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Absorption Chiller Applications and Efficiency

1 October 2007

CONTENTS

KAWASAKI Absorption Chiller (Eng. Murai)

Egypt Experience with Absorption Chillers (Dr. Awn)

2 October 2007

PRESENTATION OF KTE ABSORPTION CHILLER


October, 2007

Kawasaki Thermal Eng.Co.,Ltd.

Kawasaki Shipbuilding Corporation

Rolling Stock & Construction Machinery

Aerospace

Gas Turbine & Machinery

Consumer Products & Machinery

Kawasaki Thermal Engineering Co., Ltd.

Products of Kawasaki

Egypt

Japan

Continuous Efforts for Higher COP


COP(Coefficient of Performance) = Cooling Capacity LHV Heat Input
S.F.C.=Stem Fired Chiller D.F.C.=Direct Fired Chiller

World First

2 1.8 1.6 COP 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6

World top class World top class energy efficiency energy efficiency

Triple-Effect Triple-Effect D.F.C. D.F.C. COP: COP:1.78 1.78


2005

World First Double-Effect Double-Effect D.F.C. D.F.C. J JSeries Series

Double-Effect Double-Effect D.F.C. D.F.C. L LSeries Series

SigmaChil Series SigmaChil Series

Double-Effect Double-Effect D.F.C. D.F.C.

Sigma Ace Series Sigma Ace Series

Double-Effect Double-Effect D.F.C. D.F.C.

COP: COP:1.42 1.42


2000

COP: COP:1.19 1.19


1983

COP: COP:1.22 1.22


1992

Double-Effect Double-Effect D.F.C. D.F.C. COP: COP:0.83 0.83


1968

COP: COP:1.04 1.04


1976

1964 1970
Japan First

Double-Effect S.F.C.

World First

1959 1965

1975 Single-Effect S.F.C.

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

year

PRINCIPLE OF ERECTRIC CHILLERS AND ABSORPTION CHILLERS


ERECTRIC ABSORPTION
Generator

Condenser

Condenser Compressor

Q01

37
Electric Motor

Q01 37 Qi1
8kPa

Q01 Qi1
Gas or Oil or Steam etc

Cooling 32 Water
1000kPa

High Pressure
290 kPa

Vacuum 0.87 kPa

Qi2

Qi2
HFC-134a

Chilled 12 Water Evaporator

Chilled 12 Water Evaporator Solution Pump

Cooling Water 32 Absorber

(LiBr)

Qi2 Cooling Capacity COP = Q = Heat Input i1

Sigma Ace Cycle of Cooling

Double Generator (Low & High Temp.)

Absorption Chillers are Suitable for Air-conditioning !


Absorption Refrigerant/Absorber Cooling Heating Fuel Running Cost Operating Pressure
Performance at Partial Load

Electric Electricity Freon/-----

Water/LiBr

Natural Gas, Oil, Waste Heat, Steam, Any kind of Heat

Depending on The Energy Cost of The Country

Vacuum condition (0.87kPa)

High pressure (3,00kPa)

Partial Load COP Curve

Partial Load COP Curve

0%

50%

100%

0%

50%

100%

Load(%)

Load(%)

Characteristics of Various Types of Refrigerant &


Ozone-Depleting Potential (ODP)
0.08 0.06 0.04

Specified Freon Replacing Material of Freon


Refrigerant whose ozone depleting potential is not Zero is regulated not to be produced by 2020.
HC FC - 1 2 3

HCFC : Hydro Chloro Fluoro Carbon HFC: Hydro Fluoro Carbon


HC FC - 2 2

Production of refrigerant whose global warming potential is 500 will be regulated.

O 0.02 D P 0 0

Water
500 1000

HFC - 1 3 4 a

HFC - 4 0 7 c

HFC - 4 1 0 a

1500

2000

GWP Global Warming Potential (GWP)

DHC Project in Japan


200

Project
150 100 50 0

Operator

152 Projects
90 Operators

1972 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02


District Cooling Project in Japan

152 Project Executed

Cooling/Heating Heat Pump Boiler Chiller Plant


Power, Natural Gas

Not use Absorption 43%

User

Absorption 57%

Pipe Line

Cooling/Heating Water, Steam Oil, Waste Heat

Egypt Experience with Absorption Chillers (Dr. Awn)

13 October 2007

Why absorption chiller is used in Egypt


Since the 1950s the electric chillers were widely used in Egypt (Carrier, Trane,etc) Due to the great development and rise of economy in Egypt, hence the increasing demand of electricity, which forced the government to look for another energy substitute, Natural Gas. Therefore; absorption chillers were introduced in small scale in 1998, which followed by a great demand in the following years.

14 October 2007

Absorption Chillers Market Share in Egypt


ABSORPTION CHILLERS MARKET SHARE

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

NUMBER OF UNITS

48 3 5 8 10 12 15 20 30

19 99

20 00

20 01

20 02

20 03

20 04

20 05

20 06

YEARS

October 2007

20 07
15

16 October 2007

ENERGY COST ANALYSIS


DESCRIPTION Unit A/C Water cooled Absorption System Natural Gas A/C Water cooled Conventional System by electricity

Cooling capacity(Ton Refrigerant) Chiller Elec. Consumption Operating system Operating hours / year Natural gas consumption Total energy cost Annual operating Cost

TR KW/hr

700 13 Natural Gas

700 700 Electricity 3000

Hour m3/hr LE/hr LE 179 95.3 327,855

0 193.5 609,900

Total annual running cost

LE

362,855

713,900

Saving In Energy Power

51%

1 US$ = 5.6 LE October 2007

17

LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS


Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Comparison Between 1 unit 700 TR absorption system Natural Gas & 1 Unit 700TR conventiomal system by electricity .

DESCRIPTION

Unit

Water cooled Absorption System Natural Gas 700 Natural Gas 0.25 0.3 1

Conventional System by electricity 700 Electricity 0 0.3 1 3000 0 700 25 125 850.0 0 0 255.0 255.0 1.2 1.2 256 768,600 80,000 848,600 920,000 17,892,000 9,943,500

Cooling capacity TR Operating system Utilities tariffs: 3 a- Natural Gas LE/m b- Electricity LE/KW 3 c- Water LE/m Operating hours / year Hour 3 Natural gas consumption m /hr Electricity consumption a-Machine KW/hr b-Cooling Towers KW/hr c-Cooling Towers pumps KW/hr Total electricity consumption KW/hr Energy cost a-Natural gas LE/hr b- Diesel LE/hr c- Electricity LE/hr Total energy cost LE/hr Cooling tower water consump m3/hr Water cost LE/hr Hourly operating cost LE Annual operating Cost LE Annual maintenance cost LE including spare parts. Total annual running cost LE Major over-haul & LE replacements ** in 20 years Life cycle cost for 20 years Life cycle cost difference when using gas fired Absorption system in 20 years Annual operation cost difference when using gas fired Absorption system Saving In Electrical Power Saving In Annual Operating Cost LE LE

179 14 30 160 204 44.8 0 61.2 106.0 1.5 1.5 107 322,425 40,000 362,425 700,000 7,948,500 0

LE % %

0 58% 57%

497,175

** Major over-haul & replacements


For absorption chiller needed every 20 years For electric chiller needed every 10 years Taking into consideration that calculate only 50% from the Major over-haul and replacements needed for the electrical carrier A/C

1 US$ = 5.6 LE October 2007

18

CAIRO DISTRICT COOLING PROJECT


PHASE I PHASE II TOTAL AREA ESTIMATED : 40,000 TR : 40,000 TR : 4,500,000 m2

Gas Chill District Cooling Plant

19 October 2007

THANK YOU
Gas Chill

Kawasaki Thermal Eng. Co. Ltd.