog Photochemical smog Sulfurous smog

Atmospheric Inversion Occurs when warmer air is found above cooler air

Topography bowl are more susceptible to smog problems

What are the 4 factors (potential) for Urban Air Pollution?

Rate of emission of pollutants per unit area Downwind distance that a mass of air moves through an urban area Average speed of the wind Elevation to which potential pollutants can be thoroughly mixed by naturally moving air in the lower atmosphere

What are the future trends for future air pollution? Air quality will continue to improve poorer air quality in many locations

United States Strategies to discourage automobile use Stricter emission controls for automobiles

Mexico City have the financial base necessary to fight air pollution Topographically located in a natural basin Perfect situation for severe air pollution problem

How can we controlling common pollutants? Reduce Collect Capture Retain

Particulates fugitive, point or area stationary sources are much easier to control Protecting open areas Controlling dust Reducing effects of wind

Automobiles Effluent fees replace emission controls Reduce the number or type of cars

Sulfur Dioxide Precipitators Washing to remove sulfur

Scrubber Scrubbing

The Clean Air Act Regulations Acid rain Toxic emissions Ozone depletion Automobile exhaust Buying and selling of sulfur dioxide emissions

Ambient Air Quality Standards describe air pollution on a given day

Air Quality Index (AQI) AQI = 100 Air is unhealthy AQI greater than 200 Air pollution alert is issued AQI exceeds 300 Air pollution warning is issued - hazardous to all people. AQI exceeds 400 Air pollution emergency is declared, and people are requested to remain indoors and minimize physical exertion What is the cost of outdoor air pollution control? Aluminum plant several thousand per ton Cost benefit must be considered

What is Ozone? Strong oxidant and chemically reacts with many materials lower atmosphere, ozone is a pollutant Highest concentration of ozone in the stratosphere

How does Ozone block UV light? Absorbs most of the potentially hazardous ultraviolet radiation from the sun ozone shield

What happens to UVC in the Ozone layer? Shortest wavelength and most energetic of the types of ultraviolet radiation UVC strongly absorbed in the stratosphere

What are the effects of UVA? UVB? cause some damage to living cells Not affected by stratospheric ozone Ozone is the only known gas that absorbs UVB

How is Ozone measured? Dobson ultraviolet spectrometer. Ozone and CFCs ozone in the stratosphere is being depleted by CFCs UVB is a cause of human skin cancers Working gas in refrigeration and AC Production of Styrofoam

The Antarctic Ozone Hole 1958 ozone depletion has been observed in the Antarctic every October

What are the environmental effects of the Ozone hole? /UV Exposure? Damage to food chain on land and in oceans Damage to human health

What is the Montreal Protocol? reduction of global emissions of CFCs to 50% of 1986 emissions

What is the future for Ozone Depletion? Substitutes for CFCs o Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) o Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)

Sources of Indoor Air Pollution Secondhand smoke Some molds (fungal growths) in buildings release toxic spores Legionella pneumophila

Secondhand Smoke Most hazardous common indoor air pollutant Legionnaires Disease

Bacterium that causes a type of pneumonia

Radon Gas Seeps up naturally from soils and rocks below buildings second most common cause of lung cancer

Pesticides Asbestos cause a particular type of lung cancer

Formadehyde VOC, used in many materials found in homes and offices

Dust Mites Irritate the respiratory system, nose, eyes

Why is indoor air pollution more concentrated than outdoors? potential indoor sources of pollutants conserve energy in buildings has led to the trapping of pollutants inside

What happens on windward/leeward sides of buildings? differential pressures that move air and contaminants from one area to another

What is the chimney effect? a temperature differential between the indoor and outdoor environments Warmer air rises in the building to the upper levels, it is replaced in the lower portion of the building by outdoor air ETS (Environmental Tobacco Smoke) Secondhand smoke

What is sick-building syndrome? Symptoms people report cannot be traced to any one known cause

How can indoor air pollution be controlled? Strong financial incentives Meet indoor air quality standards Dilution reduce potential pollutants