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Pakistan has an agricultural based economy and 25% of GDP is provided by agricultural products. Fauji fertilizers Bin Qasim limited is itself an icon in the fertilizer industry. FFBL owns 350 acres plot in eastern industrial zone Bin Qasim, Karachi. An additional 8 acres is owned for phosphoric acid storage known as tank form area. It produces granular urea and DAP and it is worth mentioning that FFBL is the sole producer of granular DAP and Granular urea in Pakistan. FFBL has the privilege to produce 1570 MT/day ammonia, 1670 MT/day Urea and 2250 MT/day DAP. This report is an effort to communicate to what I have learnt during my stay at FFBL. The scope of this internship report was to include the knowledge that is cost by means either practical or theoretical to the internees.

First of all I would like to thank to ALLAH Almighty who enabled us to achieve what I aimed for at FFBL. I am also indebted to my parents and all the management staff, engineers, supervisors, technicians and others who constantly encouraged me and provided me help and advice. I would also like to thank some of most important people who were available for us and without whom I would not have achieved what I thought before coming to FFBL.

Mr. Ziaullah Mr. Naveed Hisam Mr. Ayaz Ali Khan Mr. Saeed Khan Afridi Mr. Rao Jameel Mr. Adil Shafique Mr. Muhammad Hanif Mr. Rizwan Qamar Mr. Zeeshan Mr. Safdar Hussain Mr. S.M. Ali Mr. Major. Shahid (Retd)

Engineer TTC Equipment Ammonia Equipment Ammonia Equipment Urea Equipment DAP Equipment UTY Equipment UTY Machinery Ammonia Machinery Ammonia Machine Shop Fabrication Shop Motor Vehicle Shop

Equipment Unit This unit of mechanical maintenance deals with the repair & maintenance of stationary parts at plantsite. Machinery Unit
This unit of mechanical maintenance deals with the repair & maintenance of rotary parts at plantsite.

Workshop Unit In this unit the parts that are worn out are repaired and manufactured through different machines. Reverse Engineering is also done in this unit.

Process description: The ammonia process is based on catalytic high pressure offered by Betchel Corporation. Production is accomplished in following sections: Raw synthesis gas preparation Synthesis gas purification Ammonia synthesis Ammonia refrigeration

Equipment Ammonia
P & Ids P & Ids are defined as Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams. All the layout of piping and instruments is defined. Bechtel Specifications All the specifications and standards regarding Ammonia plant. For e.g . Length and Diameter of the pipes, wall thickness, types of welding possible, material used and its grade etc. For e.g. Sch 80 A106 Sch 80 defines the required wall thickness, whereas A106 is carbon steel. Valves and its types A valve is a device that regulates the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically pipe fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category. Types of valves used in FFBL. Gate Vavle Gate valve is a valve that opens by lifting a round or rectangular gate/wedge out of the path of the fluid. The distinct feature of a gate valve is the sealing surfaces between the gate and seats are planar, so gate valves are often used when a straight-line flow of fluid and minimum restriction is desired. Globe Valve is a type of valve used for regulating flow in a pipeline, consisting of a movable disk-type element and a stationary ring seat in a generally spherical body.Globe valves are named for their spherical body shape with the two halves of the body being separated by an internal baffle. This has an opening that forms a seat onto which a movable plug[2] can be screwed in to close (or shut) the valve.

Butterfly Valve Butterfly valve is which can be used for isolating or regulating flow. The closing mechanism takes the form of a disk. Operation is similar to that of a ball valve, which allows for quick shut off.

Welding Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. This is often done by melting the workpieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material (the weld pool) that cools to become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce the weld. This is in contrast with soldering and brazing, which involve melting a lower-melting-point material between the workpieces to form a bond between them, without melting the workpieces. There are two types of welding carried out at Ammonia Plant. Electric Arc Welding Argon Welding

Different electrodes are used for different materials respective of their properties. There are 4 passes for Butt Joint First Pass Hard Pass Filling Gapping

Boiler (V-405) A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications. Material Used: Whole of the outer covering of the boiler is made of carbon-steel as it is less costly and easily available. However, cast iron can also be used. There are two types of boilers used in various locations of FFBL Plantsite. Fire-tube boiler Water-tube boiler Water-tube boiler HRSG( Heat Recovery Steam Generation) Auxiliary boiler

Parts of Boiler Steam Drum Economizer Primary super heater Secondary super heater Burners Risers

Heat Exchangers A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. The media may be separated by a solid wall, so that they never mix, or they may be in direct contact.[1] They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural gas processing, and sewage treatment. One common example of a heat exchanger is the radiator in a car, in which the heat source, being a hot engine-cooling fluid, water, transfers heat to air flowing through the radiator (i.e. the heat transfer medium). Types of Heat Exchangers used at FFBL Plantsite. I-type U-type Kettle Type

Maintenance: Mechanical Cleaning 1. High Pressure Jetting Machine Chemical Cleaning Testing Techniques Hydro Testing Air Testing NH3 Testing Insulation Building insulation, added to buildings for comfort and energy efficiency Soundproofing, also known as acoustic insulation, any means of reducing the intensity of sound Thermal insulation, materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer Electrical insulation, the use of material to resist the flow of electric current and magnetism.

Types of Insulation used at Ammonia Plant. Cold Insulation Hot Insulation Cladding Sheets Refectory Refractory types Fire proof bricks Powder form(cold layer) Castable Refractory Materials Alumina Sand Silica Magnesia Protective Coatings & Paintings Protective coating is a paint or coating defined by its protective, rather than its aesthetic properties, although it can provide both. The most common use of industrial coatings is for corrosion control of steel or concrete. Other functions include intumescent coatings for fire resistance. The most common polymers used in industrial coatings are polyurethane, In ammonia plant, painting is applied to Carbon steel and Low alloy steel. Before applying paint, The surface should be dry. The humidity level should be 80%. The temperature of the surface should exceed 5oC. Temperature indicating paints (TIPs) are used at different locations on the ammonia plant which change color when the temperature exceeds a certain level. Color Coding The color coding in the piping system is as follows. This helps in line tracing and identifying the pipes that carries different fluids. Yellow------------->danger area (natural gas) Green-------------->safe (water) Silver--------------->high temperature water (steam) Orange------------->lubrication oil Blue------------------->structure

Symbols C = vessels D = tanks E = exchangers K = compressors F = furnace T = turbines P = pumps GLGs (gas level glass): Glass is used at high temperatures, high pressure and steam lining. They are used to indicate the level of the fluids in different vessels or equipments. The magnetic GLGs are used at the plant site. Two types used mostly: Transparent: Used at high temperatures and pressures. (700 Psi, 500oC) Reflex types: Used at low temperature and pressures. (250 Psi, 150oC) Vessels Vessels are pressurized containers. They are used for storage and gradual transfer of the constituent in it to different parts of the plant. They are of the following types: Ball type Cylindrical Horizontal Vertical Steam Traps A steam trap prime missions is to remove condensate and air preventing escape of live steam from the distribution system. The three important functions of steam traps are: Discharge condensate as soon as it is formed. Have a negligible steam consumption. Have the capability of discharging air and other non-condensable gases. There are three primary categories of steam traps: Mechanical Thermostatic Thermodynamic

Popular traps in these categories includes the inverted bucket steam trap, the float steam trap, the thermostatic steam trap and the thermodynamic disc steam trap. Which one is preferred depends on the application. The inverted bucket is the most reliable steam trap operating principle known. The heart of its simple design is a unique leverage system that multiplies the force provided by the bucket to open the valve against pressure. Since the bucket is open at the bottom, it resists damage from water hammers, and wearing points are heavily reinforced for long life. Intermittent operation - condensate drainage is continuous, discharge is intermittent Small dribble at no load, intermittent at light and normal load, continuous at full load Excellent energy conservation Excellent resistance to wear Excellent corrosion resistance Thermostatic Steam Traps There are two basic designs for the thermostatic steam trap, a bimetallic and a balanced pressure design. Both designs use the difference in temperature between live steam and condensate or air to control the release of condensate and air from the steam line. In an thermostatic bimetallic trap it is common that an oil filled element expands when heated to close a valve against a seat. It may be possible to adjust the discharge temperature of the trap often between 60oC and 100oC. This makes the thermostatic trap suited to get rid of large quantities of air and cold condensate at the start-up condition. On the other hand the thermostatic trap will have problems to adapt to the variations common in modulating heat exchangers. intermittent operation fair energy conservation fair resistance to wear good corrosion resistance poor resistance to hydraulic shocks (good for bimetal traps) do not vent air and CO2 at steam temperature Float Steam Traps In the float steam trap a valve is connected to a float in such a way that a valve opens when the float rises. The float steam trap adapts very well to varying conditions as is the best choice for modulating heat exchangers, but the float steam trap is relatively expensive and not very robust against water hammers. continuous operation but may cycle at high pressures no action at no load, continuous at full load good energy conservation good resistance to wear good corrosion resistance poor resistance to hydraulic shocks do not vent air and CO2 at steam temperature

Thermodynamic Disc Steam Traps The thermodynamic trap is an robust steam trap with simple operation. The trap operates by means of the dynamic effect of flash steam as it passes through the trap. intermittent operation poor energy conservation poor resistance to wear excellent corrosion resistance excellent resistance to hydraulic shocks do not vent air and CO2 at steam temperature

Machinery Ammonia
Machinery ammonia deals with the moving and rotating parts of that are being used in the plant for different purposes. It includes the maintenance of machinery and their overhauling after the specific period given by vendors. The main machinery under the title of ammonia machinery is; Turbines Compressors Pumps Fans Blowers Gear Boxes Couplings Turbines Following are the turbines functional at ammonia machinery; Gas Turbines Steam Turbine Hydraulic Turbine All turbines used here at the plantsite are working as prime movers. Gas turbines employed here serving as prime mover to sysnthesis. Gas compressor. There are numerous steam turbines working as prime movers for compressors. Majority are condensation turbines. Hydraulic turbines are used to run pumps. Compressors Compressors used at the plantsite are used to increase the pressure of the gas and air. The compressors that are in operation Centrifugal Compressor Positive Displacement Compressor There may be single stage or multistage compressors. For e.g. K-101 is a six stage centrifugal compressor.

Pumps Pumps are used to increase the pressure of liquid by changing the velocity head into pressure head. Types of pumps used in this plant: Centrifugal Pump Positive Displacement Pump For provision of lube-oil and hydrogen recovery unit at ammonia plant. There may be single or multistage pumps. Mechanical Seals: A mechanical seal is a device which helps join systems or mechanisms together by preventing leakage (e.g., in a plumbing system), containing pressure, or excluding contamination. A seal may also be referred to as "packing." Some of the types used in FFBL are as follows: Stationary seal ring Rotating Seal Ring Seal Ring Gasket Seal Ring Packing Retaining with driving notch and set screws. Gear Box A transmission or gearbox provides speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device using gear ratios. Gear box is used for variable transmission. It consists of the following parts: Bull Idler or Intermediate Pinions Bearings Couplings A coupling is a device used to connect two shafts together at their ends for the purpose of transmitting power. Couplings do not normally allow disconnection of shafts during operation, though there do exist torque limiting couplings which can slip or disconnect when some torque limit is exceeded. The primary purpose of couplings is to join two pieces of rotating equipment while permitting some degree of misalignment or end movement or both. By careful selection, installation and maintenance of couplings, substantial savings can be made in reduced maintenance costs and downtime. Types of couplings: Gear type coupling Diaphragm coupling Hydraulic coupling Fluid coupling Maintenance Almost types of maintenance are required in machinery ammonia, for e.g lubrication, overhauling etc.

UREA Urea was the first organic compound to be prepared chemically from inorganic starting material. Its main commercial use is as a fertilizer. Urea is synthesized from ammonia and carbon dioxide. Ammonia and carbon dioxide react to form ammonium carbamate 2NH3 + CO2 <------------> NH4 CO2 NH2 ( dH = -119 kJ/mol) The strongly exothermic very rapidly reaches equilibrium. The reaction system shown above is referred as carbamate equilibrium. The liquid phase ammonium carbamate is next dehydrated to urea and water. NH4 CO2 NH2 <-------------> NH2 CO NH2 (UREA) + H2O (dH = +25kJ/mol) This strongly endothermic reaction is rather slow compared with first one. The system is called as urea equilibrium Stamicarbon total recycle process is used here for urea production. In this process almost the whole quantity of unconverted reactant is returned to reactor. A large portion of reactant is removed from reactor solution at synthesis pressure by contacting counter currently with CO2. As CO2 is used as stripping agent so process is stamicarbon This urea is 99.6% w/w molten urea and sent to granulated portion where the slurry is converted into the granules by the application of steam, air and urea. The urea plant at FFBL is divided into the following 4 sections: Ammonia storage Carbon dioxide compression area Urea granulation Urea wet. Ammonia storage: Ammonia is stored in the storage tank of 5000 metric tonnes capacity. Carbon dioxide compression area: The carbon dioxide from the ammonia plant is compressed and then cooled by passing through the heat exchangers and then finally fed to the urea wet part. Wet Part:

Dry part: This section includes the granulator. In granulator hot air and steam is passed through the 99.6% molten urea. This results in the formation of granules. The granules may be oversized, undersized or on-size. The on-size granules are carried by bucket elevators while the oversize granules are crushed in crusher. Undersize granules are recycled to the granulator. Finally we obtain the desired granular area. Equipment Urea: Urea reactor High temperature carbamate condenser High pressure stripper Scrubber Granulator Steam traps Plate heat exchangers Nozzles Separators

Raw materials used to obtain diammonium phosphate are. Phosphoric acid Ammonia Sulphuric acid Sand Coating oil(furnace oil) Basic raw materials are phosphoric acid and ammonia for product formation, while sulphuric acid is used as a chemical filler and sand is used a physical filler for grade control (grade is controlled with nitrogen phosphate composition of 18-46) & Coating oil is used to minimize dust generation in product handling system and its typical application rate is 0.2% of product rate. DAP manufacturing process:

Process: Phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid, ammonia and sand are reacted in the pre-neutralizer to form a slurry and then this slurry is pumped to the granulator where DAP is coated over and granule form is maintained. Then they are passed to the dryer, then to the vibrating screens and then to then through the crushers. As a result the on-size particles are formed which are polished and then coated over by furnace oil. Equipment in DAP plant Storage tanks for phosphoric acid Storage tank for sulphuric acid Piping system Valves Scrubbers Cyclones Machinery UREA/DAP Major machines in machinery Urea/DAP are Rotating Drums Blowers Bucket Elevators Conveyors Systems Vibrating Screens Fans Pumps Crushers Agitators Coders

Equipment Utilities Utility department provides the basic necessities to run the plant. Utility section includes Power generation and distribution Steam generation Cooling tower Raw water treatment Instrument air compressors Heat ventilation and cooling Power generation and distribution For power generation two gas turbines are used having capacity of 26 MW each, but the total plant consumption is nearly equal to 20 MW. So both operate on low load of each sharing 10 MW each. Power of 13.8 KV and 60 Hz frequency is transferred from main station to substations. At substations transformer steps down this voltage to 480V for operations of motors etc. Steam generation Two boilers are used for steam generation at Utilities section. Auxiliary Boiler with capacity of 105 ton/hr Heat Recovery Steam Generation Boiler (Recovered heat is from exhaust of Gas turbine) Capacity of HRSG is 85ton/hr. Both are producing high pressure superheated steam at a temperature of 375 0C and pressure of 39kg/cm2. Cooling Tower It provides the cooling water for heat transfer process in the plant. It is induced draft cooling tower with 10 sections. Chemical dosing for cooling water treatment is referred by Buckman Laboratories. Raw Water Treatment Raw water from pipe is stored in reservoir of 90,000 m3 capacity. This water is sent to clarifier to remove turbidity and suspended solids present in water. Clarified water is then passed through sand filters to remove any suspended solids left in water. Then this water is pumped to demineralization section and also to portable water sections. In demineralization section water is passed through carbon filters and then to cation filters and then sent to anion filters. Hence water is demineralised. This demin water is sent to Deaerator section where BFW is prepared for steam generations. Instrument Air Compressors These compressors provide air for instrument operations. Double stage screw type rotary compressors are used for this purpose.

Machinery Utility This plant is the backbone of FFBL plantsite. Malfunctioning in this Plant can result in total blackout. But proficient Engineers along with the staff are working 24/7 to ensure 100% power required must be fulfilled. Two gas turbines of capacity 26.3 MW each. Three multistage boiler feed pumps Workshop Workshop consists of three units Machine Shop Fabrication Shop Motor Vehicle Shop Machine Shop Machine shop located at FFBL plantsite consists of the following machines. Our guide Mr. Safdar briefed about the functions of all the Machines. Medium Definition Balancing Machine Universal Milling Machine Small Duty Lathe Machine Shaper Machine High Definition Balancing Machine Radial Drill Machine Micro Lathe Machine Tool Grinder Machine Bench Drill Machine Medium Duty Lathe Machine Heavy Duty Lathe Machine Universal Boring Machine Lapping Machine Grinding Machine Fabrication Shop In Fabrication Shop we were briefed about the machines and work done by Mr. S.M.Ali. Refurbishment of Valves Hot Tapping Machine Shearing Machine Plasma Arc Cutting Machine