The town was built in Prussia around the fortress Ordensburg Marienburg which was founded in 1274 on the

east bank of the river Nogat by the Teutonic Knights. Both the castle and the town (namedMarienburg in German and in Polish as Malborg or Malbork) were named for their patron saint, theVirgin Mary. This fortified castle became the seat of the Teutonic Order and Europe's largest Gothicfortress. During the Thirteen Years War, the castle of Marienburg was pawned by the Teutonic Order to their imperial soldiers from Bohemia. They sold the castle in 1457 to King Casimir IV of Poland in lieu of their pay. This separated the castle from the city in political terms, as the citizens resisted take-over by Poland,.
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Under continuous construction for nearly 230 years, the castle complex is actually three castles nested in one another. A classic example of a medieval fortress, it is the world’s largest brick castle and one of the most impressive of its kind in Europe. The castle was in the process of being restored when World War II broke out. During the war, the castle was over 50% destroyed. Restoration has been ongoing since the war. However, the main cathedral in the castle, fully restored just prior to the war and destroyed during the war, remains in its ruined state. The castle and its museum are listed as UNESCO's World Heritage Sites. [edit]History

of the town

The town of Marienburg grew in the vicinity of the castle. The river Nogat and flat terrain allowed easy access for barges a hundred kilometers from the sea. During Prussia's government by the Teutonic Knights, they collected tolls on river traffic and imposed a monopoly on the amber trade. The town later became a member of the Hanseatic League, and many Hanseatic meetings were held there. When during the Thirteen Years' War the castle was pawned to imperial Bohemian soldiers, who sold it to the King of Poland in 1457. Then the Teutonic Knights left the castle. The town of Marienburg under Mayor Bartholomäus Blume and others resisted the Poles for three further years. When the Poles finally took control, Blume was hanged and quartered, and fourteen officers and three knights with retainers were thrown into dungeons, where they met a miserable end.
[1] [3]

A monument to Blume was erected in 1864.

The town became part of the Polish province Royal Prussia after the Second Peace of Thorn (1466).

It was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in theFirst Partition of Poland in 1772 and

made part of the Province of West Prussia the following year. Marienburg became part of the German Empire in 1871.

In June.000 people. the city was declared a Festung and most of the civilian population fled or was evacuated. except some 4. The battle lasted until March 9. [7] and following the military capture by theRed Army. the Nazi Party gained power in Germany and persecutions of Jews started (54% of voting for Nazi party in elections 1933 [6] ). map of 1896 Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles after World War I. Near the end of the war. During World War II a Focke-Wulf aviation factory was set up at the airfield to the east of Malbork. In the town of Marienburg.840 people remained missing. [5] Based on that result. cold. . leaders of the Polish minority were arrested and sent to concentration camps. the inhabitants were asked whether they wanted to remain in Germany or join the Second Polish Republic by the East Prussian plebiscite on July 11. 1945. 9. Marienburg was included in the Regierungsbezirk Marienwerder within the German Province of East Prussia. the remaining civilian population disappeared and 1. most belonged to women and probably of German descent who died most likely due to numerous various causes such as disease. [9][10][11][12] [8] in October 2008 a grave containing the remains of 2. After 178 corpses had been found in a mass grave in 1996 and another 123 in 2005. It was bombed twice by the USAAF in 1943 and 1944. 1920.641 votes were given to "East Prussia". Today the airfield belongs to the 22nd Air Base of the Polish Air Force. In 1933. Investigation concluded that there was no evidence of any crime and the corpses were most likely buried to prevent epidemic of typhus from spreading. The bodies found also included remains of dead animals. 1945.Marienburg in West Prussia. After the German invasion of Poland in September 1939. 165 votes for Poland. After a brief recovery. the mortal remains were buried at the German War Cemetery of Stare Czarnowo. the town was the scene of fierce battles and almost completely destroyed. the town was passed to Polish authorities who had arrived in the town in April. In early 1945. The town was hit by an economic crisis following the end of the WW1. the Great depression was particularly severe in East Prussia.116 people. which sparked numerous media reports and attention as well as speculations [9][13] After forensic scientists have completed their study.

and 3 200 000 to build a proper castle.3 The residence of Polish kings (1457-1772) 1.1 The beginnings of construction . They were buried nude and without metal dental fillings. middle and high castle. 1309 to 1457 the castle in Malbork was the seat of the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights.4 Years 1772-1945 1. Marienburg. In February.the castle komturski 1. the population of the town reached 10. old town. 1946. [17] [17] As a result.2 The residence of the great masters (1309-1457) 1. The original name of the castle used by the Teutonic Order was. then by 1965 it grew to 28. wood. castle. After World War Two. the Old Town in Malbork was not rebuilt. the Castle of Mary.tripartite defensive stronghold in the Gothic style with a capacity of more than 250 000 m³. John's church. It consists of low-castle. stones in the foundation). The investigation was thus closed on 1 October 2010 as no justifiable suspicions of any crime were found.hunger and war conditions.347. some initial reports talked about up to 10 percent of the bodies being shot in the head [10][14] [clarification needed] [13] While the investigation found out that ony a very few bones [15] had signs of gunshot wounds. a housing estate was built in the 1960s. Since September 14. of which 1 280 000 for the erection of the first defensive walls. instead the bricks from its ruins were used to rebuild the oldest sections of Warsaw and Gdańsk. a monastic state capital city. which were used in the years 1278-1280 approximately 4 480 000.5 Present 2 See also 3 Bibliography 4 External links 5 References History [edit] The beginnings of construction . the town was repopulated by Poles. [17] Following the war. no medieval buildings remain in the town. In the place of the Malbork Castle (German: Marienburg Ordensburg) . with the [17] exception of St. when the cutting started collecting wood and building materials (brick.the castle komturski [edit] Preparations for the construction lasted from 1278. Contents [hide] 1 History 1. Greatest effort required production of bricks and tiles.017 people. This is one of the largest surviving groups in the world of Gothic architecture. especially in the World War II Stalag XX-B camp.292 and by 1994 to 40. The first phase of . mostly of POWs who died in the area during both wars. many expelled from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union. In Malbork one can also find a Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemetery [16] with 240 graves.

High Castle served as a warehouse. chapter house and dormitories (bedrooms). and its part of the Nogat. The defenders made an honorable capitulation. Meet the tower was the role of sanitation and the final point of defense. when the Swedes invaded from the east by the ward and the Middle Castle. formed in the shape of the tower defense is one of the greatest achievements of the European Gothic. The residence of the great masters (1309-1457) [edit] In 1309 it was decided to transfer the seat of the Grand Master of the Order from Venice to Malbork. The whole surrounded by a peripheral wall and a moat. combined with a lock. called gdaniskiem. The earliest was built north wing. There have been a significant expansion of the castle church church. which housed the chamber commander and refectory. which had a castle in the lien in exchange for outstanding pay. then built the west wing. On the former przedzamczu (Middle Castle). In the High Castle dormitories occupied the most space (bedrooms). At that time it was a castle komturski. The second. Malbork in 1410 was besieged by the Polish-Lithuanian army under King Ladislaus Jagiello after the Battle of Grunwald. Originally was the importance of defense. who was available for 300 people. It consisted of the main castle (later named the High Castle). Mary . Despite the lean forces managed to repel the attacks of the defenders attackers 7500 to 19 July. later covered with a mosaic of (destroyed in 1945 along with the eastern part of the church). Home sixteenth century clock tower and the helmet has received a renaissance. Formed here include the main palace floor (which was the first floor facing the courtyard). the expansion of the castle lost its importance. workshops and stables. a wonderful representative rooms. The residence of the king was in the Grand Masters' Palace. There was also a vantage point in the direction parallel to the emerging town of Malbork. and ward from the north (now the Middle Castle). and proof of admiration for the courageous defense allowed them to depart July 20 to . placing under it a chapel of St. Another important part of the castle was extended south beyond the area of solid defensive castle tower. situated right residence of the great was extended from the east. Polish defense led by Wojciech Pęcławski captain. In 1618 the church of the Jesuits took over the castle and rebuilt the interior in the Baroque style. and the Great Refectory was the place where the king issued adoption. apart from the chapter house was located here and refectory of the convent. The residence of Polish kings (1457-1772) [edit] During the Thirteen Years' War the castle was sold in 1457 the Polish king Casimir the Jagiellonian for the amount of 190. where he placed the most important areas: the chapel. Along with the great master of the castle came a large number of monks. Part of the southern and eastern closed wooden buildings housed warehouses. which required the reconstruction and expansion of the existing complex. In the 2nd can be dated to the years 1278-1281 (from the beginning of construction to be moved from a nearby convent Zantyru.000 florins by the Czech commander of mercenaries Ulrich dysentery. in a recess chancel window was placed a huge statue of the Virgin Mary with Child. From then until 1772. 1626 the castle was circulated by the Swedish army under the command of Gustavus Adolphus. Polish king triumphantly entered the castle on June 7. built by the end of the thirteenth century called "kleszą" in the opposite corner to gdaniska. On the eastern facade. 1457 years. was one of the residence of Polish kings. in default of the payment order. which thus became the capital of the monastic state.Anne designed the burial place of the great masters. On July 17.

main tower and the castle church. On September 13. Modern times [edit] Since August 7. in 1774 began to rebuild the castle high into barracks. Great Refectory spent on riding school horses. In the 30s Twentieth century it was often used by the Germans as Nazi background events. Completely destroyed the eastern part of the castle were high and middle. 1772 the Prussians occupied the castle. is home to the Castle Museum. changed perception of the value of the castle. Order of the Supreme Commander of the WP 22 August Malbork Castle Branch created the Polish Army Museum No. the castle was turned into a point of resistance. In 1629 fortifications were increased by another defensive line. In the winter of 1945 when the city struggles with the Red Army.Further serious damage occurred during the "Swedish Deluge". baroque helmet. During the reign of King August II the tower was built new with a lantern and finial put new roofs. The castle was renovated by Gerard Denhoff set up this feature by King Wladyslaw IV dozbrajając him much as 66 guns. In 1636 the Swedes left the castle and took it back the Polish army. The beginnings of reconstruction took place in 1817. It was rebuilt in Baroque style. Years 1772-1945 [edit] After taking over the castle by the Prussians. In 1726 the tower mounted a new. Particularly great losses suffered in the castle where the years 1801-1804 was carried out reconstruction of the castle to the great military warehouses. Fighting lasted until March 9.Grudziądz. the productions are . which Hetman Stanislaw Polish troops tried unsuccessfully to get Koniecpolski July 25. After these dewastacjach. because in many places. Then downloaded to the castle interiors many valuable works of Gothic art. In the Grand Masters' Palace decorated fabric factory and housing for workers. The loss of the castle. At the end of the 50s Twentieth century established the Social Committee for Reconstruction of the Castle. performed numerous copies of historical and new arrangements. The work continued under the leadership of Bernhard Schmid for 1939. Since 1737 years in the High Castle housed the barracks of Polish infantry regiment. the reconstruction was unsupported by research and was a fantazyjno-romantic. but also from other areas such as the Gothic altar from Hamburg. Since 1961. 1945. There have been a number of gates and demolition of the timber walls. In 1951 the castle was transferred to local administrative authorities. a triptych of Tenkitten. In 1997. In 1910. staying in captivity Pęcławskiego captain was sentenced in absentia to death. but it later was evaluated critically. built a huge edifice of the Jesuit College. the Teutonic castle in Malbork was saved on the UNESCO World Heritage List. 1945 in Malbork castle was managed by the Polish Army. Steinbrecht zConrad brought from Gdansk thirteenth century tombstone with the name of God Tetragrammaton . Between the years 1756 to 1767 Tower Kleszej spot (between the church and the castle Middle Castle). which led to massive destruction. For several years.YHWH (from 1993 located on the eastern terrace of the High Castle) [1]. primarily from the Teutonic Prussia areas (such as stained glass from Torun and Chelmno. which led to great destruction. Demolished almost all Gothic vaults and windows were rebuilt. In 1644 a fire burned through the roof in the High Castle and the cloisters were destroyed. Swedish castle built after the conquest of 11 earthen bastions. Since 1882 the castle was reconstructed by Conrad Steinbrecht to his death in 1922. 1 30 November 1950 the Polish Army Museum director gave the Ministry of Culture and the Museum of National Heritage.

Brama Mariacka St Mary's Gate. At the turn of 1936/1937 began to reconstruct the roof. It rises on a rectangular plan with dimensions of 6. The clock was placed in a decorative krenelażu. This Gothic structure obtainedafter a fire in 1838 the roof of the characteristic halftimbered superstructure. and the gate was covered with a hipped roof. Tower was demolished.built with the defense system in the 1st half of the fourteenth century.hiding krenelaż. The castle continued renovations are complicated. Its southern and northernfacade is decorated with pointed arches closed blinds. designed by master builder PaulDomberta.6 meters at a height of 10 meters. also held here for many years shows a light and sound. In the period from May to September. After the SecondWorld War the tower was covered with a roof not from 1937. . also known as Sztumską and Transportation .organized by the acquisition of Malbork Castle Polish and Lithuanian armies after the Battle of Grunwald.6 to 7.

4 meters. Wide strips. and finally shooting a blank clearances rectangularshaped plastically eastern wall of the great plane. Similarly formed.probably built in the 1380th It is the gateway five-storey height of 12 m. built on a rectangular plan with dimensions of 7. Ducha Potters Gate. Apart from the journey are located in the basement of the gate twopedestrian crossings. also known as or St. Spirit . separating floors and blending the two upper andescutcheons on the top floor. Elbląg. facing the westernfacade of the city did not have a large cavity which was located on the opposite sideand reached the height of three storeys. .6 to9.Brama Garncarska. zwana także Elbląską lub Św.

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