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Destroyed their personal and business reputations and their social standing.

They all risk criminaland civil prosecution that could lead to imprisonment and/or bankruptcy. (Board members weresimilarly negligent by failing to provide sufficient oversight and restraint to top managementexcesses, thereby further harming investor and public interests (Senate Subcommittee 2002).Individual and institutional investors lost millions of dollars because they were misinformedabout the firm’s financial performance reality through questionable accounting practices(Lorenzetti 2002). Employees were deceived about the firm’s actual financial condition anddeprived of the freedom to diversify their retirement portfolios; they had to stand by helplesslywhile their retirement savings evaporated at the same time that top managers cashed in on their lucrative stock options (Jacobius and Anand 2001). The government was also harmed becauseAmerica’s political tradition of chartering only corporations that serve the public good wasviolated by an utter lack of economic democratic protections from the massive publicstakeholder harms caused by aristocratic abuses of power that benefited select wealthy elite.The Enron scandal also harmed secondary and tertiary stakeholders. For example, Enron topmanagers pressured Arthur Andersen to certify maximum-risk, questionable accounting practicesin part to retain their lucrative consulting business and, by acceding to this pressure, Arthur Andersen won huge contracts in the short run but ultimately lost their professional credibility andclient base (Toffler and Reingold 2003). A parallel process occurred in the legal profession whenEnron managerial pressure on Vinson and Elkins to legally condone investor and employee fraud prevailed. Again, Citigroup, J.P. Morgan, and Merrill Lynch made over $200 million in feesfrom deals that helped Enron and other energy firms boost cash flow and hide debt, and, byfailing to exercise their own adequate due diligence, they multiplied the harm done to other stakeholders. The industry’s reputation, furthermore, was tarnished by Enron’s aggressivemarket leadership practices, the taxpaying public incurred additional shifting risk to eventuallycover bankruptcy collateral damage, and ultimately America’s stature as a model of democraticcapitalist practices was replaced by fear of the global export of Enron-like corporateirresponsibility and crony capitalism (Mitchell 2002; Sirgy 2002).These multiple stakeholder damages can be viewed as the result of serious lapses in the four dimensions of management integrity capacity–process, judgment, development, and system.Understanding and correcting these lapses provides a structured way to address the moral rootsof current stakeholder remedies and reduce the likelihood of future Enron’s. Process Integrity Capacity and Enron Process integrity capacity is the alignment of individual and collective moral awareness,deliberation, character, and conduct on a sustained basis so that reputational capital results. Theneed to address lapses in process integrity capacity is manifest by the routine fragmentation of managerial moral attention and behavior that arouses stakeholder concern about the moralhypocrisy of management practices (e.g., Enron top managers tout their public relations images

as responsible corporate citizens while defrauding investors and employees and secretly liningtheir own pockets with diverted funds) .While it is unlikely that Enron executives failed to perceive the relevant moral issues, it is clear that they were not sensitive to them. They appeared to be erroneously and overly confident of their initial distorted perceptions of morally acceptable business

and injustice that characterized top Enron executives’ intentions disclosestheir culpable motives and the corrupting workplace culture they created (Sennett 1998). rules. and mute.and context in management practices (Petrick and Quinn 2000). the capability of analyzing complete moral results. For their diminished capacity for balanced moral deliberation Enron managers are held morally accountable (Fusaro and Miller 2002.Moral character.Moral conduct. they de-humanized themselves and otherswith whom they interacted. selfishness. Enron managers and board members. Judgment Integrity Capacity and Enron Managers can attempt to evade full moral accountability by compartmentalizing and fragmentingtheir handling of management and ethics issues. and just as simplistic.hypocrisy. dishonesty. The decision making style of the Skilling-FastowKopper circle demonstrated a tendency to suppress all but one aspect of a moral decision. One way to address this evasion is to enhance judgment integrity capacity . Swartz and Watkins 2002).who poorly analyzed and resolved moral conflicts of interest through self-centered policies alsoignored or trivialized the harm caused to other stakeholders. deaf. is the individual and collectivecapacity to be ready to act ethically. cowardice. disrespect. The lack of the political virtue of citizenship is particularly damagingto internal and external character cultivation (Logsdon and Wood 2002). retaliated againstaccusers and sought information in ways that confirmed what they already believed (Messick and Bazerman 1996). The visionless accumulation of rapid wealth exposed the absence of leadershipwisdom and the deliberate obfuscation of financial structures to preclude a fair picture of thefinancial health of the firm eroded their characters. is the individual and collectivecarrying out of justifiable actions on a sustained basis. arrogance. thereby diminishing their capacity for ethical awareness and eventual strategic responsiveness—for which they are held morallyaccountable (Cavanagh and Moberg 1999. the third component of process integrity. character. and to exclude other parameters that might inhibit decisive action or constrain executive perks (Messick and Bazerman 1996).. itsshort term financial impact. The greed. Since top management and board members ignored whistleblower feedback. distortedmanagerial judgments produce poor results in . Swartz and Watkins 2002). the fourth component of process integrity. is the capacity to engage in the critical andcomprehensive appraisal of causal factors and recognized moral options to arrive at a balancedand inclusive reasonable decision/resolution/policy that provides a standard for futuredeterminations (Petrick and Quinn 1997).e.conduct. they became morally blind.as Fastow was regarding the appropriateness of his financial structures. Moral deliberation. and when challenged. Theoveremphasis on personal financial gain at the expense of others destroyed any remnant of employee trust. thesecond component of process integrity. i. The way Enron executivesmanage implicitly commits them to certain ethics theories. Managers that exhibit ethical conductdevelop a reputation for dependability and alignment of moral rhetoric and reality but theduplicitous exploitation of employee retirement savings exposed the cruel behavioral hypocrisyof top Enron executives (Cruver 2002).

not relaxedand eliminated . while strengthening the motivation for excellence(character-oriented virtue ethics). and building an ethically supportive environment within andoutside the organization (context-oriented system development ethics).You make money in the new economy in the same ways you make money in the oldeconomy . so also dosimplistic. Petrick and Quinn 2000). Learning’s from the Enron case I do believe Enron will be the morality play of the new economy.Financial cleverness is no substitute for a good corporate strategy. It will teach executives and theAmerican public the most important ethics lessons of this decade.handling behavioral complexity.by providing goods or services that have real value.For business leaders and their firms.Executives who are paid too much can think they are above the rules and can be temptedto cut ethical corners to retain their wealth and perquisites.2.Government regulations and rules need to be updated for the new economy.3.5.4. Among these lessons are:1. by following the rightstandards (rule-oriented deontological ethics). directors and the public. distorted ethical judgments produce poor results in handling moral complexity (Paine1994. "themost innovative. exhibiting judgment integrity means being held accountablefor achieving good outcomes (results-oriented teleological ethics).The arrogance of corporate executives who claim they are the best and the brightest." and who present themselves as superstars should be a "red flag" for investors.

5. theoverwhelming drive for short-term personalwealth accumulation was the negative ethic.Transparency in reporting is not an objective 8 .8.Government regulations and rules need to be updated not relaxed andeliminated. Enron covered up the debt under theseparate accounting financial statements of the SPE’s that showedgrowth of business: growth of asset value: rise in Enron’s share price:rise to shareholders’ income. Conflict of interest: Enron claimed to generate profits and revenue fromdeals with SPE”S that were actually limited partnerships that Enroncontrolled. Collusion: the auditing firm was a partner. It was shuffling much of its debt obligations into offshorepartnerships. Enron encouraged and rewarded innovation.Executives who are paid too much can think they are above the rulesand can be tempted to cut ethical corners to preserve their wealth andperquisites4. internal and external auditorfailing to provide complete disclosure. Enron was using thesepartnerships to sell to itself these contracts back and forth recording revenueeach time to hide losses and debt that it suffered by not reporting them on itsfinancial statements.Enron claimed to generate profits and revenue from deals with SPE”S thatwere actually limited partnerships that Enron controlled. Creation of false confidence i. Managers were encouraged topursue this goal with.Financial cleverness is no substitute for a good corporate strategy3. if necessary. You make money by providing real goods and services i. Lessons from the Enron Case 1. So long as the share price does not fall. Enron was claimingbillions in profit when it was actually losing money. 6. and unfair financial reporting.graduate school. 7. However. thegrowth of business can be tremendous. but such cover-up sows the seed 7 of hidden disaster as the asset value of business depends primarily onthe investors . guile and deceit.e. real value formoney2.e.

References 1. 27-48 . The Responsibility and Accountability of CEOs: The Last Interview withKen Lay Journal of Business Ethics _ Springer 2010 DOI 10. Harris Global Perspectives on Accounting Education Volume 3. Enron And Arthur Andersen: The Case Of The Crooked E And The FallenA Gary M. corporate ethics fail and financial disaster isnot far behind by Marianne M. Cunningham and Jean E. 2006.1007/s10551-010-0675-y O.com/p/articles/mi_m4153/is_6_60/ai_111737942 3. The critical role of ethics: recent history has shown that when individualethics are compromised. C. Jenningshttp://findarticles. Ferrell Linda Ferrell 2.

Company’s Profile • Enron is a USA based Company formed in 1985 by Kenneth Lay from a merger of Houston Natural Gas Company and InterNorth Inc. Enron did a lot of things to make profit. natural gas. Kevin Howard •Enron employees . •Enron employed approximately 22. paper. Enron was the leading provider for these services in 2001. Jeffery Skilling •Founder broadband unit chief financial officer. Texas. •Enron was named "Americas Most Innovative Company" for six consecutive years. such as electricity and natural gas. Kenneth Lay •Former CEO. pulp. •Enron Corp ranked 7th on the Fortune 500 list of Companies.. and pulp and paper companies.000 employees. It was the first nationwide natural gas pipeline network in Houston. with claimed revenues of nearly $101 billion in 2000. Who was involved? •Enron founder. What Enron Did? •Enron was an American company located in Houston. but the main way it made ridicules amounts of profit was by providing different types of energy. •It was one of the worlds leading electricity. Texas. Other services that Enron provided were communications. and communications companies.