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Introduction Narrative text.
1. Communicative Purpose / Social Function.
To amuse, to entertain and to deal with actual or vicarious experience
in different ways.
Narratives deal with problematic events which lead to a crisis or
turning point of some kind, which in turn finds a resolution.
2. Generic Structure/ Organization of Text.
Orientation : sets the sense and introduces the participants (
who, when, where ).
: a stepping back to evaluate the plight.
: a crises arises.
: the crises is resolved, for beter or for worse.
Re- orientation
: optional ( How did the story end ?)
This text is for questions number 1 to 6
Once upon a time in Tolitoli, Central Sulawesi, a man lived with his son
in a hut. The mans name was intobu and his sons name was Impalak.
Impalak was a diligent and obidient son. Intobu and Impalak were
fisherman and they were poor. They didnt have a big ship to go fishing. They
only used a small boat. They really wanted to have a big ship, so they could
catch a lot of fish. The local people there called the big ship a bagga.
Impalak wanted to be rich. He asked permission from his father to leave
him to find a better life. Although it was very difficult, his father let him go.
Impalak promised his father that he would come back after he became rich.
Impalak went to a port. He saw a bagga. He approached the owner and
said, May I sail with you in your bagga ? I will work hard, Sir , said Impalak.
The owner agreed. He let Impalak join his bagga. Impalak was happy. His
dream to be a rich man would soon come true.
Impalak worked very hard. The baggas owner was very happy with him.
Impalak was also skillful in fishing. After Impalak joined the crew, they always
caught a lot of fish.

The baggas owner asked Impalak to marry his daughter. Therefore,

when they arrived at the baggas owners house, they held a wedding.
Impalaks dream really came true. He was a rich man and he had a big bagga.
Several years had passed, but Impalak never returned home. Sadly, he
had already forgotten his promise to his father. In the meantime, Impalaks
father, Intobu, always thought of his son. Everyday he went to the port.
Whenever a bagga arrived, he always looked for him, but he never found his
One day Impalaks wife asked Impalak to sail in his bagga. Storms
attacked and it accidentally arrived in Impalaks hometown. Intobu saw a big
bagga. He felt that Impalak was inside the bagga. He was right ! Impalak was
there !
Impalak ? Impalak ? said his father.
Iam your father !
Who is that old man ? asked Impalaks wife.
I dont know. Maybe he is just an old crazy man, said Impalak. He
recognized his father, but was too ashamed to introduce him to his wife.
Go away, you crazy man ! You are not my father ! said Impalak.
Impalak ? Wait for me ! Intobu rowed his boat. He wanted to meet his
son, but Impalak asked his crew to leave. They left Intobu.
Intobu was very sad. He knew Impalak had already forgotten him. He
prayed to God to punish him.
Again, storms attacked Impalaks bagga. This time, it was very hard.
Finally, the bagga became stranded. Slowly, the bagga turned into a big stone.
The stone is still in Tolitoli, Central Sulawesi.
People named the stone the Bagga Stone.
( Source : English Zone for Senior High School Students, Year : X , Erlangga,
page : 178; KTSP : 2006 ).
1.What was Impalaks reaction when he met his father several years later ?
A. He recognized him that the old man was his father.
B. He refused to admit that the old man was his father.
C. He greeted him and then introduced him to his wife.
D. He rejected him firstly, but then he introduced him to his wife.
E. He was not so ashamed to recognize that the old man was his father.
2. Impalaks ship stranded and turned into a big stone . This part of the
text is called........
A. Orientation
D. Evaluation
B. Complication
E. Reorientation.
C. Resolution.
3. Which statement is not correct according to the text ?
A. Impalak worked for a rich big ships owner and later on married his
B. Impalak never came home until one day he accidentally arrived at his
C Impalaks father greeted him and he was not ashamed to introduce
him to his wife.

D. Impalak pretended he didnt know the old man and then he asked his
crew to leave him.
E. Impalak went away to become a rich man as he wanted to.
4. What did Impalaks father ask God to do ?
A. He asked God to punish him.
B. He asked God to help him.
C. He asked God to be given the Gods guidance.
D. He asked God not to forget him.
E. He asked God not to do rebellious thing to his father.
5. Why didnt Impalak admit that Intobu was his father ? Because he.......
A. became crazy.
B. was getting older than before.
C. did not recognize his father again.
D. did not want his wife to know that he was poor.
E. lost his mind.
6. Finally, the bagga became stranded .
The underlined word means.........
A. went down to the bottom.
B. became lower or weaker.
C. rolled back
D. caused to run aground.
E. became divided accidentally.
TEXT : 2
This text is for questions number 7 to 10
One day an ox and a colt arrived at a waterhole at the same time to
drink. For a few minutes they stood and started at each other. Finally the ox
spoke, Surely youll want me to drink first , my young friend, for Im many
years older than you .
Should I let you go first merely merely because youve grown old ?
asked the colt. The world today belongs to the young. After all, young people
havent made as many mistakes as your generation has !
Such disrespect made the ox angry, but he tried not to show it. Then
certainly, you will respect me because Ive experienced more of life than you ,
said the ox.
But the colt argued, Why should do that ? You forget that the world
has changed. The young today face more in a few years than you faced in a
decade in the years of your youth, said the colt.
Then, honor me for what oxen have done through the years ! the ox
And what have oxen done thats been so great ?
Theyve tilled the fields of the kings ! the ox cried.

Have they ? replied the colt. Youve forgotten that horses have
carried the kings themselves on their backs for centuries. Really, all of your
arguments so far have made me laugh!
The ox couldnt endure his anger. He put down his head and began to
paw the earth, ready to charged.
So you want to fight ! Youll be sorry ! exclaimed the colt. And he
reared back, anxious to accept the challenge of the ox.
Suddenly , he colt saw several vultures, circling overhead, waiting for
the kill.
The colt brought his feet down to the ground and said to the ox, I do
believe, Sir, that weve overlooked a fundamental fact here. It appears that
there may be room enough for both of us to drink here at the same time .
I think friend, you may be correct, replied the ox. Then as he looked
toward the waterhole, he added, Yes, in fact, Im sure you are right .
And so they drank at the waterhole together. Later as they went their
separate ways, the vultures flew away.
7. What is the purpose of the text above ?
A. To tell readers the past events.
B. To describe a particular animal.
C. To amuse readers with the story.
D. To share with readers about unusual experience.
E. To inform readers about events of the day.
8. How did the ox convince the colt to let him drink first ?
A. By telling that he was older than the colt and had experienced more
life than the Colt.
B. By telling the colt that the ox hasnt made many mistakes.
C. By waiting a few minutes.
D. By respecting that colt as he was younger than the ox.
E. By arguing the colt to respect the ox.
9. What did the vultures wait for ?
A. The animals death.
B. The oxs anger.
C. The animals arguments.
D. The animal s coming.
E. The animals drinking.
10. Why did they finally drink together ?
A. They dont want to fight.
B. They have overlooked a fundamental fact there.
C. The colt brought his feet down to the ox.
D. The colt accepted the challenged of the ox.
E. There was enough room for them to drink together.
TEXT : 3
This text is for questions number 11 to 14


Long time ago, there was a poor farmer who lived in Central China. The
flood had destroyed his farm, including his cattle. Every day, he always prayed
to God. He wished that his family would not die because of hunger.
A few days later, an old man with a long gray beard passed by. He saw
the farmer and felt sorry for him.He then gave him a goose and said, I dont
have any expensive thing to give to you. I hope this goose will help your
family.But, dont forget to work hard.
A week later, the farmer was surprised to find an egg in his yard. This
was not an ordinary egg, it was a golden egg. He was very happy. Then, he
sold the egg to the market. He got lots of money to buy some food and clothes
for his family.After that, every month the goose laid a golden egg.
The farmers livelihood then improved rapidly.He became lazy, arrogant
and spendthrifty. He didnt work on his farm anymore. He just stayed at home,
waiting for the golden egg to come out.
Strangely, the goose now laid only one egg every six months.That made
the farmer lose his patience and slaughter the goose. He thought that there
should be plenty of eggs in its stomach. However, he didnt find anything.
He then realized what he had done. He regretted his greed very much,
but it was too late.
11. Where did this story happen ?
A. In Southern China.
B. In Northern China.
C. In Western China.
D. In Central China.
E. In Eastern China.
12. What happened to the farmers livestock ?
A. They were all eaten by wild animals.
B. They were all stolen.
C. They were all given away.
D. They were all slaughtered.
E. They were all damaged by flood.
13. Who gave the goose to the farmer ?
A. God gave the goose to the farmer.
B. It was dropped from heaven.
C. An old man gave the goose to the farmer.
D. A fairy gave the goose to the farmer.
E. It was a stray goose which the farmer had found.
14. What does the story teach us ?
A. It teaches us not to be greedy and be content with what we have.
B. It teaches us to pray to God for help.
C. It teaches us that foolishness does not pay.
D. It teaches us not to be lazy or arrogant.
E. It teaches us not to forget a good deed.

This text is for questions number 15 to 19
Nasreddin was a good farmer. He had a large garden and many
donkeys. But Nasreddin was always foolish. Nasredin used to work in his
garden helped by his son, Simon. They worked hard everyday. They never
went to the market which was four miles away from their village, while the
other villagers often did.
One day Nasreddin said to Simon, A lot of people go to the market
when the day comes, but we never go. Simon replied, You are right, and we
should go too.
But we dont have money.
We can sell our biggest donkey to buy food and drink in the market.
When the market day came, Nasreddin and Simon with their biggest
donkey went to the market. Nasreddin led the donkey and Simon followed
When they were walking, a villager greeted them with smile, Poor
Nasreddin, donkey is for riding, why do you walk? Ride on your
donkey!Nasreddin nodded and soon he rode on his donkey while Simon
was walking behind them.
After half a mile walking, another villager said, Why are you riding on
your donkey while your son is walking ?He is now too tired. Hearing this,
Nasreddin offered Simon to sit behind him on the donkey back. They were so
heavy that it was difficult to walk.
A man by the road asked Nasreddin,Are you going to the
market ?Nasreddin replied, It is true, we are going to sell our donkey for
money . The man commented,You are too heavy for your donkey, he will get
tired, ill and die before you reach the market.
Soon, Nasreddin and Simon climbed down the donkey. They wanted
their donkey healthy and fat to sell. They carried their donkey on their
shoulders. When they reached the market, everybody got surprised and
suddenly someone asked,Is your donkey ill, Nasreddin? No, it is not, it is
healthy, said Nasreddin angrily.But why are you carrying it on your
shoulders, people usually ride on their donkeys, said the other. We want it
fatter and become more expensive, Nasreddin replied.
Another man interrupted,Your donkey must be ill, it cant walk, we
dont want to buy it.This man shouted with a smile,Hi everbody, look!,
Nasreddin wants to sell his sick donkey expensively. All visitors laughed at
Change into Indirect Speech !
1.Direct Speech : Nasreddin said to Simon, A lot of people go to the
market when the day comes, but we never go.
Indirect Speech : Nasreddin told Simon that a lot of people went to the
market when the day came, but they never went.
2.Direct Speech : Simon replied, You are right, and we should go too.
Indirect Speech : Simon told his father that he was right , and they should go

3. Direct Speech : Simon said to his father : But we dont have money.We
can sell our biggest donkey to
buy food and drink in the market.
Indirect Speech : Simon told his father that they didnt have money , but
they could sell their biggest donkey to buy food and drink
in the market.
15. How did Simon support his fathers going to the market ?
A. By persuading him to sell the biggest donkey.
B. By helping his father work in the garden.
C. By showing people going to the market.
D. By following his father going to the market.
E. By selling the biggest donkey on the way to the market.

16. Why is it said that Nasreddin is a foolish farmer ?

A. He has garden and castle.
B. He always works and goes to the market with his son.
C. He always obeys what other people say whether it is true or not.
D. He never goes to the market on market days.
E. He never goes to the market at all.
17. What moral lesson can we get from the story above ?
A. We must be foolish person.
B. Making a joke is a need for people on the world.
C. We have to study hard to avoid the foolishness.
D. Being rich is nothing for people living in the world.
E. The foolishness makes people the object of the clever.
18. Who encouraged Nasreddin to go to the market ?
A. Simon and the villagers.
B. His donkey and Simon.
C. The people in the market.
D. The people selling donkeys.
E. The people on the way to the market.
19. How many people laughed at Nasreddin on the way to the market ?
A. Only one person.
B. Three persons.
C. A lot of people.
D. Two persons
E. Five persons
This text is for questions number 20 to 29

Once upon a time the colors of the world started to quarrel. All claimed
that they were the best, the most important, the most useful and the most
Green said, Clearly Iam the most important. Iam the sign of life and of
hope. I was chosen for grass, trees and leaves. Without me, all animals would
die. Look all over the countryside and you will see that Iam in the majority.
Blue interrupted,You only think about the earth, but consider the sky
and the sea. It is the water that is the source of life and drawn up by the clouds
from the deep sea. The sky gives space and peace and serenity. Without my
peace, you would all be nothing.
Yellow chuckled, You are all so serious. I bring laughter, cheerfulness
and warmth into the world. The sun is yellow, the moon is yellow and the stars
are yellow. Every time you look at a sunflower, the whole world starts to smile.
Without me there would be no fun.
Orange started next to blow her trumpet, Iam the color of health and
strength. I may be scarce , but Iam precious for I serve the needs of human
life. I carry the most important vitamins. Think of carrots, pumpkins, oranges,
mangoes and papayas. I dont hang around all the time, but when I fill the sky
at sunrise or sunset, my beauty is so striking that no one gives another
thought to any of you.
Red could stand it no longer so he shouted out, Iam the ruler of all of
you. Iam blood- lifes blood ! Iam the color of danger and of bravery. Iam
willing to fight for a cause. I bring fire into the blood. Without me, the earth
would be as empty as the moon. Iam the color of passion and of love, the red
rose, the poinsettia and the poppy.
Purple rose up to his full height. He was very tall and spoke with great
pomp, I am the color of royalty and power. Kings, chiefs and bishops have
always chosen for me for Iam the sign of authority and wisdom. People do not
question me ! They listen and obey .
Finally, Indigo spoke, much more quietly than all the others, but with
just as much determination, Think of me. Iam the color of silence. You hardly
notice me, but without me you all become superficial. I represent thought and
reflection, twilight and deep water. You need me for balance and contrast , for
prayer and inner peace.
And so the colors went on boasting, each convinced of his or her own
superiority. Their quarrelling became louder and louder. Suddenly, there was a
startling flash of bright lightening thunder rolled and boomed. Rain started to
pour down relentlessly.The colors crouched down in fear, drawing close to
one another for comfort.
In the middle of the dispute, rain began to speak, You foolish colors,
fighting amongst yourselves, each trying to dominate the rest. Dont you know
that you were each made for a special purpose, unique and different ? Join
hands with one another and come to me.
Doing as they were told, the colors united and joined hands. The rain
continued, From now on, when it rains, each of you will stretch across the
sky in a great bow of color as a reminder that you can all live in peace. The
rainbow is a sign of hope for tomorrow.
And so, whenever a good rain washes the world, and a rainbow appears
in the sky, let us remember to appreciate one another.

( Source : http ://

November 18,2008 )
20. What is the story about ?
A. The rain that washed the world.
B. The dispute among colors.
C. The rainbow that appeared in the sky.
D. The importance of the main colors.
E. The color of authority and wisdom.
21. What things did Blue represent ?
A. The sun, the moon and the stars.
B. The grass, trees and leaves.
C. The sky and the deep ocean.
D .Royalty and power.
E.Fruits, sunrise and sunset.
22. What was the color of bravery ?
A. Yellow
B. Green
C. Purple

D. Blue
E. Red

23. What is the moral value of the story ?

A. We should appreciate one another.
B. We should not tell lies.
C. We should help one another.
D. We should dominate others.
E. We should be the majority.
24. The sky gives space and peace and serenity . ( Paragraph 3 ).
The word in bold is best replaced by the word..
A. chaos
D. resistance
B. freedom
E. beauty
C. tranquility
25. Why did Green think that he was the most important ?
A. Because he brought joy to the world.
B. Because he gave peace and serenity.
C. Because he was the color of health and strength.
D. Because he was the sign of life and of hope.
E. Because he was the color of danger and of bravery.
26. What color served the needs of human life by carrying the most
important vitamins ?
A. Orange
D. Purple
B. Blue
E. Green
C. Red
27. Who told the colors that they were each made for a special purpose,
unique and different ?

A. Thunder
B. Rain
C. Rainbow

D. Indigo
E. Twilight

28. ..........but Iam precious for I serve the needs of human life .(
Paragraph 5).
The underlined word is antonymous with............
A. ordinary
D. significant
B. valuable
E. superior
C. worthless
29. Doing as they were told, the colors united and joined hands .
( Paragraph 11 ).
The underlined word refers to........
A. the rain
D. the colors
B. the rainbow
E. the special purposes
C. the skies
Task :1
Study the following expressions :
What a nice dress !
You look great.
You look very nice.
I really must express my admiration for your dance.
Good grades !
Nice work !
Well done.
Some people use compliments to butter up somebody or to flatter in order
to increase good will.You compliment someone, for example :
On his/her general appearance.
If you notice something new about the persons appearance.
When you visit someones house for the first time.
When other people do their best.
Thank you very much.
Thank you for your help.
Im really very grateful to you.
How kind of you.
Many thanks.
Thanks a lot.
Im very much obliged.
Response :

Youre welcome.
Not at all.
Its a pleasure.
Thats right.
Dont mention it.

When speaking English, you say thanks very often.

Please say thank you when people give you something, help you do
something, wish you something, give a compliment, etc.
Congratulations !
Congratulations on your success !
Happy birthday !
Happy Lebaran Day !
Merry Christmas !
Happy New Year !
Happy Valentine !
Always compliment or congratulate your friends when they succeed in doing
something or wear something nice.
Task :2
Study the following dialogues :
1. Ajeng : You did English Speaking Contest, Vita ! Congratulations !
Vita : Thank you.
2. Rosa : Vit, your bag is really nice.
Vita : Oh, thank you.
3. Putri : Thats a beautiful dress you have on !
Rosa : Oh, thank you. Ive just bought it.
Task :3
Make dialogues expressing :
1. Complimenting.
2. Thanking
3. Congratulating.
1. Expressing happiness :
Oh, Iam happy.
I cant say how pleased Iam.
What a marvelous place I have ever seen.
It is an interesting experience.
Great !
Exciting !
Fantastic ! etc
2. Expressing boredom :
I think it was a boring holiday.

It sounds boring.
Iam rather bored.
How boring 1am
I dont think the trip was very boring.
I am fed up with it.
How unexciting !
Not interesting.
It is totally boring.


I wonder if you remember.....
Dont you remember...... ?
You remember...... dont you ?
You havent forgotten .......have you ?
Iam sorry I dont remember.

Response if you forget :

Sorry, Ive completely forgotten.
I really cant remember.
I am sorry I forget.
Iam afraid I have no memory of him.
Ill always remember.
Ill never forget that.
It was Sunday morning. Wati got dressed and had breakfast quickly. She was
ready to leave for school. Her mother was a little puzzled.

: Hey....hey....are you going to school ?

: Yes, Mom. I overslept. Im in a hurry.
: Do you remember what day today is ?
: Oh, my goodness. I thought it is a school day !

COMPOUND SENTENCES ( kalimat majemuk setara ): and, but, or,
either....or ....,neither....nor.... , not only.......but also.
Examples :
1. He is waving his arms and shouting at us.
2. These shoes are old but comfortable.
3. He wants to watch TV or listen to some music.
4. Ill take either chemistry or physics next quarter.
5. That book is neither interesting nor accurate.

6. Not only my sister but also my parents are here.

7. Both my mother and my sister are here.
COMPLEX SENTENCES ( kalimat majemuk bertingkat ):
If Reporting Verbs or Introductory Verbs are present ( present tense, present
future tense, present perfect tense ), so there are no changing in tenses and
adverbial of time and place.And only pronouns which change.

Example :
1. Direct Speech : He says,Iam a teacher .
Indirect Speech : He says that he is a teacher.
2. Direct Speech : He has said, I can speak English .
Indirect Speech : He has said that he can speak English.
3. Direct Speech : She will tell me, Iam ready to come with you .
Indirect Speech : She will tell me that she is ready to come with me.
If Introductory verbs or Reporting verbs are past ( past tense or past pefect
tense ),so there are some changes, such as :
1 The changing of tenses.
Direct Speech
- Present Tense
- Present Continuous Tense
- Present Future Tense
- Present Perfect Tense
- Present Perfect Continuous Tense
- Past Tense
- Past Continuous Tense
- Past Perfect Tense
- Past Perfect Continuous Tense
- Present Future Continuous Tense
- Present Future Perfect Tense
- Past Future Tense

Indirect Speech
Past Tense
Past Continuous Tense.
Past Future Tense.
Past Perfect Tense.
Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Past Perfect Tense
Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Past Perfect Tense
Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Past Future Continuous Tense
Past Future Perfect Tense
Past Future Tense

2. The changing of adverbial of time and place.

- now
then, at that moment, at once.
- today
that day
- yesterday
the day before
- .... ago
...... before
- last......
........ before/ the previous......
- tomorrow
the next day/ the day after
- next......
the following.......
- this
- these
- here
- the day before yesterday
two days before

3. The changing of Pronouns.

A. Imperative command and request ( positive ).
Example :
1. He said, Read it silently !
He ordered me to read it silently.
2. He says, Study hard,please !
He asks me to study hard.
B. Imperative command and request ( negative ).
Example :
1. He said, Dont smoke here !
He told me not to smoke there.
2. He has said , Dont be noisy, please !
He has asked us not to be noisy.
C. Statement.
Example :
1. Permadi said, Ilham met her yesterday .
Permadi said that he had met her the day before.
D. WH questions.
Example :
4. Azhar asked me , Where do you live ?
Azhar asked me where I lived.
E. YES/NO questions
Example :
5. Ijyun asked me, Have you met my mother ?
Ijyun asked me if (whether) I had met his mother.
Change the following sentences into reported speech !
1. Tom said, I have already eaten lunch .
2. What are you thinking about ?Karen asked me.
3. Did you finish your work ? Jackie asked me.
4. He told me, Dont clean it yourself !.
5. He asked her, Bring me a book !.
6. He told me, I lost my temper yesterday .
7. He asked her, Why didnt you put on your new dress ?
8. My friend asked me, Could you remember when you saw the film ?
9.Ira asked him, Who broke my pen ?
10. I asked him, Was your sister seriously ill two months ago ?
11.She asked me, Did you see the film ?
12.She asked me, How much money did you have yesterday ?

13. I asked her, How long will it take you to reach the beach ?
14.He asked her, Which car is yours ?
15.Mother asked me, Why did you forget to post it ?
16. She asked me, Has he painted the wall ?
17. John asked me, May she borrow your pen ?
18. Dad asked me, How often do you visit her ?
19. Satria asked me, What subject do you teach ?
20. John asked me, Is it true that they were seen in the theatre ?
An adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. It describes ,
identifies or gives further information about a noun. An adjective clause is also
called a relative clause.
I. Defining Relative Clause.
For examples :
1. His brother who lives in Birmingham is an engineer.
This sentence means :
- One of his brothers lives in Birmingham. He is an engineer.
- He has two or more brothers.
2. The travellers who knew about the floods took another road.
This sentence means :
- Only the travellers who knew about the floods took the other road.
- There were other travellers who didnt know about the floods and
took the the flooded road.

II. Non Defining Relative Clause.

For examples :
1. His brother, who lives in Birmingham, is an engineer.
This sentence means :
- His brother is an engineer. He lives in Birmingham.
- He has only one brother.
2. The travellers, who knew about the floods, took another road.
This sentence means :
- All the travellers knew about the floods and took the other road.
I. Use for persons :
1. As subject, relative pronouns : who, that
Example :
I thanked the woman. She helped me.
= a) I thanked the woman who helped me.
= b) I thanked the woman that helped me.


2. As object, relative pronouns : whom, who, that, Example :

A). The man was Mr. Jones. I saw him.
= a) The man whom I saw was Mr. Jones.
= b) The man who I saw was Mr. Jones.
= c) The man that I saw was Mr. Jones.
= d) The man I saw was Mr. Jones.
B). She is the woman. I told you about her.
= a). She is the woman about whom I told you.
= b). She is the woman who I told you about.
= c). She is the woman whom I told you about.
= d). She is the woman that I told you about.
= e). She is the woman I told you about.
3. As possessive, relative pronoun : whose
Example :
Mr. Hasan went to Australia.Mr. Hasans house is on Jln. Majapahit.
= Mr. Hasan whose house is on Jln. Majapahit went to Australia.
II. Use for things :
I. As subject, relative pronouns : which, that.
Example :
The book is mine. It is on the table.
= a) The book which is on the table is mine.
= b) The book that is on the table is mine.

2. As object, relative pronouns : which, that , Example :

A).The movie wasnt very good. We saw it last night.
= a) The movie which we saw last night wasnt very good.
= b) The movie that we saw last night wasnt very good.
= c) The movie we saw last night wasnt very good.
B). The music was good. We listened to it last night.
= a). The music to which we listened last night was good.
= b). The music which we listened to last night was good.
= c). The music that we listened to last night was good.
= d). The music we listened to last night was good.
3. As possessive, relative pronouns : whose ; of which.
Example :
The dog ran away. Its tail is long.
= The dog whose tail is long ran away.
= The dog of which the tail is long ran away.

I. For persons:
1. As subject, relative pronoun : who.
Example :
The girl looks like my sister. The girl is getting out of the car.
= The girl, who is getting out of the car, looks like my sister.
2. As object, relative pronoun : whom,who.
Example :
I met a boy. He is a Japanese.
= a) The boy, whom I met , is a Japanese.
= b). The boy, who I met , is a Japanese.
3. As possessive , relative pronoun : whose.
Example :
The man visited us last night. The mans car is blue.
= The man, whose car is blue, visited us last night.
II. For things :
1. As subject, relative pronoun : which.
Example :
The book is on the table. The book describes prehistoric animals.
= The book, which describes the pre-historic animals, is on the table.
2. As Object, relative pronoun : which.
Example :
Tono is reading the book. The book has a red cover.
= The book, which Tono is reading, has a red cover.
3.As possessive, relative pronoun : whose (for animals ) ; of which ( for
things ).
Example :
a). The cat was dead. Its furs are black.
= The cat, whose furs are black, was dead.
b). He has a car. Its engine is noisy.
= He has a car,of which the engine is noisy.
Summary :
Defining Relative Clause :
For persons : As : Subject
: who / that
: whom / who / that / Possessive : whose
For things : As :

: which / that
: which / that/Possessive : whose / of which

Non Defining Relative Clause :


For persons : As :

: who
: whom / who
Possessive : whose
For things : As : Subject
: which
: which
Possesive : whose ( for animals ) ; of which ( for
things )
Combine the sentences using the second sentences as an adjective clause in
Defining Relative Clause !! Give all the possible patterns !
1. I saw the man. He closed the door.
2. Iam using a sentence. It contains an adjective clause.
3. The people were very nice. We visited them yesterday.
4. I liked the composition.You wrote it.
5. The man was very kind. I talked to him yesterday.
6. The picture was beautiful. She was looking at it.
7. The student writes well. I read her composition.
8. Mr. Catt has a painting. Its value is inestimable.
1. The book was good. I read it.
2. I liked the woman. I met her at the party last night.
3. The meeting was interesting. I went to it.
4. I must thank the people. I got a present from them.
5. The man is standing over there. I was telling you about him.
6. The girl is a good friend of mine. I borowed her camera.
7. The professor is excellent. I am taking her course.
8. I live in a dormitory. Its residents come from many countries.
9. I have to call the man. I accidentally picked up his umbrella after the
10. I met the woman. Her husband is the president of the corporation.
11. Mr Smith teaches a class for students. Their native language is not
12. I come from a country. Its history goes back thousands of years.
13. The man is very proud. His daughter is an astronaut.
14. The boy wants to be a violinist. His mother is a famous musician.
15. I have a friend. Her brother is a police officer.
16. I thanked the woman. I borrowed her dictionary.
17. The man is famous. His picture is in the newspaper.
18. The movie was interesting. We went to it.
19. The man is over there. I told you about him.
20. Alicia likes the family. She is living with them.
21. I enjoyed the music. We listened to it after dinner.
22. The blouse is made of silk. Mary is wearing it.
Using WHERE.
1. The building is very old. He lives there.( in that building ).
a)= The building where he lives is very old.
b)= The building in which he lives is very old.
c) = The building which he lives in is very old.

d) = The building that he lives in is very old.

e) = The building he lives in is very old.
WHERE is used in ajective clause to modify a place ( city, country,
If WHERE is used, a preposition is not included in the adjecive clause.
If WHERE is not used, the preposition must be included.
Combine the sentences using the second sentence as an adjective clause !
1. The city was beautiful. We spent our vacation there. ( in that
city ).
2. That is the restaurant. I will meet you there. ( at that restaurant ).
3. The town is small. I grew up there. ( in that town ).
Using WHEN.
1.Ill never forget the day. I met you then ( on that day ).
a) = Ill never forget the day when I met you.
b) = Ill never forget the day on which I met you.
c) = Ill never forget the day that I met you.
d) = Ill never forget the day I met you.
WHEN is used in an adjective clause to modify a noun of time ( year, day, time,
The use of a preposition in an adjective clause that modifies a noun of time is
somewhat different from that in other adjective clause. A preposition is used
preceding WHICH ( like part b). Otherwise, the preposition is omitted.
Combine the sentences using the second sentence as an adjective clause !
1. Monday is the day. We will come then. ( on that day ).
2. 07.05 is the time. My plane arrives then ( on that time ).
3. 1960 is the year. The revolution took place then ( in that year ).
4. July is the month. The weather is usually the hottest then ( in that month
Using WHY.
WHY replaces for which used for reasons.
Example : The reasons for which he came is not very convincing.
= The reason why he came is not very convincing.
Complete the blanks using suitable relative pronouns or relative adverbs.
Sherlock Holmes, (1) ........ name is well- known, didnt really exist.
However, for many people (2 )........... have read his adventures, he might as
well have been a real person.
The man (3).......... created Homes was Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, born
In Edinburg in1809. He trained as a doctor, but found he could earn more
money by writing than by practising medicine.He wrote not only stories about


Holmes, but many other books (4)........... people also liked. However, it is for
the detectives stories (5) .......... he wrote that he is best remembered.
The place (6) .......... the Holmes mysteries are set is Victorian England.
Holmes, (7)....... is a brilliant detective, uses his intelligent and scientific
to solve the mysteries.
Even though Doyle wrote many Holmes mysteries, well never know the
reason (8) .......... he gave us so little information about Holmes private life.
All the books were written in the first person, not by Holmes, but by his
assistant. Dr. Watson, ((9).......... knowledge of his masters private life was
1.Relative pronoun di dalam adjective clause kadang- kadang dihilangkan. For
examples :
a. The dictionary which is on the table is mine.
b. The books on this shelf, which most of them are about child education,
belong to my sister in law.
c. The office which is located on Jln. Slamet Riyadi No. 3 is BCA.
2. Jika relative pronoun, who dan that dihilangkan, maka kata kerja yang
mengikuti dibelakangnya dijadikan bentuk kata kerja v-ing ( yang me- ).
a. What is the name of the young lady that comes to the post ofice every
morning ?
= What is the name of the lady coming to the post office every morning ?
b. The young man who gave her mother special gift is Mr. Sam.
= The young man giving her mother special gift is Mr. Sam.
c. The student who is sitting next to Bella is from China.
= The student sitting next to Bella is from China.
d. The book that I have read is very interesting.
= The book I have read is very interesting.
e. The taxi driver who took me to the airport is very friendly.
= The taxi driver taking me to the airport is very friendly.
3. Adjective clause dengan kata kerja berbentuk kata kerja pasif ( yang di.... ) ,
relative pronounnya pun juga dapat dihilangkan.
a. The newspaper that was given to me yesterday is the Jakarta Post.
= The newspaper given to me yesterday is the Jakarta Post.
b. The students who are invited to the party should come on time.
= The students invited to the party should come on time.
Probable condition : untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang belum terjadi pada
waktu sekarang, sehingga mungkin terjadi atau tidak terjadi di waktu yang
akan datang dan akan terjadi bila syaratnya ( if- clause nya ) dipenuhi.
Example :
If Santi invites me, I will attend her party next Sunday.
It means : There is possibility for me to attend her party next Sunday.

Another example :
Zam : I think I left my lighter in your house. Have you seen it ?
Wid : No, but Ill have a look. If I find it, Ill give it to you.
Questions :
1. What does Zam think of his lighter ?
2. Is Wid sure about it ?
3. Is there a possibility that Wid will find the lighter ?
a). What does the underlined sentence consist of ?
b). What tenses are used in each clause ?
Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses.
1. If I have time tomorrow, I ( go ) shopping with you.
2. If Marry arrives on time, I ( speak) with her.
3. We wont be able to see them if the train ( be ) late.
4. You will be able to go on a vacation if you ( save) your money.
5. I will speak to him if John ( call).

What will you do if........?

What will happen if......?


PRESENT CONDITIONAL SENTENCES .(= Bentuk kalimat pengandaian
waktu sekarang ). Yaitu untuk mengandaikan sesuatu yang
bertentangan dengan kenyataan pada waktu sekarang, sehingga tidak
mungkin terjadi atau kemungkinan kecil terjadi pada waktu sekarang.
In IF-CLAUSE, we use PAST TENSE ( untuk TO BE : WERE ).
( berlawanan dengan kenyataan ).
Example :
John, Helen, and Tom are waiting for Mary.
JOHN : We have been waiting for Mary for half an hour .
HELEN : Im afraid that she forgets that we have a meeting today.
JOHN : Tom, can you call her ?
TOM : Sorry . If I knew her number, I would telephone her.
Questions :
1. Who have been waiting for Mary ?
2. What will they do ?
3. What does John ask Tom ?
4. Does Tom know Marys number ?

5. What does he think at that time ?

6. What do you think the last sentence mean ?
Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses.
1. If you went to bed earlier, you (not feel) so tired.
2. If I knew English better, I ( read ) some English novels.
3. If he ( not waste) so much time in class, he could make better progress.
4. We could be there in an hour if we ( leave) right away.
5. We would not have to work if today ( be ) Sunday.
We can change or form the conditional sentences with if Type II into
conditional sentences without if. The meaning of both sentences is same.
How to form the conditional sentences without if ?
1. By placing if clause in front of the main clause.
2. By placing auxiliaries were in front of the subject.
1. She would know what to do if Sari were here.
= Were Sari here, she would know what to do.
The sentence means : Sari is not here, so she doesnt know what to do.
2. If I went to Bali, I should go in September.
= If I were to go to Bali , I should go in September.
= Were I to go to Bali, I should go in September.

What would you do if.........?

What would happen if.........?


CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. (= Bentuk kalimat pengandaian waktu lampau.)
Adalah untuk mengandaikan sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan kenyataan
pada waktu lampau, sehingga tidak mungkin terjadi pada waktu sekarang.
( berlawanan dengan kenyataan ).
Example :
TOMI : Hi, Any. I havent seen you for ages.
ANY : Well, I felt ill when I visited my sister in Bandung last week..
TOM : Thats a pity. I was also in Bandung last week .
If I had known that you were ill, I would have gone to see you then.
1. Who hasnt Tomi seen for a long time ?
2. What happened to Ani ?

3. Where was Tomi at that time ?

4. Did Tomi know that Any was ill ?
5. Did he see Ani when he was in Bandung ?
6. What does the last sentence mean ?
Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses.
1. If he had learned the truth, he ( be) very angry.
2. If she had had your address, she ( write ) to you.
3. I wouldnt have got wet if I ( wear ) a raincoat.
4. I would have looked you up if I ( know ) you were living in Jakarta.
5. If she ( have ) time yesterday, she would have gone shopping with you.
We can also change or form the conditional sentences Type III with if into
without if. And the meaning of both sentences is same.
How to form the conditional sentences without if Type III ?
1. By placing if- clause in front of the main clause.
2. By placing auxiliary had in front of the subject.
Example :
The accident would not have happened if the driver in front had not stopped
so suddenly.
= Had the driver not stopped so suddenly, the accident would not have
The sentence means : The accident happened because the driver in front
stopped so suddenly.
- What would you have done if..........?
- What would have happened if.......?
I. The following sentences state real situation.
Rewrite them stating the opposite situation using conditional sentences
with if and without if.
1. She didnt know my number, so she didnt ring.
2. She was lazy , she did not read many books.
3. The workers are so slow; they cant finish it on time.
4. The maid was ill yesterday; my mother was busy cooking.
5. My younger sister doesnt enjoy parties because she is very shy.
6. Iam very thin; perhaps thats why I feel the cold so much.
7. She didnt look beautiful and attractive ; she didnt wear a veil.
8. The teacher is kind and friendly; the students like him.
9. The front door was locked, so I rang the bell.
10. The tea is very sweet ; I dont drink it.
II. What do these sentences mean ?
1. My mother might have punished me if I had come home very late.
2. If I had been ill last week, I would have been sad.
3. If we had had spare time, we would have done exciting activities.
4. Mr Rudi would have known my address if you had given it to him.

5. If you had studied hard, you would have passed your examination.
6. If you had had much money, you might have travelled around the
7. If you had done the English test well, I would not have given you a
remedial test.
8. If you had done the English test well, I would have been happy.
III. Using mixed time in conditional sentences.
Change the following statements into conditional sentences with if
1. Im hungry now because I didnt eat dinner. But.....
= If I had eaten dinner, I wouldnt be hungry now.
2. The room is full of flies because you left the door open. But.....
3. You are not tired this morning because you went to bed at a reasonable
hour last night. But.....
4.I didnt finish my report yesterday, so I cant begin a new project
today. But.......
5.She doesnt know anything about plumbing, so she didnt fix the
leak in the sink herself. But.......
6.He received a good job offer from the oil company, so he wont
seriously consider taking the job with the electronics firm. But......
IV. Using progresive verb forms.
Change the following sentences into conditional sentences with if.
1. It is raining right now, so I will not go for a walk.
= If it were not raining right now, I would go for a walk.
2. He is not living in Chile. He is not working at a bank.
3.It was raining yesterday afternoon, so I didnt go for a walk.
4. He was not living in Chile last year. He was not working at a bank.
5. Grandpa is not wearing his hearing aid because its broken. But.......


1.If She were a bird, She could fly home.
Could fly = would be able to fly.
2. If She could sing as well as you, She would join the opera.
Could sing = were able to sing.
3. If He d had enough money, he could have gone to Florida for vocation.
Could have gone = would have been able to go.
4. If you are not a better student, You might not get a better grades.
( You might not get a better grades = may be you will not get a better grades
). Or That sentence can also be said : May be you will not get a better
grades if you are not a better student.

5.If Mrs. Cahya didnt get a scholarship of teachers certification, She might
not have a spirit to develop her study .
She might not have a spirit to develop her study = may be She would not
have a spirit to develop her study.
( The sentence means : She gets a scholarship of teachers certification, so
She has a spirit to develop her study ).
6.If You had told me about your problem, I might have been able to help you.
I might have been able to help you = may be I would have been able to help
( The sentence means : You told me about your problem, so I wasnt able to
help you ).
7.If John should call, tell him Shell be back around five.
If John should call indicates more uncertainty or doubt than If John calls, but
the meaning of the two is basically the same.
8.If there should be another world war, the continued existence of the human
race would be in Jeopardy. ( keadaan berbahaya).
If there should be indicates more uncertainty or doubt than If there were.
Sometimes if is omitted, and the subject and verb are inverted.
1. Were I you, I wouldnt do that.
Were I you = If I were you.
2. Had I known, I would have told you.
Had I known= If I had known.
3. Should anyone call, please take a message.
Should anyone call = If anyone should call.
TRUE in the present or Future.
1. If He doesnt eat breakfast, he always gets hungry during class.
= The simple present is used in the result clause to express a habitual
activity or situation.
2. Water freezes ( will freeze ) if the temperature goes below 32 0 F / 00 C.
= Either the simple present or the simple future is used in the result
clause to express an established, predictable fact.
Established fact = fakta yang tak bisa dipungkiri lagi / fakta yang telah
Note : The simple present, not the simple future, is used in the if
Write an imaginative story, you can choose one of the following topics .
And decide the generic structure of your text !

1. The magic candle.

2. A broken hearted elephant.
3. The sun and the moon fall in love with each other.
4. The smiling tree.
. Sources :
1.LOOK AHEAD book for Senior High School Students, Year :X, Erlangga
2. ENGLISH ZONE book for Senior High School Students, Year :X,
Erlangga ).
English for Science and Social Study Students, for Senior High School
Year X ; Pakar Raya ).
4. CREATIVE ENGLISH for SMA Year X ; Erlangga.
By : Betty Schrampfer Azar.
By : Betty Schrampfer Azar .
A self study reference and practice book for intermediate students.
By : Raymond Murphy; Cambridge University Press.
9. Other English books.
Arranged by :
Mrs. Endang Rokhimaningsih Sunartoyo
NIP : 19640318 198803 2 005