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by Bhikkhu Khantipálo
8 The Wheel Publication o! "#$%"#"
&opyri'ht ( ")*+ Buddhist Publication Society
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Preface!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!# .ntroduction!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!+ The Trainin' >ules!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!9 The ?alue of ?inaya!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!* @>eform of ?inayaA!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"$ Standards of Discipline!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"# Some -spects of the ?inaya!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"+ Breetin's!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"1 Li=in'6Cuarters!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"9 Money!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"* ;ood and Drink!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!") Tra=el!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!8# Beneral &onduct!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!8+ &onclusion!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!89 Biblio'raphy!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!8)
.n the small treatise 3hich follo3s5 the 'ood of both Bhikkhus DBuddhist monksE and of the lay Buddhist householders has been aimed at and the information presented5 the 3riter belie=es5 is a=ailable in no other book! The standards of conduct described here are those of the ?inaya 3ell6 practiced and of the layman’s discipline 3ell6applied! What use indeed is there in presentin' other than the hi'h standards laid do3n by Lord Buddha himself in the ?inaya5 since fallin' a3ay from 'ood conduct is all too easy and may all too easily be seen5 not least in Buddhist landsF ;or those 3ho follo3 the trainin' in Buddhist Doctrine and Discipline DDhamma6?inayaE only the best5 surely5 is 'ood enou'h! -s to terminolo'y5 the 3riter has used the Pali 3ord añjali for 3hat is often called @placin' to'ether the palms of the handsA Dañjali-kammaE5 and the @fi=e6point6restA Dpañcaòga-vandanaE for 3hat is commonly called @prostration!A This book has 'reatly benefited from the corrections and additions su''ested by my re=ered upajjháya5 ?en! &hao 4hun SGsana Sobhana5 and others! May this 3ork be for the practical 3elfare of all 3ho stri=e on the Path of SaddhammaH
Bhikkhu Khantipálo Wat Bo=orani=es ?ihara Ban'kok5 Thailand *th day of the Wanin' Moon of &itta5 B!E! 81"$
The teachin's 'i=en by Lord Buddha 3hich are preser=ed and practiced to the present day5 are kno3n in the ancient texts as the Dhamma-Vinaya. -lthou'h there is a 'reat loss of meanin' 3hen translatin' these t3o terms into En'lish5 they may be rendered as Doctrine and aspects of Discipline. umerous books are 'i=en o=er to explainin' aspects of Dhamma but perhaps because of its monastic meanin' the ?inaya seems ne'lected and not 'i=en due prominence! .t 3ill be the task of this booklet to examine ?inaya from a particular point of =ie3:that of the Buddhist layman and ho3 a kno3led'e of some of its rules can be useful to him! This term @?inayaA has not only monastic connotations! .t is true that the ?inaya6 collection" contains at 'reat len'th and in detail the trainin' rules5 prohibitions5 allo3ances5 and re'ulations 'o=ernin' a Bhikkhu’s life5 but there is at least one important instance of the term bein' applied to the conduct of lay6people! The sub6title of the famous discourse called the @Exhortation to Si'Gla5A is @Bihi6=inayaA or the @<ouseholder’s Discipline5A a 3orthy name for a masterly exposition!8 .n a more narro3 sense5 the layman’s ?inaya is his ;i=e Precepts5# since these ha=e the same function of @remo=in' the unskillfulA as the much 'reater body of trainin' rules in the ?inaya6collection has for a Bhikkhu! This is in fact 3hat the 3ord @?inayaA means, dri=in' out5 abolishin'5 destruction or remo=al:that is5 of all the o=ert 3ays of beha=ior 3hich obstruct pro'ress alon' the Practice6path of Dhamma! Why then 3ere the ?inaya trainin' rules laid do3nF Many times in the ?inaya6collection Lord Buddha says, @/n account of Dsome e=ent necessitatin' actionE5 / Bhikkhus5 . shall make kno3n the trainin' rule for Bhikkhus5A Dsometimes addin'E5 @founded upon these ten reasons, ;or the 3elfare of the San'ha Dcommunity of monksE5 ;or the comfort of the San'ha5 ;or the control of unsteady men5 ;or the comfort of 3ell6beha=ed Bhikkhus5 ;or the restrainin' of the pollutions DásaváE in this present life5 ;or 'uardin' a'ainst pollutions liable to arise in a future life5 ;or the pleasin' of those not yet pleased D3ith DhammaE5 ;or the increase of those pleased5 ;or the establishment of true Dhamma and ;or the benefit of the ?inaya+A The 'reat Teacher and &ommentator5 ?en! Buddha'hosa5 'i=es the follo3in' =erse6 definition of the ?inaya in the Atthasálin , @This ?inaya DDisciplineE is called the ?inaya By those kno3in' the meanin' of ?inaya!
See Biblio'raphy! See @!veryman"s !thics#$ %he &heel o! "+! # See @%he 'ive (recepts#$ %he &heel o! 11! + .n the -n'uttara ikGya DBook of T3osE5 t3o further reasons are found, @for sympathy 3ith householdersA Da =ery important considerationE and @for breakin' up factions of e=il6minded BhikkhusA Dstressin' ho3 the ?inaya has protected the San'haE!
1 Because it disciplines Dactions ofE body and speech5 DSince consistin' ofE =arious and excellent principles!@ This =erse stresses the usefulness of ?inaya in disciplinin' the body and speech Das the ;i=e or Ei'ht Precepts do for lay6peopleE and this a'ain dri=es home the support 'i=en by ?inaya to Dhamma! To ha=e one 3ithout the other is actually inconcei=able from a Buddhist point of =ie3! ;or instance5 a Dhamma tau'ht 3ithout ?inaya 3ould be a teachin' in 3hich no openin' or be'innin' 3as sho3n of a path to be practiced! - ?inaya 3ithout Dhamma on the other hand5 3ould be an empty formalism5 a discipline bearin' little fruit or ad=anta'e! Both parts of the Buddhist Dispensation DsásanaE 'o hand6in6hand 3hether one considers the Bhikkhu’s or the layman’s trainin'! - 'ood Buddhist layman is one 3ho makes e=ery effort to keep pure the ;i=e Precepts and to practice at least the Dhamma tau'ht in the @Exhortation to Si'Gla!A .n the same 3ay a 'ood Bhikkhu stri=es to train himself 3ithout fallin' into offenses5 in the 889 trainin' rules of the PGtimokkha 3hich at the time of his acceptance as a Bhikkhu5 he has undertaken to obser=e! .t is often said that the laymen keep fi=e5 3hile the Bhikkhu’s load is t3o hundred and t3enty6se=en precepts5 but for the latter this is only part of the truth since he has5 besides the fundamental rules in the PGtimokkha51 numerous others to train in5 these bein' found scattered throu'hout the ?inaya &ollection! <ere 3e may remark upon one difference bet3een the precepts of a layman and those of a Bhikkhu! The former are all of a moral nature5 such as are esteemed in all reli'ions D3ith the possible exception of the fifth5 since in some faiths abstinence from alcohol is not tau'htE! ;or this reason5 they fall into the class of @naturalA precepts Dpakati-s laE! But the Bhikkhu5 besides ha=in' precepts of this nature5 has many more 3hich are special to his mode of life! These precepts are called @formulatedA Dpaññatti-s laE! -lthou'h they ha=e little or no application in the life of a layman5 they are =ery important for the Bhikkhu5 includin' all sorts of 3ays of restraint and 'ood conduct proper for him! .t should not be thou'ht this latter sort of precept is less important to him than those in the 'roup of natural morality5 for this 3ould be to apply 3orldly standards of 2ud'ment to a code of discipline desi'ned to promote an un3orldly 3ay of life! The concern amon' both Bhikkhus and laity5 for keepin' the precepts pure and for not fallin' into any offense5 may be called scrupulousness! Many times in the ?inaya is it mentioned that @scrupulous BhikkhusA Dkukkuccáyantá BhikkhuE 3ould not accept some article until Lord Buddha had made it allo3able! -'ain5 3e find constant references to @Bhikkhus of fe3 3ishesA Dappiccha BhikkhuE 3ho 3ere ashamed of the unbecomin' and unscrupulous beha=ior of other monks! Li'ht is thro3n here upon an important connection bet3een precepts 'enerally and the Dhamma! .n bein' @scrupulousA or @of fe3 3ishesA a number of skillful mental factors =aluable to one’s trainin' are present! -mon' these5 the pair kno3n as shame and fear of blame D hiri-ottappaE are actually called by Lord Buddha @the 'uardians of the 3orld!A Shame is seen 3hen one reproaches oneself for an e=il done or about to be done and 3hen one has an in3ard fear deri=ed from thinkin' of the unpleasant results to be experienced from that sort of kamma! ;ear of blame is rather the restraint imposed by fear of others’ censure or by the thou'ht that honorable persons 3hom one respects5 such as parents or teachers5 mi'ht 'et to kno3 of such e=il! Bein' @of fe3 3ishesA is another 3ord for contentment Dsantu))hiE5 a =ery =aluable Cuality for a Bhikkhu! The
0 other most prominent factor in this scrupulosity and modesty5 is mindfulness DsatiE5 3hich is indeed at the root of all Buddhist trainin' at 3hate=er le=el! When there is mindfulness5 ho3e=er many precepts one keeps5 it is likely that they 3ill be 3ell and carefully 'uarded! Mindfulness makes one careful and skillful e=en in mental kamma5 not to mention those in=ol=in' body and speechH .t makes possible that all6round restraint often described by the simile of the turtle5 3hich creature is immune from dan'er after ha=in' 3ithdra3n its le's and head inside its shell! /f the Bhikkhu it is said, *Bene+icial is control o+ eye# ,ontrol o+ ear is -ene+icial too# Bene+icial is control o+ nose# ,ontrol o+ tongue is -ene+icial too# Bodily control is -ene+icial# ,ontrol o+ speech is -ene+icial too Bene+icial is control o+ mind# !very.here restraint is -ene+icial. %he Bhikkhu here restrained in every .ay 'ree utterly is he +rom every ill./$ -ll the =arious rules of the ?inaya mi'ht indeed be summed up in these =erses! ;urther 3e ha=e the famous exhortation of Lord Buddha to the Bhikkhus, @Be perfect in =irtue Ds laE5 / BhikkhusI be perfect in the PGtimokkha! D3ell restrained accordin' to the PGtimokkha! Be perfect in conduct and Dplace ofE resort seeing danger even in the slightest +aults# and train yoursel=es by undertakin' ri'htly the rules of trainin'!A .t is from such exhortations as this that the scrupulousness of a 'ood Bhikkhu is born! <e resol=es to make effort to train himself thus, @. shall be perfect in =irtue! . shall be perfect in the PGtimokkha! . shall d3ell restrainedJ perfect in conduct and Dplace ofE resort5 seein' dan'er e=en in the sli'htest faultsJA Knscrupulousness5 if 3e consider it in the li'ht of these passa'es5 3ill ob=iously indicate the presence of unrestraint and lack of mindfulness to say the least5 and probably the lack of shame and fear of blame Dahiri5 anottappaE! Luite often stron' currents of cra=in' Dta0háE5 possibly unreco'niMed5 may be in=ol=ed5 pride DmanaE may ha=e a hand5 Dnot 3ishin' to submit to the 3hole disciplineE5 and false =ie3s Dmicchá-di))hiE so often allied 3ith pride5 may tan'le matters further by thro3in' out a smoke6screen of @reasons!A <o3e=er this may be5 the rules of trainin' are praised by Lord Buddha in 3ords 3hich must pre=ent anyone from re'ardin' them as @mere external rulesA, @ o3 all these rules combine to'ether to make up the three trainin's! What threeF The trainin' in supreme morality5 the trainin' in supreme collectedness5 and the trainin' in supreme 3isdom! <erein are combined one and all of these rulesJ Thus5 / Bhikkhus5 one 3ho partly fulfills these obser=ances experiences attainment partially5 3hile one fulfillin' perfectly comes to experience the complete attainment! ot barren of results5 . declare are these rules of trainin'!9A /r5 3e ha=e this =erse,*
Dhammapada #0$6#0". - #,*0! * Dhammapada =erse #"!
9 @The Bhikkhu 3ho deli'hts in heedfulness -nd looks 3ith fear on heedlessness5 -s a forest fire ad=ances fast5 Burns up all fetters5 'reat or small!@ >eason enou'h if a Bhikkhu has set his heart upon ibbGna5 to keep the trainin' rules strictlyH o3 the path of one 3ho has 'one forth from home to homelessness and 3ho sincerely tries to train in those rules 3hich he has undertaken5 is reckoned to lead directly to ibbGna! .t is therefore a 'reat e=il to obstruct one 3ho has set himself upon this course5 3hile it is 'reat puñña) to aid such a one! .n the Buddhist dispensation there is mutual help 'i=en by Bhikkhus to lay6people in the form of Dhamma suitable for their practice and by lay people to Bhikkhus 3hen they offer the four supports, robes5 food5 shelter5 and medical necessities! .n this 3ay householders support the community of Bhikkhus from amon' 3hom those 3ith kno3led'e and experience support the laity 3ith Dhamma! Nust as no Bhikkhu 3orthy of the robe 3ould cause trouble amon' lay people but only 3ish to help them5 so de=oted and kno3led'eable householders think only to help Bhikkhus and sGmaOeras Dno=icesE! .n order to do this they must5 of course5 ha=e at least some idea of 3hat is and 3hat is not allo3able for Bhikkhus as laid do3n by Lord Buddha in the ?inaya! .t happens that Bhikkhus are no3 tra=elin' more 3idely and able to =isit and li=e in countries 3here formerly it 3as not possible for them to 'o! -lso many people from non6Buddhist lands no3 tra=el to and stay in those countries there 3here is a li=in' tradition of Dhamma5 some of them becomin' interested and 3ishin' to kno3 3hat should and 3hat should not be done in respect of Bhikkhus! There is conseCuently a need for kno3led'e amon' lay6supporters and others of some points of ?inaya! .n this small book5 the only points dealt 3ith 3ill be those 3here lay6 people are someho3 in=ol=ed5 3hile ?inaya matters of concern to Bhikkhus alone may be in=esti'ated in more comprehensi=e 3orks! "$
The Training Rules
-s the Bhikkhu’s life 'enerally 'i=es many occasions for contact 3ith lay6people Dexcept for the Bhikkhu en'a'ed in meditation practiceE5 and as errin' Bhikkhus 3ere not absent from the San'ha e=en in the days of Lord Buddha5 so there is Cuite a lar'e body of le'islation relatin' to 2ust these occasions! Because of the 3ron' conduct of =arious Bhikkhus5 Lord Buddha had cause to lay do3n lar'e numbers of trainin' rules 3hich5 if infrin'ed5 3ould become offenses for the 'uilty Bhikkhu! .t sometimes happened that a rule had to be modified5 and sometimes =arious allo3ances pro=ed necessary to Cualify the ran'e of the ori'inal rule! .n this 3ay many of the trainin' rules 3ere tested in the li'ht of experience until they became perfectly practical! -ll these rules fall into se=en classes accordin' to the seriousness of the offense in=ol=ed 3hen they are broken! Briefly5 these se=en classes 3ith some of their characteristics are as follo3s, "! De+eat DpárájikaE! The first four trainin' rules of the PGtimokkha5 if broken5 become offenses
(uñña D@uA as in @putAE is the benefit of increasin' purity of mind deri=ed from skillful actions such as 'enerosity5 =irtue5 helpfulness5 etc! @MeritA is an inadeCuate renderin'! "$ See Biblio'raphy!
* by 3hich a Bhikkhu is defeated5 no lon'er able to li=e in communion 3ith other Bhikkhus5 ne=er able in the present life to be ordained Bhikkhu a'ainI and bein' no lon'er @a son of the SakyaA Dor the BuddhaE5 he should disrobe immediately! These four offenses are, "! sexual intercourse of any descriptionI 8! takin' 3hat is not 'i=en 3ith intention to stealI #! depri=in' purposely a human bein' of life in any 3ayI +! falsely claimin' superhuman states of attainment! 8! 'ormal meeting DsaòghádisesaE! Thirteen @hea=y offenses5A the second 'roup in the PGtimokkha5 for the commission of 3hich there is a special disciplinary procedure desi'ned to humble and purify the offender 3ho must5 ho3e=er5 first confess to bein' 'uilty Das 3ith all other offensesE! /f special interest to the laity are numbers t3o5 three5 four5 and fi=e5 3hich concern, 8! en'a'in' in bodily contact 3ith a 3oman 3ith lustful intentI #! addressin' a 3oman 3ith le3d 3ordsI +! speakin' to a 3oman in praise of sexual intercourseI 1! actin' as a 'o6bet3een for a man or a 3oman! .n the more detailed considerations belo35 3e shall return to some implications of the first and last of these! 8! 1rave o++enses DthullaccayaE! These are numerous but not found in any one part of the ?inaya! Sometimes they are the types of offense resultin' from partial commissions of acts 3hich5 if completed5 3ould entail defeat or formal meetin'! They may5 in common 3ith the other classes of offenses belo35 be cleared up by makin' a confession to another Bhikkhu 3ho has not committed the same offense! #! !2piation DpácittiyaE! inety t3o in number and all found in the PGtimokkha5 these trainin' rules co=er a =ery 3ide ran'e of sub2ects5 some of 3hich it is useful for lay6people to kno3! +! %o -e con+essed Dpá)idesan yaE! /nly four rules in the PGtimokkha5 3hich find little application today! 1! &rong doing DdukkataE! - =ery numerous cate'ory5 for the a=oidance of breakin' 3hich5 care is needed! The 91 trainin's Dsekhiya found in the PGtimokkha and 3hich contain numbers of points of interest to the layman5 become 3hen broken5 offenses of 3ron'6 doin'! 0! &rong speech DdubbhGsitaE! This includes all unprofitable speech not found in the abo=e classes5 as for instance5 the use of coarse 3ords uttered in 2est! While there are numbers of cases for offenses in the abo=e classes5 there is only one here!
The Value of Vinaya
We ha=e already seen that Lord Buddha5 in layin' do3n the trainin' rules for Bhikkhus5 3as much concerned 3ith the 3ell6bein' of the laity! <e had in mind5 for instance5 @bein' in sympathy 3ith householders5A @the pleasin' of those not pleased DandE the increase of those pleasedA D3ith DhammaE alon'side more monastic considerations! .n another passa'e of =ery freCuent occurrence in the ?inaya collection5 Lord Buddha 3hene=er he rebuked some errin' Bhikkhu 3ould say, @.t is not5 foolish man5 for the pleasin' of those not pleased Di!e!5 outsiders5 those of other faithsE5 not for the increase of those 3ho are pleased Dby their practice of Dhamma6?inaya5 i!e!5 BuddhistsE5 but5 foolish man5 it causes displeasure amon' those 3ho are not pleased as 3ell as in those 3ho are
) pleased5 and it causes 3a=erin' in someA Di!e!5 those 3ho are interested in Dhamma but ha=e not yet 'one for the >efu'e to the Triple BemE! The =ery ob=ious effects 3hich bad conduct by one in robes has upon lay6people5 is here =ery stron'ly emphasiMed! The con=erse is also true5 since a Bhikkhu 3ho has been 3ell6trained under 'ood teachers and learned thorou'hly the theory and practice of Dhamma and ?inaya is indeed a 'reat recommendation to the excellence found in the &onCueror’s dispensation! - picture of such a Bhikkhu is a3akened in the mind’s eye by this =erse, *,alm in -ody# calm in speech# %ran3uil and composed o+ heart# &hoso has spe.ed out .orldly .ants "4erene" is such a Bhikkhu called.55$ The Dhamma 3hich all Buddhists re=ere as most precious and 3hich is practiced by all 3ho are truly follo3ers of Lord Buddha5 has been preser=ed for the people of the present by the San'ha! This community of Bhikkhus5 those 3ho Dso to speakE ha=e specialiMed in Dhamma5 has been preser=ed by close adherence to the trainin' rules laid do3n in the ?inaya! That this seCuence is true may be seen from se=eral instances in history 3hen Bhikkhus no lon'er paid heed to the ?inaya and so lost the respect and support of the laity! ot ha=in' this support5 they drifted to3ards bein' householders themsel=es and ha=in' become priests 3ith families5 they could 'i=e less time to learnin' and practice of Dhamma! Books 'ot lost and 3ere not replaced and the tradition became steadily more de'enerate until no teachin' at all remained:only @protection6 ceremoniesA and the like5 often performed in a lan'ua'e not understood e=en by the priest5 let alone by the people! The present time5 alas5 could also sho3 some @BuddhistA traditions of 3hich these 3ords are true! This preser=ation of the Dhamma by ?inaya and hence by the San'ha to 3hom the ?inaya applies5 finds expression in a simile in the ?inaya6introduction 3here it is said, @;lo3ers loose upon a flat piece of 3ood5 not tied to'ether by thread5 are scattered about5 destroyed by the 3ind! What is the cause of thatF Since they 3ere not held to'ether by threadJA This is said to apply to the teachin's of some former Buddhas 3ho 'a=e little of the Dhamma to their disciples and 3ho did not lay do3n the ?inaya or make kno3n the PGtimokkha! .t is a cause for re2oicin' that Botama the Buddha has explained the Dhamma in detail5 made kno3n the ?inaya and pointed out the fundamental trainin' rules of the PGtimokkha! @.t is as if5 SGriputta5 =arious flo3ers placed on a piece of 3ood5 tied to'ether by thread Das a 'arlandE5 are not scattered5 3hirled about5 or destroyed by the 3ind! What is the reason for thatF They are 3ell tied to'ether by thread!A This means simply that the 3inds of impermanence cannot so easily destroy the =arious aspects of Dhamma 3hen these are secured by the thread of the ?inaya! This brin's us to appreciate the re=erence 3hich the ?inaya6collection is accorded by all true Bhikkhus as 3ell as by kno3led'eable laymen! This collection is 'i=en first place amon' the three collections Dpi)akaE of Buddha 3ord5 a fact 3hich indicates that it is the support and mainstay of the other teachin's! -s it 3as said at the ;irst &ouncil or SaP'Gyana, @the ?inaya is the =ery life of the Teachin' D4ásanaEI so lon' as the ?inaya endures5 the Teachin' endures5 therefore let us rehearse the ?inaya firstA
“Reform of Vinaya
.f one appreciates that the ?inaya is indeed the mainstay5 it 3ill not be difficult for Buddhist laity5 e=en in non6Buddhist countries5 to realiMe that ideas of chan'in' Dsometimes called @reformin'AE the ?inaya5 in order as it is said5 @to suit modern conditions5A find no fa=or 3ith the San'ha as a 3hole! There are many ob2ections to such a course of action5 in 3hich indeed there 3ould be almost no ad=anta'es! .n 3hat follo3s5 the 3riter 3ishes to examine these ob2ections and to sho3 plainly their dan'ers and disad=anta'es! ;irstly5 if one reads throu'h the ?inaya5 3hile there are a number of points that apply specially to eastern countries5 some e=en bein' limited to conditions peculiar to ancient .ndia5 none of these relate to the main principles of the Bhikkhu6life! The 3orkin's of the ?inaya in the life of the Bhikkhu of the present day is not made difficult by obsolete trainin' rules! Those no lon'er ha=in' any application are =ery fe3 and are really not of 'reat importance! -ll the main principles of the Bhikkhu6discipline are as =alid no3 as they 3ere 3hen instituted by Lord Buddha t3o and a half millennia past! This is indeed a mar=elous proof of the 3isdom of Lord Buddha 3ho has so 3ell formulated these rules! or is the structure of the ?inaya absolutely ri'id and it does therefore permit necessary adaptations 3hich are still 3ithin the spirit of the trainin'! The use by Bhikkhus of modern methods of transport mi'ht be taken as an example! This 3ould not ha=e been possible for them if ?inaya 3as taken as a completely ri'id code! Secondly5 there are the 3ords of Lord Buddha himself, @So lon'5 / Bhikkhus5 as you appoint no ne3 rules5 and abolish not the existin' ones5 but proceed accordin' to the trainin' rules as laid do3n5 so lon' 3ill Bhikkhus be expected to prosper5 not to decline!"8A This statement of the Teacher is al3ays to the fore 3hene=er there are 'atherin's of senior Bhikkhus meetin' to determine some ?inaya Cuestions arisin' out of modern conditions! /r5 there are such exhortations from sources outside the Pali canon as these 3ords attributed to Lord Buddha, @/ Bhikkhus5 after my ParinibbGna you should re=ere and honor the precepts of the PGtimokkha! Treat them as a li'ht 3hich you ha=e disco=ered in the dark5 or as a poor man 3ould treat a treasure he had found! Qou should kno3 that they are your chief 'uide and there should be no difference Din your obser=ances of themE from 3hen . yet remained in the 3orldA Dthe openin' 3ords of the @Discourse of the Teachin' BeCueathed by the Buddha"#AE! Then there is a consideration based upon the e=ents of the ;irst SaP'Gyana D&ouncilE! .n this 'reat 'atherin' of -rahant s5 ?enerable MahGkassapa5 3ho 3as its president5 put for3ard this motion, @.f it seems ri'ht to the San'ha5 the San'ha should not lay do3n 3hat has not been laid do3n5 nor should it abolish 3hat has been laid do3n! .t should proceed in conformity 3ith and accordin' to the trainin' rules 3hich ha=e been laid do3n! This is the motion! Qour re=erences5 let the San'ha listen to me! .f it seems ri'ht to the San'ha5 the San'ha should notJ Dthrice repeatedE! .t is pleasin' to the San'haI therefore it is silent! Thus do . understand!A -ll those 3ho are accepted as DThera=adaE Bhikkhus in the present day follo3 this tradition as laid do3n in the ;irst SaP'Gyana! This is Thera=ada traditionI it is based upon the decision of those 'reat elders 3ho 3ere ennobled 3ith the hi'hest nobility! Who are 3e indeed5 to 'o astray from their 3ayF
Discourse on the Se=en &onditions for the Welfare of Bhikkhus5 See @%he Buddha"s 6ast Be3uest5A The Wheel o! ""8!
"" -lthou'h the Teacher before his ParinibbGna spoke thus, @-fter my passin' Rnanda5 let the San'ha if it so desires abolish the lesser and minor rules of trainin'5A no San'ha any3here actually =entured to do this5 partly because of the uncertainty in definin' @the lesser and minor rulesA and partly because they 3ere constrained out of respect to preser=e that 3hich had been instituted by the 'reat Teacher! -cariya G'asena explains that @the TathG'ata spoke thus testin' the Bhikkhus, SWill my disciples on bein' left by me adhere to the passin'5 or 3ill they repudiate themF "+’A There is also the consideration that those of other sects mi'ht say5 @While the Teacher DBotamaE 3as ali=e5 his disciples respected and honored his precepts but no3 that he is no more5 they thro3 off the trainin'!A But principally the reason 3as de=otion arisin' from the successful practice of Dhamma ?inaya! Supposin' that someone proclaimed that he 3ished to @reformA the ?inaya5 in doin' this or in tryin' to do this5 he 3ould depart from Thera=ada tradition and place himself apart from others follo3in' Thera=ada and 3ould in fact only start a ne3 sect5 and 3ho is in honor of sectarianismF .f he 3ere a Bhikkhu5 by his departure from the trainin' laid do3n in the ?inaya he 3ould only brin' upon himself offenses5 bein' burdened 3ith 3hich and failin' to confess them5 he 3ould be precluded from makin' much pro'ress on the practice path of Dhamma! -'ain5 .ho 3ill chan'e the ?inayaF -s the ?inaya is the pro=ince of Bhikkhus5 lay people ob=iously cannot do so! /ne Bhikkhu cannot effect any chan'es since ?inaya6decisions are arri=ed at after the consultation of a San'ha ! - San'ha of youn' Bhikkhus is not Cualified to do so since decisions arri=ed at by them mi'ht 3ell be s3ayed by preferences5 or be based upon both lack of learnin' and lack of purity of heart! - San'ha of senior Bhikkhus competent to decide upon ?inaya6Cuestions 3ill scarcely undertake such a task since their trainin' has imbued them 3ith a deep sense of respect for the ?inaya! -ny decision arri=ed at by a meetin' of less than all Bhikkhus in the 3orld DHE 3ould be sectarian in character and be the cause of San'ha6schism Dan offense of formal meetin' and therefore =ery seriousE! E=en if such a 'atherin' could be contri=ed5 not only 3ould respect for the traditions of the -rahant elders easily triumph5 but also the dissident =oices 3ould be found to represent some3hat unbalanced indi=iduals! -ctually5 no one at all can be found 3ho 3ould be competent to undertake @chan'in' the ?inaya!A DBut there is5 as pointed out abo=e5 pro=ision for decisions on the ?inaya Cuestions by a council of senior Bhikkhus 3ell =ersed in ?inaya and the &ommentaries as found in Siam!E -nother point to consider is that e=en if chan'es 3ere a'reed upon by all competent authorities and the San'ha5 therefore unanimous5 ho3 far are such chan'es to 'o5 and 3hen 3ill this chan'in' e=er stopF This Cuestion5 amon' all other considerations here5 has al3ays deterred Thera=ada Elders from effectin' any chan'es! ?en! &hao 4hun SGsana Sobhana 3ritin' in Siam recently says, @The ar'ument of the Thera=ada Buddhists a'ainst the re=ision of the ?inaya is that 3hile it is true that to3ards the end of his life5 the Buddha did 'i=e permission to his disciples to suspend the minor rules5 the ;irst &ouncil 3as not able to reach an a'reement as to 3hat Sminor rules’ si'nified!A They ha=e thus remained in the PGtimokkha until the present time and ha=e thus ensured that the standard of conduct and the direction of the trainin' ha=e remained the same Dfor those undertakin' the trainin' seriouslyE as they 3ere in the Buddha time! ?en! PaTTa=addho5 in his re=ie3 of the Ban'kok edition of @The PGtimokkha5A has 3ritten, @.t has been said by some people that in this modern day and a'e5 some or many of the rules are archaic5 restricti=e5 or
MilindapaThG text5 PTS p! "+#!
"8 other3ise undesirable in the 'reatly altered circumstances of modern ci=iliMation! But it must be remembered that the ?inaya5 3ith the PGtimokkha as its basis5 has maintained stability in the San'ha since the time of Lord Buddha!A ;inally5 there is a consideration based upon the nature of the trainin' and the end 3hich it has in =ie3! ;rom the Buddha6time do3n to the present it has been found that a careful application of the ?inaya’s principles by a Bhikkhu in his life promotes his practice and understandin' of Dhamma, @?inaya leads to restraintI restraint to the absence of remorseI absence of remorse leads to 2oyI 2oy to deli'htI deli'ht to tranCuilityI tranCuility leads to happinessI happiness to collectednessI collectedness to kno3led'e and =ision of the truly existentI kno3led'e and =ision of the truly existent to re=ulsionI"1 re=ulsion to dispassionI dispassion to freedomI freedom to kno3led'e6and6=ision of freedomI and kno3led'e6of6=ision to freedom leads to ibbGna free from Dclin'in' toE substrata Dfor rebirthE!"0A When ?inaya has been so formulated as to 'uide a Bhikkhu to the 'oal of ibbGna5 3ho shall entertain thou'hts alterin' itF .t is 3e 3ho ha=e to chan'e by our practice of Dhamma6?inaya5 to come up to its le=el and not to expect it to chan'e for us! .n this connection5 there is a little fable, -t one time there 3as a 'reat and flourishin' tree standin' as it had stood for many5 many hundreds of years! .t 3as so beautiful that men and 3omen brin'in' their children 3ould come from scores of miles about to 'aMe in 3onder at its perfect and ma2estic shape! Knder its mi'hty spread of branches multitudes could sit do3n en2oyin' its cool shade! E=en animals 3ould come and deli'ht themsel=es accordin' to their se=eral habits5 some upon the 'rass beneath and some sportin' amid the profusion of lea=es5 flo3ers5 and fruits! -nd such flo3ers of such fra'rance:no one kne3 3here else their like mi'ht be found! -nd such fruits as this tree bore and in such abundanceH o 3onder that they are called best5 hi'hest5 foremost and supreme amon' all fruits produced by other trees! So the seasons and the years rolled by and still the mi'hty tree stood hardly chan'ed5 for 3here one branch died off5 another 're3 to replace it! The deli'ht of many bein's5 =isible and in=isible5 3as in the health and lon' life of this ancient tree! Then5 in accordance 3ith the chan'e inherent in thin's5 fashions chan'ed and trees in their natural =i'or 3ere no lon'er praised but trimmed and artificially6shaped trees 3ere thou'ht more beautiful! -'itation be'an amon' some men for the tree to be shaped up accordin' to modern taste! E=entually5 due to debased ideas of people by that time5 loppers and clippers tried their hands upon the millennial 'iant! Branch after branch fell loaded 3ith flo3ers and bearin' fruits! @ e=er mind5A they said5 @it 3ill look much better 3hen 3e ha=e finished!A Before lon'5 the tree 3as pruned into the form of a perfect cube and this 3as re'arded by almost e=eryone 3ith satisfaction! /nly a fe3 i'norant people re'retted the sa3n6off limbs and bare branches 3ith a fe3 clusters of lea=es left here and there! These ill6educated persons 3ere heard re'rettin' the lack of any shade! <o3 stupid of themH .t is needless to say that the =enerable tree flo3ered and bore fruit no more and due to shock5 died shortly after3ards5 lea=in' only its 'reat5 but dead frame3ork 3hich then became an ob2ect for the speculati=e theses of numerous men of books! Thus it is that most Bhikkhus 'enerally 3ould not talk of @chan'in'A but of @tamperin'
7i--idá5 a 3ord impossible to render into En'lish5 as it encompasses meanin's such as, re=ulsion Dbut 3ithout hatred or dislikeEI 3eariness Dbut 3ithout physical tirednessEI and means literally @turnin'6a3ay from!A "0 ?inaya5 Pari=Gra5 "0)!
"# 3ithA the ?inaya! -fter all5 3hen closely examined many proposals to brin' about chan'es in the body of ?inaya are found to be based upon the roots of unskill! - simple case 3ill illustrate this5 Bhikkhu experiences pan's of hun'er in the e=enin' Din spite of allo3able drinksHE5 3hich cause him to announce that he does not belie=e in strictly follo3in' ?inaya in this respect5 since this 3ould be an extreme of self6torture DHEI the climate is too coldI modern times demand a chan'eI @. follo3 MahGyGnaA DHE:or one of a thousand such excuses! <e accordin'ly proposes that the trainin' rule re'ardin' not takin' food afternoon and before da3n5 be abolished! @-fter all5A he reasons5 @it is only a pGcittiya offense:nothin' much!A Mean3hile5 he has a 'ood supper e=ery ni'htI not only his belly but also his 'reed5 that root of unskill5 are thorou'hly satisfied! .f the former is a little distended5 the latter is certainly 'reatly increased5 3hile the spirit of renunciation has fled from his d3ellin'! -nd of course5 3here 'reed is increased5 so automatically is a=ersion and dullnessJ and so onJ -nyone:3hether Bhikkhu or layman:3ho holds such a =ie3 or reasonin' concernin' his trainin' rules as the ima'inary Bhikkhu abo=e5 actually makes for himself a real stumblin'6 block upon his o3n path! The mental attitude of thinkin'5 @/h5 it does not matterI it’s only a little thin'HA is one to 3atch5 since it appears at the 'ate of the 3ide and easy path leadin' do3n3ards! Such slack 3ays of thinkin'5 really ur'ed on by some hidden cra=in'5 are 2ust the re=erse of the disciplined scrupulousness upon 3hich so much stress is laid in the ?inaya! Slackness and strictness in re'ard to the ?inaya are not to be associated in any 3holesale fashion 3ith this @yánaA or that @vádaA D=ehicle or 3ayE! .n Thera=ada5 as in other Buddhist traditions5 there are those Bhikkhus 3ho are strict as 3ell as those 3ho are slack! Where=er there is a 'ood Teacher 3ho is concerned 3ith the practical application of the Dhamma5 there the ?inaya 3ill be carefully follo3ed! But 3here neither such a Teacher nor a 'ood ?inaya tradition are found5 there undisciplined beha=ior 3ill result5 3ith a =ictory for not6Dhamma DadhammaE!
!tandards of "iscipline
/ne important principle to remember about the ?inaya is that a life based upon its principles is =ery different from the ordinary life! The ?inaya 'uides a Bhikkhu in conductin' himself so as to @'o a'ainst the streamA Dof cra=in'E and his life and 3ay of doin' thin's is often opposed to the 3ays of one 3ho @en2oys the fi=e strands of sense6pleasures!A Take food a'ain as an example! -n ordinary person not undertakin' any reli'ious discipline may eat5 his mind deli'hted by sense6 impressions of taste5 smell5 color5 and so forth5 and probably therefore o=er3helmed 3ith 'reed! <e may chatter 3ith others and5 if the food is delicious5 o=ereat! >estraint and mindfulness5 by contrast5 are the marks of a 'ood Bhikkhu takin' his food5 3hich he re'ards as medicine to keep his body 'oin' and5 should 'reed arise5 he uses the meditation upon the loathsomeness of food to dissol=e it! <e talks but little5 has his senses under control and eats only moderately! The reason for this difference of attitude is not hard to see! /ne 3ho is blo3n about by the 3inds of cra=in' throu'hout his life5 not understandin' kamma and its fruits5 and therefore not 'raspin' the meanin' of dukkha5 is set on no sure course and 3ins little ad=anta'e in his or her life as a human bein'! /ne 3ho 3ishes to become a Bhikkhu5 on the other hand5 has determined upon a definite course of action 3hich is 'i=en 'uidance by the ?inaya and his practice of it5 after his acceptance DupasampadaE! The Dhammapada"9 emphasiMes this,
"+ *8ne is the .ay to .orldly gain# Another to 7i--ána leads. ,learly comprehending this %he Bhikkhu-+ollo.er o+ the Buddha 4hould not delight in honor and gain But devote himsel+ to solitude.59$ .t may be that some of the trainin' rules to be dealt 3ith belo3 3ill seem stran'e and complicated:e=en unnecessary! They are unnecessary for a layman5 but they ha=e a definite part in the life of a Bhikkhu and help him 'enerally in de=elopin' that scrupulousness 3hich is so essential to Bhikkhu6life! ;or this reason5 lay6people 3ho are so fortunate as to be able to in=ite a 'ood Bhikkhu to their to3ns5 should be truly pleased to help him keep the ?inaya! Those 3ho do this5 3hich is the doin' of 3hat is a little difficult and therefore reCuires effort but bears splendid fruit5 are themsel=es undertakin' the trainin' ri'htly! - Bhikkhu such as the =erses belo3 depict is really 3orthy of help and support, *'or a Bhikkhu .ise .ho practices this 4ásana# ,ontrol o+ senses and contentment too. And -y the (átimokkha .ell-restrained# And company o+ keen and no-le +riends &ho +ollo. purity o+ livelihood: 4uch things as these -eing the holy li+e. %he Bhikkhu .ho has in the Buddhasásana 4erenist joy and +aith that satis+ies# 4urely he can reach unto the 4tate o+ (eace# %he -liss o+ paci+ying all conditioned things.5;$
!ome #spects of the Vinaya
.n the follo3in' ?inaya information useful to laymen5 most emphasis 3ill be upon the offenses incurred in certain situations by Bhikkhus and ho3 laypeople can help them a=oid these5 to'ether 3ith remarks upon the customary conduct of laypeople in the presence of a Bhikkhu! -s5 in Buddhist countries5 the laypeople’s code of manners and conduct is much influenced by the se=enty6fi=e trainin's5 a 'roup of rules kept by both Bhikkhus and sGmaOeras5 it seems appropriate to include this matter here! The 3riter has5 for the sake of easy reference5 'athered the =arious points5 some su''ested throu'h the kindness of others5 under fi=e headin's, Breetin's5 Li=in'6Cuarters5 ;ood and Drink5 Tra=el and Beneral &onduct! .n the &onclusion are set out some obser=ations upon the 3ay Bhikkhus are re'arded by the laypeople of Siam at the present time!
.t is 'enerally felt in Buddhist countries that the common 3estern form of 'reetin'5 the handshake5 is unsuitable 3hen 'reetin' Bhikkhus! The point here is that a Bhikkhu must a=oid all body contact 3ith 3omen! Since if lust arose in him5 he could be embroiled in a hea=y offense5 entailin' formal meetin'! ;or these reasons it is ob=ious that the handshake is not a suitable 'reetin' and5 in
Dhammapada 91! Dhammapada #915 #*"!
"1 the case of a Bhikkhu5 if one has in=ited him kno3in' that he has kno3led'e and experience of Dhamma 3hich is not one’s o3n5 then 'reetin' by handshake 3ill not express one’s 3illin'ness to learn5 as 3ell as do the traditional 'estures! .n a public place5 a Bhikkhu is traditionally 3elcomed and parted by @action of añjali5A inclinin' the head and sometimes the body! This position of the hands is associated in theistic reli'ions 3ith prayer Done thinks of DUrer’s famous @Prayin' <andsAE but its use and meanin' in Buddhist tradition is rather different! <ere5 'i=en space5 one mi'ht elaborate a little upon relationships of mentality D námaE 3ith materiality Dr<paE and the re=erse! Suffice it to say that there are certain 'estures and positions of the body 3hich lead to the arisin'5 maintenance5 or increase of skillful and concentrated mental states! We are concerned here 3ith t3o of them, @action of añjaliA and 3hat is usually called @prostration5A but 3hich 3e prefer to call the @fi=e6point6restA or @lo3erin'A the body!8$ /f these5 @action of añjaliA is commonly seen 3hen laypeople 'reet Bhikkhus at stations5 in the streets5 3ithin a hall5 or other public place! The amount of respect thus accorded to a particular Bhikkhu tends to be expressed by the hei'ht at 3hich the hands are held Dfrom the heart up to the foreheadE and the an'le at 3hich the head and body are inclined! <o3e=er5 any exa''erated form of añjali is disliked and not encoura'ed5 since it usually expresses some mental strain in the mind of the persons makin' it Dsuch as flattery5 stupidity5 conceit5 etc!E! What has been said here also applies to all no=ices and 2unior Bhikkhus 3hen respectin' their seniors in the San'ha! .t is also 3idely used by Buddhist lay people 3hen 'reetin' each other! -nother point 3hich should be mentioned and 3hich applies both to @action of añjaliA and @fi=e6point restA Dsee belo3E5 is that the action of respectin' one 3ho kno3s Dhamma by one 3ho 3ishes to learn5 is +or the -ene+it o+ the latter! Throu'h associations 3ith prayer 3hich 3ill be present on many 3estern minds5 it is often assumed that these actions 3hen performed by Buddhists5 are act s of propitiation or are someho3 for the benefit of 3hoe=er is @on the recei=in' endA Di!e!5 a Buddha ima'e5 or a BhikkhuEH This is indeed =ery far from the truth5 since e=en 3hen Lord Buddha 3as teachin'5 he said, @But also5 Bhikkhus5 if others should speak in praise of me5 in praise of the Dhamma5 or in praise of the San'ha5 you should not on that account be filled 3ith pleasure and 'ladness5 or be lifted up in mindJ Dfor if that happenedE that also 3ould become a dan'er to your o3n sel=es!8"A This is certainly true of 'ood Bhikkhus of the present 3ho 3ill kno3 that to ha=e a mind that is stuck in the desire of praise and honor5 3hich is one of the ei'ht 3orldly conditions5 is also one of the marks of an i'norant5 3orldly person and far from the ideal of the oble Disciple DariyasávakaE to 3hich he aspires! Thus a Bhikkhu does not teach the ad=anta'es of @the action of añjaliA and @fi=e6point rest5A because he 3ants to be honored but because these thin's are skillful 3ays of conduct and increase the puñña of those performin' them! -ccordin' to a famous =erse5 this puñña increases in four 3ays, *=e o+ respect+ul nature .ho !ver the elders honoring# 'our 3ualities +or him increase>
See Preface! D "5 para 0!
"0 6ong-li+e and -eauty# happiness# and strength.??$ Nust as a Bhikkhu 3ill @honor the feetA by the fi=e6point lo3erin' before his preceptor5 teacher5 or any elder Bhikkhu5 or at shrines and in temples 3here there are Buddha6ima'es5 so do lay people lo3er themsel=es to their Bhikkhu6teacher of Dhamma! This they 'enerally do in a relati=ely Cuiet and enclosed space such as temple5 Bhikkhu’s lod'in'5 or in their o3n houses 3here they may ha=e in=ited Bhikkhus for teachin'5 chantin'5 or for makin' puñña by 'i=in' 'ifts! -t the time 3hen they respect a Buddha6ima'e5 their Teacher5 or other Bhikkhus in either of these 3ays5 they encoura'e their children to do like3ise5 thus early inculcatin' a sense of respect 3hich is bound to bear 'ood fruits in the future! <appiness and peace characteriMe the faces of those 3ho perform these acts of re=erence 3ith care! -fter all5 is not happiness associated 3ith an absence of mental strainsF Some laypeople5 ho3e=er5 do these thin's carelessly5 so that they become unmindful of their meanin' and benefitsI but those 3ho really aspire to make pro'ress on the Path ne=er do so unmindfully5 ho3e=er often they ha=e cause to 'reet 3ith the añjali or lo3er the body in the fi=e6 point rest! .n the West5 3here these customs are not established amon' Buddhists and 3here Bhikkhus are in any case5 =ery fe3 in number5 carelessness is not likely to be a hindrance5 althou'h there is another one 3hich deser=es a little attention! -mon' some people one finds 3hat amounts to a stron' a=ersion to the practice of lo3erin' the body! .t may be that they hold some 3ron' =ie35 perhaps an unconscious trait persistin' from Protestant &hristianity Didolatry5 the bo3in' do3n to idols5 etc!E! Perhaps it may be connected 3ith the idea dealt 3ith abo=e5 that the other reCuires or expects to be 3orshippedI or perhaps compounded 3ith some @=ie3A 3hich is like a smokescreen put out to conceal the true cause for ob2ection:3hich is pride! .t is the head 3hich contains the eyes5 ears5 nose5 ton'ue5 many touch or'ans5 and that a''lomeration of ner=e tissue called the brain5 a circumstance 3hich po3erfully reinforces the idea of e'o! That this topmost and splendid piece of apparatus should be lo3ered to the 'round at the feet of another 3ill naturally cause the mental strain of pride to ob2ect and perhaps to put out a smokescreen, @.t’s not part of our culture5A @.t’s only an eastern custom5A etc! The modern 3orld mana'es most successfully to stimulate all the mental stains in man! -mon' them5 the mental stain of pride is fostered by such notions as5 @.’m as 'ood as any man!A -s far as the trainin' in Dhamma6?inaya is concerned5 such ideas do not apply and it is the humble man 3ho 'oes for3ard5 not he 3ho is stiff 3ith pride and therefore has no chance to learn! - Tibetan 3ork5 @Trees and WaterA puts it like this, @Nust as the branch adorned 3ith 'ood fruits is bent do3n beneath their 3ei'htI so a 3ise man’s mind adorned 3ith all Cualities is bent do3n3ards 3ith humility and calm and kno3s no pride! DButE 2ust as the fruitless branch of a tree has the nature to 'ro3 aloft5 so the head of the hau'hty man is al3ays held hi'h for his heart is not humble!8#A The traditional position of lo3erin' the body cannot be excelled for encoura'in' humility! .t is kno3n as the fi=e6point lo3erin' Dpañcaòga-vandanáE since in makin' it5 fi=e points are on the 'round, D"E the forehead5 D8V#E the t3o forearms5 D+V1E the t3o knees!
Dhammapada "$)! See %he &isdom 1one Beyond5 Social Science Press of Thailand5 Phaya Thai >d!5 Ban'kok!
"9 .t is common for Bhikkhus to ackno3led'e respectful salutation in either of these 3ays by sayin' Din &eylonE @sukhi hotuA D@may you be happyAE and in Siam often @@yu va00o sukhaA -alaAA D@Lon'6life5 beauty5 happiness5 and stren'thAE! .n En'lish5 @May you be happyA seems =ery suitable since all Dhamma practices undoubtedly brin' happiness! What has been 3ritten here has only been set do3n 3ith a =ie3 that laypeople should understand5 as Bhikkhus and sGmaOeras ha=e been tau'ht to understand5 3hat is truly beneficial! either Lord Buddha5 nor any teacher in Buddhist tradition has e=er prescribed that this or that sort of 'reetin' for Bhikkhus must be made! There is actually no ri'id formality about this at all and much the same course of indi=idual conduct applies in a Buddhist country like Siam5 as commonly applied in the days of Lord Buddha, @<a=in' approached DLord BuddhaE some lo3ered themsel=es before the Lord and sat do3n to one side, some 'reeted the Lord politely and5 ha=in' con=ersed in a friendly and courteous 3ay5 sat do3n to one sideI some by their Saction of añjali’ to the Lord5 sat do3n to one sideI some proclaimed their name and clan and sat do3nI 3hile others 3ithout sayin' anythin' 2ust sat do3n like3ise!A The commentary upon this freCuently recurrin' passa'e in the Suttas makes it Cuite clear5 ho3e=er5 that those 3ho 'reeted him 3ith humility reaped ample fruits5 3hile those 3ho @2ust sat do3nA 3ere people 3ith minds beset by pride5 false =ie3s and the rest! The information 'athered here and else3here in this book is5 the 3riter belie=es5 =ery difficult to come by in other 3orks! Qet this is standard practice in the East 3here it ne=er has to be explained since people are in contact 3ith li=in' tradition! -s and 3hen readers also make contact 3ith a li=in' Buddhist tradition5 it 3ill also be useful for them!
.n a Buddhist country5 3hen a Bhikkhu has cause to 'o to some place 3here there is no vihara Dmonastic d3ellin'E5 he 3ill probably stay in a house 3ith laypeople! .f they are reasonably 3ealthy5 a small room 3ill ha=e been set aside by them as a family shrine and in this5 the Bhikkhu 3ill be in=ited to stay5 study5 meditate5 and sleep! .t is customary that only Bhikkhus are in=ited to sleep in a shrine6room5 no member of the family doin' so5 that room bein' reser=ed at other times for p<ja and meditation! .f Buddhists in other lands are able to set aside such a room for their o3n special de=otion and practice5 it may pro=e =ery useful 3hen they are able to 3elcome a Bhikkhu! .ts position in the house must of course be decided by circumstances5 but relati=e Cuietness is a consideration and it is preferable to ha=e it upon an upper floor! .n houses 3here 'ardens contain a small detached outbuildin'5 this 3ill be e=en more suitable! There are some offenses into 3hich a Bhikkhus may fall re'ardin' his place of lod'in'! The first is that he cannot sleep in the same room 3ith one 3ho is not fully ordained as a Bhikkhu5 except for a limited period of three ni'htsI 3hile a second trainin' rule states @should any Bhikkhu sleep alon' 3ith a 3oman5 this entails expiation!A The commentary takes this to mean @under the same roofA but as this 3ill cause much incon=enience5 it should rather be taken that he should ha=e a room to himself a3ay from one in 3hich a 3oman sleeps!8+ There is here the consideration
This interpretation may not be acceptable to the strictest Bhikkhus for 3hom some small self6contained residence Das a flat 3ithout 3omen residentsE 3ould be needed! .n respect of the different interpretations possible in some points of =inaya5 it is 3orth3hile for laypeople to enCuire beforehand re'ardin' particular
"* seen in many places in the ?inaya that not only should a Bhikkhu be able to maintain his special mode of life 3ith ease5 but also that his repute5 the reputation of the San'ha as a 3hole5 and of course the 'ood name of the Dhamma5 should in no 3ay suffer5 not e=en from those 3ho mi'ht in=ent and spread malicious 'ossip! ;or these reasons5 strict Bhikkhus are most circumspect in their meetin's 3ith 3omen Das the ?inaya leads them to beE5 3hile 3ell6informed 3omen in Buddhist lands help a Bhikkhu5 by their modest and careful beha=ior5 to keep to his code of discipline! .n the handlin' of certain thin's5 there are offenses for a BhikkhuI these5 therefore need not be left about in his place of residence! .n this list there are both animate and inanimate! Thus 3omen and 'irls5 ho3e=er small581 are included here5 it bein' an offense for him to touch one5 e=en thou'h his mind is Cuite free from sensual intentions! Thus 3omen keep their distance from the Bhikkhu and a=oid actions 3hich could lead him to come into contact 3ith them! .t may be emphasiMed once a'ain5 that this is simply for the 'ood of the Bhikkhu concerned5 3ho5 since -rahant s are not easily met 3ith5 is still capable of experiencin' lust! Lord Buddha’s teachin's5 as one soon sees5 are al3ays realistic! Women’s clothes and articles of 2e3elry and cosmetics also cannot be touched by him! either can female animals5 dolls5 or money!
>e'ardin' money5 there are some Bhikkhus 3ho are of the opinion that this trainin' rule cannot be kept in the modern 3orld, they are 3illin' to handle it for their o3n transport! DThe use of money by Bhikkhus is certainly not a ne3 thin'5 since the ori'inal cause for the holdin' of the Second SaP'Gyana at ?esGlW5 in Buddhist Era "$$5 3as the acceptance of 'old and sil=er by them!E Laypeople are also heard to criticiMe Bhikkhus 3ho do not a'ree to handle money5 on the 'rounds that this impedes the 3ork of spreadin' Dhamma! /n the other hand5 there are traditions 3here Bhikkhus bear in mind that this is an offense of expiation 3ith forfeiture5 3hile Lord Buddha has, @. do not say5 / Bhikkhus5 that in any .ay may 'old or sil=er DX money and =aluables5 accordin' to the &ommentaryE be consented to5 may be looked about for!A The Second SaP'Gyana ruled that it 3as inadmissible for Bhikkhus to possess money and referred to the trainin' rule in the PGtimokkha!80 Where this rule is fully adhered to5 laypeople do not therefore 'i=e money to Bhikkhus5 nor expect them to carry it! Money can be made a=ailable for the use of a Bhikkhu but not 'i=en to him! Such money5 3hich is called after that 3hich it purchases5 the @four supports589A remains the property o+ the donor but is kept by the Bhikkhu’s ste3ard or attendant D3ho is often a lay6disciple in trainin'E to be used 3hene=er this becomes necessary! -t the time 3hen such @four supportsA are made a=ailable5 the donor may say to a Bhikkhu Dor BhikkhusE5 @. in=ite you5 sir5 3ith this sum ofJ for the four supports5A at the same time handin' that amount to the Bhikkhu’s ste3ard! /r a Bhikkhu may recei=e from the hand of a layman a slip of paper readin'I @. in=ite you 3ith the four supports eCual in amount to the sum ofJ 3hich has already been handed to the ste3ard! -s you
points about 3hich an indi=idual Bhikkhu5 or the tradition to 3hich he belon's5 holds to strictly! -nother case is in the handlin' of money!
.t is one of the 3ron' 3ays of li=elihood for a Bhikkhu if he fondles children5 boys5 or 'irls : such tactics to increase 'ains in popularity bein' left to politiciansH 80 issa''iya PGcittiya "*! 89 See abo=e!
") ha=e need of it5 please reCuest it from him!A Whate=er is needed is then bou'ht by the ste3ard from that money! .n this tradition5 a Bhikkhu has no money troubles and may lea=e such affairs to his ste3ard! <e is thus free from thou'hts on ha=in' only a little5 and not troubled by thou'hts of 3hat he 3ill buy if there be much money! <e can therefore concentrate on the 3ork of Dhamma and ?inaya 3hich he has chosen as his life! /ther items 3hich it is not allo3able for a Bhikkhu to touch include, fruits D3hen still 'ro3in' on treesE5 3eapons5 poisons Dunless as prescribed by medicinesE5 nets and snares5 seeds5 and musical instruments! Benerally he 3ill ha=e no need of radio or tele=ision eitherH
*ood and "rink
Perhaps one of the best6kno3n trainin' rules of the Bhikkhu concerns his not eatin' bet3een midday and da3n, it is an offense for him e=en to touch food:let alone eat it:durin' this period5 3hich is called the @3ron'6time!A Lay6people keepin' the ei'ht precepts upon Kposatha days or at other times ha=e basically the same discipline! -s the sixth precept they recite, @. undertake the trainin' rule refrainin' from eatin' at the 3ron' time!A - sGmaOera Dno=iceE has also to keep this precept e=ery day 3hile he commits himself to obser=e the ten trainin' rules for no=ices! .t has many ad=anta'es both for the Bhikkhu and sGmaOera5 as 3ell as for lay6people! The former benefit since they ha=e free time5 thou'hts not concerned 3ith food5 and li'htness of the body5 3hich is suitable for study5 meditation5 and so on! -s for the latter5 they are not burdened by ha=in' to prepare food for Bhikkhus at ni'ht! -lthou'h not included amon' the hea=y offenses5 this trainin' rule Dan offense of expiationE 3ill not be broken by the scrupulous Bhikkhu Dunless illE5 since its breakin' implies 'i=in' 3ay to cra=in'5 losin' the spirit of renunciation5 encumberin' the stomach5 and hence makin' mind6de=elopment more5 not less5 difficult! The @ri'ht timeA for Bhikkhus Dand sGmaOerasE to eat be'ins 3hen the day is li'ht enou'h to see the lines on the palms of one’s hand and ends at noon! Durin' this time a Bhikkhu may eat once8* or t3ice! .f the former5 then an adeCuate Cuantity of food is needed to last for t3enty6four hours5 3hile if he eats t3ice the second meal is usually ser=ed about Cuarter past ele=en so as to finish 3ell before noon! There are =ery fe3 dietary restrictions and these are reasonable5 rulin' out the consumption of certain animals’ flesh Dfor instance5 do's’5 snakes’5 ti'ers’5 bears’5 hyenas’E and also that of human bein's! <ere 3e may briefly consider the Cuestion of meat in relation to the Bhikkhu! The 3ord Bhikkhu is deri=ed from the root -hikkh X @to be'A Dthis En'lish 3ord is from the same .ndo6-ryan rootE! -lthou'h a Bhikkhu5 3hen he 'oes out to obtain almsfood5 does not be' Dhe collects 3hat is offeredE5 since he is not allo3ed Dunless illE to ask for food5 still he is lar'ely dependent upon 3hate=er is put into his bo3l! -fter he has returned to the =ihara he may if he 3ishes5 select 3hate=er =e'etable foods he has been 'i=en and eat only that! .n this respect it is proper to remember that 3hen De=adatta reCuested Lord Buddha for a rulin' that Bhikkhus should abstain from flesh5 the latter did not a'ree to rule thus5 sayin', @-nd the eatin' of flesh that is pure in three respects5 that is to say5 that the eater has not seen5 heard5 or suspected that it has been killed Dspecially for BhikkhusE is allo3able!A D;lesh and fish allo3able must5 ho3e=er5 be cooked as Bhikkhus cannot eat any kind ra3 or uncooked!E There is also the Discourse to NW=aka on
See %he Blessings o+ (i0Bapáta and &ith Co-es and Bo.l5 The Wheel
os! 9# and *#%*+!
8$ the same sub2ect and the oft6Cuoted Rma'andha Sutta5 in 3hich the e=ils of ill6conduct in so many 3ays are pointed out as much more harmful than the eatin' of meat! We may summariMe by sayin' that as far as his alms6round is concerned5 a Bhikkhu recei=es 3hate=er is offered 3ithout discrimination Dexcept the unallo3able meats5 3hich he is not =ery likely to be 'i=en no3adaysE! .f he 3ishes to be a =e'etarian5 he may choose from amon' the food placed in his bo3l5 althou'h 3here he recei=es only little5 this 3ill be =ery difficult for him! .n any case5 3hether almsfood or that brou'ht to the =ihara by lay6supporters5 he cannot ask for this or that kind of food unless he is ill5 3hen it is allo3able to do so! .n countries 3here the almsround is not possible5 a Bhikkhu or a San'ha of Bhikkhus 3ill be dependent upon laypeople 3ho a'ree to 'i=e support! Where a number of Bhikkhus are stayin'5 laypeople 3ill or'aniMe the buyin'5 cookin'5 and offerin' of food in the 3ay most con=enient to them and in accordance 3ith the ?inaya! There is no need for food offered by them to be special but it should be nutritious! Therefore5 laypeople should not ask5 @Do you likeJFA or @What shall 3e cook for you todayJFA The Bhikkhu tradition is to accept 3hate=er laypeople 3ish to offer from the food they ha=e themsel=es5 in this 3ay bein' as little trouble as possible to householders5 of 3hom it is as true no3 as it 3as in Lord Buddha’s days5 that they ha=e @a lot to doA D-ahukiccaE! - Bhikkhu cannot 'o to a restaurant or shop and buy or order food Dor anythin' else for that matterE! or can he personally store food o=erni'ht! /nce food has been formally offered Dsee belo3E to him5 it must be consumed by him before noon5 or else left for lay6people to finish! -'ain5 a Bhikkhu cannot cook for himself Dalthou'h he is allo3ed to reheat food cooked alreadyE! Storin' or cookin' may5 ho3e=er5 be done by a sGmaOera or by a lay6disciple in the =ihara! The principle underlyin' these three trainin' rules is that 'reed5 e=er6ready to sprin' up 3here food is concerned5 should of course be discoura'ed5 3hile the Bhikkhu’s dependence upon lay6people is 'reatly stressed! <e is tau'ht to reflect e=eryday, @’My life is dependent upon others’:this should freCuently be reflected on by one 'one forth!8)A We should no3 deal briefly 3ith the formal offerin' of food and other items to Bhikkhu! .t is a sli'ht offense for a Bhikkhu intentionally to touch:let alone consume:food or drinks 3hich ha=e not been offered! The reason lyin' behind this rule is not difficult to see! - Bhikkhu is al3ays =ery careful to a=oid any act 3hich could e=en be interpreted as approachin' an offense of defeat! Takin' 3hat is not 'i=en 3ith intent to steal is a defeat6offense and5 e=en if he has not fallen completely into this5 he may ha=e a 'ra=e offense to confess! <ence the importance of formal offerin'! This offerin' is done by placin' into his hands e=ery item to be consumed5 except these thin's be on a tray 3hen this may be offered! - layman raises from the table5 plates5 and dishes Dor trayE bearin' food .ith -oth hands5 or 3ith the left hand touchin' the ri'ht 3rist 3hen the item concerned is a small one Das salt6cellars etc!E5 and 'i=es each one into the hands of the Bhikkhu! .f there are a number of Bhikkhus5 the most senior is offered food first and the others in due order after3ards! .t is not necessary to offer food into the hands of sGmaOeras as this trainin' rule does not apply to them! <a=in' completed the offerin' Dto each BhikkhuE a layman 3ill usually salute 3ith añjali and then take a seat a little to one side5 3aitin' to see 3hether he can be of any further help! <e should not5 after ha=in' placed the food into the hands of Bhikkhus5 touch it a'ainI if he does so5 that food or drink must be re6offered5 Should he receive anythin' from the hands of a Bhikkhu5 3hether it is food or such thin's as paper or books etc!5 it is a'ain skillful trainin' for the
Discourse on the Ten &onditions5 -
8" layman to salute 3ith añjali before takin' it! Due to the trainin' rules abo=e5 Bhikkhus cannot share food from the same dishes as those bein' used by laypeople and it is customary to 'i=e them their food apart! .n a family this could be 2ust one end of the table5 3hile in any lay assembly 3here many are dinin'5 Bhikkhus should ha=e a table specially set aside for them! SGmaOeras5 since they do not ha=e the acceptance into the San'ha as Bhikkhus5 cannot share food 3ith the latter and should be 'i=en separate foodI they traditionally eat sittin' else3here! -s honored 'uests in the houses of lay6people5 Bhikkhus are offered their food before the family sits do3n to eat or5 3hen there is not time for this5 their food is first formally offered to them before the others eat! Since it is an offense for a Bhikkhu to eat or drink standin'5 he should al3ays be offered a seat! <e cannot therefore take food buffet6style5 since eatin' is for him a serious matter5 a meditation and not an occasion for deli'ht or 'ossip! So far 3e ha=e referred to a layman offerin' the food but the case is different 3hen a lay6 3oman makes the offerin'! - Bhikkhu does not recei=e anythin' directly from the hands of a 3oman5 but she may place 3hate=er is to be offered upon the small recei=in'6cloth 3hich a Bhikkhu carries! /nce she has placed it upon this cloth5 it is considered to be offered into his hands!#$ .n formulatin' such 3ays of conduct as these the theras of the first SaP'Gyana D&ouncilE ha=e been most careful to 'uard a'ainst physical contact bet3een the sexes so that no possibility of slander or of infatuation mi'ht arise! /ne may here remember the openin' suttas of -P'uttara ikGya, @/ Bhikkhus5 . do not percei=e at all any other form 3hich thus stands takin' hold of the mind of man as does this, the form of 3omanJ soundJ scentJ tasteJ the touch of 3oman! / Bhikkhus5 . do not percei=e at all any other form 3hich thus stands takin' hold of the mind of 3oman as does this, the form of man5 sound5 scent5 taste5 touch of man!A These 3ords of Lord Buddha find practical expression in the ?inaya trainin' rules for both Bhikkhus and for BhikkhunWs D3hen they existedE! -s re'ards placin' food into a Bhikkhu’s bo3l 3hich is in his hands5 3hether he is standin'5 as on the alms6round5 or sittin' in a layman’s house5 there is no difference bet3een the 3ay it is done by a layman and a lay3oman! or does the bo3l ha=e to be offered to him since it is in his hands!#" /ther articles besides food and drink 3hich should be offered to him include anythin' 3hich 3ill 'o inside the body5 such as medicines! -lso5 his bo3l5 robes5 and other reCuisites5 if they are touched by laypeople5 as these are then considered to be out of his possession! Kpon occasions of makin' puñña 3hen Bhikkhus are in=ited5 the 'ifts 3hich are offered to them by the laity such as flo3ers5 incense5 candles5 medicines5 and any other items useful for their li=es5 may also be formally offered! .f such an occasion is durin' the @3ron'6timeA and laypeople 3ish to offer food in tins or 2ars Dmilk is includedE these thin's cannot be placed into his hands or accepted by him5 but intimation is made to the Bhikkhus of its offerin' and it is put aside to be kept by a sGmaOera or lay6disciple! Such small points as these constitute not only a discipline for Bhikkhus but also for the laity 3ho may thereby 'ro3 in carefulness! .t 3as emphasiMed abo=e that offerin'5 3hether by a layman or lay3oman5 is made 3ith
&ustom in Sri Lanka and Burma does not use this recei=in'6cloth and 3omen may offer Bhikkhus dána5 pro=ided that their fin'ers do not come into contact! #" .n Sri Lanka5 his bo3l may be taken from him by a lay3oman for placin' food in it5 and placed into his hands by her5 both actions so performed that there is no physical contact!
88 -oth hands! This is not simply some sort of ritual but has a =ery 'ood reason behind it! When one 'i=es somethin' in the ordinary 3ay5 the 'i=in' is done 3ith one hand if the ob2ect permits it! This kind of 'i=in' may as a fact become habitual in the sense that one is not a3are any more of @'i=in'A and from a Buddhist point of =ie3 this sho3s slackness of mind and lack of care! o35 Bhikkhus 3ho are stri=in' on the Path of Dhamma6?inaya are said to be a @'ood field for puññaA:that is5 the results to be expected from 'i=in' to them as they stri=e to3ards ibbGna5 leadin' a pure life5 are 'reat indeed5 and 3ill result in clarity and peace increasin' in the hearts of the donors! Thus it becomes important 3hen makin' offerin's to Bhikkhus5 3hether of their daily food or upon some special occasion5 to make the offerin' consciously5 3ith a stron' intention of 'i=in'! The stron'er the intention5 3hich is here skillful kamma5 the 'reater the fruits of happiness reaped by the donors! So that laypeople are reminded to make this 'i=in'6intention stron'5 they are instructed to offer 3ith both hands:an act 3hich reCuires more forethou'ht than the usual 3ays of 'i=in'! >espect is also expressed in this method of offerin' and it is also used by ne3 Bhikkhus and sGmaOeras 3hen presentin' anythin' to their teachers or preceptors! The meal ha=in' been consumed5 a Bhikkhu chants briefly Dand a number of Bhikkhus for some timeE =erses of 3ell63ishin' for the laity! .t is actually an offense of 3ron'6doin' for him DthemE not to do so if laypeople are present! The least 3hich is done 3ill be for a senior Bhikkhu to say a fe3 3ords such as, @Lon'6life and beauty5 happiness5 and stren'thA Dáyu va00o sukhaA -alaAE! Whether laypeople ha=e also finished eatin'5 or 3hether they ha=e not yet be'un5 at least the donor 3ill sit Cuietly 3ith folded hands listenin' to these 3ords or =erses of 3ell63ishin'! E=ery 3ord of the Pali =erses may not be understood but it is more important that the mind should be concentrated upon the chantin' to the exclusion of e=erythin' else! - mindful and concentrated mind is al3ays full of skillfulness! ;reCuently5 such chants as are translated belo3 form the core of 3ell63ishin', *Dust as the rivers +ull o+ .ater 'ill the ocean +ull# !ven so does that here given Bene+it the dead Ethe hungry-ghosts# petaF &hatever -y you .ished or .anted Gay it 3uickly -e# Gay all your .ishes +ul+illed: As the moon upon the +i+teenth day# Ethe +ull moonF 8r as the .ish-+ul+illing gem. Gay all distresses -e averted Gay all diseases -e destroyed Gay no dangers -e +or them Gay EtheyF -e happy# living long. =e o+ respect+ul nature .ho !ven the elders honoring# 'our 3ualities +or him increase> 6ong-li+e and -eauty# happiness# and strength.$ -t the close of the chantin' it is the custom in many places to say @SGdhu5 sGdhuJA and then to raise the hands in añjali to the forehead5 to lo3er the body! @SGdhuA means @it is 3ell5A and
8# is an expression of deli'hted appro=al heard e=ery3here in Buddhist countries 3hen a deed of puñña has been done5 such as 'i=in'5 helpin'5 listenin' to Dhamma5 and so forth! -s re'ards drinkin'5 a Bhikkhu may not drink distilled or fermented intoxicants Dsurameraya-majjaE Dexcept minute Cuantities contained in necessary medicinesE! Before noon any other drink may be offered to him5 3ith or 3ithout milk! -fter t3el=e o’clock noon it is not allo3able for him to take milk Dor any drink containin' milkE5 cereals5 e''s5 etc!5 nor any kind of soup! <e may be offered any fruit 2uice Duncooked but strained and free from particles of fruitE5 or any of the bottled soft drinks 3hich are no3 common! The fi=e medicines allo3able o=er a period of se=en days may also be taken by him if he is indisposed! The first of these5 'hee5 is 'enerally not a=ailable outside .ndia5 but the other four are common, butter Dbut not cheeseE5 =e'etable oil Dsuch as mar'arineE5 honey5 and molasses Dincludin' all sorts of su'arE! .f more of these is accepted by him than he can consume in one e=enin'5 it may be kept by him for se=en days at most! -ny remainin' after this time he cannot consume 3ithout fallin' into an offense! .t is thus common for these @medicinesA to be kept by a sGmaOera or lay6disciple5 to be offered as they are needed! Tea5 coffee5 and cocoa Dall 3ithout milkE are also allo3able durin' the afternoon and e=enin'! With these allo3able drinks and fortified in any case by ha=in' fe3 desires and some ability to endure5 Bhikkhus Dand sGmaOerasE sustain themsel=es for study5 practice or teachin'!
Since a Bhikkhu keepin' strictly to the ?inaya 3ill not handle money5 if he is bein' in=ited to teach or to stay5 it is customary in Buddhist countries for a layman to come and fetch him! Where distance pre=ents this5 train tickets may be bou'ht and sent to him! .f the 2ourney is a lon' one5 he may be accompanied by a lay6disciple 3ho 3ill buy tickets and the Bhikkhu’s food at the ri'ht time! When he is tra=elin' alone5 it is usual to meet him at the station! - Bhikkhu commits an offense if he makes an arran'ement to 'o on a 2ourney 3ith a 3oman5 so that if he is accompanied5 his companion must be a man Dthou'h 3here a male companion is present5 3omen may also be in the party as 3ellE! This is another pro=ision to pre=ent offenses and to stop the 3a''in' of slanderous ton'ues! When the Bhikkhu tra=els by car5 a 3oman should not sit beside him5 thou'h of course a man may do so! .t is preferable that he does not tra=el in a car 3ith only a 3oman 3ho is dri=in'! There are also se=eral places to 3hich it is not proper to take Bhikkhus5 such as the follo3in'5 3hich are called the @3ron' resortA for Bhikkhus, namely cro3ded places or places of entertainment5 theaters5 concert halls5 cinemas5 stadiums5 'ames6fields5 exhibitions5 fairs5 casinos5 ni'htclubs5 brothels5 army parades5 and e=en fields of battle! .t is common6sense that Bhikkhus ha=e no need for the =arious sorts of sense6stimulation pro=ided by such places!
.n Buddhist countries such as Siam5 the 'eneral conduct of laypeople in the presence of Bhikkhus is molded upon the discipline follo3ed by Bhikkhus and sGmaOeras 3hen they are in the presence of theras! Much of this code of 'ood conduct is contained in the articles of the se=enty6fi=e Trainin's DsekhiyaE found in the PGtimokkha! >ather than comment upon all these5 3e may select the most important 'roups of points for outline explanation! Buddhist laypeople li=in' in Siam ha=e a 'ood chance to acCuaint themsel=es 3ith the
8+ details of this conduct since they can at any time 'o to a Wat 3here ?inaya is 3ell obser=ed and see for themsel=es ho3 Bhikkhus do thin's! They ha=e another chance also not a=ailable to most Western Buddhists5 for the custom here Dand in Burma5 Laos5 and &ambodiaE is that most youn' men Dand a fe3 youn' 3omenE ask for temporary ordination o=er periods of time ran'in' from one to four months! While they are in the robes they learn5 amon' other thin's5 ho3 to conduct themsel=es in the manner proper to those that ha=e 'one forth! E=ery day they recei=e instruction in the ?inaya Dand much elseE 3hich includes5 of course5 the se=enty6fi=e Trainin's! ot only that5 for these Trainin's5 3hile they constitute only small offenses 3hen broken5 actually are =ery important since they co=er e=ents of e=eryday occurrence5 such as 3alkin'5 sittin'5 3earin' robes5 eatin'5 teachin'5 and listenin' to Dhamma! When these temporarily6ordained monks Doften called @rains6BhikkhusAE disrobe and return to their homes5 they take 3ith them experience of a 'ood discipline and it is this 3hich becomes the basis for lay conduct in the presence of Bhikkhus! -s this trainin' in 'ood conduct applies to contact bet3een laypeople and Bhikkhus almost as much as it does bet3een 2unior Bhikkhus and theras5 there is a considerable basis for common understandin' and hence concord! What sort of thin's are included in this trainin'F ;irst5 3e may mention re'ulation of the body in the four positions5 the first of these bein' .alking! When 3alkin' in company 3ith a Bhikkhu5 a layperson 3ill 3alk some3hat behind him rather than immediately at his side5 and certainly not push in front5 al3ays 'i=in' 3ay to him 3here this is necessary! This is particularly important if the Bhikkhu is talkin' Dhamma5 3hen it 3ill be an offense for him to follo3 behind a layperson5 or to 3alk to one side of the path 3hile doin' so! The ancient Buddhist tradition from .ndia prescribes that one should as a mark of respect5 @keep one’s ri'ht side to3ardsA one’s teacher5 the ri'ht side of the body bein' symbolically that associated 3ith conscious effort and 'eneral skillfulness in conduct! .f a Bhikkhu is sittin' and a layman has occasion to pass in front of him Da lay3oman 3ill obser=e a stricter decorum and not come =ery near a BhikkhuE it is 'ood trainin' in mindfulness to stoop the body and head and perhaps say somethin' like @Excuse me5 sir!#8A -'ain5 if a layman or 3oman should enter a room 3here a Bhikkhu is sittin' and perhaps talkin' Dhamma 3ith others5 he or she usually performs @the action of añjaliA or lo3ers the body5 accordin' to 3hat is suitable5 before sittin' do3n! .n standing5 one should not stand upon a hi'her step or le=el than a Bhikkhu and talk to him! We ha=e in the En'lish the phrase @to look up toA implyin' respect5 and if one is learnin' Dhamma that is 3hat one should do5 literally as 3ell as fi'urati=ely! Standin'5 one does not stand too near or too far but at the @ri'htA distance! /ne’s hand should be clasped in front and one’s body controlled 3hile talkin' to a Bhikkhu! .n Buddhist countries a'reement or Cuestions are accompanied by @the action of añjaliA in the case of talkin' to a senior Bhikkhu! -ll these bodily actions help one to correct the mind and ensure that it is functionin' in a 3ay proper for the reception of Dhamma! Should the Bhikkhu be barefooted5 as is often the case in the East5 a lay person 3ith shoes on 3ill not talk to him but remo=e his or her shoes first! This is because it is an offense for him to talk dhamma to one 3ho is 3earin' shoes 3hen he is not5 thou'h this situation is not likely to occur in the cold countries of the West!
The traditional mode of address used for Bhikkhus in the time of Lord Buddha5 and still used in Sri Lanka5 is @BhanteA D=enerable sirE!
81 When sitting5 especially if Dhamma is the sub2ect of a Bhikkhu’s speech5 one should sit attenti=ely and not spra3lin' in a chair! .t is also a'ainst the spirit of the ?inaya for a Bhikkhu to teach Dhamma to one 3ho is smokin'! D.t is not a'ainst the letter5 as this custom 3as not kno3n in Lord Buddha’s daysE! <o3e=er5 smokin' is bound to distract from listenin' to Dhamma and is often a si'n of unmindful or tense states of mind! -ll such conditions are opposed to the profitable and attenti=e hearkenin' 3ith 3hich Dhamma should be recei=ed! Dhamma is so important5 so =aluable5 that it becomes an offense for a Bhikkhu to teach it to anyone 3ho sho3s by his bodily position that his mind is not concentrated to recei=e it! ## The body should be controlled 3hen sittin' such that the feet are tucked in under a chair Dor inconspicuous if sittin' on the 'roundE5 3ith the back reasonably erect and hands placed comfortably in the lap! .n sittin' do3n a layperson is careful to notice 3hether the chair he is about to sit upon has a Bhikkhu’s robe upon it! .f so5 he 3ill sit else3here or else remo=e the robe5 offerin' it to the Bhikkhu! -s the robe is a symbol of pure life in Dhamma5 it is ne=er sat upon or leaned a'ainst by laypeople! - seat taken by a layman or 3oman should not be hi'her than that used by the Bhikkhu5 and if se=eral people are seated on the 'round5 a Bhikkhu should be 'i=en a separate mat to sit upon! -ll these sorts of thin's are also obser=ed by 'ood Bhikkhus in the presence of their teachers and other theras5 and make for a spirit of respect and harmony! Then in lying do.n5 laymen if they do so in the same room as a Bhikkhu5 3ill ne=er point their feet at him! or for that matter 3ill any Buddhist5 3hether in robes or @3earin' 3hiteA Da laypersonE5 lie do3n 3ith his feet pointin' to3ards any respected or sacred ob2ect in a room such as Buddha6ima'es5 stupas5 pictures of the Buddha or of any teacher ali=e or dead5 Buddhist scriptures5 and so on! The head is al3ays placed in their direction and usually before lyin' do3n5 a triple lo3erin' is made to any shrine etc!5 3hich happens to be in the room! /n the same principles as those set out abo=e5 if a Bhikkhu is sittin'5 a layperson does not talk to him standin' but5 after lotussin' or lo3erin' the body5 sits do3n to talkI 3hile if a Bhikkhu is standin'5 a layman 3ill stand to talk 3ith him! .t is part of the reasonableness of this trainin' that almost none of the usual lay conduct mentioned here is performed if a layperson is ill! .f one approaches a Bhikkhu to 'i=e somethin' 3hile he is sittin'5 one’s head should not be hi'her than his o3n5 and better lo3er! This a=oids leanin' o=er him and also helps the donor to 'i=e 3ith a humble mind5 3hich in itself 3ill bear 'ood fruits! Benerally in talkin' to Bhikkhu one should try to a=oid unsuitable sub2ects of discussion! Bhikkhus 3ere se=eral times rebuked by Lord Buddha for en'a'in' in @animal6talk5A 3hich is defined by this Cuite common passa'e in the discourses, @Talk about kin's and robbers5 ministers and armies5 dan'er and 3ar5 eatin' and drinkin'5 clothes and d3ellin's5 'arlands and scents5 relations5 =ehicles5 =illa'es and markets5 to3ns and districts5 3omen and heroes5 street talk5 talk by the 3ell5 talk about those departed in days 'one by5 idle chatter5 talk upon the 3orld and the sea5 and also on 'ain and loss!#+A When one comes to think about it5 this list co=ers most of the sub2ects to be found in our ne3spapersH - layman may also remember that ri'ht speech5 the third constituent of the Ei'htfold path5 is defined as, restraint from lyin'5 slander5 rou'h speech5 and
Knder @nonsensical chatterA DsamphappalapaE5 Tibetan tradition counts it @trueA nonsense to teach Dhamma to one 3ho is unprepared! There is also 3orldly nonsense Danimal6talk5 see belo3E and untrue nonsense DtalesE! #+ - "$,0)!
80 chatter! or is it suitable to ask a Bhikkhu 3hat food and drink he likes5 unless he is ill! -'ain5 it is not proper to ask about the attainments 3hich he has 3on throu'h his Dhamma6practice! .t is an offense of expiation for a Bhikkhu to tell a layman e=en the truth re'ardin' his o3n attainments5 and an offense of Defeat should he be tempted to lie5 sayin' that he has 3on 3hat has not been 3on by him! -lso amon' reCuests 3hich are improper5 as they could embroil a Bhikkhu in 3hat is not6Dhamma5 are Cuestions upon luck5 si'ns5 stars5 and palms! -ll this is called animal6kno3led'e by Lord Buddha and he has made it an offense of 3ron'6doin' for a Bhikkhu to learn or to teach it! .n this section also5 one mi'ht mention some special pro=ision re'ardin' the conduct of lay3omen! ;or instance5 3hen comin' to a Bhikkhu for instruction in Dhamma5 it is proper if a man or boy accompanies the lay3oman! Where this is not possible5 pro=ided that there is another Bhikkhu or sGmaOera in the room 3hen the teachin' of Dhamma takes place5 there 3ill be no offense for the Bhikkhu! But he should not find himself alone 3ith a 3oman in a room5 especially one into 3hich others cannot see! -'ain5 3omen desirous of Dhamma6instruction should not =isit a Bhikkhu after dusk but do so durin' the day! -ll these pro=isions are to 'uard indi=idual Bhikkhus a'ainst their o3n mental stains and so help them in their trainin'5 thus bein' for the 3ell6bein' of the San'ha and therefore5 since the San'ha 'uards and maintains the Dhamma5 for the 'ood name of Dhamma too! Lay3omen 3hen =isitin' a =ihara are therefore =ery modest 3hene=er they ha=e cause to speak to Bhikkhus! Their dress should be modest and their persons de=oid of ornaments 3hile they address themsel=es to Bhikkhus 3ith humility! .n so doin'5 they help both themsel=es and the Bhikkhus, themsel=es by follo3in' the 3ay of Dhamma 3hich is to realiMe the impermanent5 unsatisfactory5 and unbeautiful nature of the bodyI and the Bhikkhus by rememberin' that most of those in the yello3 robe ha=e not yet conCuered the mental stains DkilesaE! Those laypeople 3ho are =ery 3ell practiced and 3ho ha=e seen for themsel=es the immense =alue of Dhamma5 3ill in the presence of their teacher or other respected Bhikkhus5 sit keepin' their hands lotussed all the time! ;aith DsaddháE and serene clarity DpasadaE of mind do5 after all5 increase in proportion to one’s experience of Dhamma! Laypeople ha=in' this sort of deep appreciation of Dhamma after @the action of añjaliA and the triple lo3erin' are also seen to recite 3hen their teacher or other Bhikkhus are departin', @Excuse me5 =enerable sir5 for all the faults . ha=e committed throu'h the three doors Dof mind5 speech and bodyEI for these please for'i=e me! - second time5 =enerable sirJ - third time5 =enerable sirJ please for'i=e me! #1A /nly those 3ho ha=e had the blessin' of a personal teacher and 3ho feel 'reat re=erence for him5 3ill feel like makin' this openin'6up of faults! .t has been included here 2ust because it is a =ery 'ood practice! -ll 3ho are not -rahant s ha=e the stain of pride and 3ill therefore 'ro3 in the Dhamma as this is lessened and 'enuine humility increased! This practice can sometimes be beneficial! %he conduct o+ Buddhist laypeople in the &est to.ards Bhikkhus .ho are their teachers may in these matters vary some.hat .ith the customs o+ the country .hich are accepted as polite. Ht may -e stressed once again that such -ehavior# governed -y mind+ulness and .isdom# is +or the .el+are o+ all .ho practice Dhamma. ;inally5 a 3ord may be said upon 3hat a Bhikkhu may do in connection 3ith lay ceremonies and 3hat he may not! Where there are numerous Bhikkhus as in Siam5 they are freCuently in=ited to the house of people for teachin'5 chantin' and upon occasions of makin'
*8kása ahaA -hante# dvárattayena kataA sa--aA aparádhaA khamata me -hante. Dutiyampi# ahaA -hante... %atiyampi# ahaA -hante... khamatha me -hante.$
89 puñña! ;or instance at the time 3hen a ne3 house is occupied5 as 3ell as the =arious anni=ersaries of birth and death! Their chantin' of the 3ords of Lord Buddha to the listenin' laypeople 3ho sit 3ith @action of añjaliA and minds concentrated upon the chantin'5 brin's5 in this case5 peace and happiness! But it should not be thou'ht that 3ithout the effort of hearkenin' on the part of the laypeople5 that blessin' automatically results! .ndeed5 Bhikkhus and their chantin' are in no 3ay a =ehicle for the besto3al of @sacramentsA or blessin's! What are sometimes 3ritten about as @blessin'sA in connection 3ith Bhikkhus’ chantin'5 3ould accurately be called 3ell63ishin's Dsee the stanMas translated abo=e in the section on food etc!E! .n other 3ords5 a Bhikkhu’s 3ork is not that of a priest! Bhikkhus may be in=ited to chant stanMas of 3ell63ishin' before or after a marria'e5 an occasion 3hen the en'a'ed or married couple 2ointly make puñña to ensure the success of their ne3 life! <o3e=er a Bhikkhu cannot @marryA laypeople as do priests in other faiths! Should he do so5 he stands in dan'er of fallin' into a hea=y offense5 the fifth of the formal meetin's DsaòghádisesaE 3here5 actin' as a 'o6bet3een either for a man to a 3oman or a 3oman to a man5 Cuite rules out the possibility of Bhikkhus marryin' others! Marria'e in Buddhist countries is purely a lay6contract bet3een the parties undertakin' it5 the ceremony bein' conducted by a senior layman5 this bein' ratified in =arious 3ays throu'h some 'o=ernment a'ency!
.t no3 remains only to say a little about ho3 Bhikkhus are re'arded by laypeople in Siam at the present time! .n this matter5 as in so many others5 one may percei=e t3o extremes and a profitable middle course! /ne sort of extreme attitude 3hich is sometimes found Dmore often in the West than in SiamE is that of unCualified praise of certain Bhikkhus! .n the eyes of those laypeople 3ho follo3 him5 he can absolutely do no 3ron'! .t is as thou'h they are be3itched by the yello3 robe and5 out of faith Dor sometimes from less noble moti=esE5 3ill hear no 3ord a'ainst their idol and see no imperfection in him! <e is an -rahant 5 a Bodhisatt=a or by 3hate=er other name they like to 'lorify himH Some amon'st them5 out of delusion5 ima'ine that all those 3ho 3ear the yello3 robe are automatically -rahant s and so la=ish a Bhikkhu 3ith praise such that if his head is not turned and his heart not corrupted by such flattery5 it 3ill be a 'reat 3onder! Such s3eet doses of @spiritualA praise are =ery liable to cause a personality6cult5 rather than de=otion to the Triple Bem! The other extreme5 3hich is much less common5 is the sort of drain6inspector’s attitude to a Bhikkhu’s life! .t is the =ery critical5 probin' examination of a Bhikkhu and his 3ay of doin' thin's5 3hich sprin's out of the root of hatred! Slander is often employed as 3ell so that small offenses of omission and commission by a Bhikkhu become ma'nified into mountains of iniCuity! Kntrue stories are ea'erly che3ed o=er and added to the un3holesomeness5 and perhaps the people pride themsel=es upon the benefits 3hich they are brin'in' about by makin' public 3hat they re'ard as hidden crimes! .n Siam5 neither of these t3o extremes is pre=alent! People tend to be respectful of Bhikkhus and sGmaOeras but5 unless particularly de=oted to a teacher5 do not la=ish de=otion upon those they do not kno3! There are5 after all5 about a Cuarter of a million men and boys 3earin' robes in SiamI the Cuality of Bhikkhus in such a lar'e San'ha5 =ery naturally5 =aries considerably! /n the other hand5 laypeople 'enerally shut their eyes to small faults of Bhikkhus and rarely
8* criticiMe! This is Cuite proper since criticism is of no a=ail unless it can raise the other from unskill to skill! - teacher has much po3er o=er both his monastic and lay disciples5 but a layperson rarely possesses such ability! .t is 3ell to reflect about kamma and ho3 each person is:@o3ner of kamma5 heir to kamma5 born of kamma5 bound by kamma5 determined by kammaA:for such reflection culti=ates eCuanimity! Each person trains himself5 a Bhikkhu accordin' to his kno3led'e and ability and a layman like3ise! Thus5 3e ha=e all5 Bhikkhus and laity alike5 a 'reat debt of 'ratitude to Lord Buddha 3ho has @made kno3n the trainin' rules for Bhikkhus founded upon these ten reasons, @;or the 3elfare of the San'ha5 ;or the comfort of the San'ha5 ;or the control of unsteady men5 ;or the comfort of 3ell6beha=ed Bhikkhus5 ;or the restraint of the pollutions in this present life5 ;or the 'uardin' a'ainst pollution liable to arise in a future life5 ;or the pleasin' of those not yet pleased D3ith DhammaE5 ;or the increase of those pleased D3ith DhammaE5 ;or the establishment of True Dhamma5 -nd for the benefit of the ?inaya! *AyaA dhammo ayaA vinayo idaA 4atthu-sásanaA.$ This is Dhamma5 this is ?inaya5 here indeed is the Teacher’s .nstruction!
%he (átimokkha# ??I 'undamental Cules o+ a Bhikkhu 3ith an introduction by Para Sasana Sobhana DSu=addhanoE and the Pali pa'e by pa'e 3ith En'lish translation by ?en! YGOamoli Thera5 Social Science -ssociation Press of Thailand5 DPhaya Thai >d!5 &hula Soi 85 Ban'kokE ")00! %he Book o+ the Discipline5 ?olumes "V05 complete translation of the ?inaya6&ollection5 translated by Dr! .!B! <orner5 President of the Pali Text Society5 ")#)V")00 Dall =olumes in printE! ZSee 333!palitext!com![ Vinaya %e2ts# 4acred Books o+ the !ast =olumes "#5 "95 8$5 a selection from the ?inaya6&ollection translated by T!W! >hys Da=ids and <! /ldenber'5 /xford Kni=ersity Press "**"5 reissued by Motilal Banarsidass DNa3aha3arna'ar5 Delhi 95 .ndiaE ")015 and in paperback from Do=er Books .nc!5 e3 Qork5 KS-! 8rdination (rocedure5 by <is >oyal <i'hness the late SaP'harG2a of Siam5 Prince ?a2iraTGOa=arorasa! Pali texts in roman script 3ith En'lish translation of the hi'her ordination Dor acceptance5 upasampadáE and chapters explainin' the basis of the ?inaya DDisciplineE5 some rules necessary for the Bhikkhus5 passa'es for chantin'5 etc! 4in' MahGmakuta’s -cademy DPhra Sumeru >d!5 Ban'kok5E 81$0%")0#! 4áma0erasikha> %he 7ovice"s %raining5 compiled from Pali Texts and &ommentaries 3ith explanations by <is >oyal <i'hness5 the late SaP'harG2a of Siam5 Prince Nina=arasiri=addhana! Pali Texts in roman script 3ith En'lish translation! With a @Brief bio'raphy of the ?enerable >Ghula5 the first SGmaOeraA by Bhikkhu 4hantipalo! 4in' MahGmakuta’s -cademy DPhra Sumeru >d!5 Ban'kokE 81$)%")00! !arly Buddhist Gonachism5 by Sukumar Dutt5 -sia Publishin' <ouse5 Bombay5 ")0$! !arly Gonastic Buddhism# by alinaksa Dutt!
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