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Unit Title: Organisational Behaviour Guided Learning Hours: 160 Level: Level 5 Number of Credits: 18

Learning Outcome 1
The learner will: Understand the importance of organisational behaviour in successfully managing a dynamic environment.

Assessment Criteria The learner can: 1.1 Compare the primary roles, functions and activities of different management levels including their interface with organisational behaviour.

Indicative Content

1.1.1 Identify the primary roles, functions and activities of different management levels. Apply this to top, middle and first line management and consider the skills needed for each. 1.1.2 Discuss the concept of organisational behaviour and its interface with management. Review the various influences on behaviour in organisations and the interface with management in integrating and balancing these.

1.2 Explore the concepts of organisation and behaviour and explain the characteristics of organisational culture.

1.2.1 Define organisation and behaviour. Define an organisations goals and characteristics. Define behaviour in terms of people, the processes of management, the organisational context, organisational processes and environmental interactions. 1.2.2 Explain the characteristics of organisational culture and identify four main types. Consider the meaning, origins and characteristics of culture. Discuss, with examples, the nature of organisational culture. Explain the four cultural types (Handy) together with rational and excellence models (Peters and Waterman). Explain the link between organisational culture and organisational climate. Specify the characteristics of a healthy/unhealthy climate. Discuss the importance of culture in successful organisations. 1.2.3 Develop an awareness and understanding of the various ways in which behaviour is influenced in organisations. Examine the syllabus approach to Organisational Behaviour including an overview of individual, interpersonal, group and organisational processes and the integrating role of management. Students (either singly or in groups) should consider and report on the psychological contract at work in terms of their expectations of the organisation and the organisations expectations and requirements of them.

Learning Outcome 2
The learner will: Understand the individuals contribution to organisational behaviour and performance by recognising the importance of personality, perception, attitudes and learning.

Assessment Criteria The learner can: 2.1 Identify individual contribution and assess alternative approaches to personality and its measurement.

Indicative Content

2.1.1 Identify the individuals contribution to the organisation and the factors affecting behaviour. Underline the need for balance between the potentially conflicting advantages of individuality and the need for co-operation and conformity with organisational objectives. Identify the source of individual differences and its significance for management, motivation and change. 2.1.2 Compare and contrast the various approaches to personality. Encourage students to identify the criteria that differentiate personality, e.g. gender/traits/abilities/physique/ motivation/attitudes/development. Explore the dynamics and interaction of these factors and the influence of early social, cultural, educational and family experiences as well as more educational ones and recent work. Consider and contrast the major psychoanalytical and traits approaches to personality and summarise how they apply to organisational behaviour e.g. the defence mechanisms of Freud. 2.1.3 Recognise the major difficulties in studying personality. Look at the inability to observe directly and weaknesses of assessment. 2.1.4 Examine the various measures of personality. Look at Jung, Cattell, Steers and Eysenck as well as self measurement.

2.2 Explain the process of perception and any distortions that may arise.

2.2.1 Explain the process and principles of perception and the problems and distortions that may arise. Explore the process of perception and its key principles. Students should look at examples of the factors that affect our perception and apply them to interpersonal perceptions in the work situation. Consider the importance of attribution of characteristics and how individuals judge behaviour and intentions. Underline the importance of communication (the importance of verbal and non verbal signals). Recognise the main sources in perceptual distortion. These would include: selectivity; stereotyping; the halo effect; labelling, and perceptual defence. Look at internal and external locus of control.

2.3 Examine the concept of attitudes and the problems of attitude change including solutions like the learning process and its key theories.

2.3.1 Examine the significance of attitudes, their formation, functions and measurement. Distinguish the meaning of attitudes and their functions for individuals. Students, either singly or in small groups, should explore their own attitudes as distinct from values or beliefs. They might classify them using Katzs knowledge, expressive, instrumental and ego-defensive functions. Groups should consider the implication of shared

attitudes at work. Consider the role and effectiveness of attitude surveys. 2.3.2 Explain the principles and problems associated with attitude change and recognise the impact of behavioural issues on attitudes. Identify the process involved in attitude change and the key variables that apply. Consider the characteristics of the change agent, presentation and implementation factors, audience characteristics, group influences and perceptions of likely outcomes. Recognise the link between attitudes and learning as well as perception. 2.3.3 Identify the internal and external factors relevant to the learning process. Compare classical and operant conditioning. Appreciate the internal and external factors relevant to the process of learning. Compare classical conditioning, operant conditioning and behaviour modification. 2.3.4 Examine chain and cyclical theories of learning and consider their effectiveness. Examine the chain of learning (Gagne), the learning cycle (Kolb) and consider their effectiveness. Apply these learning concepts and recognise the importance of a learning culture. Recognise that learning might be cross referenced with the communication process.

Learning Outcome 3
The learner will: Understand motivation, the various content and process theories and their implications for management, and job re-design approaches to improve motivation.

Assessment Criteria The learner can: 3.1 Compare and contrast need theories, behavioural models and process approaches.

Indicative Content

3.1.1 Define motivation and examine early developments. Use experience at work/in class to develop a simplified model including needs/expectations, driving force/behaviour, achievement of desired goals and resulting fulfilment, and feedback loop. Examine what early theorists had to say (or did not say) about motivation. 3.1.2 Analyse individual behaviour through need theories (Maslow, McClelland, Alderfer), motivation and hygiene (Herzberg) and other behavioural models (McGregor, Schein). Identify needs and expectations in intrinsic/extrinsic/social terms. Classify and critically examine the main content theories and their explanation of what motivates workers. 3.1.3 Compare and contrast content with process theories, including expectancy, equity and goal setting approaches. Examine the main process theories of motivation and their explanation of the actual process of motivation. Give particular attention to: expectancy models of Vroom, Porter and Lawler; equity theory of Adams; goal theory of Latham and Locke.

Encourage students to represent these processes schematically.

3.2 Examine the problems of motivation and the implications for management of the different theories.

3.2.1 Discuss the implications for management of different theories (including job design). Consider the implications of motivation theory for leadership and managing people effectively. Relate motivation to different levels of the managerial hierarchy and how the theories might be applied in practice. 3.2.2 Analyse the problems of motivation and the links to job satisfaction, morale and effectiveness. Provide examples of effective and ineffective motivation and consider the reasons for the outcome. Recognise and explore overlaps with other parts of the syllabus.

3.3 Explain the main approaches and recent developments in improving job design.

3.3.1 Examine the main approaches to improve job design and the principles involved. Define the term job design and underline its importance to job satisfaction and performance. Distinguish between the basic methods of job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. Develop a model of job enrichment using core job dimensions to produce critical psychological states and desired outcomes. Assess the effectiveness of job content approaches. 3.3.2 Consider recent developments in the re-designing of the working environment. Students, either singly or in groups, should widen their perception of job design to employee participation/involvement, flexible working arrangements; self managed groups; multi-skilling, tele-working, quality circles and empowerment, and comment on these. Other valuable tasks would involve specifying the characteristics of a satisfying job and the organisational context in which such jobs should be developed e.g. personnel and payment policies. Assess the nature/importance of a quality working life and practical ways forward in securing a satisfied and high performing worker.

Learning Outcome 4
The learner will: Understand about job satisfaction and its relationship to job performance together with stress, frustration reactions and the necessary management action to overcome them.

Assessment Criteria The learner can: 4.1 Examine the concepts of morale and job satisfaction and their relationship to performance.

Indicative Content

4.1.1 Explain the concept of morale: its nature, measurement, consequences and the means of achieving it. Distinguish between the concepts of motivation, morale and job satisfaction. Use grids to compare low and high morale and their impacts. Recognise overlap with esprit de corps and team

spirit. Examine the characteristics of a committed workforce and the role of management in its creation. 4.1.2 Analyse the concept of job satisfaction and its relationship to performance. Use motivation theories to explore this linkage. Identify, classify, assess the diverse factors affecting job satisfaction. 4.1.3 Review the characteristics of staff morale and employee commitment. Consider the critical indicators that management should monitor in assessing staff morale and commitment. Consider what would make them feel committed to an organisation and how this would affect their behaviour. Examples might be drawn from business, the voluntary sector and armed forces.

4.2 Explain the sources of and reactions to frustration and alienation at work.

4.2.1 Identify sources and reactions to frustration and alienation at work. Distinguish constructive and negative frustration reactions when achievement of desired goals is blocked and give examples of displacement, aggression, regression, fixation, withdrawal. Consider the impact of new technology and possible alienation.

4.3 Analyse stress, appreciate its links to personality and recognise how best to handle stressful situations.

4.3.1 Identify the nature and causes of stress and understand the links with personality. Consider the significance of stress arising in the context of organisational change. Define the meaning and sources of stress and its relationship to personality. Identify the comfort zone. Recognise the positive and negative consequences of stress and how to cope with it. Examine the type of situations where stress might arise using the analysis of Cooper and Handy. 4.3.2 Develop the role of the manager in handling stressful situations. Discuss how management can tackle stress at the personal and organisational level. 4.3.3 Recognise the problems of individuals in work roles, the conflicts that might arise and the means available to realise expectations and improve performance. Examine organisational and personal goals and potential conflicts between them. Identify problems arising at work, in particular alienation and anomie. Discuss the importance of individual role relationships within the organisation/group and identify the individuals role set and associated expectations. Classify the role problems that may arise, e.g. role incongruence/ overload etc. and the potential for role conflict. Consider how resulting role stress may be alleviated. Students should be encouraged to relate their own experience of stress at work and at college to their studies.

Learning Outcome 5
The learner will: Understand the nature, skills, significance and effectiveness of groups in organisations.

Assessment Criteria The learner can: 5.1 Distinguish formal and informal groups and their effects on behaviour.

Indicative Content

5.1.1 Explain the nature of a group and distinguish formal and informal types. Define the nature and organisational importance of groups and their key characteristics. Reflect on the groups individuals belong to, why they join and how the group influences them. Students should be encouraged to consider their own membership of groups both at work, at college and socially. They should report back on their reactions to working in a group, rules and norms that might apply in these situations and the factors that make for cohesive and high or low performing groups. Reference should be made to factors such as membership, group awareness and perceptions, shared values/sense of purpose, interaction and interdependence as well as a capability for unified action.

5.2 Identify the key characteristics and functions of effective workgroups and the process of group development.

5.2.1 Explain the process of group development and its impacts on individual behaviour. Explain the patterns of formal and informal groups within organisations and the reasons for their formation. Recognise the stages in group development: forming, storming, norming and performing. 5.2.2 Identify the key characteristics of effective and ineffective workgroups (e.g. norms, cohesion, conformity, synergy and deviance). Refer back to Mayo and the Hawthorne studies regarding the importance of group norms and values. Consider the acquisition of norms and their role and purpose. Systematically analyse the factors leading to group cohesiveness and performance. Explain each element and consider the process of group development. 5.2.3 Identify the task and maintenance functions that effective workgroups fulfil. Produce a star chart and discuss the factors influencing group behaviour. Identify the general functions that groups perform for both the formal organisation and the individual within the group. Distinguish between Scheins task and maintenance functions performed by the group in the building and performance of effective teams.

5.3 Examine the roles or skills associated with effective teams and explore the nature of team spirit.

5.3.1 Use the work of Belbin to examine the roles/skills essential for effective team performance. Use the Belbin typology to consider the membership of effective teams and the key roles and skills to include. Recognise the characteristics and contribution of each of the nine roles. Consider whether groups produce better decisions and summarise the factors that determine effective groups. 5.3.2 Discuss the nature of team spirit and the characteristics associated with effective and ineffective teams. Investigate the

nature of team spirit in organisations by using the analogy of a sports team. Relate team spirit to the concept of morale considered in Learning Outcome 4. Summarise the characteristics of effective and ineffective groups.

Learning Outcome 6
The learner will: Understand leadership theories and examine the key variables that determine the effectiveness of leadership in practice.

Assessment Criteria The learner can: 6.1 Distinguish leadership from management and the exercise of power as distinct from authority.

Indicative Content

6.1.1 Define leadership and compare and contrast the idea of leadership with that of management. Identify the role of leadership, making clear the similarities and differences with management. Utilise the hard and soft Ss in Watsons organisational framework to assist this distinction. 6.1.2 Explain the nature of leadership and the exercise of power and authority. Outline the sources of both power and authority in the leader-subordinate relationship and the nature of this relationship. Produce examples of power/authority in action.

6.2 Compare and contrast leadership theories based on traits, styles and situation.

6.2.1 Compare and contrast leadership theories based on traits and styles. Establish a framework for analysing leadership and consider the nature, strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches: traits; functional; behavioural; style; contingency. The continuum of leadership behaviour should be explored in some depth with consideration of the factors determining the given leadership style. 6.2.2 Examine situational theories including contingency and path-goal models. The situational approach should be thoroughly treated considering: Fiedlers model of the leadership situation; situational leadership (Hersey and Blanchard); path-goal theory (House); normative leadership model (Vroom).

6.3 Explain the variables driving leadership effectiveness.

6.3.1 Summarise the variables affecting leadership effectiveness. Students, either singly or in groups should be encouraged to distil the key functions of the leader and provide examples of each from their own work or social experience. They could report to the rest of the group on their analysis of effective and ineffective leaders of whom they had experience.

Learning Outcome 7
The learner will: Understand the nature of conflict and various approaches to securing conflict resolution.

Assessment Criteria The learner can: 7.1 Explain the nature and causes of conflict between individuals, groups and the organisation.

Indicative Content

7.1.1 Explain the nature and types of conflict between individuals, groups and the organisation. Classify types of conflict and its positive and negative outcomes. 7.1.2 Examine the causes of conflicts. Identify and explain the primary sources or causes of conflict at the individual, group and organisational levels.

7.2 Examine the role of leaders/ managers in managing conflict and identify strategies or techniques for its resolution.

7.2.1 Explain the role of the manager in the management of conflict and its positive and negative implications. Focus on the importance of managing conflict, avoiding its harmful effects and channelling it in positive directions. Review the conflict handling strategies (Thomas). 7.2.2 Identify different strategies for resolving conflict including interpersonal techniques. Discuss alternative strategies to deal with conflict, drawing on material considered in previous lectures. Consider a variety of strategies including some of the following: reconciling goals and objectives; clear definition of roles; changing situational factors; various procedures for conflict resolution e.g. disciplinary procedures/appraisal/arbitration and mediation; non-monetary rewards e.g. job design/flexible working/perks; develop group and interpersonal skills through training; leadership style e.g. participative and supportive; improve group effectiveness and overall organisation; balance social and technical systems.

7.3 Identify specific conflict situations and compare alternative procedural arrangements for preventing or reducing conflict.

7.3.1 Recognise specific conflict situations and compare and contrast alternative procedural arrangements for reducing or resolving conflicts. Conflict situations may be between different workers (e.g. over role or lack of communication), or workers and supervisors (e.g. conflicting goals), or workers and the organisation itself (e.g. over pace of change). Procedural arrangements include negotiation, third party mediation/conciliation/arbitration, disputes procedures.

Learning Outcome 8
The learner will: Understand formal and informal communication processes and networks, and examine the potential barriers to effective communication.

Assessment Criteria The learner can: 8.1 Examine the nature and importance of formal and informal communication and communication processes in organisations.

Indicative Content

8.1.1 Examine the nature and scope of communication in organisations. Recognise its characteristics and importance to management. Explain the communication process and the use of verbal communication and non-verbal behaviours. Form a multi-perspective model of the process and discuss each element and its significance. 8.1.2 Specify and evaluate the main forms of communication: written (e.g. text, reports, figures, e-mail); oral (e.g. meetings, team briefings); non-verbal (e.g. voice, physical distance, body language). 8.1.3 Demonstrate understanding of formal and informal communication within and between organisations and the techniques to improve them. Consider the effectiveness of various organisational channels/structures/networks for communicating information. Evaluate how the manager can best improve the effectiveness of communications. Outline alternative informal communication networks (grapevine) within groups and their impact on effectiveness.

8.2 Compare group networks and recognise the importance to management of networking.

8.2.1 Compare alternative patterns of group communication (networks) and consider the meaning and importance to management of networking. The concept of networking should be thoroughly explored in terms of its meaning and importance. Students should be encouraged to consider who should be included in such networks and why. Comparisons might be made with their own networks of contacts.

8.3 Analyse barriers to effective communication and techniques to reduce them.

8.3.1 Analyse the various barriers to effective communication. Identify organisational/semantic/perceptual barriers to communication: imprecise objectives, poor organisation, receptivity, relationships, perceptions, receiver assumptions, distortion, noise, jargon, filtering etc. Students, either singly or in groups, should be encouraged to look at communication barriers in their own workplace and college. They should develop strategies to improve the communication processes and report back to the rest of the group.

Assessment: Assessment method: written examination (unless otherwise stated). Written examinations are of three hours duration. All learning outcomes will be assessed. Recommended Reading: Organisational Behaviour ABE Study Manual. Please refer to the Tuition Resources section of the Members Area of the ABE website ( for further recommended reading.